Sample records for vacuum distillation unit

  1. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  2. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  3. Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giane R. Stuart; Daíse Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

  4. Experience with distillation unit computer control

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.; Sunell, H.; Latour, P.R.; Paynter, K.K.

    1982-03-01

    In this paper, control improvements, operating experience and operator acceptance are presented for a computer control and optimization project on a 140 Mbpd crude distillation unit. The process description is followed by a presentation of control objectives and functions (atmospheric residue, distillate yields, energy conservation, product quality); operator tasks; results; operators acceptance; system availability and operating experience. 5 refs.

  5. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  6. Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units

    SciTech Connect

    Piehl, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

  7. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  8. Fractional vacuum distillation of herring oil methyl esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Ackman; P. J. Ke; P. M. Jangaard

    1973-01-01

    Methyl esters of a Canadian Atlantic herring oil containing 62% monoethylenic fatty acids were subjected to batch fractional\\u000a distillation under vacuum on a pilot plant scale, to study the feasibility of fractionating fatty acid esters of marine oils\\u000a of low iodine value into monounsaturated fractions with increased commercial value for industrial chemical uses. A total of\\u000a 64 methyl ester fractions

  9. Many-region vacuum entanglement: Distilling a W state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silman, Jonathan; Reznik, Benni

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the correlations between any number of arbitrarily far-apart regions of the vacuum of the free Klein-Gordon field by means of its finite duration coupling to an equal number of localized detectors. We show that the correlations between any N such regions enable us to distill an N -partite W state, and therefore exhibit true N -fold entanglement. Furthermore, we show that for N=3 , the correlations cannot be reproduced by a hybrid local-nonlocal hidden-variable model. For N?4 the issue remains open.

  10. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  11. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS) was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  12. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  13. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  14. Recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice by vacuum membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rico Bagger-Jørgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the recovery of seven characteristic black currant aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) carried out at low temperatures (10–45 °C) and at varying feed flow rates (100–500 l\\/h) in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. VMD at feed flow from 100 to 500 l\\/h at 30 °C gave concentration factors, calculated for each aroma compound

  15. Development of a process for PCB removal from triaryl phosphate hydraulic fluids by vacuum distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Longanbach, J.R.; Mink, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method of separating PCBs (Aroclor 1242) from a triaryl phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid that yields a fluid suitable for reuse in an aluminum die casting foundry was identified in a laboratory study. Experiments were done to determine the separation efficiency and product qualities resulting from the use of vacuum, steam, and azeotropic distillation, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, filtration, and adsorption techniques. Vacuum distillation was found to remove over 98% of the PCBs with recoveries of fluid, containing less than 50 ppm PCBs, of 90% at 5 mmHg vacuum, and 85% at 30 mmHg vacuum. The PCBs (bp 225-365/sup 0/C) were distilled from the hydraulic fluid (bp>400/sup 0/C). The product met industry standards for acid number and viscosity required for reuse. The data needed to design a 5 gallon/min pilot plant for the vacuum distillation of PCBs from hydraulic fluid in storage at an aluminum die casting foundry were also obtained.

  16. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

  17. Development of a process for PCB removal from triaryl phosphate hydraulic fluids by vacuum distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Longanbach; W. H. Mink

    1983-01-01

    A method of separating PCBs (Aroclor 1242) from a triaryl phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid that yields a fluid suitable for reuse in an aluminum die casting foundry was identified in a laboratory study. Experiments were done to determine the separation efficiency and product qualities resulting from the use of vacuum, steam, and azeotropic distillation, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, filtration,

  18. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GS/MS DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA's vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds. nalysis of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50 ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. na...

  19. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. PMID:20510431

  20. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  1. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for biocrude production: Improving the biocrude properties with vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Eboibi, Blessing Elo-Oghene; Lewis, David Milton; Ashman, Peter John; Chinnasamy, Senthil

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a two-part process for producing biocrude with reduced impurities. The biocrude was produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina sp. and Tetraselmis sp. in a batch reactor at both 300 and 350°C, 5min, and 16%w/w solid feed composition. The resultant biocrudes were vacuum distilled at a maximum temperature of 360°C. It was shown that biocrude quality could be enhanced without using catalyst by vacuum distillation (VD). The biocrude yield for Spirulina sp. was 36wt% at 300°C, 42wt% at 350°C, and for Tetraselmis sp. was 34wt% at 300°C, and 58wt% at 350°C. VD of Spirulina sp. biocrude obtained at 300 and 350°C led to 62 and 67wt% distilled biocrudes yield, respectively. VD of Tetraselmis sp. biocrude obtained at 300°C was 70wt%, and 73wt% at 350°C. The higher heating values (HHV) increased from 32MJ/kg to 40MJ/kg. There were substantial reductions in oxygen, metallic content, and boiling point ranges in distilled biocrudes. PMID:25463802

  2. Application of high vacuum fractional distillation to complex mixtures of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Privett; J. D. Nadenicek; F. J. Pusch; E. C. Nickell

    1969-01-01

    A technique for the high vacuum fractional distillation, with a spinning band column, of methyl esters of polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids employing a carrier of long chain acetates is described. The carrier is used to facilitate the fractionation of\\u000a minor components and minimize artifact formation in mixtures of methyl esters containing up to six double bonds. The technique\\u000a is demonstrated on

  3. Layer modeling of zinc removal from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yujie; Li, Xingang; Ding, Hui

    2015-08-01

    A layer model was established to elucidate the mechanism of zinc removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation. The removal process was optimized by response surface methodology, and the optimum operating conditions were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 923K, heating time of 60.0min, particle size of 70 mesh (0.212mm) and initial mass of 5.25g. Evaporation efficiency of zinc, the response variable, was 99.79%, which indicates that the zinc can be efficiently removed. Based on the experimental results, a mathematical model, which bears on layer structure, evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, interprets the mechanism of the variable effects. Especially, in order to reveal blocking effect on the zinc removal, the Blake-Kozeny-Burke-Plummer equation was introduced into the mass transfer process. The layer model can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. PMID:25957936

  4. Modeling and analysis of vacuum membrane distillation for the recovery of volatile aroma compounds from black currant juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Soni; J. Abildskov; G. Jonsson; R. Gani

    2008-01-01

    A vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) model has been developed and validated with experimental data. The model consists of an extended transport model for the VMD process and is able to predict the effects of concentration and temperature polarization on the overall process performance. To validate the model, first it was tested with few experimental case studies from literature [S. Bandini,

  5. VACUUM DISTILLATION CONCENTRATOR (VDC) IN COMBINATION WITH GC/MS TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Region 5 Central Regional Laboratory, Region 6 and Region 10 are presently involved in a Superfund interlaboratory study with ORD/NERL-Las Vegas, NV evaluating U.S. EPA SW 846 Method 8261. This method utilizes a new commercially available vacuum distillation concent...

  6. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic coastal plain: Technical feasibility of use of eastern geothermal energy in vacuum distillation of ethanol fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrmacher, J. C.

    1981-04-01

    The application of modest temperature geothermal water in combination with a vacuum system for the distillation of fuel grade ethanol is analyzed. The case analyzed was for geothermal water temperatures typical of what might be found on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, i.e., 150 F, and a vacuum of 130 mm Hg, i.e., currently in use in a farm scale vacuum distillation system in Ohio.

  7. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  8. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    to such an extent that new methods are required to achieve this vacuum. One such method of reducing steam use is a hybrid system composed of both steam ejectors and electric driven vacuum pumps. This paper describes the conversion of the vacuum system on the 140...

  9. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology: Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rico Bagger-Jørgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Manuel Pinelo; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L\\/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3\\/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds

  10. Expert system of a crude oil distillation unit for process optimization using neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leo Chau-kuang Liau; Thomas Chung-Kuang Yang; Ming-te Tsai

    2004-01-01

    An expert system of crude oil distillation unit (CDU) was developed to carry out the process optimization on maximizing oil production rate under the required oil product qualities. The expert system was established using the expertise of a practical CDU operating system provided by a group of experienced engineers. The input operating variables of the CDU system were properties of

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled with under vacuum distillation of flavour compounds from spearmint (carvone-rich) plants: Comparison with conventional hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborha

    2009-08-01

    Ultrasonically assisted extraction of flavour compounds from different varieties of Mentha spicata, using 70% ethanol, have been carried out for 5, 10 and 15min and coupled with under vacuum distillation. The ultrasound distilled extracts have been analysed by GC-MS and compared with essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The results have showed that ultrasonically assisted extraction in combination with under vacuum distillation have provided extracts with higher flavouring strength due to the increased concentration of desirable oxygenated compounds (from 5 to 8 times) compared with hydrodistillation. Extraction yields of flavour volatiles have been calculated giving a range 0.04-0.13% by ultrasound and 0.01-0.02% by hydrodistillation. PMID:19406680

  12. A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-06-18

    Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production. PMID:23663035

  13. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  14. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse

    E-print Network

    Steinmeyer, D.

    ? Is the purity necessary? If steam is used as a way to drop partial pressure, why can't straight vacuum be used? If the distillation is batch, why? Would lowering column pressure ease the separation? (Often the impact on Y, in Eqn. 1, is very helpfu... DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium...

  15. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  16. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  17. Evaluating and improving environmental performance of HC's recovery system: A case study of distillation unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naveed Ramzan; Sven Degenkolbe; Werner Witt

    2008-01-01

    Waste solvents\\/valuable products in the effluent stream are one of the major environmental problems in the chemical industry if not properly controlled. Separation processes are vital for the recovery of waste solvent\\/valuable product from the effluent stream to reduce the pollution along with improvement in economic performance. Among the various separation processes, distillation is most widely used. A number of

  18. Energy efficient distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, J.D.

    1982-08-17

    An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

  19. Comparison of Essential Oils Compositions of Citrus maxima Merr. Peel Obtained by Cold Press and Vacuum Stream Distillation Methods and of Its Peel and Flower Extract Obtained by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction Method and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Napaporn Thavanapong; Penpun Wetwitayaklung; Juree Charoenteeraboon

    2010-01-01

    The oils and extracts of the fruit peels of pomelo (Citrus maxima Merr. cultivar ‘khao-yai’) were obtained by cold-pressing (CP), vacuum steam distillation (VSD) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) and the extract of the flowers was obtained by SC-CO2. The composition of the oils and extracts of the peel and flower were determined by GC and GC\\/MS. Fifty, 53

  20. Optical cell with a temperature-control unit for a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Sakai, Kenichi; Matsushima, Yosuke; Fukuyama, Takayuki; Gekko, Kunihiko

    2003-01-01

    We constructed an assembled-type MgF2 cell that can function under a high vacuum (10(-4) Pa), and is capable of measuring the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrum in a wavelength region down to 140 nm for aqueous solutions. Its path length can be adjusted by various spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 microm. The temperature-control unit of the cell was also constructed with a Peltier thermoelectric element to keep the temperature of a sample within an accuracy of +/- 1 degrees C in the temperature range from -30 to 70 degrees C. The optical cell and the temperature-control unit were confirmed to have good performance by monitoring the VUVCD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate and myoglobin aqueous solutions. This cell is available not only for VUVCD spectroscopy, but also for vacuum-ultraviolet absorption measurements. PMID:12558036

  1. Solar Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

    \\u000a “Solar distillation” is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

  2. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson

    1997-01-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements\\/approvals by the Washington State

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of the thermal behavior of a newly developed attitude Determination Control Unit in a Vacuum environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cem Omur; A. Bilge Uygur; H. Gurguc Isik; Ilker Tari

    2011-01-01

    Within the framework of satellite programs carried out in Turkish Aerospace Industries, Inc. (TAI), a new Attitude Determination Control Unit (ADCU) has been developed. The present study involves the Thermal Vacuum Cycling Tests (TVCT) performed on the ADCU and the thermal mathematical model developed in order to assess the thermal behavior of the equipment under vacuum environment. For the qualification

  4. Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

    1989-08-22

    This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

  5. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1997-10-27

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air Emissions, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, require that the WDOH approve an NOC application before construction or modification of any emission unit that would release airborne radioactivity. This includes changes in the isotopic makeup of the source term or replacement of emission control equipment, which might contribute to an increase in the offsite dose from a licensed facility. Reduction of radiologically contaminated areas by HEPA vacuums is a current need. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate numerous monthly applications.

  7. Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-02-22

    of the product under vacuum, which make the product healthier than what is currently available. The de-oiling mechanism consists of a centrifuge with a motor attached to the basket shaft, rotating up to 750 rpm (63 g units). The condenser consists of a... (counter- flow) spiral-coil heat exchanger (SHE) connected to a refrigeration system that uses R404a refrigerant. De-oiling for 40 s at 300 and 750 RPM removed up to 67% and 72% of the chip?s surface oil, respectively. At 750 RPM for 10 s, 40 s, and 60...

  8. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

  9. Catalytic Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    is continously removed by distillation as it is formed, thus substantially negating the reverse reaction. Also HeOR can be added directly to the reaction zone at a point where the isobutylene concentration is the lowest which also helps drive... the equilibrium forward toward HTBE formation. The net effect is equivalent to "multiple equilibrium stages" and almost total conversion of isobutylene to HTBE. Another possibili ty is to hold the IB in molar excess of HeOH and react HeOH to near extinction...

  10. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  11. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  12. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  13. Analyzing the contents of residual and plasma-supporting gases inside a vacuum deposition unit chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, A. Ye; Kharlamov, V. A.; Kruchek, S. D.; Cherniatina, A. A.; Khomenko, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a quadruple mass-spectrometer method, which is used to analyze the content of residual gas in a vacuum chamber of the ARM NTM (Automatised Working Area) ion-plasma unit. This unit is used to perfect the magnetron deposition process for coating radio-reflecting surfaces. The intake of pure argon into the chamber revealed up to 0.3 % of impurities in the plasma-supporting gas, including 0.02 % of water and oxygen. A significant presence of hydrocarbon gases is explained by the presence of solvents sorbed in rubber washers, joints of internal equipment, and other components inside the chamber. In order to decrease the level of impurities in the plasmasupporting atmosphere inside the chamber and improve the composition and properties of the coatings, it is necessary to take additional measures to cleanse and degas the surface of the chamber from condensation products and hydrocarbon compounds. To provide a minimal level of impurities in the coated surfaces it is vital to clean and degas the surfaces of the chamber, removing residual moisture and hydrocarbon compounds.

  14. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  15. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  16. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space exploration.

  17. Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System 

    E-print Network

    Pandey, Akhilesh

    2011-02-22

    cavitation of the vacuum pump. The final oil-content was reduced by centrifugal de- oiling of the product under vacuum, which make the product healthier than what is currently available. The de-oiling mechanism consists of a centrifuge with a motor attached...

  18. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 and concomitantly manage humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Experimental results for full-size and sub-scale test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug ow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of ow rates (110-170 SLM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The relationship between swing adsorption cycles for an outlet criterion of 6.0 mm Hg of CO2 partial pressure has been established for each metabolic challenge. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new operational constraints. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space exploration.

  19. Difficult to process? Vacuum it!

    SciTech Connect

    Eckles, A.J. [Atlanta Technology Group, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Recent improvements in vacuum processing have broadened the technology`s use in the chemical process industries, running the gamut from vacuum distillation and evaporation, degassing, freeze drying, vapor deposition and etching, to vacuum filtrations. The paper discusses process improvements, attaining liquid distribution, medium-vacuum processing, falling-film evaporators, wiped-film evaporators, short-path evaporators, evaporation and crystallization, filtration, drying, refrigeration, freeze drying, degassing, semiconductor processing, pumps and their selection, and leak testing.

  20. Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval Erika R. Fritsa,b*

    E-print Network

    Csendes, Tibor

    1/25 Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval arithmetic Erika R@inf.u-szeged.hu Abstract Feasibility study on batch extractive distillation is based on analyzing profile maps distillation, feasibility, bifurcation, profile map Introduction Batch extractive distillation (BED) is a unit

  1. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

  2. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  3. Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    Distill, Distill_human Distill: protein structure prediction by Machine Learning C. Mirabello1, G.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has two main components: a set of predictors of protein features based on machine learning" of PDB structures suggested by our fold recognition algorithm. The only difference between Distill

  4. Heat pumps in distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1976-01-01

    The methods used and results obtained in evaluating the economics of substituting heat pumps for conventional distillation process design are presented. From this study it was concluded that: heat pumps have extensive applicability to distillation whenever direct refrigeration or chilled water are required for condensation; heat pumps have limited, but very real ranges of applicability when reboiler temperatures are above

  5. Enzymatic methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Ramamurthi; Prakash R. Bhirud; Alan R. McCurdy

    1991-01-01

    Methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by a nonspecific lipase was investigated. The conversion of fatty\\u000a acids to methyl esters has been optimized by using a statistical design. Up to 96.5% conversion of fatty acids to their methyl\\u000a esters has been achieved without the aid of vacuum or any water-removing agent. The effects of temperature, ratio of the reactants

  6. Advanced control improves MHC-VGO unit operation. [Mild HydroCracking-Vacuum Gas Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, L.; Watson, D. (Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Danzinger, F.; Tuppinger, D.; Schuster, R.; Wilmsen, W. (OMV AG, Schwechat (Germany))

    1995-03-01

    Constraint and multivariable predictive (MPC) controllers were implemented on an FCC preheater (MHC-VGO unit), which runs in mild hydrocracking (MHC) mode. In only a few weeks following commissioning, better control provided an average reduction in steam use of 38%, an average reduction of 22% in DEA use and a 5 to 10% reduction in fuel consumption. OMV's refinery in Schwechat was commissioned in 1960 and is now one of the largest and most complex inland-refineries in Europe with an annual crude oil processing capacity of 10 million metric tons. Every product stream is desulfurized by hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units. As part of a refinery-wide advanced control (ADVC) project which includes 27 units implemented on four process computers and two DCSs, advanced controls were installed on the MHC-VGO unit. The entire project was executed over a period of two and a half years. The paper describes the process, advanced control, the weighted average bed temperature controller, feed maximization control, stripper feed temperature control, stripping steam/feed ratio controller, stripper pressure minimization, H[sub 2]/oil controller, recycle/DEA ratio controller, stripper bottoms level controller, and advanced control benefits.

  7. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  8. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the other slightly bigger to make alignment easier.

  9. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  10. Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane distillation: a new approach to flux enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzahi Y. Cath; V. Dean Adams; Amy E. Childress

    2004-01-01

    New membrane distillation configurations and a new membrane module were investigated to improve water desalination. The performances of three hydrophobic microporous membranes were evaluated under vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a turbulent flow regime and with a feed water temperature of only 40°C. The new configurations provide reduced temperature polarization effects due to better mixing and increased

  11. Efficient distillation beyond qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institute for Mathematical Physics, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogs of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states that are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1)-parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

  12. Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli

    E-print Network

    Mazza, Damiano

    Distilling Abstract Machines Beniamino Accattoli Carnegie Mellon University & Universit`a di rather distills them: some transitions are simulated while others vanish, as they map to a notion of structural congruence. The distillation process unveils that abstract machines in fact implement weak linear

  13. Crude unit corrosion and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarian, A. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Feather, J.; Hull, B.; Stephenson, R.; Strong, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the petroleum refining process, the Crude Unit is the initial stage of distillation of the crude oil into useable fractions, either as end products or feed to downstream units. The major pieces of equipment found on units will vary depending on factors such as the assay of the design crude, the age of the refinery, and other downstream units. The unit discussed in this paper has all of the major pieces of equipment found on crude units including double desalting, a preflash section, an atmospheric section, a vacuum section, and a stabilization section. This paper reviews fundamental corrosion issues concerning the Crude Unit process. It is, in concise form, a description of the process and major equipment found in the Crude Unit; types of corrosion and where they occur; corrosion monitoring and inspection advice; and a list of related references for further reading. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Vacuum desalination for water purification using waste heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Tay; S. C. Low; S. Jeyaseelan

    1996-01-01

    Vacuum desalination is a process by which water is vaporized at a lower temperature when subjected to vacuum pressure. The heat energy requirement for desalination using a distillation process can be brought down by reducing the boiling temperature. The boiling temperature of seawater can be lowered to as low as 400°C by the creation of a vacuum. Using waste heat

  15. Membrane distillation for water desalination: How to chose an appropriate membrane?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Cabassud; David Wirth

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) using hollow-fibre modules for seawater desalination. VMD is an evaporative process using porous and hydrophobic membranes, which physically separate the aqueous liquid feed from the gaseous permeate kept under vacuum. In the case of a salty water, the water passes through the membrane as a vapour without salt and is then condensed

  16. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

    1999-01-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

  17. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  19. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  20. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  1. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  2. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  3. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  4. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study

    E-print Network

    John, P.

    1979-01-01

    percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil...

  5. Experimental and numerical performance of a multi-effect condensation–evaporation solar water distillation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adel M. Abdel Dayem

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of the work is to demonstrate experimentally and numerically the performance of a simple solar distillation unit that is based on the multiple condensation–evaporation cycle. The pilot plant was designed, fabricated, tested and simulated at the solar energy laboratory, Mattarria Faculty of Engineering, Cairo, Egypt. The distillation chamber consists of a humidifier (evaporator) and a dehumidifier (condenser)

  6. Distillation. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  7. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  8. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, ?ahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by ?/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task. PMID:26191854

  9. Distillation control: For productivity and energy conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Skinskey

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of new types of distillation control equipment has necessitated the publication of this second edition. Thermodynamic principles, flow ratios, composition control, and azeotropic distillation are among the topics covered. It includes bibliographies, computer programs suitable for distillation calculations, and a subject index. Contents Distillation fundamentals. Control system structure. Complex processes. Optimization. Appendices. Index.

  10. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  11. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  13. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  14. New Russian distillation installations equipped with horizontal tube sprayed bunches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. V. Kartovsky; V. A. Kopyrin; V. B. Chernozubov; K. V. Glushko

    2001-01-01

    Represented here is information about new Russian designs of the distillation freshening units (DFU) developed by the specialists of SverdNIIchimmash. Given here is a brief review of three versions of DFU furnished with film evaporators with horizontal tube bundles and brief descriptions and specifications. The review is made on the basis of the designs of the freshening complex operating in

  15. Process control interface system for a distillation plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Téllez-anguiano; F. Rivas-cruz; C.-M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-garcía; David Juárez-romero

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because it allows an efficient, flexible, and reliable system. The interface system is presented in an operator-friendly application, which has the capability

  16. FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

  17. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  18. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  19. Multifunction modulic transformable vacuum plating (coating) and strengthening plant (unit) “Ukraine-K-3” (MMTUVNPU Ukraine-K-3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Kostiouk; O. Pylinin; N. Koshlakov; O. Kozinenko; B. Lupkin

    1996-01-01

    The test unit allows: plating from pure metals, nitrides, carbides, carbonitrides, as monolayers and multilayers with thickness 0.5-70 mkm; increase wear-resistance of parts by 2-35 times, and corrosion resistance by 1.2-16 times; maintain or even reduces surface roughness; maintain or increases fatigue strength by 1.3-2 times; receive willing tribo-technical characteristics (anti-friction and friction coating); obtain microhardness of the surface layer

  20. Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    and venting the reject heat to ambient. When efficiency is defined as the ratio of two work terms, more representative efficiencies in the 10 to 45% range are usually obtair.ecJ. Figure 1 is a plot of the ideal separation work for a binary mixture (King..., 1981) and the corresponding separation work required by a simple distillation column at minimum reflux (Benedict, 1947), all as a IDEAL SIMPLE DISTILLATION l.~--------- --J O. 0.8 IDEAL SEPARATION 0.7 : 0.5 ll.-i 0.3 n.:! 0.1 o 0.1 O...

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  2. Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

  3. Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions

    E-print Network

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny...

  4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  5. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates were removed....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

  9. The Desulfurization of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Gasoline by Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shen; Z. Mei; B. Shen; H. Ling

    2011-01-01

    Desulfurization of fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was investigated in a lab scale extractive distillation column. Before the extractive distillation, fluid catalytic cracking gasoline was distillated into light and heavy fractions. Then, the light fraction was desulfurized by extractive distillation using dimethylformamide as the solvent. Factors impacting the desulfurization efficiency of the extractive distillation were studied. Under optimal desulfurization conditions, distillate

  10. Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

  11. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  12. Distillate Market Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

  13. Application of a new EMC test method for space unit qualification in cold operational condition radiated susceptibility tests in thermal vacuum on GAIA payload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Lescoat; P. Pelissou; P. Bisognin; G. Rougier; L. Trougnou

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the advantages of the reverberation chamber (statistically isotropic incident field), this method allows to perform radiated susceptibility tests which are impossible to realize in a typical anechoic chamber. This paper deals with a novel radiated susceptibility test method applied in thermal vacuum chamber to assess the GAIA focal plane assembly immunity in X-band. The TVAC (thermal vacuum

  14. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (? 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (? 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (? 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  15. Stellarator helical vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Yavornik, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

  16. Gaussification and entanglement distillation of continuous-variable systems: a unifying picture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2012-01-13

    Distillation of entanglement using only Gaussian operations is an important primitive in quantum communication, quantum repeater architectures, and distributed quantum computing. Existing distillation protocols for continuous degrees of freedom are only known to converge to a Gaussian state when measurements yield precisely the vacuum outcome. In sharp contrast, non-Gaussian states can be deterministically converted into Gaussian states while preserving their second moments, albeit by usually reducing their degree of entanglement. In this work-based on a novel instance of a noncommutative central limit theorem-we introduce a picture general enough to encompass the known protocols leading to Gaussian states, and new classes of protocols including multipartite distillation. This gives the experimental option of balancing the merits of success probability against entanglement produced. PMID:22324662

  17. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  18. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish [Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 (United Kingdom); Joag, Pramod [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Roy, Anirban [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  19. Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, S; Kar, G; Kunkri, S; Roy, A; Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2004-01-01

    A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  20. Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek Gryta

    2006-01-01

    The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

  1. Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald

    E-print Network

    Jose, Joemon M.

    Key Blog Distillation: Ranking Aggregates Craig Macdonald University of Glasgow Glasgow, Scotland interests to their own. How- ever, a main difference of this blog distillation task from normal adhoc or Web document retrieval is that each blog can be seen as an aggregate of its constituent posts. On the other

  2. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  3. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  4. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section 160.9...General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635 Section...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical...chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  7. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  8. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  9. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  10. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section...STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer...

  12. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-01

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates. PMID:22321168

  13. Shell middle distillate hydrogenation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lucien, J.P. [Companie Rhenane de Raffinage Reichstett, Reichstett Vendenheim (France); Berg, J.P. van den; Hooijdonk, H.M.J.H. van; Thielemans, G.L.B. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Germaine, G. [Shell Recherche SA, Grand-Couronne (France); Gjers, M. [Shell Raffinaderi AB, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The strive towards cleaner environment has lead to low sulfur specifications for middle distillate fuels. In addition compositional specifications are presently debated. Thus, to meet future emissions standards regarding, specifically, particulates emissions, the motor industry calls for improved automotive gasoil quality. Although automotive gasoil quality affects emissions from diesel engines it is considered less influential than engine design and maintenance. Sulfur, density and cetane number are the fuel properties having the greatest influence on diesel engine emissions although also aromatics and endpoint specifications have been defined in environmentally adopted government initiatives. This paper reviews the options which are available to tackle these new requirements. The high severity single stage concept (using conventional mixed sulfides catalysts) will be discussed in its potential to meet more severe product requirements as well as in terms of its limitations, especially at the point of aromatics saturation and cetaine upgrading. Furthermore, it is shown that the option of severe hydrotreating followed by hydrogenation with conventional noble metal catalysts is preferred if deep aromatics saturation is aimed at. However, this conventional two stage concept has limitations with respect to heaviness and sulfur and nitrogen content of feedstocks. The new Shell Middle Distillate Hydrogenation (SMDH) technology, applying a (semi) two stage approach based on the Shell developed hydrogenation catalyst is presented. The SMDH process will be discussed in its potential to break the limitations of the conventional options. The new catalyst is crucial in this process and allows a highly integrated mode of operation. A number of applications of this novel process will be discussed.

  14. Water desalination using membrane distillation: comparison between inside\\/out and outside\\/in permeation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wirth; Corinne Cabassud

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for seawater desalination. The aim of the work was to compare two hollow fibre module configurations (inside\\/out and outside\\/in). Experiments were carried out with pure water and with 15 g\\/L up to 300 g\\/L NaCl solutions and for two different material and structure of fibres. Pure water permeability and global heat transfer

  15. Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

  16. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m{sup 3}/min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years.

  17. Research on vacuum gripper based on fuzzy control for micromanipulators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoliang Chen; Xinhan Huang; Min Wang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a vacuum gripper (as an actuator of an intelligent micromanipuktor) for micro objects (with a diameter\\u000a of 100 ? 300?m) assembly tasks. The gripper is composed of a vacuum unit and a control unit. The vacuum unit with a proportional\\u000a valve and a pressure sensor, and the control unit with a PC+MCU two-layered control architecture are designed.

  18. Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Pilot-scale distillation and characterization of diesel-fuel fractions of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oils. Interim report, December 1985February 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Morris; B. K. Bailey; L. L. Stavinoha; H. N. Giles

    1987-01-01

    Little, beyond crude assay data, has been known about the properties of various fuel fractions, including diesel fuel, that might ensue in the event crude oils available at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve were actually to be refined. Accordingly, eight distinct crude-oil streams were collected from the Reserve and subjected to distillation in a pilot-scale unit. Middle distillate fractions were prepared

  20. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  1. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  2. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high...

  3. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux...

  4. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes

    E-print Network

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

  5. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  6. Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bessling; G. Schembecker; K. H. Simmrock

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of

  7. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  8. Influence of chemical composition of vacuum gasoil cuts on pyrolysis results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. I. Vasil'eva; Yu. M. Zhorov; G. S. Volokhova

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the pyrolysis of gasoil cuts differing in distillation range and chemical composition in a flow unit at 500°C with a contact time of 0.25 sec and with steam dilution. The results indicate that the pyrolysis of feeds with the same distillation range, under identical conditions, is influenced by the chemical composition, not the distillation range, of

  9. Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

  10. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...registered with TTB under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5171. All distilled spirits produced in the United States are subject to the tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5001. (26 U.S.C. 5001, 5601, and 5602) Rules for Location and Use of a...

  11. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...registered with TTB under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5171. All distilled spirits produced in the United States are subject to the tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5001. (26 U.S.C. 5001, 5601, and 5602) Rules for Location and Use of a...

  12. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...registered with TTB under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5171. All distilled spirits produced in the United States are subject to the tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5001. (26 U.S.C. 5001, 5601, and 5602) Rules for Location and Use of a...

  13. 27 CFR 19.51 - Home production of distilled spirits prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...registered with TTB under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 5171. All distilled spirits produced in the United States are subject to the tax imposed by 26 U.S.C. 5001. (26 U.S.C. 5001, 5601, and 5602) Rules for Location and Use of a...

  14. An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukesh, Doble

    2001-02-01

    Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of this analogy.

  15. Effect of feeding distiller’s grains on reduced sulfur emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odorous reduced sulfur compounds are produced during manure decomposition and emitted from confined animal feeding operations. Feeding high-sulfur distiller’s byproducts may increase the emission of these compounds. The objectives of a series of feedlot pen studies was to (i) determine if emission...

  16. Limits and Consequences of Nonlocality Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Jibran

    Only in the last few decades have we realized how to view quantum nonlocal correlations as possible information theoretic resources rather than as apparent paradoxes. Unfortunately, the past perspective in terms of paradoxes still persists in our considerations of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) that offer stronger than quantum nonlocal correlations. We argue that a more pragmatic approach is to consider the physical framework under which such correlations may be realized. Our consideration immediately yields fruit by allowing us to identify limitations of the NLB model and develop the generalized notion of a quantum nonlocal box ( qNLB). We analyze the NLB and qNLB models within the framework of nonlocality distillation protocols. The ability to concentrate the correlations of many identical noisy copies of a nonlocal correlation source is known as nonlocality distillation. The idea is still in its early stages of development and and we pursue it in this thesis. We develop multiple new nonlocality distillation protocols and prove the optimality of non-adaptive distillation protocols for both NLBs and qNLBs. We show that qNLBs offer stronger non-adaptive distillation protocols than NLBs. At the same time, the understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal adaptive protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB. Through our investigation of nonlocality distillation protocols we conclude that the qNLB model is a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs. As a first step towards the re-examination of such principles, we provide numerical evidence that the distillability of nonlocal correlations depends on properties that are local. We claim that the differing strength of distillation protocols for NLBs and qNLBs can be interpreted as a separation between classical and quantum predictions at the macroscopic level. This implies that there exist quantum correlations that can be observed in principle, at the macroscopic level or that the principle of macroscopic locality identifies exactly the set of quantum correlations.

  17. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  18. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE 

    E-print Network

    Woinsky, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    revolutionary changes rather than sm(lll evolutionary changes in the way distillation is practiced in the US chemical industry, and olller U.S industries that lise distillation. sllch as petroleum refining. All approach called Heal Integrated Distributed.../Yr Petroleum Fuel Fractions 0.493 0,082 Crude Oil 0.423 Water -lnoHmnics 0,057 Liauefied Petroleum Gas 0,217 Air 0,017 Oletins 0.118 Water - HCs 0,007 Miscellaneous Hydrocarbons (HCs) 0.101 Other 0,302 Water - Oxygenated HCs 0.100 Total Reboiler Ener!!v 1...

  19. Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation

    E-print Network

    Williamson, Shelly Ann

    2000-01-01

    on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize...

  20. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...incorporates plain language principles in order to improve the clarity...General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal...internal revenue or customs taxation of spirits, wines...This subpart covers the taxation of distilled spirits and...

  1. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Hill, J.H.

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1065.703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing must be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation. (b) There are three grades of #2 diesel fuel specified for use as...

  6. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-print Network

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non...

  7. Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

    1979-01-01

    A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

  8. Computational performance of aggregated distillation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Linhart; Sigurd Skogestad

    2009-01-01

    Compartmental and aggregated modeling is used to derive low-order (reduced) dynamic models from detailed models of staged processes. In this study, the aggregated modeling method of (Lévine, J., & Rou- chon, P. (1991). Quality control of binary distillation columns via nonlinear aggregated models. Automatica, 27, 463) is revised with the objective of deriving computationally efficient models for real-time control and

  9. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

  10. STEAM DISTILLATION OF POLONIUM COMPOUND WITH DIPHENYLCARBAZIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuchi

    1963-01-01

    Trace amounts of polonium can readily be steam distilled from 0.1 to 0.5 ; N nitric acid as the diphenylcarbazide complex. Chloride ion lowers the ; efficiency of the process. The separation is suitable for isoiating Po from ; radium-D-E-F mixtures. (auth);

  11. azeotropic batch distillation with heterogeneous en trainers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rodriguez-Donis; J. Acosta-Esquijarosa; V. Gerbaud; E. Pardillo-Fondevila

    In this article, a systematic study of the separati on of the n-hexane - ethyl acetate mixture with an entrainer by heterogeneous azeotropic batch distillation is performed. Based upon the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary mixtures, potential entrainers partially miscible with one or two original azeotropic compon ents are chosen. In all cases, the entrainer adds a heterogeneous binary or

  12. Feasibility study of heterogeneous batch extractive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes; Endre Rév; Zsolt Fonyó; Xavier Joulia

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility of batch hetero geneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer.Whether the process is

  13. Feasibility Study of Heterogeneous Batch Extractive Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodríguez-Donis; Viktória Varga; Vincent Gerbaud; Zoltán Lelkes

    Feasibility of batch heterogeneous extractive distillation is studied in the case where the heterogeneous azeotrope formed with the entrainer is not the most volatile point in the system. The composition profile maps based feasibility methodology is extended to this case, and demonstrated on the test problem of separating water from acetonitrile with butyl acetate as entrainer. Whether the process is

  14. PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

  15. Membrane-distillation desalination: Status and potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Alklaibi; Noam Lior

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of membrane distillation (MD) based on the available state of the art and on ourpreliminary analysis. The process has many desirable properties such as low energy consumption, ability to use low temperature heat, compactness, and perceivably more immunity to fouling than other membrane processes. Within the tested range, the operating parameters of conventional MD configurations

  16. Desalination by Membrane Distillation: A Parametric Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzi A. Banat; Jana Simandl

    1998-01-01

    Membrane distillation was investigated as a possible technique for desalination. An air-gap module with built-in Condensing surface was used for conducting experiments on polyvinylidene fluoride flat membrane sheets. The feed stream tested was artificial seawater. The quality of the permeate, quantified by conductivity measurements, and the permeate flux were monitored as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, cooling temperature, and

  17. Seawater desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Hsu; K. T. Cheng; J. S. Chiou

    2002-01-01

    Membrane fouling still posts as one of the major obstacles in membrane distillation (MD). This is why the MD approach still cannot successfully compete with other conventional seawater desalination methods. In this study, both the NaCl solution and real seawater are used as the feed of MD processes to investigate the differences in permeate flux, product water quality and membrane

  18. Abstracts -1 Distill for CASP11

    E-print Network

    Pollastri, Gianluca

    that everything in our pipeline (except BLAST and the software to blow C traces into full-atom models) is in house in the first stage. Methods Distill runs 3 rounds of PSI-BLAST against a 90% redundancy reduced Uni category. Inputs for map prediction are: the sequence; MSA; PSI-BLAST, SAMD and SAMD templates. That is

  19. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karan H. Mistry; Mohamed A. Antar; John H. Lienhard V

    2012-01-01

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple to implement, and suitable for use in optimization of water and power cogeneration systems. The MED system is modeled in a modular method in which each of the

  20. Multieffect distillation plants: state of the art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Al-Shammiri; M. Safar

    1999-01-01

    The multi-effect distillation (MED) process is the oldest process in desalination. References and patents have existed since 1840, more than 150 years ago. Vertical tubes, horizontal tubes and different types of submerged tubes have been commercialized and were used until 1960 when multi-stage flash (MSF) dominated the desalination market. MSF plants are presently the most widely used and are considered

  1. Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus

    E-print Network

    Knezevich, Milan

    1940-01-01

    , Calibration Data of Orifioe ~, i, . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 13 III. Equilibrium Data of Ethanol-Eater Mixtures . ~ * ~ ~ , 17 IV, . Flash Vaporieation Data of Ethanol Hater hIlxtures& + , 18 VI ~ Hempel Distillation of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . . . Flash... Vaporiration of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . ~ 21 22 VII' Hempel Distillations of Flash Distillates of Oklahoma City Crude . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 VIII+ Hompel Distillations of Flash Residuums of Oklahoma City Crude ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ o...

  2. Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

  3. Inhomogeneous vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wands, David; De-Santiago, Josue; Wang, Yuting

    2012-07-01

    Vacuum energy remains the simplest model of dark energy which could drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe without necessarily introducing any new degrees of freedom. Inhomogeneous vacuum energy is necessarily interacting in general relativity. Although the 4-velocity of vacuum energy is undefined, an interacting vacuum has an energy transfer and the vacuum energy defines a particular foliation of spacetime. In particular we will discuss cosmological solutions where the background vacuum energy is spatially homogeneous. It is possible to give a consistent description of vacuum dynamics and in particular the relativistic equations of motion for spatially inhomogeneous perturbations given a covariant prescription for the vacuum energy, or equivalently the energy transfer 4-vector, and we construct gauge-invariant vacuum perturbations. We show that any dark energy cosmology can be decomposed into an interacting vacuum+matter cosmology whose inhomogeneous perturbations obey simple first-order equations.

  4. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-print Network

    Taber, Douglass

    to measure the volume of distillate, set up test tubes in a test tube rack. Record the vapor temperature when the distillation pot to dryness. Seal the vials tightly to prevent evaporation before you run your GC's. #12;Dispose of your three fractions and the residue from your distillation pot in the appropriate waste

  5. Engineering-scale distillation of cadmium for actinide recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Westphal; J. C. Price; D. Vaden; R. W. Benedict

    2007-01-01

    During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate

  6. Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data Michael Schmidt1 and Hod Lipson2 precise and powerful, but automated processes for distilling this data into knowledge in the form relations, thus helping distill data into scientific knowledge. Symbolic regression (10) is an established

  7. 27 CFR 28.280 - Distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits and wines. 28.280 Section 28.280 Alcohol...Aircraft § 28.280 Distilled spirits and wines. When an airline desires to withdraw distilled spirits or wines from its stock being held at...

  8. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  9. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  10. Time-sharing switch for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Switching unit changes power and cooling-water connections between two vacuum-brazing machines. It allows both units to be powered by single radio-frequency (RF) generator. One machine can be used for brazing while bell jar of other is being evacuated (20 minute process) in preparation for brazing or is being cooled after brazing (10 minute process).

  11. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  12. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  13. Ammonia removal from coal dry distillation wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guanghua Wang; Fanjie Gong; Wenbing Li; Yunzhou Lu; Mingdong Sun; Tiejun Liu; Yuhe Liang; Xiaoyuan Li; Zengqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    the article used coke oven gas as desorption agent, pilot-scale packed tower as desorption equipment, removed ammonia from wastewater produced by coal dry distillation process. Gas stripping method is a new technology for ammonia removal. Through experiments conducted in the coking plant, when the temperature of wastewater T=85°C, pH=1l.5, the ratio of liquid and gas volume n=550:1 and the addition

  14. Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    component rather than the mixture bubble point (assumed with the 'integral' assumption) (Figure 2). ITvapoUT I [./"-------' Where separation occurs, part of the bundle is 'submerged' in condensate. This 'subennergence' can give rise to significant... should be given a downward incline of 3-SO. Intermediate Condensers The extraction of heat from an intermediate point in a distillation column as heat source for a heat pump or for use in an integration scheme can result in significant energy...

  15. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes 

    E-print Network

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    on of ~ seven-stage horizontally split centrifugal compressor manufactured by General Electric Company*. Pressure ratios greater than 10:1 ar~ possible with this design. Each compression stage of the mUltistag~ centri fugal compressor consi sts of a shaft.... Figure 4 shows the distillation column employing multi stage vapor recompression. The centrifugal compressor is a five stage General Electric Company design employing a horizontally split casing. Compression of the 163,000 lb/hr inlet from 18 psia...

  16. O.H. Module Vacuum Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    McGivern, Paul; /Fermilab

    1987-12-31

    In order to move the 800 lb. copper plates that make up the O.H. modules a vacuum lifting device has been made that will lift the plates safely. The purpose of this report is to provide documentation for the structural integrity of the system and to make sure that it passes all of the safety requirements that have been established for a system of this nature. The vacuum system is composed of a PIAB model M125 vacuum pump that has the pumping capacity of 27 in. Hg. This pump will produce vacuum for three 8 1/2 in. diameter suction cups or pads. A pressure gauge is fixed on the unit to allow the operator to continually monitor the pressure during all lifts. An additional safety feature is a mechanical vacuum monitoring device that is set to emit a shrill tone if the system vacuum falls below 24 in. Hg. A 'bleed' valve fixed on the unit will be used to let the system go to atmospheric pressure once the lift is complete. A 3 psi. check valve and a vacuum reserve of 384 in. is used to insure that the device will not just drop the object if the pump fails. A schematic for the pumping system is given in Figure 1.

  17. Educational Vacuum Trainers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hansen, Steve

    Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

  18. Heavy wax distillate as a raw material for the production of solid hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Gundyrev, R.A.; Fokina, T.V.; Garun, Y.E.; Kazakova, L.P.; Sochevko, T.I.

    1984-07-01

    This article discusses the feasibility of recovering solid hydrocarbons from a heavy wax distillate in order to expand the raw material base for the production of high-melting waxes. The examined distillate has a melting point of 45/sup 0/C, a wax content of 34% by weight, a viscosity (at 100/sup 0/C) of 8.2 mm/sup 2//sec, a molecular weight of 345, a content of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons of 59.1% by weight, contents of aromatic hydrocarbons (light, medium and heavy) of 8.9%, 5.1%, and 20.4% by weight, respectively, and a content of hydrocarbons forming and not forming urea adducts of 21.8% and 78.2%, respectively. The heavy wax distillate was filtered in a Bogdanov laboratory unit containing a filter press consisting of a crystallizer and a slack wax chamber. The filtration residue from the crystallizer beaker and the slack wax cake from the wax chamber are collected in a preweighed container. It is concluded that the heavy wax distillate can be successfully dewaxed for wax production if it is modified by dilution with a filtrate and the incorporation of a structure modifier.

  19. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  20. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  1. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  2. Characterization of Chemical and Physical Properties of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDSG) for Value Added Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the fastest growing industries in the United States is the fuel ethanol industry. Since 2000 there has been an increase of more than 300%. There was production of 4.9 billion gallons of ethanol in the year 2006. The major coproducts from this industry include Distillers Dried Grains with Solu...

  3. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  4. Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

  5. Heating steels in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, E.N.

    1983-03-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

  6. Vacuum Head Checks Foam/Substrate Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, James F.

    1989-01-01

    Electromechanical inspection system quickly gives measurements indicating adhesion, or lack thereof, between rigid polyurethane foam and aluminum substrate. Does not damage inspected article, easy to operate, and used to perform "go/no-go" evaluations or as supplement to conventional destructive pull-plug testing. Applies vacuum to small area of foam panel and measures distance through which foam pulled into vacuum. Probe head applied to specimen and evacuated through hose to controller/monitor unit. Digital voltmeter in unit reads deflection of LVDT probe head.

  7. Distillation of cadmium from uranium–plutonium–cadmium alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuya Kato; Masatoshi Iizuka; Tadashi Inoue; Takashi Iwai; Yasuo Arai

    2005-01-01

    Uranium–plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U–Pu–Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9wt% U and 8.7wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser

  8. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  9. Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part II. Heuristic optimization. [Industrial distillation trains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Tedder; D. F. Rudd

    1978-01-01

    The venture cost of operating a single distillation tower is examined as a function of the overhead operating pressure, the feed fractional vaporization, and the vapor to minimum vapor rate ratio. One variable is changed parametrically, while the two remaining are fixed at their optimal values. The percentage increase in cost above the minimum is shown. The relative significance of

  10. Kinetics of distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe juniper ( Juniperus communis L.) berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetomir Ž. Milojevi?; Tamara D. Stojanovi?; Radosav Pali?; Miodrag L. Lazi?; Vlada B. Veljkovi?

    2008-01-01

    The distillation of essential oil from comminuted ripe berries of Juniperus communis L. (juniper oil) was studied at different hydrodistillation rates. The distillation of juniper consisted of an initial, fast oil distillation followed by a slow oil distillation. Based on this mechanism, the kinetics of juniper oil distillation were described using a two-parameter model of unsteady-state diffusion through the plant

  11. Concentration and Drying of Tea Polyphenols Extracted from Green Tea Using Molecular Distillation and Spray Drying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Qiang Tang; Di-Cai Li; Yang-Xiao Lv; Jian-Guo Jiang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of combining molecular distillation and spray drying to concentrate and dry tea polyphenols extracts. Molecular distillation and spray drying of tea phenols extracts were performed using an orthogonal array design. The order of importance that influenced molecular distillation was distillation temperature > flux > rotational speed. The optimal conditions for concentration by molecular distillation

  12. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20?W at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  13. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  14. Heating steels in vacuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marmer

    1983-01-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires

  15. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  16. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  17. Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    : A solvent with HA Boiling point with water Heptane or Hexane Low vapor pressure viscosifying oil Distillation setup/ process -Found the Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Boiling points for Water% Solvent Initial Size(µm) Size after one hour(µm) Boiling point Range (°C) 25% PB320 Span 80 75% hex. 28

  18. Homogeneous azeotropic pressure swing distillation: Continuous and batch process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein

    2005-01-01

    The separation of a binary homogeneous azeotropic mixture using pressure swing distillation will be analysed on the example of acetonitrile\\/water. Two different processes are considered: the continuous heat- and mass-integrated process and the inverted batch process. For both processes a model is developed and experimental data are given. In the paper the potential of the pressure swing distillation for the

  19. Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

    1996-01-01

    In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

  20. Catalytic oxidation of mercaptan in sour petroleum distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, R.R.

    1981-04-07

    A process for treating a mercaptan-containing sour petroleum distillate is disclosed. The process comprises contacting said distillate with a supported mercaptan oxidation catalyst at oxidation conditions, said catalyst comprising a metal chelate and a quaternary ammonium hydroxide disposed on an adsorbent support.

  1. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  2. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  3. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  5. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

  6. Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

  7. Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Setiyo Gunawan

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

  8. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil­ lation extracts nearly­perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical­ nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  9. Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols with Incomplete Information

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    Towards the Classical Communication Complexity of Entanglement Distillation Protocols. Entanglement distil- lation extracts nearly-perfect entanglement from imperfect entangled state. The classical- nication complexity of entanglement distillation protocols for this model. Our result also suggests

  10. 77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional...TTB proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits...

  11. 27 CFR 28.281 - Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. 28.281 Section 28.281 Alcohol...Certificate of use for distilled spirits and wines. When all of the distilled spirits or wines represented by a single...

  12. 27 CFR 28.28 - Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded...Bonded Warehouses § 28.28 Withdrawal of wine and distilled spirits from customs bonded warehouses. Wine and bottled distilled spirits...

  13. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  14. 27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits § 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

  15. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  16. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  17. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  18. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  19. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...potassium and sodium salts of benzoic acid To prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling material...favorable yeast development in distilling material; to prevent fermentation of the sugar in wine being accumulated as distilling...

  20. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  1. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions ...Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes....

  2. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  3. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. This part, “Importation of...

  4. Chapter 13. The Vacuum System

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    to the exact radius for a 28 degree arc. A short aluminum bellows adapter is placed between each vacuum chamberChapter 13. The Vacuum System Revised February 1994 13.1. The Vacuum Chambers A plan view of the assembled vacuum chamber ring is shown in Fig. 13.1.1. The vacuum chamber ring includes twelve 28 degree

  5. Photon acceleration in vacuum

    E-print Network

    J. T. Mendonca; M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin

    2006-08-16

    A new process associated with the nonlinear optical properties of the electromagnetic vacuum, as predicted by quantum electrodynamics, is described. This can be called photon acceleration in vacuum, and corresponds to the frequency shift that takes place when a given test photon interacts with an intense beam of background radiation.

  6. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1983-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews anode phenomena in vacuum arcs, specially experimental work. It discusses, in succession, arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurements, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomena. The two most common anode modes in a vacuum arc are a low current mode where

  7. A Comparison of Vacuum and Steam Distillation for Determining the Volatile Acidity of Evaporated Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Miller; P. L. Zimmerman; E. B. Oberg

    1948-01-01

    The acidity and changes in acidity of milk are known to be of importance in milk processing and storage. Many workers have shown that heat causes the formation of acids in milk. As early as 1895 Cazeneuve and Haddon (2) reported that the acid formed by heating was mainly formic acid. This view is in accordance with the recent work

  8. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

  9. Solar membrane distillation: desalination for the Navajo Nation.

    PubMed

    Karanikola, Vasiliki; Corral, Andrea F; Mette, Patrick; Jiang, Hua; Arnoldand, Robert G; Ela, Wendell P

    2014-01-01

    Provision of clean water is among the most serious, long-term challenges in the world. To an ever increasing degree, sustainable water supply depends on the utilization of water of impaired initial quality. This is particularly true in developing nations and in water-stressed areas such as the American Southwest. One clear example is the Navajo Nation. The reservation covers 27,000 square miles, mainly in northeastern Arizona. Low population density coupled with water scarcity and impairment makes provision of clean water particularly challenging. The Navajos rely primarily on ground water, which is often present in deep aquifers or of brackish quality. Commonly, reverse osmosis (RO) is chosen to desalinate brackish ground water, since RO costs are competitive with those of thermal desalination, even for seawater applications. However, both conventional thermal distillation and RO are energy intensive, complex processes that discourage decentralized or rural implementation. In addition, both technologies demand technical experience for operation and maintenance, and are susceptible to scaling and fouling unless extensive feed pretreatment is employed. Membrane distillation (MD), driven by vapor pressure gradients, can potentially overcome many of these drawbacks. MD can operate using low-grade, sub-boiling sources of heat and does not require extensive operational experience. This presentation discusses a project on the Navajo Nation, Arizona (Native American tribal lands) that is designed to investigate and deploy an autonomous (off-grid) system to pump and treat brackish groundwater using solar energy. ?ench-scale, hollow fiber MD experiment results showed permeate water fluxes from 21 L/m2·d can be achieved with transmembrane temperature differences between 40 and 80?C. Tests run with various feed salt concentrations indicate that the permeate flux decreases only about 25% as the concentration increases from 0 to 14% (w/w), which is four times seawater salt concentration. The quality of the permeate water remains constant at about 1 mg/L regardless of the changes in the influent salt concentration. A nine-month MD field trial, using hollow fiber membranes and completely off-the-shelf components demonstrated that a scaled-up solar-driven MD system was practical and economically viable. Based on these results, a pilot scale unit will be constructed and deployed on the tribal lands. PMID:24552961

  10. Aromatically enhanced pear distillates from blanquilla and conference varieties using a packed column.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Garay, Yanine; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López-Vázquez, Cristina; Orriols, Ignacio; López, Francisco

    2013-05-22

    Pear distillates are generally produced from the Bartlett variety because of its rich aroma. In this study, a chemical and sensorial comparative examination of pear distillates from the three main varieties grown in Spain (Bartlett, Blanquilla, and Conference) using two distillation systems (copper Charentais alembic and packed column) was undertaken. Volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography to differentiate the spirits according to pear variety and distillation method. The Bartlett distillates from both distillation systems possessed higher ethyl ester and acetate and lower cis-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-hexanol concentrations. Despite these differences, a sensory analysis panel could distinguish only the Bartlett alembic distillate from the alembic distillates of the other varieties. In contrast, the panel rated the packed-column distillates equally. Therefore, less aromatic pear varieties can be used to produce distillates with aromatic characteristics similar to those of the Bartlett variety if a suitable distillation process is used. PMID:23531091

  11. The quantum vacuum

    E-print Network

    G. S. Paraoanu

    2014-12-12

    The vacuum is the lowest energy state of a field in a certain region of space. This definition implies that no particles can be present in the vacuum state. In classical physics, the only features of vacuum are those of its geometry. For example, in the general theory of relativity the geometry is a dynamical structure that guides the motion of matter, and, in turn, it is bent and curved by the presence of matter. Other than this, the classical vacuum is a structure void of any physical properties, since classically properties are strictly associated with physical objects such as particles and finite-amplitude fields. The situation is very different in quantum physics. As I will show in this paper, the difference stems from the fact that in quantum physics the properties are not strictly tied to objects. We know for example that physical properties come into existence - as values of observables - only when the object is measured. Thus, quantum physics allows us to detach properties from objects. This has consequences: one does not need pre-existing real objects to create actual properties, and indeed under certain perturbations the quantum vacuum produces observable effects such as energy shifts and creation of particles. An open question is if by necessity the vacuum comes with an embedded geometry, and if it is possible to construct viable physical theories in which geometry is detached from the vacuum.

  12. Combined electron beam and vacuum ARC melting for barrier tube shell material

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a process of the type wherein zirconium tetrachloride is reduced to produce a metallic zirconium sponge. The sponge is distilled to generally remove residual magnesium and magnesium chloride, and the distilled sponge is melted to produce an ingot, the improvement for making a non-crystal bar material for use in lining the interior of zirconium alloy fuel element cladding which comprises: a. forming the distilled sponge into a consumable electrode; b. melting the consumable electrode in a multiple swept beam electron furnace with a feed rate between 1 and 20 inches per hour to form an intermediate ingot; and c. vacuum arc melting the intermediate ingot to produce a homogeneous final ingot, having 50-500 ppm iron.

  13. Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion J. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

  14. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    PubMed

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization. PMID:16190250

  15. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    E-print Network

    Wei Song; Lin Chen; Shi-Liang Zhu

    2009-08-01

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into non-distillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise, so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  16. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  17. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  18. Evading death by vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

    2013-03-15

    In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

  19. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. (eds.) (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  20. Supermite vacuum interface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, W. B.; Stinnett, R. W.; McDaniel, D. H.

    A new water plastic vacuum interface has been designed for Sandia Laboratory's Supermite (2.8 MV, 2.2 ohm) accelerator. This design was based on the PBFA I vacuum interface. Electrostatic field plots show that in positive polarity the water feed to the PBFA I interface will fail at 2 MV on Supermite. This is confirmed by positive polarity experiments and field plots using the PBFA I style vacuum interface at the Naval Research Labs. Modifications to the water section geometry to increase the water breakdown strength in positive polarity result in equivalent electric field grading at the plastic vacuum interface but allow positive polarity operation at voltages up to 3.1 MV. This is accomplished by incorporating a dielectric field shaper which significantly improves the electric field grading across the insulator.

  1. III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Gas transfer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kai

    : Oil Diffusion PumpB. High Vacuum: Oil Diffusion Pump (Wet, Gas Transfer)(Wet, Gas Transfer, Screw High vacuum Oil diffusion, Turbomolecular, Cryo, Ion Auxiliary Titanium Sublimation, LN2 Liu, UCDIII. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Mechanism Gas transfer Gas capture FunctionFunction Roughing

  2. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect

    Klemola, K.T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Ilme, J.K. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Neste Engineering] [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland). Neste Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  3. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  4. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal ...

  5. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns 

    E-print Network

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns Ketan Samant, Aspen Technology Ian Sinclair, Aspen Technology Ginger Keady, Aspen Technology This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a...

  6. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings

    E-print Network

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

  7. Entanglement distillation by means of k-extendible maps

    E-print Network

    Pankowski, L; Horodecki, M; Smith, G

    2011-01-01

    It is known that from entangled states which have positve partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled state by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing problem is whether all states with non-positive partial transpose can be distilled. In this paper we attack this question using a larger class of operations than LOCC operations. Namely, we consider k-extendible operations - those, whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We obtain, in particular, that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. capable of distilling even completely product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which imply, that if we raise the extension index k in parallel with raising the numebr of copies, they are not that powerful anymore.

  8. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression

    E-print Network

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    consumed by the chemical and petro chemical industries is used in separation pro cesses. (1) Distillation is one process area where large energy reductions often can be achieved. (2) Numerous studies have identified a number of al ternatives...

  9. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation

    E-print Network

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

  10. Process for the preparation of hydrocarbon oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dongen, R. H.; Stork, W. H. J.

    1985-02-19

    Distillates are prepared from asphaltenes-rich feeds by a process comprising subjecting the feed to solvent deasphalting, and subjecting the resulting asphaltic bitumen fraction to a combination of catalytic hydrotreating and thermal cracking.

  11. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte- grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  12. DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU

    E-print Network

    Veloso, Manuela M.

    DISTILL: Learning Domain-Specific Planners by Example Elly Winner ELLY@CS.CMU.EDU Manuela Veloso present the DISTILL algorithm for learning dsPlanners automatically from example plans. DISTILL converts that the dsPlan- ners automatically learned by DISTILL com- pactly represent its domain-specific planning ex

  13. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department integrated distillation columns are used to reduce the energy consumption for separation. The heat inte­ grated distillation columns will behave differently than two normal heat integrated distillation column

  14. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons holding permits as...

  15. Regions of continuous rectification in systems divided into distillation regions

    SciTech Connect

    Balashov, M.I.; Grishunin, A.V.; Serafimov, L.A.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the mechanisms of formation of regions of continuous clear rectification in three-component azeotropic systems of any complexity divided into distillation regions. The limitations of the process for all types of clear rectification have been determined. They have noted the phenomena of intersection of sets in which the rectification process develops as a function of the type of the specified separation. The phenomenon of transfer through the separating manifold of distillation has been pointed out.

  16. Activating NPPT distillation with an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement

    E-print Network

    Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Michael M. Wolf

    2002-01-23

    We show that bipartite quantum states of any dimension, which do not have a positive partial transpose, become 1-distillable when one adds an infinitesimal amount of bound entanglement. To this end we investigate the activation properties of a new class of symmetric bound entangled states of full rank. It is shown that in this set there exist universal activator states capable of activating the distillation of any NPPT state.

  17. Real option theory from finance to batch distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Rico-ramírez; Urmila M. Diwekar; Benoit Morel

    2003-01-01

    Batch distillation processes have gained renewed interest because of the recent development in small-scale industries producing high-value-added, low-volume specialty chemicals. The flexibility and unsteady state nature of batch distillation constitute a challenge for the designer. A particularly difficult problem is the optimal control problem involving open loop solution for the reflux ratio profile. This is because of the complexity of

  18. The amplified distillation of methyl esters of fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Weitkamp

    1947-01-01

    Summary  Amplified distillation is a useful technique for the quantitative analysis of mixtures of fatty acid esters, especially for\\u000a the detection and estimation of minor components and for the analysis of small samples. The amplified distillation of free\\u000a fatty acids is largely limited to qualitative work on account of the formation of azeotropes with mineral oils.

  19. Process for removing naphthenic acids from petroleum distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Danzik, M.

    1987-01-06

    A liquid extraction process is described for removing naphthenic acids from naphthenic acid containing petroleum distillates boiling within the range of about 180/sup 0/-600/sup 0/C. and having an acid number of at least about 0.2 which process comprises the steps of: (a) intimately contacting the petroleum distillates with a solvent consisting essentially of methanol, water, and about from 2-20 wt. % ammonia and having a methanol: water ratio in the range of about from 0.2 to 3 parts by weight of methanol per part by weight of water and using an ammonia to petroleum distillate ratio of about 0.1-1 part by weight of ammonia per 100 parts by weight of the petroleum distillate. This selectively extracts the naphthenic acids into the solvent and yielding an immiscible two-phase liquid mixture, one of which is naphthenic acid-rich solvent phase and the other of which is a substantially napthenic acid-free petroleum distillate phase; and (b) separating and respectively recovering the naphtenic acid-rich solvent phase and petroleum distillate phase.

  20. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological\\u000aconstant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating\\u000acontribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy;\\u000anon-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on\\u000athe overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance\\u000afor

  1. The effect of off-cut recycle on the optimum design and operation of binary batch distillation with fixed product demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Miladi; I. M. Mujtaba

    2005-01-01

    Off-cut production and recycling played an important role in efficient separation of binary and multicomponent mixtures using batch distillation. However, the research in this area is handful and all the investigations until to date were concerned with only operation optimisation in terms of minimisation of batch time or maximisation of productivity (amount of main products per unit time). No consideration

  2. Amino Acid Availability and True Metabolizable Energy Content of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Adult Cecectomized Roosters1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. D. Fastinger; J. D. Latshaw; D. C. Mahan

    Five sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which varied in darkness of color, were collected from several processing plants in the Mid- western United States. Sources of DDGS were analyzed for their amino acid and energy contents, measured for color score, and evaluated for TMEn, apparent amino acid digestibility, and true amino acid digestibility. A preci- sion-fed

  3. Effects of dried distillers grain on E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in pure culture and in mixed ruminal and fecal microorganism fermentation in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the past 5 years, the amount of corn processed to ethanol has more than doubled in the United States, with an additional doubling in ethanol production via corn fermentation expected by 2010. Distillers grain (DG) is a by-product from ethanol fermentation that is fed to cattle because of its...

  4. Vacuum Techniques Lecture Notes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most modern day experimental research in physical chemistry is performed with the use of some sort of vacuum system. Organic and inorganic chemists are also finding it is essential to conduct synthetic and kinetic work under controlled or reduced pressures. The term "vacuum system" is applied rather broadly, from instrumentation that operates at very low pressures (i.e., below 10-8 torr) to systems that are only pumped down once to remove air and then used to handle gases at moderate pressures (up to and sometimes over one atmosphere). Vacuum systems vary widely in their size and complexity (and expense) depending on the requirements of pumping speed and attainable vacuum. This experiment is designed to illustrate the purpose and use of the basic components found on typical vacuum apparati. The volumes of the isolatable sections of the system will be measured. Also, some of the variables, such as pumping speed, which should be considered in designing such a system, will be investigated.

  5. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2012-01-01

    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  6. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  7. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    E-print Network

    Brown, I

    2013-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  8. Spacecraft thermal vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, B. F.; Lancaster, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    An approach for developing a general thermal vacuum test program philosophy is discussed. Guidelines are established that will assist the project engineer in relating the risk associated with flying any spacecraft to its test program. Computerized techniques can be used to help ascertain these guidelines, which relate the risk to the level of test (component, subsystem, etc), as well as to the type of test (development, qualification, etc). The interrelationship between the test program and the analytical effort is also discussed. The Skylab Apollo telescope mount general thermal vacuum test program, including test schedules, instrumentation, and test results is also discussed.

  9. The vacuum interpretation of quantum mechanics and the vacuum universe

    E-print Network

    Ding-Yu Chung

    2001-10-27

    Quantum mechanics is interpreted by the adjacent vacuum that behaves as a virtual particle to be absorbed and emitted by its matter. As described in the vacuum universe model, the adjacent vacuum is derived from the pre-inflationary universe in which the pre-adjacent vacuum is absorbed by the pre-matter. This absorbed pre-adjacent vacuum is emitted to become the added space for the inflation in the inflationary universe whose space-time is separated from the pre-inflationary universe. This added space is the adjacent vacuum. The absorption of the adjacent vacuum as the added space results in the adjacent zero space (no space), Quantum mechanics is the interaction between matter and the three different types of vacuum: the adjacent vacuum, the adjacent zero space, and the empty space. The absorption of the adjacent vacuum results in the empty space superimposed with the adjacent zero space, confining the matter in the form of particle. When the absorbed vacuum is emitted, the adjacent vacuum can be anywhere instantly in the empty space superimposed with the adjacent zero space where any point can be the starting point (zero point) of space-time. Consequently, the matter that expands into the adjacent vacuum has the probability to be anywhere instantly in the form of wavefunction. In the vacuum universe model, the universe not only gains its existence from the vacuum but also fattens itself with the vacuum. During the inflation, the adjacent vacuum also generates the periodic table of elementary particles to account for all elementary particles and their masses in a good agreement with the observed values.

  10. The vacuum conservation theorem

    E-print Network

    E. Minguzzi

    2015-02-28

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  11. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  12. Vacuum insulator coating development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

  13. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  14. Safety of Minkowski Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali

    2011-07-05

    We give a simple argument suggesting that in a consistent quantum field theory tunneling from Minkowski to a lower energy vacuum must be impossible. Theories that allow for such a tunneling also allow for localized states of negative mass, and therefore, should be inconsistent.

  15. What is vacuum?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowlands

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the

  16. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs. It discusses in succession the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during, and after formation of an anode spot; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the

  17. Vacuum arc recovery phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

    1964-01-01

    The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

  18. Vacuum arcs and switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Farrall

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a review of vacuum-arc phenomena which are related to switching devices. Despite the device overtones, the approach adopted for this paper is fundamental. Topics discussed include the drawn arc, the triggered arc, the power input to the cathode spot, cathode-spot division, arc stability, substructure of the cathode spot, dielectric recovery processes, and breakdown between electrodes subjected to

  19. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  20. Nonlinear Oscillators Vacuum Squeezing

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    dz mtF dt dz mzzk =++ =+ --- Classical Physics: The Driven Damped Harmonic Oscillator - a modelNonlinear Oscillators and Vacuum Squeezing David Haviland Nanosturcture Physics, Dept. Applied #12;Splitting of Cavity Resonance Now consider damping: excitation is ½ photon, ½ atom decay rate: 2

  1. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ford

    1995-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which

  2. Light-front vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marc; Polyzou, W. N.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the relation between the trivial vacuum in light-front field theory and the nontrivial vacuum in canonical representations of quantum field theory and the role of zero-modes in this relation. The role of the underlying field algebra in the definition of the vacuum is exploited to understand these relations. The trivial vacuum defined by an annihilation operator defines a linear functional on the algebra of fields restricted to a light front. This is extended to a linear functional on the algebra of local fields. The extension defines a unitary mapping between the physical representation of the local algebra and a sub-algebra of the light-front Fock algebra. The dynamics appears in the mapping and the structure of the sub-algebra. This correspondence provides a formulation of locality and Poincaré invariance on the light-front Fock space. Zero modes do not appear in the final mapping, but may be needed in the construction of the mapping using a local Lagrangian.

  3. The vacuum conservation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-03-01

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  4. The quantum vacuum

    E-print Network

    Paraoanu, G S

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum is the lowest energy state of a field in a certain region of space. This definition implies that no particles can be present in the vacuum state. In classical physics, the only features of vacuum are those of its geometry. For example, in the general theory of relativity the geometry is a dynamical structure that guides the motion of matter, and, in turn, it is bent and curved by the presence of matter. Other than this, the classical vacuum is a structure void of any physical properties, since classically properties are strictly associated with physical objects such as particles and finite-amplitude fields. The situation is very different in quantum physics. As I will show in this paper, the difference stems form the fact that in quantum physics the properties are not strictly tied to objects. We know for example that physical properties come into existence - as values of observables - only when the object is measured. Thus, quantum physics allows us to detach properties from objects. This has cons...

  5. Vacuum configurations for superstrings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

    1985-01-01

    We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 × E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

  6. A general model for vacuum condensates and vacuum diffusive coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RI Shishkov; EM Lisichkova

    1995-01-01

    The paper suggests a general model for the classification of metal coatings obtained in vacuum. The model gives the thickness, the bond character and the bond to the coated substrate, depending on : temperature, forming time and condensation rate. The coatings have been classified in two basic groups : vacuum condensates and vacuum diffusive coatings, separated by a layer zone

  7. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  8. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Dymerski, Tomasz; G?bicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s). PMID:24287525

  9. Molluscicidal and antifungal activity of Erigeron speciosus steam distillate.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Sturtz, George; Wise, David; Wedge, David E

    2002-10-01

    The steam-distilled fraction of the aerial parts of Erigeron speciosus (Lindl) DC was tested for activity against strawberry plant pathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea Pers ex Fr, Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, C fragariae Brooks, C gloeosporioides (Penz) Penz & Sacc, and the intermediate host snail Planobdella trivolvis that harbors the trematode, Bolbophorus confusus, that infests and causes severe infections in pond-raised catfish in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Bioautography on silica TLC plates demonstrated antifungal activity in the steam distillate. Preliminary bioassays of the steam distillate indicated the presence of phytochemicals toxic to P trivolvis. The bioactive compounds methyl 2Z, 8Z-deca-2,8-diene-4,6-diynoate and its 2E, 8E isomer were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation and chromatographic techniques and identified by 1H NMR spectroscopy. PMID:12400444

  10. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  11. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of multicomponent distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G.; Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II

    1999-10-01

    Distillation columns with sharp separations exhibit severely nonlinear behavior, which has been known to cause difficulties in column control and design. Such a column is characterized by sharp composition and temperature variations in the column. Previously, the binary distillation case was thoroughly analyzed using a nonlinear wave theory and such an analysis was experimentally validated. For multicomponent distillation, the complicated nonlinear dynamics of the movement and interference of multiple sharp composition variations can be elucidated with a coherent-wave theory developed earlier for general countercurrent separation processes. With a ternary alcohol mixture, the present study has experimentally verified the theory by demonstrating the existence and propagation of constant-pattern coherent waves in a 50-tray stripping column in response to a step disturbance of feed composition, feed flow rate, or reboiler heat supply. The study has also tested the theory's predictions of composition profile, wave velocities, and asymmetric dynamics.

  12. Variational methods in supersymmetric lattice field theory: The vacuum sector

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.; Meyer-Ortmanns, H.; Roskies, R.

    1987-12-15

    The application of variational methods to the computation of the spectrum in supersymmetric lattice theories is considered, with special attention to O(N) supersymmetric sigma models. Substantial cancellations are found between bosonic and fermionic contributions even in approximate Ansa$uml: tze for the vacuum wave function. The nonlinear limit of the linear sigma model is studied in detail, and it is shown how to construct an appropriate non-Gaussian vacuum wave function for the nonlinear model. The vacuum energy is shown to be of order unity in lattice units in the latter case, after infinite cancellations.

  13. Microbiological and physical quality changes in vacuum loader cups associated with the use of various sanitizing compounds.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R

    2010-03-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of various sanitizing compounds on the microbial and physical quality of shell egg processing vacuum loader cups. The sanitizing compounds used were as follows: sterile, distilled water; 200 microL/L of sodium hypochlorite; 200 microL/L of calcium hypochlorite; and 200 microL/L of peracetic acid. In the microbial inoculation study, cups were inoculated with Enterobacter cloacae because it was the most common isolate from a commercial study examining the flora found on vacuum loader cups. In all 3 replicates, aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae levels were similar for the clean control cups and the cups from the 2 chlorine treatments. Physical quality was measured via serial static compression testing using texture profile analysis. The serial compression mimicked the movement of the vacuum loader cups on the processing line. The strength of the vacuum loader cups was enhanced with exposure to any sanitizer treatment, including distilled water, compared with the controls throughout the 20 applications of the sanitizers. Durometer measurements were not consistent in monitoring vacuum loader cup quality and were determined to not be effective assessments for this application. The use of 200 microL/L of sodium hypochlorite or 200 microL/L of calcium hypochlorite successfully reduced microbial contaminants, had a positive effect on vacuum loader cup physical quality, and should be considered when developing sanitation programs for shell egg processing facilities. PMID:20181875

  14. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  15. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  16. Noisy Processing and Distillation of Private Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renes, Joseph M.; Smith, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    We provide a simple security proof for prepare and measure quantum key distribution protocols employing noisy processing and one-way postprocessing of the key. This is achieved by showing that the security of such a protocol is equivalent to that of an associated key distribution protocol in which, instead of the usual maximally entangled states, a more general private state is distilled. In addition to a more general target state, the usual entanglement distillation tools are employed (in particular, Calderbank-Shor-Steane like codes), with the crucial difference that noisy processing allows some phase errors to be left uncorrected without compromising the privacy of the key.

  17. A New Protocol of Continuous-Variable Entanglement Distillation

    E-print Network

    Shi Jin; Xian-Min Jin; Joshua Nunn; Animesh Datta; Ian Walmsley

    2012-10-16

    We introduce a new protocol in continuous variable entanglement distillation that requires only linear temporal and constant physical or spatial resources.Compared with the existing protocols, our protocol uses atom-photon entanglement to substitute for atom-atom entanglement in existing protol, which will not only save the number of quantum memories, but also has the advantages in operation efficiency and temporal saving. The distillation can be realized by a fixed model of iterations, in which only three quantum memories and photon detectors are required.

  18. Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Peter

    2013-03-01

    A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.

  19. Sudden death of distillability in qutrit-qutrit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wei; Zhu Shiliang [Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology, ICMP and SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the concept of distillability sudden death, i.e., free entangled states can evolve into nondistillable (bound entangled or separable) states in finite time under local noise. We describe the phenomenon through a specific model of local dephasing noise and compare the behavior of states in terms of the Bures fidelity. Then we propose a few methods to avoid distillability sudden death of states under (general) local dephasing noise so that free entangled states can be robust against decoherence. Moreover, we find that bound entangled states are unstable in the limit of infinite time.

  20. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  1. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    E-print Network

    G. E. Volovik

    2006-07-10

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

  2. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7020 - Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene and mixed terpenes (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...Substances § 721.7020 Distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with styrene...The chemical substance distillates (petroleum), C(3-6), polymers with...

  6. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205...Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes,...

  7. 27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. 31.45 Section 31.45 Alcohol...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. (a) General. Compliance with...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer, unless those compounds,...

  8. 27 CFR 31.45 - Sales of alcoholic compounds, preparations, or mixtures containing distilled spirits, wines, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. 31.45 Section 31.45 Alcohol...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer. (a) General. Compliance with...containing distilled spirits, wines, or beer, unless those compounds,...

  9. 41 CFR 102-41.205 - Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? 102-41.205...Forfeited Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Beer § 102-41.205 Do we report all forfeited distilled spirits, wine, and beer to GSA for disposal? (a) Yes,...

  10. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  11. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  12. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ford

    1994-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the\\u000aquantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are\\u000achanged by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon\\u000atwo-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference\\u000apattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which

  15. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    L. H. Ford

    1994-08-30

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which the electrons are excluded. Thus this effect combines aspects of both the Casimir and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. The coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field tends to decrease the amplitude of the interference oscillations, and hence is a form of decoherence. The contributions due to photon emission and to vacuum fluctuations may be separately identified. It is to be expected that photon emission leads to decoherence, as it can reveal which path an electron takes. It is less obvious that vacuum fluctuations also can cause decoherence. What is directly observable is a shift in the fluctuations due, for example, to the presence of a conducting plate. In the case of electrons moving parallel to conducting boundaries, the dominant decohering influence is that of the vacuum fluctuations. The shift in the interference amplitudes can be of the order of a few percent, so experimental verification of this effect may be possible. The possibility of using this effect to probe the interior of matter, e.g., to determine the electrical conductivity of a rod by means of electrons encircling it is discussed. (Presented at the Conference on Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, June 18-22, 1994.)

  16. Vacuum Ultraviolet Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chun-Lin; Tomita, Kazuhiro; Jimbo, Takashi; Umeno, Masayoshi; Hattori, Shuzo

    1985-02-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet detector has been fabricated. A sample was made using a crystalline quartz plate on the surface of which a metal electrode was deposited. It has been experimentally established that the sample is sensitive to VUV radiation, and the external quantum efficiency is estimated to be higher than several percent. The new photodetector also has very good stability and should be a practicable new VUV photodetector.

  17. Decoherence and vacuum fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Ford, L H

    1994-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which the electrons are excluded. Thus this effect combines aspects of both the Casimir and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. The coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field tends to decrease the amplitude of the interference oscillations, and hence is a form of decoherence. The contributions due to photon emission and to vacuum fluctuations may be separately identified. It is to be expected that photon emission leads to decoherence, as it can reveal which path an electron takes. It is less obvious that vacuum fluctuations also can cause decoherence. What is directly observable is a shift in the fluctuations due, for example, to the pr...

  18. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  19. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  20. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  1. 27 CFR 24.306 - Distilling material or vinegar stock record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...record of each type of material from which the distilling material or vinegar stock was fermented (e.g., grape, apple, strawberry). The volume of distilling material or vinegar stock produced, including wine lees refermented for use as...

  2. 27 CFR 19.584 - Materials for the production of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Materials for the production of distilled spirits. 19.584 Section...SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Production Records § 19.584 Materials for the production of distilled spirits. A...

  3. 27 CFR 24.248 - Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling material...TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine § 24.248 Processes authorized for the treatment of wine, juice, and distilling...

  4. ALGAL BIOASSAYS WITH LEACHATES AND DISTILLATES FROM WESTERN COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to assess the effects on freshwater algae of materials derived from coal storage piles. Coal leachates and distillates were prepared in the laboratory from low-sulfur Montana coal. Three types of algal bioassays were conducted: (1) A laboratory ...

  5. Best Entry Pages for the Topic Distillation Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodora Tsikrika; Mounia Lalmas

    In a typical web search, users consider entry pages to rele- vant sites as more valuable than isolated pieces of relevant text. The Topic Distillation Task aims at identifying the page at the right level of site hierarchy considered to pro- vide optimal access, by browsing, to relevant pages within the site, i.e. its Best Entry Page. Our aim is

  6. Novel configurations of solar distillation system for potable water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, A.; Yusof, K. W.; Sapari, N.; Singh, B. S.; Hashim, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    More and more surface water are polluted with toxic chemicals. Alternatively brackish and saline water are used as feed water to water treatment plants. Expensive desalination process via reverse osmosis or distillation is used in the plants. Thus, this conventional desalination is not suitable for low and medium income countries. A cheaper method is by solar distillation. However the rate of water production by this method is generally considered low. This research attempts to enhance water production of solar distillation by optimizing solar capture, evaporation and condensation processes. Solar radiation data was captured in several days in Perak, Malaysia. Three kinds of experiments were done by fabricating triangular solar distillation systems. First type was conventional solar still, second type was combined with 50 Watt solar photovoltaic panel and 40 Watt Dc heater, while third type was integrated with 12 Volt Solar battery and 40 Watt Dc heater. The present investigation showed that the productivity of second and third systems were 150% and 480% of the conventional still type, respectively. The finding of this research can be expected to have wide application in water supply particularly in areas where fresh surface water is limited.

  7. Bloggers as experts: feed distillation using expert retrieval models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krisztian Balog; Maarten De Rijke; Wouter Weerkamp

    2008-01-01

    We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs that are principally devoted to a given topic. The task may be viewed as an association finding task, between topics and bloggers. Under this view, it resembles the expert finding task, for which a range of models have been proposed. We adopt two language modeling- based approaches to expert

  8. 40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for proper engine operation... Distillation range: Initial boiling point °C 171-204 171-204 171-204 ASTM D86-07a. 10 pct. point 204-238 204-238...

  9. Fractional Distillation of Air and Other Demonstrations with Condensed Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver-Hoyo, Maria; Switzer, William L., III; Eierman, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The learning objectives of the fractional distillation of air and other demonstrations includes observing N2, O2, CO2 and H2O in air, studying the fractional separation of components based on boiling point differences and so on. The materials, reagent and equipment preparation, experimental procedures, hazards of the demonstration are also…

  10. Aerobic stability of distillers’ wet grains as influenced by temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximizing the storability of distillers’ wet grains (DWG) has great influence on the economic, energetic, and carbon balances of fuel ethanol production, yet there is little published data from controlled studies on the deterioration of DWG following its production. Under laboratory conditions, we...

  11. RESEARCH Open Access Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , with possible impacts on scientific workflows reuse. In this work, we propose effective methods for workflow Scientific workflows management systems [1-5] are increasingly used to specify and manage bioinformaticsRESEARCH Open Access Distilling structure in Taverna scientific workflows: a refactoring approach

  12. Time requirements for heteroazeotropic distillation in batch columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Skouras; Sigurd Skogestad

    2004-01-01

    Batch time requirements are provided for the separation of ternary heterogeneous azeotropic mixtures into three pure products in closed batch column configurations. The separations are performed in hybrid processes where distillation is combined with decantation for completing the separation task. Two multivessel column configurations, with and without vapour bypass, and a rectifier column, are compared in terms of time requirements.

  13. WHAT ARE THE CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

  14. Environmental impacts of seawater distillation and reverse osmosis processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Morton; I. K. Callister; N. M. Wade

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents and compares the marine and atmospheric discharges of typical large MSF and RO plants. Distillation plants require an inlet seawater flow around 8 to 10 times the fresh water production rate, for cooling and feed make-up. The discharge is raised in salinity and in temperature, due to heat rejection from the process. A seawater RO plant generally

  15. CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    CONTROL CONFIGURATION SELECTION FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS UNDER TEMPERATURE CONTROL Erik A. Wol#11; and Sigurd Skogestad #3; University of Trondheim N-7034 Trondheim, NORWAY Keywords: process control, cascade control, distilla- tion, control structure, relative gain array 1 Introduction In most process control

  16. Pressure Swing Batch Distillation for Homogeneous Azeotropic Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-U. Repke; A. Klein; D. Bogle; G. Wozny

    2007-01-01

    The separation of the homogeneous azeotropic mixture acetonitrile\\/water by pressure swing distillation (PSD) is considered. In this work, the PSD is operated as a discontinuous (batch) process and two basic batch modes, regular and inverted, are investigated. The processes are analysed and a rigorous dynamic model for both batch PSD processes is formulated. The model takes a cold and empty

  17. Control of an azeotropic distillation process to acetonitrile production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiz Andrea Ruiz; Beltrán Nelson Borda; Leguizamón R. Alexander; R. Javier; L. Guevara; D. Ivan; C. Gil

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate and to simulate an alternative way to produce acetonitrile by means of extractive distillation. This chemical substance is used in pharmaceutics, solvents, antibiotics, vitamin and insulin production, among others. The high demand of this product during several years ago has created the necessity of increasing 5% the industrial production. Therefore, it is

  18. Investigation on drying of middle distillate by Pervaporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl-Heinz Reichmann; Ninja Hildebrand; Jürgen Freitag; Rainer Kossol; Helmut Schiml

    2010-01-01

    The drying of middle distillate (MD), from which diesel fuel is made, by Pervaporation (PV) was experimentally investigated in a laboratory plant applying organic membranes. The work was conducted in cooperation with a refinery in which MD is catalytically desulphurized by hydrogenation. The H2S formed is separated by steam stripping. The resulting water content in the MD is removed by

  19. Distilling Information with Super-Resolution for Video Surveillance

    E-print Network

    Cristani, Marco

    Distilling Information with Super-Resolution for Video Surveillance Marco Cristani Dipartimento di A video surveillance sequence generally contains a lot of scattered information regarding several objects of a person in motion, a typical setting of video surveillance applications. Permission to make digital

  20. Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS): Opportunities and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increased in recent years; so has the quantity of associated coproducts. Nonfermentable components are removed from the process as whole stillage, centrifuged to remove water – which is then evaporated to produce condensed distillers solubles (CDS), a...

  1. Thermoeconomic analysis of a solar parabolic trough collector distillation plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. García-Rodríguez; C. Gómez-Camacho

    1999-01-01

    Thermoeconomy, which is based on the Systems Theory and the Second Law of Thermodynamic, gives strategies for diagnoses and control of energetic systems (these are systems which consume great amounts of energy). In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis of a multi-stage flash and a multi-effect distillation plant coupled to a solar parabolic trough collector field have been made. The analysis

  2. Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states

    SciTech Connect

    Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

  3. Membrane Distillation and Related Operations—A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efrem Curcio; Enrico Drioli

    2005-01-01

    Membrane contactors represent an emerging technology in which the membrane is used as a tool for inter phase mass transfer operations: the membrane does not act as a selective barrier, but the separation is based on the phase equilibrium. In principle, all traditional stripping, scrubbing, absorption, evaporation, distillation, crystallization, emulsification, liquid?liquid extraction, and mass transfer catalysis processes can be carried

  4. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Burgess; K. Lovegrove

    Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal collectors on a medium to large scale. However the cost and energy requirement of Reverse Osmosis (RO) have fallen significantly in recent years, so that solar thermal powered RO deserves consideration. We compare commercial desalination processes on the basis of

  5. Insoluble distillers' dried grain (DDG) fraction in chemically leavened bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the addition of thermo-mechanically treated corn Distillers’ Dried Grain (DDG) on batter and bread quality characteristics. DDG was processed by jet-cooking homogenized slurry of DDG and water followed by centrifugation and drum drying the insoluble fract...

  6. INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    INTRODUCTION Weiwei-isms distills Ai Weiwei's thinking on the topics of individual rights. Excerpted from Ai's own newspa- per articles, Twitter posts, media interviews, and other sources, Weiwei't conversant with Ai Wei- wei's background, a chronology takes readers through his biographical details. Like

  7. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  8. Effects of distillers grains on feedlot performance of crossbred steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to determine effects of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) on growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency of finishing steers when fed at 0, 20, 40, or 60% of diet DM. Crossbred, fall-born steers (304) were weaned, moved to the feedlot, and fed a corn silage based diet. Stee...

  9. Process for fatty acid methyl esters by dual reactive distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandre C. Dimian; Florin Omota; Anton A. Kiss

    2007-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) , valuable oleo-chemicals and main constituent of biodiesel, can be manufactured in a continuous process based on reactive distillation and solid catalyst. A central problem is the effective water removal. In this work we propose a novel approach, namely dual esterification with a mixture of methanol and long-chain alcohol, as 2-ethylhexanol, which plays the role

  10. Nonsingular Decaying Vacuum Cosmology and Entropy Production

    E-print Network

    J. A. S. Lima; S. Basilakos; Joan Solà

    2015-03-08

    The thermodynamic behavior of a decaying vacuum cosmology describing the entire cosmological history evolving between two extreme (early and late time) de Sitter eras is investigated. The thermal evolution from the early de Sitter to the radiation phase is discussed in detail. The temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically determined. The entropy of the effectively massless particles is initially zero but evolves continuously to the present day maximum value within the current Hubble radius, $S_0 \\sim 10^{88}$ in natural units. By using the Gibbons-Hawking temperature relation for the de Sitter spacetime, it is found that the ratio between the primeval and the late time vacuum energy densities is $\\rho_{vI}/\\rho_{v0} \\sim 10^{123}$, as required by some naive estimates from quantum field theory.

  11. hal-00177059,version2-6Oct2007 Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00177059,version2-6Oct2007 Semantic distillation: a method for clustering objects clustering, termed semantic distillation -- strongly in- spired from the theory of quantum measurement --, we to their specificity. Keywords: Quantum information retrieval, semantic distillation, DNA microarray, quan- tum

  12. SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon

    E-print Network

    Salamon, Peter

    SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION COLUMN Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred inside the column as opposed to classical of this technology on the chemical and process industry is enormous since distillation is the single largest energy

  13. On the (Im)possibility of Noninteractive Correlation Distillation Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University,

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    On the (Im)possibility of Non­interactive Correlation Distillation Ke Yang Computer Science@cs.cmu.edu December 8, 2003 Abstract We study the problem of non­interactive correlation distillation (NICD). Suppose a distribution N , known as the ``noise mode''. Alice and Bob wish to ``distill'' the correlation non

  14. Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Magnus G. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad*

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Active Constraint Regions for Optimal Operation of Distillation Columns Magnus G. Jacobsen, NTNU, N-7491, Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT: When designing the control structure of distillation columns presented in an earlier paper, to find how the active constraints for distillation columns change

  15. Performance Assessment of Different Control Structures for Generic Reactive Distillation Using Linear and Nonlinear Process Models

    E-print Network

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Performance Assessment of Different Control Structures for Generic Reactive Distillation Using to that when a rigorous nonlinear process model is used for a generic reactive distillation. It is shown The combination of reaction and distillation in a single vessel is an old idea that has attracted renewed

  16. Hashing protocol for multipartite entanglement distillation Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene, Bart De Moor

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;Hashing protocol for multipartite entanglement distillation Erik Hostens, Jeroen Dehaene for distilling multipartite CSS states by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements and classical decoherence. Both quantum error correcting codes and entanglement distillation were introduced to this purpose

  17. Multi-saline sample distillation apparatus for hydrogen isotope analyses : design and accuracy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassan, Afifa Afifi

    1981-01-01

    A distillation apparatus for saline water samples was designed and tested. Six samples may be distilled simultaneously. The temperature was maintained at 400 C to ensure complete dehydration of the precipitating salts. Consequently, the error in the measured ratio of stable hydrogen isotopes resulting from incomplete dehydration of hydrated salts during distillation was eliminated. (USGS)

  18. Planter unit test stand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  19. What is vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Rowlands, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

  20. What is vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Peter Rowlands

    2008-10-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

  1. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. Ivanov; R. Santos; Joao P. Silva

    2013-05-08

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  2. Polymers in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, J. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

  3. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  4. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  5. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vacuum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10/sup 9/ to 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10/sup -6/ tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorption pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described.

  6. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  7. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is applied across the thickness, in particular, when the space between the face sheets is evacuated, causing the core material to be squeezed between the face sheets by atmospheric pressure. Fabrication of a typical vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would begin with fabrication of a cross-shaped polymer-modified aerogel blanket. The dimensions of the cross would be chosen so that (1) the central rectangular portion of the cross would form the core for the back of the box and (2) the arms of the cross could be folded 90 from the back plane to form the cores of the adjacent four sides of the box. Optionally, the blanket could include tabs for joining the folded sides of the blanket along mating edges and tabs that could serve as hinges for the door. Vacuum bags in the form of similar five-sided boxes would be made of a suitable polymeric film, one bag to fit the outer core surface, the other to fit the inner core surface. By use of commercially available film-sealing equipment, these box-shaped bags would be seamed together to form a single vacuum bag encasing the box-shaped core. Also, a one-way valve would be sealed to the bag. Through this valve, the interior of the bag would be evacuated to a pressure between 1 and 10 torr (approximately between 0.13 and 1.3 kPa). The polymer-modified aerogel core material is known to perform well as a thermal insulator in such a partial vacuum.

  8. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  9. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1984-09-18

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.

  10. Influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy.

    PubMed

    Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez; Gomis, Domingo Blanco; Alonso, Juan J Mangas

    2003-09-10

    A study of the influence of distillation system, oak wood type, and aging time on volatile compounds of cider brandy was carried out. Acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde diethyl acetal were influenced by distillation technology, oak wood type, and maturation time. The majority ester, ethyl ethanoate, increased during aging, the highest level of this ester being detected in spirits distilled by double distillation. The alcohols of higher molecular weight were better recovered in the rectification column than in the double distillation system. Ethanoate esters decreased throughout aging of the spirits, and their degradation velocity was lower in distillates obtained from double distillation. Fatty acids and their ethyl esters presented the opposite evolution during aging, detecting an increase in ethyl esters and a decrease in their corresponding fatty acids. An increase of 1,1,3-triethoxypropane was detected during aging. French oak contributes the trans isomer of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and American oak contributes the cis isomer. PMID:12952423

  11. Rearing of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, embryos in distilled water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piavis, George W.; Howell, John H.

    1969-01-01

    Most embryological studies of lampreys in the Great Lakes have been conducted with filtered water from Lake Huron. Although this water was entirely satisfactory for the earlier work, the present need for knowledge of the effects of various compounds on embryological development requires that the initial medium be sterile. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sea lamprey embryos could be successfully reared in distilled water. Mature sea lampreys were collected from the Ocqueoc River, Presque Isle County, Michigan, and transferred to the Hammond Bay Biological Station where eggs were stripped and fertilized according to the method of Piavis. After activation was ascertained to be 90-100% complete, the embryos were washed 3-5 timesexperimentals with commercially obtained U.S.P. distilled water and controls with filtered Lake Huron water.

  12. Biocomposites from co-polypropylene and distillers' grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinbakhsh, Nima; Mohanty, Amar K.; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, we have explored the polymeric composites of distillers' grains with co-polypropylene (co-PP). The effect of maleated-PP compatibilizer on mechanical, thermomechanical and physical properties was evaluated. The composite materials were produced by melt extrusion in a micro-compounder followed by injection molding in a micro-injection machine. The composites were characterized for their tensile, flexural and impact properties. Also, melt flow index and heat deflection temperature were measured. The results showed more than 30 % improvement in modulus when comparing the compatibilized biocomposite with neat co-PP. Also, the strength of the compatibilized biocomposite measured in tensile and flexural tests was comparable to or even better than that of the neat matrix. On the other hand, the reduced flexibility and toughness as a result of compatibilization were in an acceptable range. The biocomposites showed more rigidity at elevated temperatures. The produced distillers' grain biocomposites showed promises for industrial applications.

  13. A modified model of computational mass transfer for distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. M. Sun; K. T. Yu; X. G. Yuan; C. J. Liu

    2007-01-01

    The computational mass transfer (CMT) model is composed of the basic differential mass transfer equation, closing with auxiliary equations, and the appropriate accompanying CFD formulation. In the present modified CMT model, the closing auxiliary equations c2¯–?c [Liu, B.T., 2003. Study of a new mass transfer model of CFD and its application on distillation tray. Ph.D. Dissertation, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China;

  14. Water desalination using carbon-nanotube-enhanced membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Gethard, Ken; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Mitra, Somenath

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced membrane distillation is presented for water desalination. It is demonstrated that the immobilization of the CNTs in the pores of a hydrophobic membrane favorably alters the water-membrane interactions to promote vapor permeability while preventing liquid penetration into the membrane pores. For a salt concentration of 34?000 mg L(-1) and at 80 °C, the nanotube incorporation led to 1.85 and 15 times increase in flux and salt reduction, respectively. PMID:21188976

  15. Temperature–enthalpy curve for energy targeting of distillation columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santanu Bandyopadhyay; Ranjan K. Malik; Uday V. Shenoy

    1998-01-01

    The temperature–enthalpy (T–H) diagram of a distillation column at practical near-minimum thermodynamic condition (PNMTC) or the column grand composite curve (CGCC) is a useful representation for energy targeting studies and may be generated from a converged simulation of a base-case column design. The calculation procedure for the CGCC involves determination of the net enthalpy deficit at each stage by generating

  16. Hashing protocol for distilling multipartite Calderbank-Shor-Steane states

    SciTech Connect

    Hostens, Erik; Dehaene, Jeroen; Moor, Bart de [ESAT-SCD, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    We present a hashing protocol for distilling multipartite Calderbank-Shor-Steane states by means of local Clifford operations, Pauli measurements, and classical communication. It is shown that this hashing protocol outperforms previous versions by exploiting information theory to a full extent and not only applying controlled-NOT gates as local Clifford operations. Using the information-theoretical notion of a strongly typical set, we calculate the asymptotic yield of the protocol as the solution of a linear programming problem.

  17. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  18. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that

  19. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J.-P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouillé; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1–5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to

  20. Process for producing cracked distillate and hydrogen from heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Aizawa, S.; Fujimori, K.; Satomi, Y.; Suzuka, T.

    1980-09-23

    A process is disclosed for producing a cracked distillate and hydrogen from a heavy oil which comprises cracking the heavy oil in the presence of laterite or a laterite-containing catalyst while simultaneously depositing coke on said laterite or laterite-containing catalysts, reducing the laterite or laterote-containing catalyst on which the coke is deposited, and forming a hydrogen-rich gas by contacting the reduced laterite or laterite-containing catalyst with steam.

  1. Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns 

    E-print Network

    Harris, Thomas Raymond

    1962-01-01

    in the oalculational procedures are also discussed. This calculational method employs the equations of Thiele and Qeddes (61) with modifications by Hummel (&1) and Donnel and Turbin (21). Certain notational conventions proposed by Lyster et al. (b0) are used... OF ILLUSTRATIONS FIGURE 1. Convsntional Distillation Coleman . ~ ~ ~ 57 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Specifications for Examples 1, 2, and 4 . . . ~ . . 58 Values oi Ei, Gi, and $ Obtained After the 50'th Trial in the Soluticn of Examples 1 and 2 . 60 1110...

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet radiometry of xenon positive column discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Doughty; D. F. Fobare

    1995-01-01

    In order to judge the potential fluorescent lamp applications of various low-pressure positive column discharges it is necessary to measure the absolute power emitted in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. For rare-gas discharges the principle emission occurs in the vacuum ultraviolet so that it is difficult to measure the radiant emittance (power per unit area) of the resonance radiation

  3. Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target

    E-print Network

    Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

  4. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  5. 27 CFR 1.62 - Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture of nonbeverage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Use of distilled spirits or wine for experimental purposes and in manufacture...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED...Nonindustrial Use of Distilled Spirits and Wine Uses Regarded As Industrial §...

  6. Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

  7. Modeling Vacuum Arcs

    E-print Network

    Insepov, Z; Proslier, T; Huang, D; Mahalingam, S; Veitzer, S

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a model of vacuum arcs. This model assumes that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, followed by ionization of fragments by field emission and the development of a small, dense plasma that interacts with the surface primarily through self sputtering and terminates as a unipolar arc capable of producing breakdown sites with high enhancement factors. We have attempted to produce a self consistent picture of triggering, arc evolution and surface damage. We are modeling these mechanisms using Molecular Dynamics (mechanical failure, Coulomb explosions, self sputtering), Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes (plasma evolution), mesoscale surface thermodynamics (surface evolution), and finite element electrostatic modeling (field enhancements). We can present a variety of numerical results. We identify where our model differs from other descriptions of this phenomenon.

  8. Cartridge getter for vacuum jacketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensively-manufactured getter cartridge save users time in vacuum system maintenance and allows almost anyone to carry out replacement procedure that formerly required skilled welder. Cartridge screws into port in outer wall of vacuum jacket. Getter is replaced by simply unscrewing cartridge rather than cutting and rewelding.

  9. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaw

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 to 10¹¹ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place

  10. Anode modes in vacuum arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the five different anode discharge modes which can occur in a vacuum arc. These modes are diffuse arc (low current, with or without anode sputtering), footpoint (intermediate current), and anode spot or intense arc (high current). Descriptions of the various modes are presented, based primarily on experimental results. The hot anode vacuum arc mode, which occurs only

  11. Growth Response and Resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Fed Diets Containing Distiller’s Dried Grains with Solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, body composition, hematology, immune response and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five isocaloric diets containing DDGS at levels of ...

  12. New potentials of NIICHIMMASH's thermal vacuum facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afanassiev, N. A.; Makarov, A. A.; Galjaev, V. L.

    1994-01-01

    The potentialities of existing test facilities as to simulating space environment governing factors for spacecraft successful development thermal vacuum testing are analyzed, ways of modernizing existing test facilities and specific proposals on their redesign are considered. The problem of spacecraft (S/C) ground development in simulated external environments, the solution of which started more than 30 years ago, has not lost its urgency today. Stringent requirements on S/C active lifetime under space conditions, module large dimensions, great number of extension elements and complicated mode of their interaction in long mission do not allow S/C designers to abandon ground tests. S/C thermal modes development is a combination of calculations, thermal vacuum tests and actions on improving S/C design and its thermal control system. Traditionally, tests are carried out by stages from component and end unit level verifications to complex tests of modules and S/C as a whole. In our opinion, sufficient correctness of calculated models and experience gained in organizations designing space systems allow to reduce cost and time of autonomous tests. Unfortunately, this is not true for complex (integrated) thermal vacuum tests. More than that, their recent programs include tasks of verifying other (than thermal control system) systems if S/C for operation under space simulated conditions. The outlined circumstances are the main reason for critical review of the potentialities of the existing test base, and of NIICHIMMASH's two large thermal vacuum chambers, first of all. The reasons for and ways of enlargement of these facilities potentially are analyzed and the results attained are described.

  13. Vacuum energy as dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albareti, F. D.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the vacuum energy of massive quantum fields in an expanding universe. We define a conserved renormalized energy-momentum tensor by means of a comoving cutoff regularization. Using exact solutions for de Sitter space-time, we show that in a certain range of mass and renormalization scales there is a contribution to the vacuum energy density that scales as nonrelativistic matter and that such a contribution becomes dominant at late times. By means of the WKB approximation, we find that these results can be extended to arbitrary Robertson-Walker geometries. We study the range of parameters in which the vacuum energy density would be compatible with current limits on dark matter abundance. Finally, by calculating the vacuum energy in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background, we obtain the speed of sound of density perturbations and show that the vacuum energy density contrast can grow on sub-Hubble scales as in standard cold dark matter scenarios.

  14. Spacetime structure and vacuum entanglement

    E-print Network

    Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Alexander R. H. Smith; Daniel R. Terno

    2015-07-09

    We study the role that both vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement of a scalar field play in identifying the spacetime topology, which is not prescribed from first principles---neither in general relativity or quantum gravity. We analyze how the entanglement and observable correlations acquired between two particle detectors are sensitive to the spatial topology of spacetime. We examine the detector's time evolution to all orders in perturbation theory and then study the phenomenon of vacuum entanglement harvesting in Minkowski spacetime and two flat topologically distinct spacetimes constructed from identifications of the Minkowski space. We show that, for instance, if the spatial topology induces a preferred direction, this direction may be inferred from the dependence of correlations between the two detectors on their orientation. We therefore show that vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement harvesting makes it, in principle, possible to distinguish spacetimes with identical local geometry that differ only in their topology.

  15. Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solà, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant ? should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature R as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect ??˜R˜H2. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the ?CDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

  16. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  17. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  18. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-08-19

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10/sup 9/ to 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10/sup -6/ tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described.

  19. Vacuum Packaging of MEMS With Multiple Internal Seal Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken; Yee, Karl; Shcheglov, Kirill; Bae, Youngsam; Wiberg, Dean; Peay, Chris; Challoner, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    A proposed method of design and fabrication of vacuum-packaged microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and of individual microelectromechanical devices involves the use of multiple internal seal rings (MISRs) in conjunction with vias (through holes plated with metal for electrical contacts). The proposed method is compatible with mass production in a wafer-level fabrication process, in which the dozens of MEMS or individual microelectromechanical devices on a typical wafer are simultaneously vacuum packaged by bonding a capping wafer before the devices are singulated (cut apart by use of a dicing saw). In addition to being compatible with mass production, the proposed method would eliminate the need for some complex and expensive production steps and would yield more reliable vacuum seals. Conventionally, each MEMS or individual microelectromechanical device is fabricated as one of many identical units on a device wafer. Vacuum packaging is accomplished by bonding the device wafer to a capping wafer with metal seal rings (one ring surrounding each unit) that have been formed on the capping wafer. The electrical leads of each unit are laid out on what would otherwise be a flat surface of the device wafer, against which the seal ring is to be pressed for sealing. The resulting pattern of metal lines and their insulating oxide coverings presents a very rough and uneven surface, upon which it is difficult to pattern the sealing metal. Consequently, the seal is prone to leakage unless additional costly and complex planarization steps are performed before patterning the seal ring and bonding the wafers.

  20. Astronaut Story Musgrave in EMU in thermal vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, wearing a training version of the extravehicular activity unit (EMU), particpates in a dry run for tests in thermal vacuum chamber. The test, conducted in Chamber B ofthe Space Environment and Simulation Laboratory at JSC, verified that the tools being designed for the mission will work in the cold vacuum of space. Others pictured, from the left, are Andrea Tullar and Donna Fender, test directors; Leonard S. Nicholson, acting Director of engineering; and Astronauts Thomas D. Akers and Kathryn C. Thornton, STS-61 mission specialists, along with Musgrave.

  1. Vacuum Function Operation and Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

  2. Characterization of corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure for thermochemical conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lijun Wang; Abolghasem Shahbazi; Milford A. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure were characterized to evaluate their acceptability for thermochemical conversion. The energy densities of ground corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure after totally drying were 3402, 11,813 and 10,374 MJ\\/m3, compared to 37,125 MJ\\/m3 for coal. The contents of volatiles in corn stover, distiller grains and cattle manure were 77.4, 82.6 and 82.8%, respectively, on

  3. Recovery of dilute acetic acid through esterification in a reactive distillation column

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Saha; S. P. Chopade; S. M. Mahajani

    2000-01-01

    The recovery of acetic acid from its dilute aqueous solutions is a major problem in both petrochemical and fine chemical industries. The conventional methods of recovery are azeotropic distillation, simple distillation and liquid–liquid extraction. Physical separations such as distillation and extraction suffer from several drawbacks. The esterification of an aqueous solution (30%) of acetic acid with n-butanol\\/iso-amyl alcohol is a

  4. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks

    E-print Network

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    prevention. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 48 (7), 616-626. 33 deZarate, J.M.O., Pena, L., Mengual, J.I., 1995. Characterization of membrane distillation membranes prepared by phase inversion. Desalination 100 (1-3), 139...; zfeed= .001; ! Feed Cp in kJ/ kg C; cp=4.186; 39 !overall recovery is alpha; alpha=.98; permeate_total=alpha*feed; ! defining the nominal flux(lb/ ft^2 h ) and temperature(F); temp_nom=124; flux_nom=80; psat_nom=97...

  5. Renewable Water: Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Coupled With Solar Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, F. I.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    The exponential population growth and the accelerated increase in the standard of living have increased significantly the global consumption of two precious resources: water and energy. These resources are intrinsically linked and are required to allow a high quality of human life. With sufficient energy, water may be harvested from aquifers, treated for potable reuse, or desalinated from brackish and seawater supplies. Even though the costs of desalination have declined significantly, traditional desalination systems still require large quantities of energy, typically from fossil fuels that will not allow these systems to produce water in a sustainable way. Recent advances in direct contact membrane distillation can take advantage of low-quality or renewable heat to desalinate brackish water, seawater or wastewater. Direct contact membrane distillation operates at low pressures and can use small temperature differences between the feed and permeate water to achieve a significant freshwater production. Therefore, a much broader selection of energy sources can be considered to drive thermal desalination. A promising method for providing renewable source of heat for direct contact membrane distillation is a solar pond, which is an artificially stratified water body that captures solar radiation and stores it as thermal energy at the bottom of the pond. In this work, a direct contact membrane distillation/solar pond coupled system is modeled and tested using a laboratory-scale system. Freshwater production rates on the order of 2 L day-1 per m2 of solar pond (1 L hr-1 per m2 of membrane area) can easily be achieved with minimal operating costs and under low pressures. While these rates are modest, they are six times larger than those produced by other solar pond-powered desalination systems - and they are likely to be increased if heat losses in the laboratory-scale system are reduced. Even more, this system operates at much lower costs than traditional desalination systems, thus, it can be used to meet the future needs of energy and water use in a sustainable way.

  6. Preliminary Design Program: Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Boyda, R. B.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the results of a program to prepare a preliminary design of a flight experiment to demonstrate the function of a Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Wastewater Processor (WWP) in microgravity. This report describes the test sequence to be performed and the hardware, control/monitor instrumentation and software designs prepared to perform the defined tests. the purpose of the flight experiment is to significantly reduce the technical and programmatic risks associated with implementing a VCD-based WWP on board the International Space Station Alpha.

  7. Distillation protocols for Fourier states in quantum computing

    E-print Network

    Cody Jones

    2013-03-13

    Fourier states are multi-qubit registers that facilitate phase rotations in fault-tolerant quantum computing. We propose distillation protocols for constructing the fundamental, $n$-qubit Fourier state with error $O(2^{-n})$ at a cost of $O(n \\log n)$ Toffoli gates and Clifford gates, or any arbitrary Fourier state using $O(n^2)$ gates. We analyze these protocols with methods from digital signal processing. These results suggest that phase kickback, which uses Fourier states, could be the current lowest-overhead method for generating arbitrary phase rotations.

  8. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP (turbo molecular pump) rotor and stator blades. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor is greatly simplified. Finally, because of the simplified design, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three. In fact, there are only five parts, not counting the motor and off-the-shelf screws and O-rings. This reduces the amount of machining and also makes fit-up much simpler while allowing the maintenance of close tolerances.

  9. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  10. Contamination analysis unit

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  11. Authentication of the botanical and geographical origin of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) by FT-IR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nietner, Thorben; Pfister, Michael; Glomb, Marcus A; Fauhl-Hassek, Carsten

    2013-07-31

    Distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS) were investigated with attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy both directly in their solid state and as the isolated oils (fat fractions). The collected spectra were evaluated in a first step with principal component analysis (PCA) according to the botanical origin (corn, rice, wheat) and the geographical origin (Canada, China, European Union, India, United States) of the DDGS. In a second step, statistical models were constructed for the characterization of the botanical and geographical origin using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). For this purpose, the botanical origin was investigated more deeply for corn and wheat as the most important raw materials used for DDGS production. Also, the geographical origin was investigated exemplary for corn DDGS, derived from China and the United States. Models were validated by a randomized batchwise procedure and showed satisfactory classification rates, in most cases better than 80% correct classification. PMID:23799248

  12. Pollution prevention in vacuum processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, K.L.; Dyer, J.A. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The gaseous emissions from vacuum systems often contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--one or more of which may be regulated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Typically, regulated emission sources will require greater than 98% control of using an end-of-pipe abatement or recovery technology. VOCs from vacuum generation are expensive to control and increase the investment and operating cost of the vacuum system. When noncondensibles or inerts are present, the amount of VOCs emitted to the environment will increase dramatically. This article discusses approaches which process and project engineers can apply to reduce or eliminate vacuum system emissions. Actual case histories are included which reflect the range of solutions that are being applied.

  13. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  14. Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Justin

    2007-07-14

    energy density. Both methods are done heuristically for star graphs then rigorously for general graphs. We also discuss some properties of the vacuum energy in quantum graphs including: repulsive Casimir forces, convergence and continuity in bond lengths....

  15. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  16. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    McKee, R.H.; Amoruso, M.A.; Freeman, J.J.; Przygoda, R.T. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences, East Millstone, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Petroleum middle distillate (PMD) fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons that distill between {approximately} 170-370{degrees}C. Commercial products that fall into this category include kerosine, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and home heating oil. These products contain both saturated (paraffins and cycloparaffins) and aromatic species, but because of the boiling range normally contain very small amounts of the 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) constituents, which are considered to be carcinogenic. Nevertheless, there is evidence of weak tumorigenic activity when these materials are repeatedly applied to mouse skin. In the current studies representative products were tested in two commonly used, short-term assays for genetic toxicity, the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. All samples were inactive in the micronucleus assay, and three were clearly inactive in the Salmonella test. Of the remaining two, one was marginally active in the Salmonella assay, and one was equivocal. The marginally active sample contained detectable levels of PAH due to the use of catalytically cracked materials as blending stocks. The results indicated that PMDs that do not contain cracked material were not mutagenic. Thus they may produce tumors via nongenotoxic processes. Those products that do contain cracked stocks may have sufficient PAH to be mutagenic in the Salmonella assay, and in those cases the PAH might also contribute to tumor formation. 22 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Distillation of entanglement by projection on permutationally invariant subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czechlewski, Miko?aj; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?; Mozrzymas, Marek; Studzi?ski, Micha?

    2012-03-01

    We consider distillation of entanglement from two-qubit states which are mixtures of two pure entangled states and one pure product state, which is orthogonal to them. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on a permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol and show that for wide range of parameters, this protocol achieves higher rates than previous ones. We also generalize this method to higher-dimensional systems. To get analytical expression for two-qubit case, we faced a mathematical problem of diagonalizing a family of matrices enjoying some symmetries w.r.t. the symmetric group. We have solved this problem in two ways: (i) directly by the use of Schur-Weyl decomposition and Young symmetrizers and (ii) showing that the problem is equivalent to a problem of diagonalizing adjacency matrices in a particular instance of a so-called algebraic association scheme.

  18. Assessment of some diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Aumatell, Montserrat Riu; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2008-11-01

    In the present study the qualitative and quantitative determination of diterpenoids in commercial distilled gin was carried out. This widely consumed juniper-based spirit is aromatized using Juniper (Juniperus communis) berries. Although juniper reportedly contains several diterpenic compounds, no studies have addressed the diterpenic composition of juniper-based spirits or beverages. With this objective, here we followed a multilevel factorial experimental design to optimize a direct immersion-solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and analyzed eight commercial brands of gin. With total concentrations ranging from 10 to 190 microg L(-1), manool, manoyl oxide and trans-totarol were the most abundant diterpenoids of the 10 identified or tentatively identified at variable but not negligible concentrations in the distilled gin samples. The diterpenic composition allowed the brands to be differentiated. This indicates that these compounds contribute to the sensory characteristics of the distinct commercial brands, thus guaranteeing the authenticity and consequently the quality of the product. PMID:18929011

  19. Secure entanglement distillation for double-server blind quantum computation

    E-print Network

    Tomoyuki Morimae; Keisuke Fujii

    2013-07-13

    Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully-fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about client's input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this paper, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of the blind quantum computing.

  20. Secure Entanglement Distillation for Double-Server Blind Quantum Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2013-07-01

    Blind quantum computation is a new secure quantum computing protocol where a client, who does not have enough quantum technologies at her disposal, can delegate her quantum computation to a server, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that the server cannot learn anything about the client’s input, output, and program. If the client interacts with only a single server, the client has to have some minimum quantum power, such as the ability of emitting randomly rotated single-qubit states or the ability of measuring states. If the client interacts with two servers who share Bell pairs but cannot communicate with each other, the client can be completely classical. For such a double-server scheme, two servers have to share clean Bell pairs, and therefore the entanglement distillation is necessary in a realistic noisy environment. In this Letter, we show that it is possible to perform entanglement distillation in the double-server scheme without degrading the security of blind quantum computing.

  1. Teaching vacuum technology using spreadsheet calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Pearson; G. M. Atkinson

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum technology is an important part of nano-fabrication. Automated control systems for vacuum equipment have made operation easy and safe but have also isolated the user from the need to understand the physics of vacuum systems. In spite of this, many equipment and process decisions revolve around choices made concerning the vacuum components of a processing tool. Students can use

  2. Leak rate measurements for large vacuum chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HE Nuss; I Streuff

    1995-01-01

    For large vacuum chambers of volume between 50 and 500 m3, which are required for space simulation and thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft systems and subsystems, a specific method for the determination of the vacuum chamber leak rate is described. The main characteristics of the facility including irradiation, thermal shroud, motion and vacuum subsystem are presented. The outgassing and desorption

  3. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    E-print Network

    G. Duplancic; D. Glavan; H. Stefancic

    2010-11-26

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  4. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  5. A GENERALIZED DYNAMIC MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS-III. STUDY OF STARTUP OPERATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Rurz; I. T. CAMERON; R. GANI

    The dynamic behavior of distillation columns during startup operations have been studied and analyzed. A procedure is proposed for determining appropriate startup policies for distillation column operations based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior. The final startup policy consists of three strategies corresponding to the three characteristic stages of the startup operation. The proposed procedure has been successfully applied

  6. Effect of compositional variability of Distillers' Grains on cellulosic ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a dry grind ethanol plant, approximately 0.84 kg of dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS) is produced per liter of ethanol. The distillers’ grains contain the unhydrolyzed and unprocessed cellulosic fraction of corn kernels, which could be further converted to ethanol or other valuable b...

  7. Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle

    E-print Network

    Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol production from cereal grains can generate a variety of potential cattle feeds, de production in the southern High Plains. Wet distillers grains represent a unique feed ingredient for cattle

  8. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation

    E-print Network

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30

    /min, with steam injection rate kept at 0.5 g/min. The distillation temperatures ranged from 115°C to 300°C and were increased in steps of 10°C. The cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) for 30 minutes. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig for dry...

  9. Microbial Development in Distillers Wet Grains Produced During Fuel Ethanol Production from Corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distill...

  10. Distilling Critical Attack Graph Surface iteratively through Minimum-Cost SAT Solving

    E-print Network

    Ou, Xinming "Simon"

    Distilling Critical Attack Graph Surface iteratively through Minimum-Cost SAT Solving Heqing Huang attack paths, forming a crit- ical attack graph surface. Our method can distill critical attack graph surfaces from the full attack graphs generated for moderate- sized enterprise networks in only several

  11. Study of lipids and lipid components in corn dried distiller's grains (DDG)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We extracted oil from corn dried distiller’s grains (DDG) with ethanol, hexane, and supercritical CO2 and found that it has a very large amount of some valuable nutraceutical phytochemicals including phytosterols, ferulate phytosterol esters (FPE), tocopherols, and tocotrienols. The oil fatty acid ...

  12. A modified steam distillation method for volatile acids determination in anaerobic digestors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Tsonis

    1991-01-01

    A modified steam distillation method for the accurate determination of low levels of volatile acids found primarily in low rate anaerobic digestors has been developed. The interference of bicarbonate alkalinity is minimal with complete removal of carbon dioxide from the sample prior to distillation. This removal can be achieved by boiling the acidified sample for 30 min in an erlenmeyer

  13. Preparation and characterization of nanoscale Y-TZP powder by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haibo Qiu; Lian Gao; Chude Feng; Jingkun Guo; Dongsheng Yan

    1995-01-01

    A heterogeneous azeotropic distillation process was effectively used to dehydrate hydrous zirconia and therefore prevent the formation of hard agglomerates in the preparation of nanoscale zirconia powder. The mechanism of azeotropic distillation to prevent hard agglomerate from forming was studied by investigating the interaction of hydrous zirconia with n-butanol. The prepared powder was sintered to 99.5% of theoretical density by

  14. Homogeneous azeotropic distillation in an energy- and mass-integrated pressure swing column system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens-Uwe Repke; Andreas Klein; Florian Forner

    2004-01-01

    The separation of a homogeneous azeotropic mixture using the pressure swing distillation process is insufficient researched and therefore industrial applications are limited. The process performance of a heat- and mass-integrated pressure swing distillation column system to separate an acetonitril\\/water mixture is analysed in the scope of this paper. Different control structures are developed and compared by using a rigorous dynamic

  15. Heterogeneous Batch Distillation Processes for Waste Solvent Recovery in Pharmaceutical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivonne Rodriguez-Donis; Vincent Gerbaud; Alien Arias-Barreto; Xavier Joulia

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile — water, n hexane — ethyl acetate and

  16. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  17. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  18. 27 CFR 26.230 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.230 Section 26.230 Alcohol, Tobacco...Islands General § 26.230 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  19. 27 CFR 26.135 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 26.135 Section 26.135 Alcohol, Tobacco...Puerto Rico § 26.135 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. Containers of 1 gallon (3.785 liters)...

  20. Effect of incorporation of distillers' dried grain with solubles (DDGS) on quality of cornbread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent increase in biofuel production creates a sizable stockpile of its co-product in the form of Distiller’s Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS) that needs to be utilized beyond animal feeds. We evaluated cornbreads, which were formulated incorporating 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% corn DDGS into co...

  1. Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    Facet Classification of Blogs: Know-Center at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task Elisabeth Lex,mgrani,ajuffinger}@know-center.at Abstract. In this paper, we outline our experiments carried out at the TREC 2009 Blog Distillation Task. Our system is based on a plain text index extracted from the XML feeds of the TREC Blogs08 dataset

  2. Step enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium hydroxide-pretreated Chinese liquor distillers' grains for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue-Hong; Wu, Zheng-Yun; Yang, Jian; Yuan, Yu-Ju; Zhang, Wen-Xue

    2014-01-01

    Distillers' grains are a co-product of ethanol production. In China, only a small portion of distillers' grains have been used to feed the livestock because the amount was so huge. Nowadays, it has been reported that the distillers' grains have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they are composed of lignocelluloses and residual starch. In order to effectively convert distillers' grains to fuel ethanol and other valuable production, sodium hydroxide pretreatment, step-by-step enzymatic hydrolysis, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) were investigated. The residual starch was first recycled from wet distillers' grains (WDG) with glucoamylase to obtain glucose-rich liquid. The total sugar concentration was 21.3 g/L, and 111.9% theoretical starch was hydrolyzed. Then the removed-starch dry distillers' grains (RDDG) were pretreated with NaOH under optimal conditions and the pretreated dry distillers' grains (PDDG) were used for xylanase hydrolysis. The xylose concentration was 19.4 g/L and 68.6% theoretical xylose was hydrolyzed. The cellulose-enriched dry distillers' grains (CDDG) obtained from xylanase hydrolysis were used in SSF for ethanol production. The ethanol concentration was 42.1 g/L and the ethanol productivity was 28.7 g/100 g CDDG. After the experiment, approximately 80.6% of the fermentable sugars in WDG was converted to ethanol. PMID:24397718

  3. Microwave accelerated steam distillation of essential oil from lavender: A rapid, clean and environmentally friendly approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chemat; M. E. Lucchesi; J. Smadja; L. Favretto; G. Colnaghi; F. Visinoni

    2006-01-01

    A new process design and operation for microwave accelerated steam distillation (MASD) of essential oils was developed. A packed bed of lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae) sits above the steam source generated by microwave heating. Only steam passes through it without the boiling water mixing with vegetable raw material, as is the case in hydro-distillation. MASD has been compared

  4. Reduction in dietary wet distillers grains alters Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in feces of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle fed finishing diets with distillers grains have been shown to more often have Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the feces and on the hides. The objectives of this study were to determine if pathogen levels and prevalence differ at higher level of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in the d...

  5. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

  6. Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

  7. Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________

    E-print Network

    Online unit checklist Unit code______________ Unit title_____________________________ Teaching period _________ Y/N Comments Unit Information and Learning Guide (UILG) File name is for correct unit code Latest template used ­ no columns & icons in text especially in Resources for this unit Cover page

  8. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  9. Gasohol situation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of ethanol manufacture for gasohol from corn, sugarcane, sugar beet, and by food-processing units and breweries is discussed. A number of breweries, operating and nonoperating, are being investigated as possible distilleries. In an operating brewery alcohol can be recovered from beer losses and carbohydrate losses occurring during mashing and lautering. For a nonoperating brewery retrofitting is possible and the changes required such as grain handling, fermentation, distillation, and utility requirements are discussed.

  10. Unit Operation Experiment Linking Classroom with Industrial Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Tracy J.; Richmond, Peyton C.; LeBlanc, Weldon

    2013-01-01

    An industrial-type distillation column, including appropriate pumps, heat exchangers, and automation, was used as a unit operations experiment to provide a link between classroom teaching and real-world applications. Students were presented with an open-ended experiment where they defined the testing parameters to solve a generalized problem. The…

  11. Failure analysis of glass-ceramic insulators of shock tested vacuum (neutron) tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spears

    1980-01-01

    Eight investigative techniques were used to examine the glass-ceramic insulators in vacuum (neutron) tubes. The insulators were extracted from units that had been subjected to low temperature mechanical shock tests. Two of the three units showed reduced neutron output after these tests and an insulator on one of these two was cracked completely through which probably occurred during shock testing.

  12. Steam plasmatron gasification of distillers grains residue from ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a plasmatron reactor was used for gasifying the waste of distillers grains at different temperatures (773, 873, 973 K) and water flow rates (1, 2, 3 mL min(-1)), which were heated to produce steam. Among all the gas products, syngas was the major component (88.5 wt.% or 94.66 vol.%) with temperatures yielding maximum concentrations at 873 K with a relatively high reaction rate. The maximum concentrations regarding gaseous production occurring times are all below 1 min. With the increase of steam, the recovery mass yield of syngas also increases from 34.14 to 45.47 approximately 54.66 wt.% at 873 K. Water-gas reactions and steam-methane reforming reactions advance the production of syngas with the increase of steam. Furthermore, the water-shift reaction also increases in the context of steam gasification which leads to the decrease of CO(2) at the same time. PMID:20163957

  13. Effectiveness of Water Desalination by Membrane Distillation Process

    PubMed Central

    Gryta, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The membrane distillation process constitutes one of the possibilities for a new method for water desalination. Four kinds of polypropylene membranes with different diameters of capillaries and pores, as well as wall thicknesses were used in studied. The morphology of the membrane used and the operating parameters significantly influenced process efficiency. It was found that the membranes with lower wall thickness and a larger pore size resulted in the higher yields. Increasing both feed flow rate and temperature increases the permeate flux and simultaneously the process efficiency. However, the use of higher flow rates also enhanced heat losses by conduction, which decreases the thermal efficiency. This efficiency also decreases when the salt concentration in the feed was enhanced. The influence of fouling on the process efficiency was considered. PMID:24958289

  14. Mechanisms of recirculating liquid flow on distillation sieve plates

    SciTech Connect

    Biddulph, M.W. (Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Burton, A.C. (BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-11-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation into the phenomenon of flow recirculation on distillation sieve trays. A novel dye injection technique has been applied to a 1.81 m air-water simulation column and has yielded new information concerning the nature of the boundary layer of gas-liquid biphase as it detaches from the column wall. The study has shown that recirculation is strongly influenced by inlet conditions. A critical factor is the underflow clearance between the inlet downcomer apron and the tray floor. As this clearance is increased, the size of the recirculating zones passes through a minimum, indicating the existence of two different mechanisms responsible for the nonuniform flow patterns. A significant implication of this work is that tray designers may minimize the impact of recirculating on mass transfer efficiency by appropriate choice of underflow clearance.

  15. Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond

    2011-01-25

    Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0? and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity. PMID:21266968

  16. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  17. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  18. Experimental study of wave propagation dynamics of binary distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.L.; Graham, G.K.; Keller, G.E. II [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States)] [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States); Ting, J.; Helfferich, F.G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-10-01

    High-purity distillation columns are typically difficult to control because of their severely nonlinear behavior reflected by their sharp composition and temperature profiles. The dynamic behavior of such a column, as characterized by the movement of its sharp profile, was elucidated by a nonlinear wave theory established previously. With binary alcohol mixtures, this study provides an experimental observation of such wave-propagation dynamics of a 40-tray stripping column and a 50-tray fractionation column in response to step disturbances of feed composition, feed flow rate, and reboiler heat supply. These experimental results have verified that the sharp profile in a high-purity column moves as a constant-pattern wave and that the nonlinear wave theory predicts its velocity satisfactorily with very simple mathematics. Results also demonstrate the asymmetric dynamics of the transitions between two steady states.

  19. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  20. Mathematical theory of physical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnitskii, N. A.

    2011-06-01

    This article sets out mathematical basics of unifying fundamental physical theory, with a single postulate of nonvoid physical vacuum. It will be shown that all basic equations of classical electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and gravitation theory could be derived from two nonlinear equations, which define dynamics of physical vacuum in three-dimensional Euclidean space and, in turn, are derived from equations of Newtonian mechanics. Through the characteristics of physical vacuum, namely its density and propagation velocity of various density's perturbations, such principal physical conceptions as matter and antimatter, electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, velocity of light, electron, photon and other elementary particles, internal energy, mass, charge, spin, quantum properties, Planck constant and fine structure constant will have clear and sane definitions.

  1. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  2. On-line estimation of product properties for crude distillation units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tirtha Chatterjee; Deoki N. Saraf

    2004-01-01

    The stringent quality requirement of petroleum products in a highly competitive market makes on-line monitoring and control of product properties essential. But unfortunately few on-line hardware sensors are available and these are also difficult to maintain. It is, therefore, necessary to develop ‘software sensors’ to predict the quality using other easily measurable secondary variables. This study presents an algorithm that

  3. Apollo Telescope Mount in the Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was one of four major components comprising the Skylab. The ATM housed the first marned scientific telescopes in space. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center (later renamed the Johnson Space Center), an ATM prototype can be seen in a thermal vacuum chamber that tested the unit's ability to withstand the environment of space.

  4. QED vacuum loops and Inflation

    E-print Network

    H. M. Fried; Y. Gabellini

    2014-11-19

    A QED-based model of a new version of Vacuum Energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of Dark Energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both Dark Energy and Inflation in the same framework of Vacuum Energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between Inflation and the Big Bang, to the automatic inclusion of Dark Matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a Universe.

  5. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  6. Aquatic hazard and biodegradability of light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum streams.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; Podhasky, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Light and middle atmospheric distillate petroleum substances are blended to produce fuels used in transportation and heating. These substances represent the majority by volume of crude oil refined products in the United States. The goal of this research was to develop biodegradability and aquatic toxicity data for four substances; heavy, straight-run naphtha (HSRN), hydro-desulfurized kerosene (HDK), hydro-cracked gas oil (HCGO), and catalytic-cracked gas oil (CCGO). Ready biodegradability tests demonstrated rapid and extensive microbial oxidation of these test substances, indicating a lack of persistence in the aquatic environment. Differences in biodegradation patterns reflected compositional differences in the constituent hydrocarbons. Results of aquatic toxicity tests on alga, cladocera, and fish demonstrated that toxicity was greatest for catalytic-cracked gas oil, which contained a high proportion of aromatic hydrocarbons. Aromatic hydrocarbons are more soluble, and hence more bioavailable, resulting in higher toxicity. When expressed on the basis of loading rates, acute toxicity values (LL/EL50) ranged between 0.3 and 5.5 mg L(-1) for all three species, while chronic no-observed-effect loading rates (NOELR) ranged between 0.05 and 0.64 mg L(-1). PETROTOX estimates for acute and chronic toxicity ranged from 0.18 to 2.3 mg L(-1) and 0.06 to 0.14 mg L(-1), respectively, which were generally more conservative than experimental data. PMID:24875905

  7. Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene,* Maarten Van den Nest, and Bart De Moor

    E-print Network

    Local permutations of products of Bell states and entanglement distillation Jeroen Dehaene entanglement distillation for pairs of qubits. Our algorithms perform significantly better than the best. INTRODUCTION We study mixed-state multicopy entanglement distillation protocols for pairs of qubits. We start

  8. DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for con-

    E-print Network

    Smaragdakis, Yannis

    Abstract DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for con- tainer data structures. DiSTiL is a representative of a new approach to domain-specific language implementa- tion. Instead of being the usual one-of-a-kind stand- alone compiler, DiSTiL is an extension

  9. On the (Im)possibility of Non-interactive Correlation Distillation Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University,

    E-print Network

    Yang, Ke

    On the (Im)possibility of Non-interactive Correlation Distillation Ke Yang Computer Science@cs.cmu.edu December 8, 2003 Abstract We study the problem of non-interactive correlation distillation (NICD). Suppose, known as the "noise mode". Alice and Bob wish to "distill" the correlation non-interactively, i

  10. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  11. Vacuum-injection-molding processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

  12. Recent advances in Vacuum Electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Levush

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum Electronics (VE) technology has been and will continue to be the enabling technology for entire classes of high-power high-frequency amplifiers with the most demanding specifications for use in both military and commercial systems. Here in this paper, TWT design and its application has been described. Among the wide variety of applications requiring high power, communication, radar, EW, and broadcasting

  13. Fluctuation Noise in Vacuum Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Pearson

    1934-01-01

    The fluctuation noises originating in vacuum tubes are treated theoretically under the following headings: (1) thermal agitation in the internal plate resistance of the tube, (2) shot effect and flicker effect from space current in the presence of space charge, (3) shot effect from electrons produced by collision ionization and secondary emission, and (4) space charge fluctuations due to positive

  14. Vacuum coating of plastic optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Schulz; Norbert Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    Vacuum technologies for the deposition of optical interference coatings on polymer substrates, based on long-term experience in glass coating, have been under development for about 20 years. A growing market for precision optical elements and consumer optics moulded from thermoplastic polymers requires antireflective properties and hard coatings. Owing to the manifold chemical and physical properties of optical polymers, special efforts

  15. Peoperties of vacuum brass coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Roikh; L. K. Glukhova; E. V. Efimovich; S. R. Pustotina; N. A. Litovchenko; V. P. Kirichenko

    1975-01-01

    This communication deals with the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of coatings of the system Cu-Zn, deposited by simultaneous condensation of Cu and Zn in a vacuum of 1 ?9 10 -4 torr from various evaporants at deposition rates of 3 ~\\/min and 5 p\\/min, respectively. The thickness of the coatings investigated was less than 20 tt. Depending on

  16. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  17. DCI wiggler magnet vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Souchet, R.; Marx, J.P.

    1988-09-30

    With the end of the high energy experiments in DCI, developments could take place at LURE and a five pole wiggler magnet program was launched in 1983 to exclusively dedicate DCI as a synchrotron radiation source. Design and performance measurements of the wiggler magnet vacuum system at DCI is presented. (AIP)

  18. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  19. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  20. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.