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1

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

2

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

3

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01

4

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01

5

EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

6

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

7

Vacuum distillation of ethanol. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine whether distillation at or below a pressure of 70 mm of Hg would produce ethanol sufficiently anhydrous to permit mixing with gasoline without separation. The reason for this is that below 70 mm of Hg, the azeotrope does not form and, theoretically, 100% ethanol can be achieved by fractional distillation. There was insufficient information available

1982-01-01

8

Solar power water distillation unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

2013-06-01

9

Surface Depletion in the Vacuum Distillation of Metals from Bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings.

Bradley, R.F.

2001-08-29

10

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process

Jean-Pierre Mericq; Stéphanie Laborie; Corinne Cabassud

2010-01-01

11

Quantitative recovery of volatiles from fats and oils by combined high vacuum degassing and thin film molecular distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described which in one unit combines conventional high vacuum degassing on cold finger with falling film molecular\\u000a distillation. The upper part of the cold finger is for the collection of the most volatile substances, while the lower part\\u000a is for the condensing of substances which are molecular distilled from a wiped falling film. All the connections in

Poul Erik Brandt; Birth Horndrup Jensen

1975-01-01

12

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.  

PubMed

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD. PMID:20659753

Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stéphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

2010-10-01

13

VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

14

Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

1971-01-01

15

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

1973-01-01

16

SOME APPLICATIONS ON VACUUM DISTILLATION OF METALS TO RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of qacuum distillation of metals to radiochemical ; separations was explored using mercury, indium, and cadmium as examples. ; Separations studied include those which couple chemical reduction or electrolysis ; from solution with volatillization, as well as carrier-free separations made ; directly from solid metals. Critical evaluations are included for yield and ; contamination. The degree of separation

J. R. DeVoe; W. W. Meinke

1963-01-01

17

Determination of micro-amount carbon in sodium metal by vacuum distillation-gas chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The amount of carbon in sodium metal which is used as a coolant of fast reactors has the effect on physical and mechanical properties of construction materials for reactors. A method to determine microamounts carbon in sodium metal by vacuum distillation-...

X. Wen Q. Guo S. Sun

1993-01-01

18

Determination of calcium in sodium by vacuum distillation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for determing calcium in sodium at 2 ppm or more is described. The matrix sodium was removed by vacuum distillation at 360 deg C and 5 x 10(sup -3) Pa. The calcium in the residue was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The recovery...

X. Wen S. Su S. Sun J. Liu D. Ding

1990-01-01

19

Use of simulation in rating and design of distillation units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The appropriate level of modelling detail in steady state flowsheet simulations is an important question for the calculation of thermal separation operations such as absorption, distillation, and liquid\\/liquid extraction. The generation of consistent mass and energy balances may often be performed employing standard implementations for the various unit operations. Surprisingly, operability and sensitivity aspects of the process may be estimated

Ulrich Eiden; Stephan Scholl

1997-01-01

20

Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. PMID:20510431

Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

2010-08-01

21

Chemical and biological characterization of volatile components of environmental samples after fractionation by vacuum line cryogenic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile components from diesel exhaust particles and coal gasifier process gas condensate were vacuum fractionated by cryogenic distillation and identified by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The vacuum distillation line consisted of a sample flask and nine traps cooled from 0°C to -196°C in approximately 20°C steps. The pressure in the vacuum line of about 10-2 Torr was maintained

Ray L. Hanson; Alan R. Dahl; Simon J. Rothenberg; Janet M. Benson; Antone L. Brooks; John S. Dutcher

1985-01-01

22

Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Davidson, G. R.; Yang, I. C.

1999-01-01

23

Conversion of 160Gd 2O 3 to 160Gd by vacuum reduction-distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An enriched 160Gd target of 632 ?g/cm 2 on a tantalum backing of 1 mg/cm 2 had been prepared in an ultra-high vacuum environment by the reduction-distillation method at the Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC). The target was used in static nuclear electromagnetic moment measurements at IUAC. The reduction of the 160Gd 2O 3 powder to 160Gd metal, the preparation of a tantalum-backing foil and details of the ultra-high vacuum evaporator facility of the IUAC are discussed. Further, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis was performed to check the impurity of the reduction agent in the target.

Kumar, V.; Abhilash, S. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Thakur, P.; Bhati, A. K.

2010-02-01

24

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-24

25

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 Transportation...More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The...

2013-10-01

26

Compact Unit for the Continuous Distillation of Hardwood and Recovery of Byproducts. Final Technical Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on a grant to design and to build a wood distillation unit which could be operated with a minimum of labor, using locally available hardwood as raw material. This wood distillation unit would be compact and simple in its component...

M. A. Morselli

1983-01-01

27

Compact unit for the continuous distillation of hardwood and recovery of byproducts. Final technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report on a grant to design and to build a wood distillation unit which could be operated with a minimum of labor, using locally available hardwood as raw material. This wood distillation unit would be compact and simple in its components, sturdy in construction, reasonably low priced, and easy to assemble and disassemble for its relocation

Morselli

1983-01-01

28

32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON LEFT, CONDENSER TURBINE ON RIGHT, JET CONDENSER IN CENTER REAR - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

29

Using a distributed control system (DCS) for distillation column control in an undergraduate unit operations laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the main advantages of using an industrial distributed control system (DCS) in the operation of a distillation column which is used in an undergraduate unit operations laboratory course at the University of Texas at Austin. Taking advantage of the resources of an industrial DCS (friendly display options, an alarm management system, historical databases and advanced control tools),

Ivan Castillo; Thomas F. Edgar

2009-01-01

30

Application of Molecular Interaction Volume Model for Phase Equilibrium of Sn-Based Binary System in Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), the activities of components of Sn-Sb, Sb-Bi, Sn-Zn, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag alloys were predicted. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data, which indicate that the MIVM is of better stability and reliability due to its good physical basis. A significant advantage of the MIVM lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only two parameters. The phase equilibria of Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys were calculated based on the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients, which indicates that Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys can be separated thoroughly by vacuum distillation. This study extends previous investigations and provides an effective and convenient model on which to base refining simulations for Sn-based alloys.

Kong, Lingxin; Yang, Bin; Xu, Baoqiang; Li, Yifu

2014-05-01

31

Vacuum distillation of copper matte to remove lead, arsenic, bismuth, and antimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-refining experiments were carried out on copper matte melts, containing 35 to 73 pct Cu, to measure the removal rates\\u000a of lead, bismuth, arsenic, and antimony over the temperature range of 1373 to 1523 K under pressures in the range of 50 to\\u000a 130 Pa. High rates of refining, controlled by mass transport in the liquid phase, were achieved for

A. Allaire; R. Harris

1989-01-01

32

A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.  

PubMed

Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production. PMID:23663035

Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

2013-06-18

33

Cirrhosis mortality and per capita consumption of distilled spirits, United States, 1949-94: trend analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe, evaluate, and suggest interpretations for an observed aggregate level relation between trends in mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States. Design Trend analysis using data on US cirrhosis mortality and per capita alcohol consumption. Results There is a consistent long term trend relation between mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States from 1949 to 1994. Two instances of comparatively sharp drops in the consumption of spirits earlier in the 1940s generated mixed results in predicting changes in cirrhosis mortality. Conclusions An aggregate level relation between trends in long term cirrhosis mortality and the consumption of spirits falls considerably short of establishing a direct causal link between the two for individuals. Moreover, two sharp drops in the consumption of spirits generated only mixed results with respect to the short term trend in cirrhosis. Nevertheless, the observed relation between the consumption of spirits and cirrhosis mortality merits further investigation. Key messagesUS cirrhosis mortality peaked in 1973 but alcohol consumption did not peak until the early 1980sBoth shifts in the distribution of US drinking patterns (which are not reflected in per capita consumption statistics) and the increase in the availability of treatment for alcoholism have been suggested as potential sources of the decline in cirrhosisThe trend in the consumption of distilled spirits from 1949 to 1994 shows a close, aggregate level association with cirrhosis mortalityThis aggregate level relation suggests that research is needed into the link between the effects of specific alcoholic beverages and cirrhosis

Roizen, Ron; Kerr, William C; Fillmore, Kaye M

1999-01-01

34

Cirrhosis mortality and per capita consumption of distilled spirits, United States, 1949-1994: trend analysis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe, evaluate, and suggest interpretations for an observed aggregate-level relation between trends in mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States. DESIGN: Trend analysis using data on US cirrhosis mortality and per capita alcohol consumption. RESULTS: There is a consistent long-term trend relation between mortality from cirrhosis and per capita consumption of distilled spirits in the United States from 1949 to 1994. Two instances of comparatively sharp drops in the consumption of spirits in the 1940s generated mixed results in predicting changes in cirrhosis mortality. CONCLUSIONS: An aggregate-level relation between trends in long-term cirrhosis mortality and the consumption of spirits falls considerably short of establishing a direct causal link between the two for individuals. Moreover, two sharp drops in the consumption of spirits generated only mixed results with respect to the short-term trend in cirrhosis. Nevertheless, the observed relation between the consumption of spirits and cirrhosis mortality merits further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Roizen, R; Kerr, W C; Fillmore, K M

1999-01-01

35

Use of solid-phase extraction, reverse osmosis and vacuum distillation for recovery of aromatic sulfonic acids from aquatic environment followed by their determination using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different sample preparation techniques (i) solid-phase extraction, (ii) reverse osmosis and (iii) vacuum distillation have been investigated and the recoveries were compared for determination of highly water-soluble benzene and stilbene sulfonic acids in aqueous environment by liquid chromatography with photodiode array (PDA) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS\\/MS). The recoveries were quite high using vacuum distillation (>90%) compared

R. Nageswara Rao; N. Venkateswarlu; Sara Khalid; R. Narsimha; S. Sridhar

2006-01-01

36

AN EXHAUSTIVE STEAM-DISTILLATION AND SOLVENT-EXTRACTION UNIT FOR PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a modified Nielsen-Kryger steam-distillation apparatus that provides exhaustive distillation of pesticides and industrial chemicals from water, sediments, and tissue and the simultaneous extraction of the distillate by a small volume of organic solvent....

37

Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

38

Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

2012-10-01

39

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

1980-10-01

40

Characterization of vacuum bottoms from the P-99 coal liquefaction unit  

SciTech Connect

A composite sample of vacuum bottoms has been analyzed by structural sensitive techniques applicable to high molecular weight, highly functional coal-derived materials. The utilization and limitations of x-ray diffraction, infrared, high resolution and /sup 13/C-CP/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution and field ionization mass spectrometry, and electron spin resonance are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the characterization of methylene chloride soluble fractions, isolated by a combination of mild extraction and functionality-specific procedures, in terms of heteroatom functionality, molecular weight and carbon number distributions, and mean structural parameters. This nondistillate but soluble material is primarily a complex mixture of high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic and heterocyclic components with short alkyl substituents. The vacuum bottoms are low in phenolic OH functionality compared to typical SRC-II distillates. 9 references, 25 figures, 14 tables.

Lett, R.G.; Schmidt, C.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Hough, M.R.; Link, T.A.; Sprecher, R.F.; Retcofsky, H.L.

1984-01-01

41

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

42

Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of select volatile organic compounds in foods by using vacuum distillation with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that headspace and purge and trap methods have limitations when used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in foods, including matrix effects and artifact formation from precursors present in the sample matrix or from thermal decomposition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8261A liberates VOCs from the sample matrix by using vacuum distillation at room temperature. The method was modified and validated for the determination of furan, chloroform, benzene, trichloroethene, toluene, and sytrene in infant formula, canned tuna (in water), peanut butter, and an orange beverage (orange-flavored noncarbonated beverage). The validation studies showed that the LOQ values ranged from 0.05 ng/g toluene in infant formula to 5.10 ng/g toluene in peanut butter. Fortified recoveries were determined at the first, second, and third standard additions, and concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 6.9 ng/g. When quantified by the method of standard additions, the recoveries ranged from 56 to 218% at the first standard addition and 89 to 117% at the third. The validated method was used to conduct a survey of the targeted VOCs in 18 foods. The amounts found ranged from none detected to 73.8 ng/g furan in sweet potato baby food. PMID:24830164

Nyman, Patricia J; Limm, William; Begley, Timothy H; Chirtel, Stuart J

2014-01-01

43

Comparison of Essential Oils Compositions of Citrus maxima Merr. Peel Obtained by Cold Press and Vacuum Stream Distillation Methods and of Its Peel and Flower Extract Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Method and Their Antimicrobial Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oils and extracts of the fruit peels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53

Napaporn Thavanapong; Penpun Wetwitayaklung; Juree Charoenteeraboon

2010-01-01

44

Light hydrocracking of vacuum distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology developed previously at VNII NP [3, 4] for two-stage hydrocracking at a pressure of 15 MPa, with the feed hydrotreatod in the first stage (a process aimed at obtaining motor fuels), has not yet been commercialized. The selection of a particular hydrocracking technology will be determined by the end result desired, the quality of the feedstock, and the properties

Roman R. Aliev; V. M. Kurganov; V. A. Khavkin

1999-01-01

45

Theoretical study on multi-effect solar distillation system driven by tidal energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an analysis of the characteristics of solar and tidal energy, an innovative, multi-effect solar distillation unit for seawater desalination utilizing solar and tidal energy has been developed. The uniqueness of the system is that without being transferred to electricity, tidal energy is utilized to supply power for water supply and drainage, and vacuum extraction instead of pumps powered

Kuiwen Zhao; Yefeng Liu

2009-01-01

46

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

JOHNSON, R.E.

1999-09-01

47

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air Emissions, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, require that the WDOH approve an NOC application before construction or modification of any emission unit that would release airborne radioactivity. This includes changes in the isotopic makeup of the source term or replacement of emission control equipment, which might contribute to an increase in the offsite dose from a licensed facility. Reduction of radiologically contaminated areas by HEPA vacuums is a current need. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate numerous monthly applications.

Johnson, R.E.

1997-10-27

48

Catalytic distillation extends its reach  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

49

Closed-Loop Helical Distillation Apparatus. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the project are to: design and construct a more efficient mash distillation unit; reduce physical size and material cost in distillation; use readily available material in the construction of distillation equipment; and improve the opera...

D. L. Gahimer

1981-01-01

50

Petroleum Distillates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides data for the evaluation of the safety of certain petroleum distillate fractions used in commercial products to which consumers may be exposed. Chemical information and data on the toxicology, pharmacology and relevent biology are comp...

J. Villaume P. Walter R. Levine A. Craigmill H. Schwartz

1976-01-01

51

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

52

Present status of solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the

G. N. Tiwari; H. N. Singh; Rajesh Tripathi

2003-01-01

53

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

54

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which

Antal

1982-01-01

55

Membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the separation process known as membrane distillation, MD. An introduction to the terminology and fundamental concepts associated with MD as well as a historical review of the developments in MD are presented. Membrane properties, transport phenomena, and module design are discussed in detail. A critical evaluation of the MD literature is incorporated throughout

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1997-01-01

56

Intelligent Design Approach for Vacuum Suction Cup Units in Aircraft Flexible Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum suction cups are key subassembly used in flexible fixture for aircraft flexible assembly system; it becomes an important issue in intelligent design to rapid design and automatic location of vacuum cups. In this paper, typical structure and properties of vacuum suction cups used in aircraft flexible assembly are analyzed; A general definition model-semantic model employed in developed Flexible Fixture

Qiu Yi; Zheng Guolei; Zheng Hongyong; Liu Fang

2009-01-01

57

Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space exploration.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2011-01-01

58

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22

59

Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1973-01-01

60

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified...additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane...Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel Item Units Ultra low sulfur Low sulfur High...kg 300-500 2000-4000 ASTM...

2009-07-01

61

Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

2012-01-01

62

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and

R. N. Hazlett; E. Beal

1983-01-01

63

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and

R. N. Hazlett; E. Beal

1983-01-01

64

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

65

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

66

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

67

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31

68

Refinery analytical techniques optimize unit performance  

SciTech Connect

Refinery process engineers need to consider benefits of laboratory analytical techniques when evaluating unit performance. Refinery heavy-oil laboratory analytical techniques use both old and new technologies. Knowing how to use available laboratory analytical techniques within their limitations are critical to obtain correct refinery optimization decisions. Better refinery stream distillation and contaminant data ultimately improves the accuracy of various refinery decision-making tools. These laboratory analytical techniques are covered: high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD); true boiling point (TBP) distillation--ASTM D2892; vacuum distillation--ASTM D5236; continuous-flash vaporizers; wiped-film evaporators; inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); Conradson--ASTM D189/Microcarbon residue--ASTM D4530; and asphaltene IP-143, ASTM D3279, ASTM D4124. Analysis of atmospheric crude, vacuum crude and delayed coker units highlight these laboratory techniques to identify potential yield and product quality benefits. Physical distillation or wiped-film evaporation in conjunction with HTSD, ICP-AES, microcarbon residue and asphaltened data will better characterize a feedstock as well as determine the source of contaminants. Economics are refinery specific, therefore, these examples focus on applying laboratory techniques as opposed to discussing specifics of unit improvement. These are discussed qualitatively.

Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States); Craft, S. [Chempro, Inc., LaPorte, TX (United States); Villalanti, D.C. [Triton Analytics Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

69

Better Vacuum by Removal of Diffusion-Pump-Oil Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation techno...

A. E. Buggele

1975-01-01

70

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15

71

COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the other slightly bigger to make alignment easier.

Thompson, William

2002-01-01

72

Solventless (Extruded) Powder (N-5) General. Cost Improvement for Inhibiting Process of Mark 43 Grain. Reclamation of Run-off Elba Solvent by Distillation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Used ELBA solvent (Ethyl Lactate/Butyl Acetate) contaminated with components of N-5 propellant and water, was reclaimed by vacuum and ambient pressure distillation. Nitroglycerin (NG), water, and butyl acetate contents of the distillates are reported. Wat...

K. D. Cowan J. A. Rasmussen

1969-01-01

73

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

74

Solar vacuum alcohol still. Final report. [50 gallons per day  

SciTech Connect

This project constructed a six-inch diameter solar vacuum alcohol still. The column was constructed with steel pipe and commercial packing was used to increase condensation surface area. A used automobile air compressor and a small electric motor were used to fabricate a vacuum pump capable of 25 inches of mercury. Flat plate commercial type solar collectors were used to heat the wine before it entered the distillation column. This resulted in a considerable reduction in fuel required. Additional heat was still needed from a propane fueled reboiler which utilized a closed loop copper coil to circulate water into the base of the column. Future research should focus on using solar panels to provide this heat source and reduce energy needs even further. The unit is capable of producing 135 proof alcohol in one pass. This unit or one of similar design could be utilized by a farm operation for supplemental fuels needs. 12 references, 7 figures.

Not Available

1983-02-04

75

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

76

Vapor Compression Distillation Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls ...

P. P. Nuccio

1975-01-01

77

Modelling reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation issues for reactive distillation systems are considerably more complex than those involved for either conventional reactors or conventional distillation columns. The introduction of an in situ separation function within the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor–liquid equilibrium, vapor–liquid mass transfer, intra-catalyst diffusion (for heterogeneously catalysed processes) and chemical kinetics. Such interactions have been shown

R. Taylor; R. Krishna

2000-01-01

78

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

79

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

80

Vacuum Mechatronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an incr...

S. Hackwood S. E. Belinski G. Beni

1989-01-01

81

Crude Oil Steam Distillation in Steam Flooding. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields i...

C. H. Wu R. B. Elder

1980-01-01

82

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2009-07-01

84

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

85

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01

86

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper

G. R. Martin; J. R. Lines; S. W. Golden

1994-01-01

87

Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

1968-01-01

88

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

1989-04-04

89

Oil distilling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of distilling hydrocarbon oil is described which comprises burning a combustible mixture while submerged in the oil, effecting direct contact of the products of combustion with the oil, and controlling the temperature resulting from the combustion by diluting the combustible mixture with an inert gas prior to its introduction into the oil.

Hill

1932-01-01

90

Distilling entanglement from Fermions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end

Michael Keyl

2008-01-01

91

Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

92

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

93

Topological quantum distillation.  

PubMed

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding, and computation with magic states. PMID:17155532

Bombin, H; Martin-Delgado, M A

2006-11-01

94

Qutrit magic state distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced

Hussain Anwar; Earl T Campbell; Dan E Browne

2012-01-01

95

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

96

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16

97

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

98

Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

2011-01-01

99

Propellant Analysis and Distillation Unit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) routinely operates hypergolic propulsion systems. Some of the onsite activities include performing long duration studies on the operational life of these systems. A few of them have been in use for over twenty years. During this span of time contamination has built up in the propellant and some of the distribution infrastructure. This study investigated the nature of this contamination, the pathology of its generation, and developed a process for removal of the contamination that was cost efficient with minimal waste generation.

Barragan, Michelle H.; Spangler, Cindy; Barrera, Louis K.

2007-01-01

100

75 FR 81949 - Disclosure of Cochineal Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages...Extract and Carmine in the Labeling of Wines, Distilled Spirits, and Malt Beverages...marketers of distilled spirits and importers of wines sold in the United States. The...

2010-12-29

101

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech [Opera Software International AS, Oddzialw Polsce, ul. Szewska 8, 50-122 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-08-15

102

Vacuum mechatronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

1989-01-01

103

Vacuum Virtues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

Rathey, Allen

2007-01-01

104

Vacuum regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vacuum regulator for automotive vehicles of the type having an engine exhaust system and a computer controlled exhaust gas recirculation system. The vacuum regulator consists of: a housing having separate interconnected upper and lower portions; a solenoid in the housing including a bobbin having a valve seat; a mechanism for defining an inlet for atmospheric air

M. Slavin; R. P. Fontecchio

1986-01-01

105

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

DOEpatents

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

106

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H 2 ( ˜0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H 2 and D 2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to ˜99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called "Heli-pack". The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.2±0.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H 2 to the purified HD gas.

Ohta, T.; Bouchigny, S.; Didelez, J.-P.; Fujiwara, M.; Fukuda, K.; Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S.; Rouillé, G.; Tanaka, M.; Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M.; Wang, S. Y.; Yosoi, M.

2012-02-01

107

Field test of a solar seawater desalination unit with triple-effect falling film regeneration in northern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the mechanism of falling film evaporation condensation, a new four-stage distillation unit with triple-effect regeneration has been designed, constructed and field tested. The seawater desalination system is driven by 80m2 all-glass vacuum tube solar collection system with an additional 1kW wind power system to provide electricity for pumps. The field testing and monitoring of the system had been

Zhili Chen; Guo Xie; Ziqian Chen; Hongfei Zheng; Chunlong Zhuang

108

Utilization of Distillers Dried Grains Plus Solubles by Dairy Cows in Early Lactation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concentrate mix containing 48% distillers dried grains with solubles was compared with isonitrogenous soybean meal-based mixes without (negative con- trol) or with (positive control) sup- plemental fat in a feeding trial of 24 cows (16 Holsteins, 8 Jerseys) during the first 50 days of lactation. Jerseys fed distillers grains produced more daily fat-corrected milk per unit metabolic body size

D. L. Palmquist; H. R. Conrad

1982-01-01

109

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of High Purity Distillation Columns for Cryogenic Air Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants that supply purified gases to a number of industries. We have developed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on the assumption of full-state feedback for a prototypical cryogenic distillation column to allow effective operation over a wide range of plant production rates. The controller design

Zhongzhou Chen; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

2010-01-01

110

Process control interface system for a distillation plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because it allows an efficient, flexible, and reliable system. The interface system is presented in an operator-friendly application, which has the capability

A. Téllez-anguiano; F. Rivas-cruz; C.-M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-garcía; David Juárez-romero

2009-01-01

111

Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1981-12-01

112

The MEA vacuum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leak security system and multiple pump unit with turbomolecular pump of the MEA vacuum system, consisting of a klystron system with diode pump and a bunch-conducting system with triode pump, is described. The triode pump has better pump capacities for rare gases but as it only works from 0.0001 Torr the pump unit has to be used. To replace the klystrons the two systems are coupled by two windows with nitrogen in between for high frequencies. To safeguard the system, slow isolation valves with Pirami gages, fast valves with ionization gages, and residual gas analyzers are installed. Hand valves and residual gas analyzer heads are used for the pump unit. The vacuum level is better than 0.0000001 Torr.

Stroo, R.; Schwebeke, H.; Heine, E.

1984-12-01

113

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

SciTech Connect

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

Kapoor, K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)], E-mail: kapoork@nfc.ernet.in; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)

2008-03-15

114

A comparative study on the performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oil–diesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate fuels like ethanol, biodiesel, LPG, CNG, etc., have been already commercialised in the transport sector. In this context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving renewed interest. The disposal of waste tyres can be simplified to a certain extent by pyrolysis. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolyisis oil (TPO) was desulphurised and then distilled through vacuum distillation.

S. Murugan; M. C. Ramaswamy; G. Nagarajan

2008-01-01

115

A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for ?18O and 0.7‰ for ?D. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for ?D and ?18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the ?D and ?18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid "salt effects".

Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

2013-08-01

116

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

1999-08-01

117

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15

118

Refinery short-term scheduling with tank farm, inventory and distillation management: An integrated simulation-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses primarily the scheduling of a refinery importing various types of crude oil. The refinery operation discussed in this paper involves the unloading of crude oil to storage tanks, the transfer and blending from storage tanks to charging tanks and crude oil distillation units, and the arrangement of the temperature cut-points for each distillation unit. The paper describes

George Chryssolouris; Nikolaos Papakostas; Dimitris Mourtzis

2005-01-01

119

Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

Buggele, A. E.

1975-01-01

120

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15

121

Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

2008-10-01

122

High recovery of concentrated RO brines using forward osmosis and membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (VEDCMD) and forward osmosis (FO) were investigated for water recovery enhancement in desalination of brackish water. Past studies have demonstrated that both VEDCMD and FO can be effectively utilized in the treatment of a wide range of highly concentrated feed solutions. In the current study, two reverse osmosis (RO) brine streams with total dissolved solids

C. Riziero Martinetti; Amy E. Childress; Tzahi Y. Cath

2009-01-01

123

DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUND TYPES IN VACUUM GAS OILS USING GC-FID-SCD METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analyses of individual organic sulfur compounds in petroleum distillates are the key to understanding the kinetics of the chemistry involved in hydrodesulfurization, HDS. A sample of vacuum gas oil (VGO) produced commercially by distillation of treated atmospheric residue was analyzed by GC-FID-SCD method for individual organic sulfur compounds characterization and quantification. Dibenzothiophene and benzonaphthothiophene and their alkyl derivatives were

H. Behbehani; M. K. Andari

2000-01-01

124

Stellarator helical vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

Yavornik, E.J.

1983-01-01

125

Vacuum System of the Electron Storage Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lecturer expects the students to know the fundamentals of vacuum physics and vacuum engineering, that is, kinetic theory of gases, pressure units, gas flow regimes, conductance for aperture and tubes, vacuum pumps, vacuum components, and vacuum system materials1, 2. This knowledge is helpful for the students at this school to understand the vacuum system for the electron storage ring. The lecture includes the following subjects. 1. Beam Lifetime and Vacuum Pressure in the Electron Storage Ring 2. Photon Generation and Gas Load by Photodesorption 3. Pumping Speed and Conductance of Vacuum Duct 4. Pressure Distribution along the Vacuum Duct 5. Practical System Design of the Electron Storage Ring 6. Example of an Electron Storage Ring; Antechamber Structure

Kobayashi, Masanori

2002-02-01

126

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

127

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

128

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15

129

Distillation pinch points and more  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising energy costs have spawned renewed interest in improving methodologies for the synthesis, design and\\/or retrofitting of separation processes. It is well known that energy use in many process industries is dominated by separation tasks—particularly distillation. In this work, the shortest stripping line approach recently proposed by Lucia, Amale, & Taylor (2006) is used to find minimum energy requirements in

Angelo Lucia; Amit Amale; Ross Taylor

2008-01-01

130

Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.  

PubMed

A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

2012-11-01

131

Feasibility of application of Thayer method to crude oil distillation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of an evaluation of Victor R. Thayer's invention: ''Process and Apparatus for reducing the Energy Required to Separate Liquids by Distillation'', applied to crude oil distillation. In brief, Thayer claims that given a side draw-off pump-around on a distillation column for energy conservation, there would be a significant cost advantage by using on-tray heat exchange rather than external exchange. Preliminary cost estimates were made: external case, $1,091,000 +- 15%; on-tray case, $882,200 +- 20%; both values falling within the estimated uncertainity limits. Therefore, and coupled with much greated annual maintenance costs, a significant cost advantage of the on-tray system was not verified. The primary conclusion of the evaluation was that, in our opinion, the Thayer method will not be used for retrofit of crude oil distillation units, and probably will not be used in the design of new crude units. 12 refs.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Althaus, Y.E.

1987-07-31

132

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

Rack, Philip D.

2012-12-12

133

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

134

Key distillation in quantum cryptography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

Slutsky, Boris Aron

1998-11-01

135

Optimization of Tocopherol Concentration Process From Soybean Oil Deodorized Distillate Using Response Surface Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soybean oil deodorized distillate is a product derived from the refining process and it is rich in high value-added products. The recovery of these unsaponifiable fractions is of great commercial interest, because of the fact that in many cases, the "valuable products" have vitamin activities such as tocopherols (vitamin E), as well as anticarcinogenic properties such as sterols. Molecular distillation has large potential to be used in order to concentrate tocopherols, as it uses very low temperatures owing to the high vacuum and short operating time for separation, and also, it does not use solvents. Then, it can be used to separate and to purify thermosensitive material such as vitamins.

Ito, Vanessa Mayumi; Batistella, César Benedito; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

136

Refractories for vacuum degassing of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New equipment for outside-the-furnace vacuum degassing of steel includes argon-oxygen refining units, circulation flow vacuum degassing units, and units for steel degassing in the ladle with electric arc heating. The refractories developed for use in this equipment include magnesia, periclase-carbon, corundum, alumina, periclase-lime, magnesia-dolomite, forsterite, and unformed and vibrocompacted refractories. The refractories were selected for heat resisting and thermal insulation

A. N. Sokolov; G. I. Kuznetsov

1988-01-01

137

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

138

Low-temperature distillation processes in single- and dual-purpose plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, intensive research and development have been invested to improve further the advantages of the low-temperature process by increasing the unit's capacities and decreasing the energy consumption. This paper presents the advantages of the low-temperature distillation process, describes practical commercial application for steam driven multi-effect distillation plants in dual-purpose (electricity and water production) applications and the latest

Gustavo Kronenberg; Fredi Lokiec

2001-01-01

139

Gaussification and entanglement distillation of continuous-variable systems: a unifying picture.  

PubMed

Distillation of entanglement using only Gaussian operations is an important primitive in quantum communication, quantum repeater architectures, and distributed quantum computing. Existing distillation protocols for continuous degrees of freedom are only known to converge to a Gaussian state when measurements yield precisely the vacuum outcome. In sharp contrast, non-Gaussian states can be deterministically converted into Gaussian states while preserving their second moments, albeit by usually reducing their degree of entanglement. In this work-based on a novel instance of a noncommutative central limit theorem-we introduce a picture general enough to encompass the known protocols leading to Gaussian states, and new classes of protocols including multipartite distillation. This gives the experimental option of balancing the merits of success probability against entanglement produced. PMID:22324662

Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

2012-01-13

140

Hydrotreating of Mixtures of Coal Derived Middle Distillate and Petroleum Middle Distillates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mixtures of 50 vol % Wandoan coal derived middle distillate (C) and 50 vol % petroleum middle distillate (Ta-Ching (T), Iranian heavy (I), Khafji (K) ) or middle distillate from Cold Lake oil sand bitumen (O) were hydrotreated using a Ni-Mo-Al2O3 cata...

T. Kondo K. Ukegawa A. Matsumura K. Koguchi

1984-01-01

141

Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

Marek Gryta

2006-01-01

142

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived s...

H. Huang K. Wang S. Wang M. T. Klein W. H. Calkins

1996-01-01

143

Membrane distillation. II. Direct contact MD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure water direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) experiments were used to measure the permeability parameter associated with the molecular diffusion in membrane distillation (MD). The fluxes given by a recently reported MD model, which is based on the dusty-gas model of gas transport through porous media, showed good agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of feed temperatures

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1996-01-01

144

Heat transport in the membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of membrane distillation (MD) with a laminar flow of the streams in a module has been performed. The equations describing the heat transfer in MD capillary modules were presented and verified experimentally. The equations were derived for the calculation of the feed and distillate temperature at a layer adjacent to the membrane. The heat transfer correlations were implemented in

Marek Gryta; Maria Tomaszewska

1998-01-01

145

DIFFUSIONAL DISTILLATION IN A GAS STREAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory plant is described where fractional water distillation for ; O¹⁸ concentration is performed by diffusional distillation into a carrier ; inert gas. The operating pressure is not less than atmospheric, while the ; operating temperature (20 to 30 deg C) allows a good separation factor to be ; achieved. The whole plant is an assembly of 100 vertical

M. Silvestri; S. Villani; N. Adorni; G. C. Angelino

1959-01-01

146

Nondistillable Entanglement Guarantees Distillable Entanglement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are entangled and nondistillable, then either of them is distillable with the third party. Our result leads to the classification of tripartite pure states based on bipartite reduced density operators, which is a novel and effective way to this long-standing problem compared to the means by stochastic local operations and classical communications. Furthermore we systematically indicate the structure of the classified states and generate them. We also extend our results to multipartite states.

Chen, Lin; Hayashi, Masahito

2013-06-01

147

Combined distillation and normal freezing to purify elements of groups II and VI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A practical system and its application to the purification of Te and Cd is described. Single crystals are grown directly in vitreous silica ampoules subsequently used for sealed Bridgman growth of (Hg-Cd)Te. The system also prepares the ampoules by heating in high vacuum. Purification of the elements is by the combined effect of distillation and normal freezing. Transport and segregation are discussed.

Holland, L. R.

1984-01-01

148

Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests. PMID:21327250

Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

2011-04-01

149

QED vacuum loops and vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A QED-based "bootstrap" mechanism is suggested as a possible source of vacuum energy. In place of the conventional assumption that the vacuum expectation value of the current operator j ? vanishes in the absence of a classical, external field, one notes the possibility that, on very small scales, the vacuum fluctuations can generate an equation for an effective, C-number giving rise to a finite and computable vacuum energy.

Fried, H. M.; Gabellini, Y.

2013-12-01

150

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

151

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2013-04-01

152

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.  

PubMed

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-03-01

153

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

SciTech Connect

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01

154

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

155

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

156

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

SciTech Connect

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

Safrit, B.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States)] [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

157

The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-10

158

Continuous Vacuum Processing System for Quartz Crystal Resonators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultrahigh vacuum continuous cycle quartz crystal fabrication facility has been developed that assures an essentially contamination-free environment throughout the final manufacturing steps of the crystal unit. The system consists of five essentially tubular vacuum chambers that are interconnected through gate valves. The unplated crystal resonators, mounted in ceramic flatback frames and loaded on carrier trays, enter the vacuum system

R. J. Ney; E. Hafner

1979-01-01

159

Decarburization kinetics of steel melt in circulatory vacuum treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the circulatory vacuum treatment of steel melt in converter shop 1 at OAO Novolipetskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NLMK) is based on the compilation of an algorithm for calculating the change in the concentration of dissolved carbon and oxygen in vacuum decarburization and the implementation of that algorithm in a dynamic model of steel treatment in a circulatory vacuum-treatment unit.

S. V. Sebyakin; I. A. Gel’d

2008-01-01

160

Natural vacuum electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

Leggett, Nickolaus

1990-01-01

161

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

162

Economic Distribution of Distilled Spirits Within DOD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective was to determine whether the military exchange systems provided the most economical method of distributing distilled spirits. The audit also evaluated whether using commercial distributors rather than military exchange distribution c...

S. R. Young R. D. Kidd M. A. Joseph T. J. Tonkovis S. M. Hutcherson

1998-01-01

163

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

164

Hydrodesulfurization of JP-8 fuel and its microchannel distillate using steam reformate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field-deployable process for generation of clean desulfurized fuel from JP-8 feedstock is described. The process employs a compact hydrodesulfurization unit, operated in the vapor phase using steam reformate provided by an integrated steam reformer, as a replacement for hydrogen co-feed gas. The process includes a microchannel distillation unit upstream of the hydrodesulfurizer unit, which allows use of a lighter

Xiwen Huang; Dale A. King; Feng Zheng; Victoria S. Stenkamp; Ward E. TeGrotenhuis; Benjamin Q. Roberts; David L. King

2008-01-01

165

Sulfur-isotope separation by distillation  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur-isotope separation by low-temperature distillation of hydrogen sulfide was studied in an 8-m, 25-mm diameter distillation column. Column temperature was controlled by a propane-propylene heat pipe. Column packing HETP was measured using nitric oxide in the column. The column was operated at pressures from 45 to 125 kPa. The relative volatility of S-32 vs. S-34 varied from 1.0008 to 1.0014.

Mills, T.R.

1982-01-01

166

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

167

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

168

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3? {3}+1) ? 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

2013-06-01

169

27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled spirits. 17.162 Section 17.162 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS...Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

170

Substituting Wet Distillers Grains or Condensed Distillers Solubles for Corn Grain in Finishing Diets for Yearling Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feeding trial was conducted with 790-lb yearling heifers fed an average of 121 days to evaluate replacing cracked corn and supplemental urea with wet distillers grains or condensed distillers solubles. Wet distillers grains were evaluated at 16%, 28% and 40% of diet dry matter. Condensed distillers solubles were added at 6.5% of diet dry matter. Control diets were supplemented

Allen Trenkle

1997-01-01

171

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

172

Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

2012-11-01

173

Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

1988-01-01

174

Time-sharing switch for vacuum brazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Switching unit changes power and cooling-water connections between two vacuum-brazing machines. It allows both units to be powered by single radio-frequency (RF) generator. One machine can be used for brazing while bell jar of other is being evacuated (20 minute process) in preparation for brazing or is being cooled after brazing (10 minute process).

Stein, J. A.

1981-01-01

175

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

2012-07-31

176

Vacuum Probe Surface Sampler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of microorganisms, drug particles or the like is described. A vacuum head having a hollow handle connected to a suitable va...

B. A. Zahlava

1971-01-01

177

Development of gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gamma-ray scanning facilities for on-line investigation of distillation columns which is based on the attenuation of gamma radiation was developed at the Unit Tenaga Nuklear. The system utilised Co-60 or Cs-137 as a gamma-ray emitter and NaI(Tl) detector ...

Mohd Azmi bin Ismail Jaafar bin Abdullah Jamaludin bin Omar

1994-01-01

178

An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

Mukesh, Doble

2001-02-01

179

Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries-Past Changes and Future Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

World consumption growth for middle distillate fuels (diesel fuel, heating oil, kerosene, and jet fuel) has exceeded the consumption growth for gasoline for some time, and the United States is no exception. Although the decrease in the ratio of total gaso...

2010-01-01

180

78 FR 12591 - Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is amending the regulations setting forth the standards of identity for distilled spirits to include ``Cacha[ccedil]a'' as a type of rum and as a distinctive product of Brazil. This amendment follows requests received from the Government of Brazil and subsequent discussions with the Office of the United States Trade...

2013-02-25

181

Experimental design and computer simulation of multi-effect humidification (MEH)dehumidification solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the experimental design and computer simulation model of a multi-effect humidification\\/dehumidification (MEH) solar desalination system has been presented. The pilot plant on MEH was designed, fabricated and tested at the Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India. The heat collection part has been designed to provide continuously the hot water to the distillation unit.

H. P. Garg; R. S. Adhikari; Rakesh Kumar

2003-01-01

182

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

SciTech Connect

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Krovi, Hari; Devetak, Igor [Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2007-07-15

183

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

184

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

185

Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2005-09-15

186

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

187

Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

188

Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

Constantz, J.

1989-01-01

189

Heating steels in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

Marmer, E.N.

1983-03-01

190

Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

2013-01-01

191

USING DISTILLERS GRAINS IN DAIRY CATTLE RATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillers grains are co-products produced from the fermentation of grains for alcohol. Traditionally, alcohol was produced mainly for the beverage liquor industry, but in the last 20 years its use as an alternative fuel has increased significantly. This increased demand has led to the development of several ethanol production plants in Minnesota and the surrounding area. In 1996, it is

James G. Linn; Larry Chase

192

MODELLING OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION - PROPYLENE OXIDE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectivity and equilibrium of chemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the distillation of one or more products from the reaction mixture. Simultaneous reaction and separation of the desired product is very important in the case of consecutive reactions. Simulation of the reactor for propylene oxide (POX) synthesis from propylenechlorohydrine (PCH) and calcium hydroxide is presented in the paper. The

M. Kotora; Z. Švandová

2005-01-01

193

Analysis of finishing reactive distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a novel method to deal with the design and the synthesis of finishing reactive distillation columns with one reactive core, two rectifying sections, and one stripping section is presented. The attention of the work is concentrated on three subjects: (1) the feasibility of a given separation at both finite and total reflux operation; (2) the minimum energy demand operation; (3) the distribution of the reaction between the reactor and the finishing reactive column. The design problem presents the same grade of difficulty as that found in the design of conventional extractive columns. A geometric based method is used to explain key features of reactive distillation. Here, the relation between the reaction yield and the distillate flow rate plays a role similar to that of the entrainer flow in extractive distillation. Hence, special attention is given to the behavior of the profiles inside the rectifying section below the reactive core. The methodology is illustrated using the well-known MTBE case study.

Espinosa, J.; Aguirre, P.; Frey, T.; Stichlmair, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik] [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl A fuer Verfahrenstechik

1999-01-01

194

Distillation plant development and cost update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in desalination technology have resulted in significant savings in cost compared with earlier plants. Both distillation and reverse osmosis processes are now viable means of water production from a seawater source in the developing countries of the MENA area as well as in the more traditional oil-producing Gulf States. Three processes are commercially available for large size plants

Neil M. Wade

2001-01-01

195

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

196

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

197

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2013-04-01

198

Tert-Amyl Methyl Ether Catalytic Distillation Experiments and Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work the catalytic section of a reactive distillation column is studied. Experimental studies with a laboratory catalytic distillation column were carried out for the decomposition and production of tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). The purpose of th...

K. Klemola A. Pyhaelahti

1996-01-01

199

DISTILLATION OF LIGHT WATER FROM HEAVY WATER MODERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the equipment and method of operation of a ; distillation system to remove light water from heavy water moderator. The basic ; principles of the theory of distillation are reviewed. ( auth);

Bertsche

1958-01-01

200

Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

1979-01-01

201

Vacuum Head Checks Foam/Substrate Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical inspection system quickly gives measurements indicating adhesion, or lack thereof, between rigid polyurethane foam and aluminum substrate. Does not damage inspected article, easy to operate, and used to perform "go/no-go" evaluations or as supplement to conventional destructive pull-plug testing. Applies vacuum to small area of foam panel and measures distance through which foam pulled into vacuum. Probe head applied to specimen and evacuated through hose to controller/monitor unit. Digital voltmeter in unit reads deflection of LVDT probe head.

Lloyd, James F.

1989-01-01

202

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

203

76 FR 19908 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations; Corrections...AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plant regulations in the...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plant regulations as...

2011-04-11

204

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine prepared from the distillate obtained in the destructive distillation (carbonization) of wood, and commonly known prior to the passage of the act as destructively distilled wood turpentine or D.D. wood...

2009-01-01

205

7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine prepared from the distillate obtained in the destructive distillation (carbonization) of wood, and commonly known prior to the passage of the act as destructively distilled wood turpentine or D.D. wood...

2010-01-01

206

Vacuum probe surface sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

207

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1992-01-01

208

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1993-01-01

209

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

210

Study of Vacuum Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum cold welding and shear friction of several engineering materials was studied at extremely high vacuum levels above 10 to the -12th power torr in the temperature range 90 to 260 C with interface contact stresses up to 1000 psi. The effect of surface...

M. J. Hordon J. R. Roehrig

1967-01-01

211

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16

212

Vacuum Probe Surface Sampler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacu...

B. A. Zahlava

1973-01-01

213

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in

B. Broda; P. Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-01-01

214

Stellarator Helical Vacuum Vessel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that...

E. J. Yavornik

1983-01-01

215

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

216

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

217

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01

218

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20

219

Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

Caballero, J.A. [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Grossmann, I.E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

220

Squalene recovery from olive oil deodorizer distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil deodorization distillate contains squalene in a concentration range of 10 to 30 wt%. A process for its recovery\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is described. The process consists mainly of converting the free fatty acids and\\u000a the methyl and ethyl esters normally occurring in this by-product into their corresponding triglycerides. The latter are then\\u000a extracted with supercritical carbon

Paolo Bondioli; Carlo Mariani; Armando Lanzani; Enzo Fedeli; Adam Muller

1993-01-01

221

Calcium sulphate scaling in membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of precipitates containing CaSO4 during membrane distillation, applied to the concentration of aqueous salt solutions, is discussed in this paper. It was\\u000a found that the concentration of SO42? ions in such solutions should not exceed 600 mg L?1 when they are subjected to concentration. However, concentration of sulphates at the level of 800 mg L?1 in the feed is

Marek Gryta

2009-01-01

222

Cryogenic vacuum tight adhesive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic adhesive for vacuum tight joints at cryogenic temperatures has been developed. It consists of three components, the main component being epoxy silicone organic resin. The joints made with the adhesive remain vacuum tight at liquid helium temperature, including superfluid helium. It was found possible to connect different materials with the adhesive (copper and stainless steel with each other, aluminum, aluminum alloys, fiberglass, etc.). The joints withstood thermal shock tests of ten repeated sharps cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature and heating in hot water. Using the adhesive a lot of different vacuum tight low temperature joints have been made. More than fifteen years of wide application of this adhesive in vacuum tight cryogenic joints proved its high reliability. Some designs of vacuum tight cryogenic joints are presented and the technique of their manufacturing is described.

Anashkin, O. P.; Keilin, V. E.; Patrikeev, V. M.

1999-12-01

223

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

224

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300°C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperança, José M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, José N.; Rebelo, Luís P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

225

Catalytic hydroprocessing of petroleum and distillates  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong push for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and/or residue, which carries with it some problems. These are connected with obtaining state-of-the-art technologies at reasonable capital and operating costs to the refiner. Then there are problems associated with choosing the best catalyst--one specially designed to lower considerably the high content of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and metals (V, Ni, Fe). To address the above considerations, engineers and scientists working in the processing of petroleum and distillates from different parts of the world presented papers covering different facets of residue upgrading and distillate hydrotreating. This book is a compilation of most of the papers presented in the five sessions of the symposium. The editors have broadly classified the papers in terms of content into the following four categories: catalyst deactivation; upgrading of heavy oils and residue; hydrotreating of distillates; and general papers. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Oballa, M.C. [ed.] [Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Shih, S.S. [ed.] [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

1994-12-31

226

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

227

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

228

MEA Vakuum Systeem (The MEA Vacuum System).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The leak security system and multiple pump unit with turbomolecular pump of the MEA vacuum system, consisting of a klystron system with diode pump and a bunch-conducting system with triode pump, is described. The triode pump has better pump capacities for...

R. Stroo H. Schwebeke E. Heine

1984-01-01

229

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

SciTech Connect

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, L.E.; Rader, D.J.

2000-06-06

230

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

SciTech Connect

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01

231

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2001-01-01

232

Evading death by vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already allow to exclude many panic vacuum solutions.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I. P.; Santos, Rui; Silva, João P.

2013-09-01

233

Vacuum deposition system  

SciTech Connect

The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

Austin, S.; Bark, D.

1990-05-31

234

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

235

Continuous Vacuum Processing System for Quartz Crystal Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ultrahigh vacuum continuous cycle quartz crystal fabrication facility has been developed that assures an essentially contamination-free environment throughout the final manufacturing steps of the crystal unit. The system consists of five essentially tu...

R. J. Ney E. Hafner

1979-01-01

236

Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect

The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

Ushiba, K. K.

1980-02-01

237

Supermite vacuum interface design  

SciTech Connect

A new water-plastic-vacuum interface has been designed for Sandia Laboratory's Supermite (2.8 MV, 2.2 ohm) accelerator. This design was based on the PBFA I vacuum interface. Electrostatic field plots show that in positive polarity the water feed to the PBFA I interface will fail at 2 MV on Supermite. This is confirmed by positive polarity experiments and field plots using the PBFA I style vacuum interface at the Naval Research Labs. Modifications to the water section geometry to increase the water breakdown strength in positive polarity result in equivalent electric field grading at the plastic-vacuum interface but allow positive polarity operation at voltages up to 3.1 MV. This is accomplished by incorporating a dielectric field shaper which significantly improves the electric field grading across the insulator.

Moore, W.B.; Stinnett, R.W.; McDaniel, D.H.

1985-01-01

238

Multistage Turbomolecular Vacuum Pump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a multistage vacuum turbomolecular pump which consists of a housing containing rotor and stator disks having working elements (blades, radial slots) along their periphery. To increase the compression stage and reducing the reverse flo...

B. V. Ivanov I. D. Anokhin L. B. Leonov V. I. Kuznetsov

1973-01-01

239

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

240

On Gowdy vacuum spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Fuchsian techniques, a large family of Gowdy vacuum spacetimes have been constructed for which one has detailed control over asymptotic behaviour. In this paper we formulate a condition on initial data yielding the same form of asymptotics.

Ringström, Hans

2004-03-01

241

Nonlinear Squeezed Vacuum States:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of nonlinear squeezed vacuum states associated with trapped ions are considered, especially the photon number distribution, the phase properties, the Husimi-Kano Q function and the Wigner-Moyal W function of these nonlinear squeezed vacuum states. The structure of these functions is shown to depend on the nonlinearity parameter, its functional dependence and the squeezing parameter. It is shown that increasing the nonlinearity parameter results in the photon number distribution being squeezed independent.

Darwish, M.

242

Precision of Vacuum Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The required precision of vacuum installations in most technologies (thin film coating, electron beam welding, diffusionwelding)\\u000a is the same as in traditional engineering industry, but operating conditions of the mechanisms work are much worse, because\\u000a of vacuum and periodical outgassing baking (see Tables 1.1, 1.2, 1.4). At the same time, the equipment of surface research,\\u000a electron beam-, ion beam lithography,

E. A. Deulin; V. P. Mikhailov; Yu. V. Panfilov; R. A. Nevshupa

243

Vacuum Erection Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum erection devices (VEDs) are safe, effective treatments for erectile dysfunction with few side effects. Vacuum negative\\u000a pressure more than 100 mmHg causes a combination of arterial and venous blood to fill the corpora cavernosum. The use of an\\u000a elastic band to trap the blood within the penis allows sufficient rigidity for penetration. Devices approved by the Food and\\u000a Drug

Hunter Wessells

244

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

245

Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review.  

PubMed

In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major coproduct. Like fuel ethanol, DDGS has quickly become a global commodity. However, high compositional variation has been the main problem hindering its use as a feed ingredient. This review provides updated information on the chemical composition of distillers grains in terms of nutrient levels, changes during dry-grind processing, and causes for large variation. The occurrence in grain feedstock and the fate of mycotoxins during processing are also covered. During processing, starch is converted to glucose and then to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Most other components are relatively unchanged but concentrated in DDGS about 3-fold over the original feedstock. Mycotoxins, if present in the original feedstock, are also concentrated. Higher fold of increases in S, Na, and Ca are mostly due to exogenous addition during processing, whereas unusual changes in inorganic phosphorus (P) and phytate P indicate phytate hydrolysis by yeast phytase. Fermentation causes major changes, but other processing steps are also responsible. The causes for varying DDGS composition are multiple, including differences in feedstock species and composition, process methods and parameters, the amount of condensed solubles added to distiller wet grains, the effect of fermentation yeast, and analytical methodology. Most of them can be attributed to the complexity of the dry-grind process itself. It is hoped that information provided in this review will improve the understanding of the dry-grind process and aid in the development of strategies to control the compositional variation in DDGS. PMID:21299215

Liu, KeShun

2011-03-01

246

Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.

Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

1987-01-01

247

Vacuum self-magnetization?  

SciTech Connect

We study vacuum properties in a strong magnetic field as the zero temperature and zero density limit of quantum statistics. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) the vacuum energy density diverges for B > B{sub c} = m{sub w}{sup 2}/e, leading to vacuum instability. A logarithmic divergence of vacuum magnetization is found for B = Bc, which suggests that if the magnetic field is large enough, it is self-consistently maintained, and this mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the instability of the ground state for B > B{sub c}{sup '} = m{sub n}{sup 2}/q also leads to the vacuum energy density divergence for fields B > B{sub c}{sup '} and to the magnetization divergence for B B{sub c}{sup '}. The possibility of virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in strong magnetic field and the applicability of the neutral bosons model to describe the virtual positronium behavior in a magnetic field are discussed. We conjecture that this could lead to vacuum self-magnetization in QED.

Perez Rojas, H.; Rodriguez Querts, E. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Calle E No. 309, esq. a 15 Vedado, C. Havana (Cuba)

2006-06-19

248

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

SciTech Connect

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15

249

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation.  

PubMed

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved [formula: see text] state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved [formula: see text] states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G; Devitt, Simon J; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

250

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01

251

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

SciTech Connect

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15

252

Preparation of distilled and purified continuous-variable entangled states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of entangled states of light over long distances is a major challenge in the field of quantum information. Optical losses, phase diffusion and mixing with thermal states lead to decoherence and destroy the non-classical states after some finite transmission-line length. Quantum repeater protocols, which combine quantum memory, entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, were proposed to overcome this problem. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of entanglement distillation in the continuous-variable regime. Entangled states were first disturbed by random phase fluctuations and then distilled and purified using interference on beam splitters and homodyne detection. Measurements of covariance matrices clearly indicate a regained strength of entanglement and purity of the distilled states. In contrast to previous demonstrations of entanglement distillation in the complementary discrete-variable regime, our scheme achieved the actual preparation of the distilled states, which might therefore be used to improve the quality of downstream applications such as quantum teleportation.

Hage, Boris; Samblowski, Aiko; Diguglielmo, James; Franzen, Alexander; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

2008-12-01

253

Mild hydrocracking of virgin vacuum gas oil, cycle oils and coker gas oil with the T-STAR{reg_sign} process  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research recently completed a successful pilot plant program demonstrating the use of the T-STAR{reg_sign} process for mild hydrocracking of blends of low value feedstocks (cycle oils, coker gas oils), virgin distillates and vacuum gas oils to generate high quality diesel and improved quality FCC feed. The T-STAR{reg_sign} Process runs at constant temperature. Catalytic activity is maintained by daily catalyst addition and withdrawal while the unit is on stream. No unit shutdown is needed to replace the catalyst. The possibility of bed plugging or blockage from accumulation of fine solids in the feed is virtually eliminated in this ebullated bed system and the reactor operates with a low and constant pressure drop. The process handles a variety of feedstocks including light and heavy coker gas oils and deasphalted oils. Yields and product properties from a blend of virgin vacuum gas oil, light cycle gas oil and heavy coker gas oil are discussed. A scheme for integrating this process in an existing refinery is also presented.

Nongbri, G.; Rodarte, A.I. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research Dept., Port Arthur, TX (United States); Falsetti, J.S. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States). Alternate Energy Resources Dept.

1996-12-01

254

Refractories for vacuum degassing of steel  

SciTech Connect

New equipment for outside-the-furnace vacuum degassing of steel includes argon-oxygen refining units, circulation flow vacuum degassing units, and units for steel degassing in the ladle with electric arc heating. The refractories developed for use in this equipment include magnesia, periclase-carbon, corundum, alumina, periclase-lime, magnesia-dolomite, forsterite, and unformed and vibrocompacted refractories. The refractories were selected for heat resisting and thermal insulation applications. This paper reviews at length the raw material base, production processes, and applicable properties of these refractories under degassing conditions, including slag and silicate resistance, temperature and phase behavior, permeability, compression strength, service life, and wear behavior. In addition, specifications are given for a wide range of refractories and their applications in specific pieces of equipment. Savings in refractory and power consumption are discussed.

Sokolov, A.N.; Kuznetsov, G.I.

1988-07-01

255

ANALYSES OF FISH TISSUE BY VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of fish tissue using VD/GC/MS with surrogate-based matrix corrections is described. Techniques for equilibrating surrogate and analyte spikes with a tissue matrix are presented, and equilibrated spiked samples are used to document method performance. The removal of a...

256

SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

257

Distilled and drinkable water quality produced by solar membrane distillation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarcity of water for human consumption in many places such as arid and semi-arid regions is well known. This situation has become even more complicated in those areas where there are virtually no energy sources or the electrical grid is too weak or has not been provided. In these cases, the solar membrane distillation (MD) technology is an emerging and

J. R. Betancort Rodríguez; V. Millán Gabet; G. Melián Monroy; A. Bello Puerta; I. Fonseca Barrio

2012-01-01

258

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

259

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2010-01-01

260

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15

261

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

262

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied: one is absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation, able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity, was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

1987-01-01

263

Method and apparatus for distillation of oil shale  

SciTech Connect

The condensible parts are removed from the distillation gas of oil shale, a portion of the remaining amount of gas is removed and the rest is heated, E.G., by the combustion gas of the distillation residue and used without the addition of any more materials to distill oil shale. The installation for this consists of a distillation cyclone reactor, whose gas outlets are connected to an oil separator and whose tangential feed nozzles are connected by way of a blower and a heat exchanger to the oil separator.

Escher, G.; Frohnert, H.; Wenning, H.

1983-06-14

264

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Bruß, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

2003-08-01

265

Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.  

PubMed

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other. PMID:14525209

Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

2003-08-29

266

Fractionation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) Through a Narrowing of Particle Size Distribution Followed by Aspiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may have more value and utility if they can be separated into high protein and\\u000a high fiber fractions. A variety of such separation processes have been proposed; two of the most promising processes involve\\u000a three screening and three air classification unit operations. In the present study, an alternative process involving fewer\\u000a unit operations is

Rafael A. Garcia; Kurt A. Rosentrater

267

Improving Vacuum Cleaners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

1997-01-01

268

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

269

Effects of mitigating fouling on the energy efficiency of crude-oil distillation  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed to determine the effects of fouling of the preheat train on the energy efficiency of a typical crude-distillation unit with a capacity of 100,000 bbl/day. A spreadsheet analysis was developed to calculate the thermal duty for each of the heat exchanger groups that heat the crude oil from ambient conditions to the distillation temperature. A fouling-rate model developed in a previous study was applied to calculate the fouling resistance as a function of time. Improvements in the energy efficiency were analyzed for different mitigation scenarios. The analysis shows economic incentives for new and improved techniques for mitigating fouling of the preheat train.

Panchal, C.B.; Huangfu, E.P.

2000-06-01

270

Fuzzy rule-based controller for binary distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a fuzzy logic based control scheme has been proposed for distillation column. Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) is proposed to adjust the manipulated variables to get the desired composition of products for a binary distillation column. To control the top and bottom product composition two separate fuzzy inference systems has been designed. The scheme uses fuzzy rules and

Amit Kumar Singh; Barjeev Tyagi; Vishal kumar

2011-01-01

271

Solar pond driven distillation and power production system  

SciTech Connect

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. 4 refs.

Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

1981-01-01

272

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997  

EIA Publications

This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

Information Center

1997-06-15

273

Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

1996-01-01

274

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical…

Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

1995-01-01

275

Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and…

Pritchard, Colin

1986-01-01

276

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of…

van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

277

A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

2006-01-01

278

Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

2003-01-01

279

Enhanced topic distillation using text, markup tags, and hyperlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to identify mutually reinforcing authorities (popular pages) and hubs (comprehensive lists of links to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model the Web graph at a coarse grain, with whole pages as single nodes. Such models may lose vital details in the markup

Soumen Chakrabarti; Mukul Joshi; Vivek Tawde

2001-01-01

280

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

SciTech Connect

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08

281

Utilization of distiller waste from ammonia-soda processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the research was to examine the utilization of basic waste of soda ash industry: distiller waste. The aim of the process described is to obtain calcium sulphate in the form of gypsum by means of calcium ions contained in distiller waste liquid. Another raw material is sludge, a suspension which is created during the process of brine

T. Kasikowski; R. Buczkowski; B. Dejewska; K. Peszy?ska-Bia?czyk; E. Lemanowska; B. Igli?ski

2004-01-01

282

Concentration of noni juice by means of osmotic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic distillation (OD) or osmotic evaporation (OE) is a promising membrane process generally applied to concentrate solutions under isothermal conditions. In this work, this process was applied to concentrate commercial noni juice (Morinda citrifolia). Several nutraceutical properties have been reported for noni-derived products, mainly associated to the phenolic content of the fruit.The analyzed system is an osmotic distillation system where

H. Valdés; J. Romero; A. Saavedra; A. Plaza; V. Bubnovich

2009-01-01

283

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing which requires substantially fewer resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes with a transversal Hadamard operation which can distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call ``multilevel distillation.'' We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ?in = 0.01 to ?out in the range 10-5 to 10-40 is about 1410(1/?out) - 40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing.

Jones, Cody

2013-03-01

284

The Distillation Yield and Properties of Ternary Crude Oils Blending  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increase of business transactions, processing blending oil is increasingly more common. Enhancing the distillation yield by optimizing the blending oils is currently one of the major challenges refineries are facing to make them profitable. Iran crude oil, Saudi crude oil, and Cabinda crude oil were selected to be studied in this article. The blending oil distillation yields and

L. Shaoping; D. Luoyong; S. Benxian; Z. Lijuan; T. Feng; X. Xinru; Y. Jingyi; Z. Beilei

2011-01-01

285

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds present in distilled grape pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal adsorption of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity from distilled grape pomace pressing liquors (DPPL) and distilled grape pomace autohydrolysis liquors (DPAL) was carried out under anoxic conditions using commercially available activated charcoals (AC) in powdered, granulated or pelletized form. The adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second order rate, and equilibrium was reached in less than 15h. The Langmuir and Freundlich

María Luisa Soto; Andrés Moure; Herminia Domínguez; Juan Carlos Parajó

2008-01-01

286

Extraction of soluble fiber from distillers' grains.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using coproducts from dry grind corn ethanol production as a substrate for the production of soluble fiber was examined. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis experiments were performed using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide to partially hydrolyze hemicellulose content of whole stillage, a precursor to distillers' grains, to soluble fiber. The influences of temperature, reaction time, and hydrolyzing agent concentration on the formation of soluble fiber were studied. Soluble fiber was recovered by precipitation in a 95% ethanol solution. Results indicate that appreciable quantities of soluble fiber may be extracted using either acid- or base-catalyzed reactions. The highest yield of soluble fibers was 13.2 g per 100 g-db of treated whole stillage using one weight percent sodium hydroxide at 80ºC for 1 h. HPLC analysis was used to quantify the amount of monomeric sugars which were formed during the hydrolysis procedures. PMID:22203395

Flodman, Hunter R; Boyer, Elizabeth J; Muthukumarappan, Arthy; Noureddini, Hossein

2012-02-01

287

EFFECTS OF VARYING LEVELS OF PROCESSED DISTILLERS SOLUBLES AND DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES ON NITROGEN AND ENERGY METABOLISM OF BEEF STEERS 1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A series of nine metabolism studies were conducted with growing beef steers in switch- back or latin-square designs to evaluate the effect of (1) screened process distillers solubles (SDS), (2) screened process distillers grains with solubles (SDGS), (3) centrifuged process dis- tillers solubles (CDS), (4) centrifuged process distillers grains with solubles (CDGS) and (5) screened process distillers grains (SDG)

M. C. Chen; W. M. Beeson; T. W. Perry; M. T. Mohler

288

EFFECT OF NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION OF CRUDE OR DETOXIFIED CONCENTRATED DISTILLED GRAPE MARC HEMICELLULOSIC HYDROLYSATES ON THE XYLITOL PRODUCTION BY Debaryomyces hansenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis of xylitol using the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii NRRL Y-7426 was carried out using distilled grape marc (DGM) hemicellulosic hydrolysates directly concentrated by vacuum evaporation or after detoxification with activated charcoal. The effect of nutrient supplementation with vinasses, corn steep liquor (CSL) or commercial nutrients was explored. Using crude concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, the maximum xylitol concentration, 11.3 g\\/L, was achieved after

José Manuel Salgado; Noelia Rodríguez; Sandra Cortés; José Manuel Domínguez

2012-01-01

289

Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.  

PubMed

Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD. PMID:18849039

Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

2008-11-14

290

Use of Corn Distiller's Solubles from an Ethanol Plant for Aquaculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended...

C. C. Kohler

1984-01-01

291

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

292

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

293

40 CFR 721.10670 - Bromine, manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues. 721.10670 Section...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues. (a) Chemical substance...manufacture of, by-products from, distillation residues (PMN...

2013-07-01

294

40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture of...

2013-07-01

295

40 CFR 721.10530 - Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). 721.10530...10530 Acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as acrylate manufacture byproduct distillation residue (PMN P-12-87) is...

2013-07-01

296

27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 ...kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation. (a) Brand name and kind...mean the same thing. (c) State of distillation â(1) Mandatory statement....

2009-04-01

297

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...Chemical Substances § 721.10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...substance identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene...

2013-07-01

298

40 CFR 417.50 - Applicability; description of the glycerine distillation subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. 417.50 Section...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Glycerine Distillation Subcategory § 417.50 Applicability...description of the glycerine distillation subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

299

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2010-04-01

300

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2009-04-01

301

19 CFR 144.15 - Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...Entry and withdrawal from Customs bonded warehouses of distilled spirits...distilled spirits entered into Customs bonded warehouse in accordance with...

2013-04-01

302

27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. 28.26 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.26 Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. (a) Distilled...

2010-04-01

303

27 CFR 28.26 - Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. 28.26 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.26 Entry of distilled spirits into customs bonded warehouses. (a) Distilled...

2009-04-01

304

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.48 Section 27.48 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Collection of Internal Revenue Taxes...

2010-04-01

305

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2013-04-01

306

77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension AGENCY: Alcohol...the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional 10 days. In Notice...of identity regulations for distilled spirits to include...

2012-06-29

307

Vacuum tool manipulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing t...

W. T. Zollinger

1992-01-01

308

Vacuum insulating panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical aspects and practical possibilities for realization of a new type of thermal insulation, vacuum panel insulation (VPI), are given. From a functional point of view, it is a flat all metal Dewar flask with an array of supporting beads. They span metal foils at desired distances and limit conduction by internal, near-point contacts. Model studies and first reports show

V Nemani?

1995-01-01

309

Vacuum thermal insulation panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum thermal insulation panel comprises a pair of laminated plastic and aluminum sheets together with a plastic edge strip sealed to the edges of the sheets so as to define an evacuable volume in which a glass fiber mat is disposed. The insulation panel of the present invention takes advantage of the light-weight, low cost and low thermal conductivity

J. R. Young; R. M. Schreck

1984-01-01

310

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1992-01-01

311

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1992-01-01

312

Topics in vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a theory has more than one classically stable vacuum, quantum tunneling and thermal jumps make the transition between the vacua possible. The transition happens through a first order phase transition started by nucleation of a bubble of the new vacuum. The outward pressure of the truer vacuum makes the bubble expand and consequently eat away more of the old phase. In the presence of gravity this phenomenon gets more complicated and meanwhile more interesting. It can potentially have important cosmological consequences. Some aspects of this decay are studied in this thesis. Solutions with different symmetry than the generically used O(4) symmetry are studied and their actions calculated. Vacuum decay in a spatial vector field is studied and novel features like kinky domain walls are presented. The question of stability of vacua in a landscape of potentials is studied and the possible instability in large dimension of fields is shown. Finally a compactification of the Einstein-Maxwell theory is studied which can be a good lab to understand the decay rates in compactification models of arbitrary dimensions.

Masoumi, Ali

313

High Vacuum Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metal-to-metal seal vacuum valve is provided with a bellows which aids in preventing leakage through the housing cover and about the stem. The inner surface of the valve housing is provided with a metal valve seat having a relatively sharp edge around...

J. M. Frame

1965-01-01

314

Inexpensive high vacuum feedthroughs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the use of rigid coaxial cable in the construction of high vacuum coaxial and coaxial push-pull rotary motion feedthroughs. This type of feedthroughs is shown to be extremely cheap and simple to make and modify. It can be used for moderately high voltages and provides a continuous, well shielded, low-noise feedthrough cable in any desired configuration.

Gerber, S.; Post, D.

1973-01-01

315

Operating a vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of vacuum gas gathering systems refers to the operation of a gathering system below atmospheric pressure. Advantages include recovery of gas that would otherwise remain in the reservoir, increased GPM content of the gathered gas, harmlessness of leaks, possibility of installing lower-priced pipe, and ability to make temporary repair of leaks. Disadvantages include difficulty of detecting leaks, severe

Felts

1981-01-01

316

Vacuum System at IUAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

Mandal, A.

2012-11-01

317

VACUUM FLOW STEEL DEGASSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steel degassing technique developed and used by the Henrichschutte ; steel plant in Germany's Ehr is described. The process, reportedly capable of ; reduci Hâ, Nâ, and Oâ contents of all types of steels to those ; levels obtalned by vacuum casting techniques, require from 12 to 15 min in a 6O ; to 80-ton ladle. The metal i

Starratt

1958-01-01

318

HYDC Vacuum Circuit Breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the commutation principle, using vacuum interrupters as a means for interrupting high direct current at high voltage, has been demonstrated convincingly by a large number of tests. Currents in excess of 15 kA at 20 kV have been interrupted by a single device in an inductive circuit. Tests are reported in which higher current were cleared by

A. N. Greenwood; P. Barkan; W. C. Kracht

1972-01-01

319

Vacuum ultraviolet holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

1974-01-01

320

Various unique vacuum holders  

SciTech Connect

Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

Gregar, J.S.

1992-12-01

321

Failure Analysis of Glass-Ceramic Insulators of Shock Tested Vacuum (Neutron) Tubes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight investigative techniques were used to examine the glass-ceramic insulators in vacuum (neutron) tubes. The insulators were extracted from units that had been subjected to low temperature mechanical shock tests. Two of the three units showed reduced n...

R. K. Spears

1980-01-01

322

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

323

Fractographic observations of Ti-6Al-4V alloy fatigued in vacuum.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These observations were made as part of a study of the influence of temperature and chemical environment on fatigue-crack growth. The results obtained, along with additional fractographic results in other environments, suggest that the mechanism for fatigue-crack growth in the Ti-6Al-4V alloy is basically similar (striations are observed) for a wide range of environments. In addition to ?vacuum,' these environments include distilled water, ?dry' and ?wet' air, ?dry' hydrogen, and ?dry' and ?wet' argon.

Ritter, D. L.; Wei, R. P.

1971-01-01

324

Isolation of volatile constituents from fats and oils by vacuum degassing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of an all-glass, high-vacuum (10?5 to 10?6 mm.) laboratory apparatus, to be used for the quantitative recovery of volatile constituents from oils and fats.\\u000a \\u000a Up to 1 kg. of oil can be treated per day. To prevent decomposition of the oil, only moderately elevated temperatures are\\u000a used. The distillate obtained can be transferred quantitatively to chromatographic

J. de Bruyn; J. C. M. Schogt

1961-01-01

325

Dielectric strength of double and single-break vacuum interrupters: experiments with real HV demonstration bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes dielectric experiments on vacuum interrupters for HV applications. The investigations were performed with two different vacuum bottle designs. The difference between these objects is the number of breaker units per bottle and slight deviations in the shielding arrangement. On this basis the dielectric results of one and two interrupter units in one housing are discussed. The experiments

S. Giere; H. C. Karner; H. Knobloch

2001-01-01

326

Gas bearing operates in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

Perkins, G. S.

1975-01-01

327

Furnace brazing under partial vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

Mckown, R. D.

1979-01-01

328

Improvements in the simple distillation of fatty acids by continuous methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the simple distillation of fatty acids, improved results with respect to product quality, uniformity, and yields are obtained\\u000a with reduced plant operating and space requirements because of the following factors:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Continuous operation under automatic instrument control.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Deaerating the feed stock before heating.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Vacuum drying the crude fatty acids at low temperatures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Indirectly heating the fatty

Ralph W. Berger

1952-01-01

329

On the Development of a Distillation Process for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of Irradiated Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at the Idaho National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of actinide products following an electrorefining process. Separation of the actinide products from a molten salt electrolyte and cadmium is achieved by a batch operation called cathode processing. A cathode processor has been designed and developed to efficiently remove the process chemicals and consolidate the actinide products for further processing. This paper describes the fundamentals of cathode processing, the evolution of the equipment design, the operation and efficiency of the equipment, and recent developments at the cathode processor. In addition, challenges encountered during the processing of irradiated spent nuclear fuel in the cathode processor will be discussed.

B.R. Westphal; K.C. Marsden; J.C. Price; D.V. Laug

2008-04-01

330

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

331

Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.  

PubMed

Abstract Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. ?ench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80?C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt concentration. The quality of the permeate water remains constant at about 1 mg/L regardless of the changes in the influent salt concentration. A nine-month MD field trial, using hollow fiber membranes and completely off-the-shelf components demonstrated that a scaled-up solar-driven MD system was practical and economically viable. Based on these results, a pilot scale unit will be constructed and deployed on the tribal lands. PMID:24552961

Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

2014-01-01

332

Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.  

PubMed

Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation. PMID:12862234

Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

2003-01-01

333

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01

334

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOEpatents

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

1980-01-01

335

Perfluoropolyethers as Vacuum Pump Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the state of the art in the field of utilizing perfluoropolyethers in the creation of "clean" vacuums, when the term "clean" vacuum defines one that does not contain contaminates which interfere with the process to be carried out in the vacuum. (SL)

Laurenson, L.

1977-01-01

336

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, G.H.

1981-07-30

337

Insertion device vacuum system designs  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

Hoyer, E.

1988-05-01

338

RFQ Vacuum brazing at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe the vacuum brazing procedure used at CERN for the brazing of Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The RFQ is made of high precision machined OFE copper pieces assembled together. Vacuum brazing is one of the most promising techniques used to join the individual components leading to vacuum tightness and high precision alignment. The

S Mathot

2008-01-01

339

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ??0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(?2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ?in=0.01 to ?out in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/?out)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

Jones, Cody

2013-04-01

340

Possible remediation of dioxin-polluted soil by steam distillation.  

PubMed

2,7-Dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (DCDD) was found to evaporate easily with water vapor from a heated solution. Steam distillation was also effective for the removal of DCDD from DCDD-applied soil; its concentration (250 microg/50g soil) in the original soil decreased to less than 5% after steam distillation for only 20 min. Actual dioxin-polluted soil in Tokorozawa City was partially decontaminated using the same method. These results suggest that steam distillation could be a new remedial method for soils contaminated with persistent environmental pollutants, such as dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. PMID:11515579

Mino, Y; Moriyama, Y

2001-08-01

341

Edison's vacuum technology patents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

Waits, Robert K.

2003-07-01

342

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

343

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

344

Integrated structure vacuum tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (inventors)

1976-01-01

345

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

346

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

347

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1993-01-05

348

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-04-28

349

Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

1987-01-01

350

Aspects of vacuum alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of both spontaneous symmetry breaking and explicit symmetry breaking, the ground state of a system is determined by vacuum alignment. In this thesis I examine the consequences of vacuum alignment in models with many competing explicit symmetry breaking interactions. In particular, I investigate the appearance of unexpectedly massless pseudo-Goldstone bosons and their connection to second order phase transitions in the symmetry of the ground state. The foundation for this investigation is a model based on the spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern SU(3)L ? SU(3)R ? SU(3). One feature of this model, repeated phase transitions, motivates a new approach toward generating light states. In this approach, states are light because there are many nearby phase transitions rather than as a consequence of a symmetry. I test this new approach by applying repeated phase transitions to composite higgs models of electroweak symmetry breaking. This investigation not only elucidates the advantages and disadvantages of repeated phase transitions but it also provides a new path to a light composite higgs. A more familiar approach to a light composite higgs is the Little Higgs mechanism. This achieves a light higgs by protecting it with additional global symmetries. As a consequence of these additional symmetries, new TeV scale particles must be introduced which tend to cause conflicts with precise low energy experiments. Imposing a discrete symmetry known as T parity on these models not only removes many problematic processes but also creates a dark matter candidate. I construct a T parity invariant version of the Simplest Little Higgs model and find a cosmologically viable dark matter candidate. To demonstrate an application of vacuum alignment outside of electroweak symmetry breaking, I also examine the constraints from B meson mixings and decays on models of spontaneous CP violation in topcolor-assisted technicolor. In these models, CP is violated as a consequence of vacuum alignment in the technicolor sector, then communicated to the standard model fields through quark mass terms.

Martin, Adam O.

351

Vacuum Beat Wave Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) utilizes two laser beams with differing wavelengths to accelerate particles in vacuo.(Sprangle et al., Opt. Comm. 124), 69 (1996); Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 5443 (1995). The mechanism relies on the v×B force, circumventing the so-called Lawson-Woodward theorem. A proof-of-principle experiment will be performed at the Naval Research Laboratory, based on design

C. I. Moore; B. Hafizi; E. Esarey; P. Sprangle; A. Ganguly; J. L. Hirshfield

1997-01-01

352

The ITER vacuum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the torus exhaust pumping, the cryopumps for the neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating, and the cryopumps for the ITER cryostat. All customized cryosorption pumps are force-cooled with supercritical helium and share a similar modular design of cryosorption pumping panels. For regeneration of the cryopumps as well as for roughing down the system volumes prior to operation, four identical sets of forepump trains are used. This paper will focus on the areas of the ITER vacuum systems which require customized developments and cannot rely on commercial solutions. The complex pumps have been tailored for the very specific applications and requirements at ITER, especially characterised by the need to be tritium compatible. An outline of the development path which was needed to come up with a sound design for the ITER cryopumps is given. The way of development is culminating in the manufacturing of 1:1 scale prototypes, which will be extensively tested in dedicated test facilities to ensure compatibility with all design requirements.

Day, C.; Murdoch, D.

2008-05-01

353

Vacuum: From Art to Exact Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of vacuum technology. Includes vacuum pump developments (mechanical, ion, and cyrogenic pumps), measurement techniques, the development of the American Vacuum Society, and electronics in vacuum technology. (JN)

Lafferty, James M.

1981-01-01

354

Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.  

PubMed

Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

2005-09-01

355

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...specified in Table 1 of this section. (c) You may use the following nonmetallic additives with distillate diesel fuels: (1) Cetane improver. (2) Metal deactivator. (3) Antioxidant, dehazer. (4) Rust inhibitor. (5)...

2013-07-01

356

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOEpatents

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11

357

A New Distillation Algorithm for Floating-Point Summation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The summation of n floating-point numbers is ubiquitous in numerical computations. We present a new distillation algorithm for floating-point summation which is stable, efficient, and accurate. The algorithm iteratively \\

Yong-Kang Zhu; Jun-Hai Yong; Guo-Qin Zheng

2005-01-01

358

Irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a class of symmetric states  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric (d+1)-parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension dxd. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, so that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure-state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is a tagged mixture. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Reinhard F. [Institut fuer Mathematische Physik, Mendelssohnstrasse 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

2004-06-01

359

Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

Barduhn, Allen J.

1984-01-01

360

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

SciTech Connect

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15

361

Distillation of the two-mode squeezed state.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character. PMID:24579571

Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S; Lvovsky, A I

2014-02-21

362

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

SciTech Connect

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15

363

Distillation of The Two-Mode Squeezed State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate entanglement distillation of the two-mode squeezed state obtained by parametric down-conversion. Applying the photon annihilation operator to both modes, we raise the fraction of the photon-pair component in the state, resulting in the increase of both squeezing and entanglement by about 50%. Because of the low amount of initial squeezing, the distilled state does not experience significant loss of Gaussian character.

Kurochkin, Yury; Prasad, Adarsh S.; Lvovsky, A. I.

2014-02-01

364

Adding hydrogen donor to visbreaking improves distillate yields  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen donor visbreaking can be an attractive process for improving distillate yields when upgrading heavy crude oils and resids. Hydrogen donor visbreaking is a process in which a donor is provided to supply the hydrogen needed to obtain good distillate from residual materials. The process is a combination of two proven processes: visbreaking and mild gas-oil hydrogenation. It can be readily adapted to existing refinery equipment.

Bakshi, A.S.; Lutz, I.H.

1987-07-13

365

Reduction: distillation method for sulfate determination  

SciTech Connect

This article describes an improvement of the reduction/distillation/spectrophotometric technique that is widely used in the nuclear industry. The procedure involves the reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide with a hot solution containing hydroiodic acid, sodium hypophosphite, and acetic acid. The hydrogen sulfide is sparged from the reaction mixture with nitrogen which is then bubbled through a dilute zinc acetate solution which traps the sulfide. The addition of acid, p-aminodimethylaniline, and ferric chloride to the zinc acetate trapping solution quantitatively converts the sulfide to methylene blue which is then measured by absorption spectrophotometry at 667 nm. In this version of the technique, the samples and standard are added serially to a single, relatively large batch of the boiling reduction solution. The apparatus is not cooled down and disassembled between each sample run and the reduction solution is kept at a boil at all times and is continuously sparged with nitrogen gas. This reduces the total analysis time to a fraction of that necessary with the previous methods. Tables are presented summarizing the studies on: effect of matrix constituents on the determination of 100 ..mu..g of sulfate; effects of nitrates; and comparison of ion chromatographic results with those obtained by the sulfate reduction techniques. Agreement between values is good for these two techniques. The overall time for the analysis of a single solution sample is on the order of 10 min including the delay for color development. The relative standard deviations obtained on finely ground solid calcined nuclear waste containing from 0.1 to 10% sulfur as sulfate are typically on the order of 3 to 5%.

Siemer, D.D.

1980-10-01

366

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

367

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

368

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

2010-01-01

369

Kinetics of hydrogenation of aromatics determined by carbon-13 NMR for Athabasca bitumen-derived middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

High aromatics content in middle distillates is detrimental to fuel quality, as shown in such properties as smoke point of jet fuel and cetane number of diesel fuel. In the petroleum and petrochemical industries the yields from fluid catalytic cracking or steam cracking units are adversely affected by high aromatics content in the feedstock. Distillates obtained from oil sand bitumen, heavy oils, or coal liquefaction products are particularly high in aromatics. Reducing the concentration of this class of compounds is important. Aromatics hydrogenation (AHYD) is one option to achieve this result. In the current Syncrude operation a primary objective of hydrotreating is to reduce product sulfur and nitrogen contents; reducing aromatics content is an incidental result. However, the expansion plan currently under study by Syncrude includes further AHYD to improve cetane number. Predicting the product aromatics content is an important issue for this study. In the present study, hydrotreating of five Athabasca-bitumen-derived gas oils was conducted in pilot scale trickle-bed reactors using alumina-based commercial NiMo catalysts. Feedstocks originated from the distillation of virgin bitumen, and from distillates derived from treating bitumen in a fluid coker and hydrocracking pilot plant. Aromatics content was determined by the {sup 13}C NMR method. The previously developed rate equation for AHYD was modified by including power terms for space velocity and hydrogen partial pressure. The data were analyzed using the modified equation.

Yui, S.M.; Sanford, E.C. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1987-04-01

370

Distillation of multipartite entanglement by local filtering operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study how to distill two typical multipartite entangled noisy states, the amplitude-damped W state and the amplitude-damped Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Unlike the currently existing multipartite entanglement purification schemes, our scheme is a single-copy-based scheme, i.e., only one noisy state is needed in each distillation round, and the complicated multilateral controlled-not (cnot) operations are replaced by measurements of local positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). The results show that local POVM measurements on one copy of the noisy state can project the initial state onto a new state with higher entanglement and nonlocality. In this scheme, although the final state can violate the multipartite Bell inequality, the corresponding initial noisy state does not violate it, which means that this distillation scheme can reveal the hidden genuine multipartite nonlocality of these initial states. For the case of the amplitude-damped W state, if the POVM parameters are appropriately chosen, the fidelity of the output state can approach 1.0 for all the initial states with fidelity bigger than zero. So this single-copy-based multipartite entanglement distillation scheme has a wide range of distillable fidelities, and it is much simpler than the two-copy- or multiple-copy-based schemes. Furthermore, if the POVM measurement is carried out only on some member qubits rather than all of them, the distillation scheme can succeed too, which will greatly decrease the implementation complexity of the scheme. So this multipartite entanglement distillation scheme may be implementable in some physical system.

Huang, Yi-Sheng; Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2014-06-01

371

Dilute-acid pretreatment of distillers' grains and corn fiber.  

PubMed

Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the dry grind and wet corn milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make them attractive feedstock for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis for the conversion of distillers' grains and corn fiber to monomeric sugars and the formation of furfural were investigated. The extent of solubilization of biomass beyond monomeric sugars was also monitored. Biomass loadings in the range of 5-20 wt.% at 5% intervals, acid concentrations in the range of 0.5-1.5 vol.% at 0.5% intervals, and temperatures of 120 and 140 degrees C were studied. The highest yields of monomeric sugars were observed when the least amount of biomass loading was pretreated with the highest concentration of sulfuric acid and when the temperature was 140 degrees C. For the majority of the cases under consideration, the most effective period of hydrolysis appeared to be during the initial 20-30 min of the reaction. Formation of furfural during the course of hydrolysis was significantly lower at 120 degrees C and also lower for the distillers' grains samples compared with the corn fiber samples. The total amount of the solubilized matter during the hydrolysis was significantly higher than the amount of the monomeric sugars. Analyses according to standard procedure were performed to quantify moisture, oil, carbohydrates, and ash in distillers' grains and corn fiber samples. The total carbohydrate content of distillers' grains and corn fiber were 57.7+/-2.0 and 77.0+/-1.0 wt.%, respectively. The presented results will provide a foundation for the suitability of the pretreated distillers' grains and corn fiber for enzymatic hydrolysis step. PMID:19773157

Noureddini, H; Byun, J

2010-02-01

372

Cosmology with a decaying vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of unstable false vacuum states are analyzed from the point of view of the quantum theory of unstable states. Some of false vacuum states survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t2 for t --> ?.

Urbanowski, K.; Szyd?owski, M.

2013-02-01

373

Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

1979-01-01

374

Vacuum leak detector and method  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

1983-01-01

375

Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is applied across the thickness, in particular, when the space between the face sheets is evacuated, causing the core material to be squeezed between the face sheets by atmospheric pressure. Fabrication of a typical vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would begin with fabrication of a cross-shaped polymer-modified aerogel blanket. The dimensions of the cross would be chosen so that (1) the central rectangular portion of the cross would form the core for the back of the box and (2) the arms of the cross could be folded 90 from the back plane to form the cores of the adjacent four sides of the box. Optionally, the blanket could include tabs for joining the folded sides of the blanket along mating edges and tabs that could serve as hinges for the door. Vacuum bags in the form of similar five-sided boxes would be made of a suitable polymeric film, one bag to fit the outer core surface, the other to fit the inner core surface. By use of commercially available film-sealing equipment, these box-shaped bags would be seamed together to form a single vacuum bag encasing the box-shaped core. Also, a one-way valve would be sealed to the bag. Through this valve, the interior of the bag would be evacuated to a pressure between 1 and 10 torr (approximately between 0.13 and 1.3 kPa). The polymer-modified aerogel core material is known to perform well as a thermal insulator in such a partial vacuum.

Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

2010-01-01

376

Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

2012-01-01

377

Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

2013-01-01

378

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

379

Vacuum thermal insulation panel  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum thermal insulation panel comprises a pair of laminated plastic and aluminum sheets together with a plastic edge strip sealed to the edges of the sheets so as to define an evacuable volume in which a glass fiber mat is disposed. The insulation panel of the present invention takes advantage of the light-weight, low cost and low thermal conductivity of plastic materials to form an evacuable volume into which a glass fiber insulating mat is disposed for support of the panel which is evacuated to provide improved thermal insulation. Additionally, a gas permeation barrier is employed on the edge strip of the panel to minimize gas permeation at its edges. A metal foil layer provides gas permeation protection through the large surface areas of the sheets themselves.

Young, J.R.; Schreck, R.M.

1984-04-24

380

Pseudoredundant vacuum energy  

SciTech Connect

We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2008-08-15

381

Vacuum Powder Injector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method developed to provide uniform impregnation of bundles of carbon-fiber tow with low-solubility, high-melt-flow polymer powder materials to produce composite prepregs. Vacuum powder injector expands bundle of fiber tow, applies polymer to it, then compresses bundle to hold powder. System provides for control of amount of polymer on bundle. Crystallinity of polymer maintained by controlled melt on takeup system. All powder entrapped, and most collected for reuse. Process provides inexpensive and efficient method for making composite materials. Allows for coating of any bundle of fine fibers with powders. Shows high potential for making prepregs of improved materials and for preparation of high-temperature, high-modulus, reinforced thermoplastics.

Working, Dennis C.

1991-01-01

382

LIGO vacuum system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

1988-01-01

383

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

384

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vacuum barrier for separating a region of vacuum from a pressurized gaseous region in an excimer laser. It comprises a first thin layer of metal having a thickness in the range of 2000-4000 Angstroms; a first thin layer of polyimide having a thickness of approximately 1 mil overlying the first thin layer of metal; a second

Shuter

1992-01-01

385

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

386

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the ''as-received'' condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1984-01-01

387

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room-temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for some

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

388

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

389

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

390

Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

1997-01-01

391

Vacuum carburizing—process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased interest in vacuum carburizing concept is being observed in the last years all around the world as a result of the progress in designing of modern furnaces for thermo-chemical treatment under low pressure and of better knowledge of physico-chemistry of these processes. This in turn allows a precise control with aid of computer simulations. The vacuum carburizing simulation

P. Kula; R. Pietrasik; K. Dybowski

2005-01-01

392

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

393

Breather cloth for vacuum curing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

Reed, M. W.

1979-01-01

394

Inductive energy storage driven vacuum arc thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of vacuum arc thruster in combination with an innovative power processing unit (PPU) has been developed that promises to be a high efficiency (~15%), low mass (~100 g) propulsion system for micro- and nanosatellites. This thruster accelerates a plasma that consists almost exclusively of ions of the cathode material and has been operated with a wide variety of cathodes. The streaming velocity of the plasma exhaust varies with cathode material, from a low of 11 km/s for Ti up to 30 km/s for Al, with a corresponding range of specific impulse from 1100 s for Ta to 3000 s for Al. Initiation of the arc requires only a few hundred volts due to an innovative ``triggerless'' approach in which a conductive layer between the cathode and the anode produces the initial charge carriers needed for plasma production. The initial starting voltage spike as well as the energy to operate the vacuum arc are generated by a low mass (<300 g) inductive energy storage PPU which is controlled using +5 V level signals. The thrust-to-power ratio has been estimated to reach up to ~20 ?N/W. The vacuum arc thruster was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using W as cathode material. Experimental results are within 65% of the estimated values.

Schein, J.; Qi, N.; Binder, R.; Krishnan, M.; Ziemer, J. K.; Polk, J. E.; Anders, A.

2002-02-01

395

Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.  

PubMed

The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

2013-01-01

396

The AGS Booster vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Hseuh, H.C.

1989-01-01

397

Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact. PMID:24124730

Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

2013-11-01

398

Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems  

SciTech Connect

We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2009-07-15

399

New potentials of NIICHIMMASH's thermal vacuum facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potentialities of existing test facilities as to simulating space environment governing factors for spacecraft successful development thermal vacuum testing are analyzed, ways of modernizing existing test facilities and specific proposals on their redesign are considered. The problem of spacecraft (S/C) ground development in simulated external environments, the solution of which started more than 30 years ago, has not lost its urgency today. Stringent requirements on S/C active lifetime under space conditions, module large dimensions, great number of extension elements and complicated mode of their interaction in long mission do not allow S/C designers to abandon ground tests. S/C thermal modes development is a combination of calculations, thermal vacuum tests and actions on improving S/C design and its thermal control system. Traditionally, tests are carried out by stages from component and end unit level verifications to complex tests of modules and S/C as a whole. In our opinion, sufficient correctness of calculated models and experience gained in organizations designing space systems allow to reduce cost and time of autonomous tests. Unfortunately, this is not true for complex (integrated) thermal vacuum tests. More than that, their recent programs include tasks of verifying other (than thermal control system) systems if S/C for operation under space simulated conditions. The outlined circumstances are the main reason for critical review of the potentialities of the existing test base, and of NIICHIMMASH's two large thermal vacuum chambers, first of all. The reasons for and ways of enlargement of these facilities potentially are analyzed and the results attained are described.

Afanassiev, N. A.; Makarov, A. A.; Galjaev, V. L.

1994-01-01

400

Economic aspects of the vacuum treatment of steel by VDF\\/VODF technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations are performed to determine the economic benefit from changing over to the traditional VD\\/VOD technology for the\\u000a vacuum degassing of steel in ladles to the new VDF\\/VODF technology. A vacuum-degassing unit currently in use at the Severstal\\u000a Metallurgical Combine is used as an example.

N. A. Shchegolev; A. V. Luk’yanov

2009-01-01

401

Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements  

DOEpatents

In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.

Edwards, D. Jr.

1984-09-18

402

Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements  

DOEpatents

In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.

Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

1984-01-01

403

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

404

Light olefins from shale oil distillates  

SciTech Connect

In addition to the national concern for new sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, many of our most important chemicals, plastics and fibers are based on light olefins and aromatics which are derived today from limited petroleum and natural gas supplies. Du Pont has initiated programs to evaluate new sources of feedstocks for petrochemicals which will be available late in this century and eary in the next. Shale oil, derived from the pyrolysis of kerogen contained in Green River Oil Shale, appears to be a promising replacement feed for olefin production units. Previous scouting studies at Du Pont by Rudershausen and Thompson identified pyrolysis to shale oil as an interesting option. In further work at Du Pont, residence time and process conditions have been successfully changed to those more representative of modern furnace technology. These results encouraged us to perform an evaluation of the commercial potential for production of olefins from shale oil. A sample of Paraho Shale Oil was obtained from Development Engineering, Inc., during their 100,000 barrel run for the Department of Energy. The engineering estimate was made by Pullman-Kellogg based on data obtained in their Bench Scale Unit. Results from this evaluation will be shown here.

King, C.F.; Glidden, H.J.

1980-08-01

405

Precooler Ring Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

Moenich, J.

1980-10-02

406

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27

407

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

408

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

409

Vacuum plasma spray coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1989-01-01

410

Dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen diets.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to test the inclusion rate of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in laying hen diets on egg production (EP) responses for a full production cycle. A total of 288 Bovan Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS from 24 to 46 wk (phase 1) and 47 to 76 wk (phase 2) of age. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric at 2,775 and 2,816 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous at 16.5 and 16.0% CP for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Nutrient retention of both N and P were determined by the indicator methods during phase 2. Diets were replicated with 8 pens/treatment and 6 hens/pen in an unbalanced randomized complete block design. Average daily feed intake, EP, and overall weight gain were similar (P = 0.08 to 0.1) among treatments during the study. Egg weight was affected (P = 0.064) by DDGS treatment during phase 1. Hens fed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% DDGS had an average egg weight of 60.6, 60.4, 60.8, 60.0, 59.0, and 59.0 g, respectively; however, no differences were detected in egg weight during phase 2. During phase 1, diets were formulated based on TSAA, allowing Met to decrease as DDGS increased, but during phase 2, diets were formulated to keep Met equal across DDGS treatments, allowing TSAA to increase as a result of high Cys in DDGS. Yolk color increased with increasing DDGS level; the highest Roche score (P = 0.001) was 7.2 for hens fed 25% DDGS. Nitrogen and P retention was greater (P = 0.003) in hens fed 25% DDGS. Also, N and P excretion decreased (P = 0.007) linearly as DDGS increased. In summary, feeding DDGS up to 25% during EP cycles had no negative effects on feed intake, EP, Haugh units, or specific gravity, and improved yolk color at the highest levels. Increasing DDGS level beyond 15% caused a reduction in egg weight during phase 1 of egg production, though no differences were observed in egg weight during phase 2. Nitrogen and P excretion were lower at higher inclusion rate of DDGS. Hens fed 25% DDGS had the highest N and P retention. PMID:21844261

Masa'deh, M K; Purdum, S E; Hanford, K J

2011-09-01

411

Vacuum applications of metal foams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1980-01-01

412

Vacuum Function Operation and Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

2009-10-06

413

Vacuum applications of metal foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1980-12-01

414

A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in

Chun Guang Yang; Lie Xu

2010-01-01

415

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a

Rian Reyneke; Michael Foral; Christos G. Papadopoulos; Jeffrey S. Logsdon; Wayne W. Y. Eng; Guang-Chung Lee; Ian Sinclair

2007-01-01

416

The production of diacetone alcohol with catalytic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aldol condensation of acetone to diacetone alcohol (DAA) has been accomplished with catalytic distillation (CD). A steady-state, rate-based model for the reaction zone of the CD column is developed and fitted to the experimental data which were presented in Part I of this paper. This model is unique in that it considers external mass transfer between the liquid phase

G. G. Podrebarac; F. T. T. Ng; G. L. Rempel

1998-01-01

417

27 CFR 19.669 - Distilled spirits taxes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...669 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Liability for Taxes § 19.669 ...(1) Imposition of tax liability (§§ 19.222,...

2013-04-01

418

27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...officer. The requisition shall show the flight number, the registry number...retain both copies until the return of the flight. In case any of the distilled spirits...amended, 72 Stat. 1336, 1362, 1380; 19 U.S.C. 1309, 26 U.S.C....

2013-04-01

419

Resilient and Robust Control of an Energy Integrated Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation column equipped with an intermediate condenser for energy conservation was studied using advanced multivariable control techniques. The intermediate condenser heat duty was successfully used as an extra manipulated variable, giving rise to non-square three input-two output control system designs. The material balance control structure had much better performance than the energy balance structure. The primary advantage of the

B. Wayne Bequette; Robert R. Horton; Thomas F. Edgar

1987-01-01

420

Investigation of Fuel Pump Failures with Navy Distillate Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made of the probable cause or causes of the fuel pump failures that have been encountered in some Naval ships since conversion to navy distillate (ND) fuel. The study concentrated on the pumps of the USS Constellation, since this ship has suff...

D. S. Wilson E. B. Arwas S. F. Murray A. L. Gu

1971-01-01

421

ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

422

Utilization of dried distillers grains for developing beef heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-yr study was conducted at 2 loca- tions to determine if supplementing beef heifers with dried distillers grains (DDG) as an energy source af- fected growth or reproduction. Spring-born crossbred heifers (n = 316) were blocked by age or sire and age and assigned randomly to DDG or control (dried corn gluten feed, whole corn germ, urea) supplement. Heif-

J. L. Martin; A. S. Cupp; R. J. Rasby; Z. C. Hall; R. N. Funston

2007-01-01

423

Atmospheric Steam Superheater for Steam Distillation of Food Antioxidants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A steam superheater was designed and built to operate at atmospheric pressure and to provide superheated steam for as many as twelve edible fat and/or oil samples undergoing steam distillation for BHA and BHT antioxidants. The steam flow rate is sufficien...

D. Meo E. A. Goffi J. Swift

1971-01-01

424

Investigation on drying of middle distillate by Pervaporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying of middle distillate (MD), from which diesel fuel is made, by Pervaporation (PV) was experimentally investigated in a laboratory plant applying organic membranes. The work was conducted in cooperation with a refinery in which MD is catalytically desulphurized by hydrogenation. The H2S formed is separated by steam stripping. The resulting water content in the MD is removed by

Karl-Heinz Reichmann; Ninja Hildebrand; Jürgen Freitag; Rainer Kossol; Helmut Schiml

2010-01-01

425

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

EXTERIOR VIEW, THE SA WETSIDE BUILDING (ALSO KNOWN AS DISTILLATION BUILDING OR SOLVAY TOWERS BUILDING) THE HEART OF THE SOLVAY PROCESS. VIEW LOOKING EAST. THIS BUILDING WAS BUILT IN 1954 TO REPLACE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE BUILT CIRCA 1907. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

426

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING EAST, SA WETSIDE (DISTILLATION BUILDING) ON THE RIGHT, STD (SODA TOWER DRYERS?), SA DRYSIDE ON RIGHT. BEHIND STD BUILDING IS SHD BUILDING (SODA HORIZONTAL DRYERS?) THE ENTIRE DRYING COMPLEX WAS KNOWN AS THE DRYSIDE. - Solvay Process Company, SA Wetside Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenue, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

427

Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

2005-01-01

428

Study on the concentration of acids by membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane distillation (MD) process was applied for the concentration of different mineral acids, such as, sulfuric phosphoric, hydrochloric and nitric acids. The MD of a citric acid solution as an example of an organic acid was also investigated. The experiments were carried out keeping the warm feed and cold solution temperatures at 333 and 293 K, respectively. The data

M. Tomaszewska; M. Gryta; A. W. Morawski

1995-01-01

429

Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part I. Design comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum cost surfaces compare eight distillation systems separating ternary feeds. The regions of optimality for various designs depend upon the species separated, but changes in feed composition have characteristic effects on the relative costs. These characteristic effects can be used to generate heuristics in the form of expected regions of optimality, based on composition and simple physical properties. The expected

D. William Tedder; Dale F. Rudd

1978-01-01

430

Improved algorithms for topic distillation in a hyperlinked environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of topic distillation on the World Wide Web, namely, given a typ- ical user query to nd quality documents related to the query topic. Connectivity analysis has been shown to be useful in identifying high quality pages within a topic specic graph of hyperlinked documents. The essence of our approach is to augment a previous

Krishna Bharat; Monika Rauch Henzinger

1998-01-01

431

BIT at TREC 2009 Faceted Blog Distillation Task.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Paper presents the work done for the TREC 2009 faceted blog distillation task of blog track. In our approach, we use a mixture of language models based on global representation. Our model can be regarded as a combination of topic relevance model and ...

C. Zhang P. Jiang Q. Yang Z. Niu

2009-01-01

432

Blog Distillation for Linking Wikipedia Entries to Blog Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an approach to blog distillation, i.e., searching for blog feeds that are principally devoted to a given topic. We study this task for the purpose of regarding each of Wikipedia entries as a topic and linking it blog feeds. First, in order to collect candidates of blog feeds for a given query, in this paper, we use

Mariko KAWABA; Hiroyuki NAKASAKI; Tomohiro FUKUHARA

2008-01-01

433

Effect of kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of models is derived for studying the effects of chemical kinetics on residue curve maps for reactive distillation. Activity-based rate and phase equilibrium expressions provide an accurate and thermodynamically consistent description of composition changes in nonideal, reacting vapor-liquid mixtures. For certain strategies of operation, which dictate the rate of product removal, the model equations are nonautonomous, leading to

Ganesh Venimadhavan; George Buzad; Michael F. Doherty; Michael F. Malone

1994-01-01

434

Characterization of membrane distillation membranes prepared by phase inversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flat membrane distillation membranes have been successfully manufactured from PVDF\\/DMAc and PVDF\\/DMF blends by using phase inversion induced by an immersion precipitation technique. The structure of the membranes is asymmetric with a porous top layer and macrovoids, as assessed by SEM. The existence of MD fluxes in these membranes is established by performing various pure water flux

J. M. Ortiz de Zárate; J. I. Mengual

1995-01-01

435

Membrane Distillation and Related Operations—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid?liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried

Efrem Curcio; Enrico Drioli

2005-01-01

436

Reduction of Total Acid Number of Crude Oil and Distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of total acid number (TAN) of crude oil and distillate was investigated. Organic amines and aqueous ammonia were evaluated. Among organic amines, diethylamine and diethylenetriamine can effectively reduce the TAN. Superior alkalinity can improve acid removal while steric hindrance may weaken acid removal. The result showed that aqueous ammonia can acquire ideal results when the molecule ratio of ammonia

R. Lu; X. Xu; J. Yang; J. Gao

2007-01-01

437

Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

2013-06-01

438

Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents and compares the marine and atmospheric discharges of typical large MSF and RO plants. Distillation plants require an inlet seawater flow around 8 to 10 times the fresh water production rate, for cooling and feed make-up. The discharge is raised in salinity and in temperature, due to heat rejection from the process. A seawater RO plant generally

A. J. Morton; I. K. Callister; N. M. Wade

1997-01-01

439

Distillation and detection of SO2 using a microfluidic chip.  

PubMed

A miniaturized distillation system is presented for separating sulfurous acid (H(2)SO(3)) into sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and water (H(2)O). The major components of the proposed system include a microfluidic distillation chip, a power control module, and a carrier gas pressure control module. The microfluidic chip is patterned using a commercial CO(2) laser and comprises a serpentine channel, a heating zone, a buffer zone, a cooling zone, and a collection tank. In the proposed device, the H(2)SO(3) solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and is separated into SO(2) and H(2)O via an appropriate control of the distillation time and temperature. The gaseous SO(2) is then transported into the collection chamber by the carrier gas and is mixed with DI water. Finally, the SO(2) concentration is deduced from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show that a correlation coefficient of R(2) = 0.9981 and a distillation efficiency as high as 94.6% are obtained for H(2)SO(3) solutions with SO(2) concentrations in the range of 100-500 ppm. The SO(2) concentrations of two commercial red wines are successfully detected using the developed device. Overall, the results presented in this study show that the proposed system provides a compact and reliable tool for SO(2) concentration measurement purposes. PMID:22159042

Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Lee, Chia-Lun

2012-02-01

440

Analysis of the Competitive Viability of Independent Middle Distillate Marketers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The viability of the home heating oil dealer is being threatened by changes in the basic conditions of the middle distillate industry. These changes, which were examined over the study period from 1972 through 1978, are summarized below. (1) The overall n...

1979-01-01

441

Membrane Distillation - Examples of Applications in Technology and Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents membrane distillation (MD), a separation process based on evaporation through pores of a hydrophobic membrane. Different configurations of the process were considered. Membrane properties, transport phenomena through the membranes, and module designs have been discussed. Appli- cations of MD in water and wastewater treatment as well as in the food industry have been presented. The concentration of

M. Tomaszewska

2000-01-01

442

Two-stage hydrodesulfurization and hydrogenation process for distillate hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a hydrotreating process. It comprises passing a stream of middle distillate charge stock into the first of at least two reaction zones and producing a first reaction zone effluent, the two reaction zones comprising a first catalytic reaction zone containing a fixed bed of solid desulfurization catalyst; separating the first reaction zone effluent into liquid and vapor

E. C. Haun; G. J. Thompson; J. K. Gorawara; D. K. Sullivan

1992-01-01

443

Calculation of parametric sensitivity in binary batch distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of parametric sensitivity of batch distillation operations to perturbations in the feed composition. Three column arrangements are considered: batch rectifiers, batch strippers and total-reflux columns. The perturbation dynamics is parameterized in such a way as to allow the analytical calculation of the sensitivity function in the whole composition range, for both sharp and non-sharp

Massimiliano Barolo; Franco Botteon

1998-01-01

444

Feasibility studies for batch extractive distillation with a light entrainer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our former method for the assessment of the feasibility of batch extractive distillation (usually performed in a rectifier with a heavy entrainer) was extended to the case where a light entrainer is fed continuously into a rectifier or a stripper. The method is based on the calculation of the vessel path and possible composition profiles of the column sections. The

P. Lang; Z. Lelkes; M. Otterbein; B. Benadda; G. Modla

1999-01-01

445

Distillate Fuel Processing for Marine Fuel Cell Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is developing a 625 kW fuel cell power plant for marine applications based on its Direct Carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC(Trademark)) technology. The power plant is designed for operation on Mil-F- 16884J Naval distillate fuel designat...

G. Steinfield R. Sanderson H. Ghezel-Ayagh S. Abens M. C. Cervi

2000-01-01

446

Miniature Distillation Column for Producing LOX From Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The figure shows components of a distillation column intended for use as part of a system that produces high-purity liquid oxygen (LOX) from air by distillation. (The column could be easily modified to produce high-purity liquid nitrogen.) Whereas typical industrial distillation columns for producing high-purity liquid oxygen and/or nitrogen are hundreds of feet tall, this distillation column is less than 3 ft (less than about 0.9 m) tall. This column was developed to trickle-charge a LOX-based emergency oxygen system (EOS) for a large commercial aircraft. A description of the industrial production of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen by distillation is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present miniaturized distillation column. Typically, such industrial production takes place in a chemical processing plant in which large quantities of high-pressure air are expanded in a turboexpander to (1) recover a portion of the electrical power required to compress the air and (2) partially liquefy the air. The resulting two-phase flow of air is sent to the middle of a distillation column. The liquid phase is oxygen-rich, and its oxygen purity increases as it flows down the column. The vapor phase is nitrogen-rich and its nitrogen purity increases as it flows up the column. A heater or heat exchanger, commonly denoted a reboiler, is at the bottom of the column. The reboiler is so named because its role is to reboil some of the liquid oxygen collected at the bottom of the column to provide a flow of oxygen-rich vapor. As the oxygen-rich vapor flows up the column, it absorbs the nitrogen in the down-flowing liquid by mass transfer. Once the vapor leaves the lower portion of the column, it interacts with down-flowing nitrogen liquid that has been condensed in a heat exchanger, commonly denoted a condenser, at the top of the column. Liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen products are obtained by draining some of the purified product at the bottom and top of the column, respectively. Because distillation is a mass-transfer process, the purity of the product(s) can be increased by increasing the effectiveness of the mass-transfer process (increasing the mass-transfer coefficient) and/or by increasing the available surface area for mass transfer through increased column height. The diameter of a distillation column is fixed by pressure-drop and mass-flow requirements. The approach taken in designing the present distillation column to be short yet capable of yielding a product of acceptably high purity was to pay careful attention to design details that affect mass-transfer processes.

Rozzi, Jay C.

2006-01-01

447

40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, brominated and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...Chemical Substances § 721.10625 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product...substances identified generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene...

2013-07-01

448

Do-It-Yourself Guideline for Constructing a Solar Alcohol Distillation System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and testing of a solar powered distillation system are described. The system consists of a parabolic dish collector, a two axis sun tracking stand, sun tracking solar cell system, condenser, fermentation tanks, and continuous distillation ...

B. W. Kennedy

1982-01-01

449

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous...

2009-04-01

450

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar...203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2010-04-01

451

27 CFR 19.98 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous...

2010-04-01

452

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling...204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2009-04-01

453

27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling...204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2010-04-01

454

27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar...203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification...

2009-04-01

455

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and bottling. 1.82 Section 1.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in...

2009-04-01

456

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...rectification, warehousing, or warehousing and bottling. 1.82 Section 1.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.82 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in...

2010-04-01

457

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. 28.28 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and...

2009-04-01

458

27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. 28.28 Section 28...Miscellaneous Provisions Customs Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal...and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and...

2010-04-01

459

27 CFR 19.59 - Conveyance of untaxpaid spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...spirits or wines within a distilled spirits plant. 19.59 Section 19.59 Alcohol...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on...

2013-04-01

460

27 CFR 19.54 - Use of distilled spirits plant premises.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits plant premises. 19.54 Section 19.54...THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Restrictions on Production, Location, and Use of Plants Rules for Location and Use of A Dsp...

2013-04-01

461

Pollution prevention in vacuum processes  

SciTech Connect

The gaseous emissions from vacuum systems often contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--one or more of which may be regulated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Typically, regulated emission sources will require greater than 98% control of using an end-of-pipe abatement or recovery technology. VOCs from vacuum generation are expensive to control and increase the investment and operating cost of the vacuum system. When noncondensibles or inerts are present, the amount of VOCs emitted to the environment will increase dramatically. This article discusses approaches which process and project engineers can apply to reduce or eliminate vacuum system emissions. Actual case histories are included which reflect the range of solutions that are being applied.

Mulholland, K.L.; Dyer, J.A. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1999-05-01

462

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

463

Vacuum system pump down analysis  

SciTech Connect

My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

Rohrdanz, D.R.

1990-08-01

464

Simple vacuum pump exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple vacuum pump exhaust filter based upon an automotive air cleaner has been constructed and tested. The major virtues of the filter system are ease of coupling to an external exhaust and the availability of filter elements.

Richard A. Forman; Harvey D. Kratz

1984-01-01

465

Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

Beuyukian, C. S.

1980-01-01

466

Vacuum Outgassing of Various Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of r...

E. D. Erikson T. G. Beat D. D. Berger B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

467

Control of KEKB vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a vacuum system of the KEKB accelerator that is a two ring electron-positron collider, there are nearly 10,000 control points. A large number of vacuum related components should be controlled and\\/or monitored at the rings and the beam transport line from the linac. Those component hardwares are connected to their sub-interfaces such as ADC interfaced by devices of CAMAC,

S. Kato; K. Kanazawa; Y. Suetsugu; H. Hisamatsu; M. Shimamoto; M. Sato; M. Shirai; M. Takagi

2001-01-01

468

[Comparison vacuum extractor versus forceps].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to search for objective criteria witch might help us to make a choice between obstetrical forceps and vacuum extractor in front of such a clinical situation. In that purpose, we realised a medline research to compare those two obstetrical instruments in term of advantages, disadvantages and specific complications. Vacuum extractor is the most used in the industrialized countries, learning seems to be quickest, time from decision to extraction a little bit longer than with forceps (Level II-2). Vacuum extractor is recommended in case of low presentation with transversal or posterior variety (Level III) or when no analgesia is available (Level III). Forceps are more successful than vacuum (Level II-1), are recommended in case of prematurity and complete anesthesia (Level III). Immediate maternal complications (cervical tear, vaginal and perineal laceration, use of episiotomy) are less frequent with vacuum extractor (Level II-1). Long term effects on the pelvic floor and the bladder continence are comparable with natural delivery for both forceps and vacuum (Level II-1) but anal incontinence is increased, especially with forceps (Level II-1). Benign immediate neonatal morbidity is comparable for both instruments, but there are some specific complications (Level II-1). Thus, cephalhaematomas and potentially dramatic extensive subgaleal haematomas (even rare), retinal haemorrhage are more frequent with the use of vacuum extractor (Level II-1). Facial nerve paralysis, skull fracture (even rare) are more frequent with forceps (Level II-2). Neonatal convulsions frequency is comparable with both instruments (Level II-2), such are middle and long term complications (Level II-3). Finally, failure of forceps extraction needs a caesarean section but there is no clear evidence in the literature for the sequential use of forceps after failure of vacuum (Level III). PMID:19268200

Schaal, J-P; Equy, V; Hoffman, P

2008-12-01

469

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of

S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt

2010-01-01

470

Extracting energies from the vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and study a possible mechanism of extracting energies from the\\u000avacuum by external classical fields. Taking a constant magnetic field as an\\u000aexample, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released in the\\u000acontext of quantum field theories. In addition, we give a theoretical\\u000acomputation showing how much vacuum energies can be released. The possibilities

She-Sheng Xue

2000-01-01

471

Cold cathode vacuum gauging system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

2004-03-09

472

Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

2008-01-01

473

The hospital vacuum cleaner: mechanism for redistributing microbial contaminants.  

PubMed

Carpeting patient care units in acute care hospitals is increasingly common. While the safety of carpeting has been heavily debated, there has been little epidemiological data to document risk to the hospitalized patient. With the report of a two-year study documenting human contamination and potential colonization by microorganisms spread from hospital carpeting, a need was established to document modes of transmission. The objective of this study was to define the potential of hospital vacuums for dispersing particles of a size comparable to the microbial cell. Both filter efficiency and vacuum exhaust turbulence are evaluated. Results document that of eight units claiming high efficiency filtration, none was capable of meeting advertising claims. In addition, exhaust air velocities for one unit reached 175 feet per minute at 30 inches above the floor. PMID:10245501

Brown, D G; Schatzle, K; Gable, T

1980-01-01

474

77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports...AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports...the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...distilled spirits plants to report their...

2012-02-07

475

Use of corn distiller's solubles from an ethanol plant for aquaculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet stillage can economically be separated into two fractions: distiller's grain and distiller's solubles. Wet corn distiller's grain has shown potential as a feed supplement for ruminants, swine, and poultry. However, the soluble fraction (with suspended particles) is of little food value to terrestrial animals because of its high water content; it is not generally economically feasible to concentrate it

1984-01-01

476

Experimental investigation of conventional control strategies for a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a laboratory scale sieve plate distillation column was constructed to investigate the conventional control strategies of an isopropyl alcohol (IPA), cyclohexane (CyH) and water (H2O) heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column. Steady state process analysis showed that the optimal operation point should be located at a critical reflux, a transition point at which the distillation path switches from a

I-L Chien; C. J Wang; D. S. H Wong; C.-H Lee; S.-H Cheng; R. F Shih; W. T Liu; C. S Tsai

2000-01-01

477

Evaluation and Test Program of a 50-Ton Per Day ''Waste Distillator''.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of the testing program was a 50-ton per day Waste Distillator manufactured by Waste Distillation Technology Inc. of Irvington, New York. This Distillator produces a volatile gas product (suitable as a boiler fuel) and carbon char residue via t...

R. Pfeffer G. Tardos A. LaCava

1985-01-01

478

Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

Hassan, Afifa Afifi

1981-01-01

479

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

SciTech Connect

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-11-15

480

Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: We introduce distillation codes, a method for streamingand storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codesallow information to be decoded from a sufficiently largequorum of symbols. In contrast to erasure codes, distillationcodes are robust against pollution attacks, a powerfulclass of denial of service (DoS) attacks in which adversariesinject invalid symbols during the decoding process.We examine applications of distillation codes to

Chris Karlof; Naveen Sastry; Yaping Li; Adrian Perrig; J. D. Tygar

2004-01-01

481

Method of enhancing distillate yield in a hydrocarbonaceous material thermocracking process  

SciTech Connect

A method for destructive distillation of hydrocarbonaceous distillant is disclosed wherein a dienophile is introduced into the vaporous phase to reduce the production of non-distillable polymeric product. Specifically dienophiles available economically in large amounts such as maleic anhydride are disclosed. The introduction of additional sulfide to further reduce production of asphaltenic polymeric product is also described.

Gleim, W.K.

1981-05-05

482

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure nonstabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed nonstabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2010-01-01

483

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a

S. A. Nijhuis; F. P. J. M. Kerkhof; A. N. S. Mak

1993-01-01

484

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; Digugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman

2007-11-01

485

27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Distilling material or vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24... § 24.306 Distilling material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces...used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

2010-04-01

486

27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Distilling material or vinegar stock record. 24.306 Section 24... § 24.306 Distilling material or vinegar stock record. A proprietor who produces...used expressly as distilling material or vinegar stock shall maintain a record by...

2009-04-01

487

Design and optimization, using genetic algorithms, of intensified distillation systems for a class of quaternary mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and optimization of a coupled multicomponent distillation system is a non-linear and mul- tivariable problem. The complexity of this kind of problem results in high solving difficulty. This paper addresses the application of genetic algorithms to the optimization of intensified distillation systems for quaternary distillations. We used a multiobjective genetic algorithm with restrictions coupled to the Aspen Plus

Héctor Hernández-Escoto; Salvador Hernández

2009-01-01

488

Experimental verification of the equilibrium stage model for the dynamics of the multicomponent distillation considering the effects of energy loss  

SciTech Connect

This paper on the dynamics of multicomponent distillation is based on experimental investigations in a laboratory-scale distillation column. The concentration and temperature profiles are obtained at the steady-state operating point, and the transition behavior is observed by systematically changing the relevant operating variables. The general scope of these experiments is to evaluate and study the concentration and temperature profiles measured along the column height. The developed methodology for sampling at vacuum is explained. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations obtained by means of steady-state and dynamic simulation. The influence and the important of heat losses on the steady-state and dynamic behavior at high temperature levels are investigated and discussed. The aim of these studies is to prove the steady-state and dynamic simulation tool on the basis of the equilibrium stage model. It is found that the simulation results agree closely with those obtained experimentally. This refers to the concentration and temperature profiles as well as to the calculated and the experimentally used reboiler heat input. In order to achieve this good agreement, heat losses along the column height have to be taken into account in the simulation. Consequently, the consideration of heat losses is of great importance for the determination of HETP values in packed columns.

Kruse, C. [COGNIS GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Fieg, G.; Jeromin, L.; Johannisbauer, W. [Henkel KGaA, Duesseldorf (Germany); Wozny, G. [TU Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozess- und Anlagentechnik

1995-05-01

489

Trends in Refinery Capacity and Utilization: Petroleum Refineries in the United States, Foreign Refinery Exporting Centers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to examine United States and foreign refining capacities. Specifically, the report examines the growth of domestic crude oil distillation and downstream processing capacities. The report also examines the growth of foreign re...

E. L. Peer F. V. Marsik J. F. Hutchins

1980-01-01

490

Solar Aluminum Production by Vacuum Carbothermal Reduction of Alumina—Thermodynamic and Experimental Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate the possibility of significantly lowering the onset temperature of aluminum\\u000a vapor formation via carbothermal reduction of Al2O3 by decreasing the total pressure, enabling its vacuum distillation while bypassing the formation of undesired by-products\\u000a Al2O, Al4C3, and Al-oxycarbides. Furthermore, the use of concentrated solar energy as the source of high-temperature process heat offers\\u000a considerable energy savings and

M. Kruesi; M. E. Galvez; M. Halmann; A. Steinfeld

2011-01-01

491

Contamination analysis unit  

DOEpatents

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

1996-05-28

492

Contamination analysis unit  

DOEpatents

The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

493

Reduce costs with vacuum excavation  

SciTech Connect

Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

Vitale, S.A.

1983-09-01

494

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

SciTech Connect

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15

495

A modified model of computational mass transfer for distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational mass transfer (CMT) model is composed of the basic differential mass transfer equation, closing with auxiliary equations, and the appropriate accompanying CFD formulation. In the present modified CMT model, the closing auxiliary equations c2¯–?c [Liu, B.T., 2003. Study of a new mass transfer model of CFD and its application on distillation tray. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China;

Z. M. Sun; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

2007-01-01