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Sample records for vacuum distillation unit

  1. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  2. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending. PMID:25739195

  3. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  4. Commercial application of process for hydrotreating vacuum distillate in G-43-107 unit at the Moscow petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Kurganov, V.M.; Samokhvalov, A.I.; Osipov, L.N.; Lebedev, B.L.; Chagovets, A.N.; Melik-Akhnazarov, T.K.; Kruglova, T.F.; Imarov, A.K.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present results obtained during the shakedown run on the hydrotreating section of the title catalytic cracking unit. The flow plan of the unit is shown. The characteristics of the hydrotreater feed and the product are given. Changes in hydrotreating process parameters during unit operation are shown, as are changes in the raw and hydrotreated feed quality during the periods before and after a shutdown.

  5. EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

  6. A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic…

  7. Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

  8. Solar power water distillation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  9. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  10. High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

    1986-05-01

    Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270°C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450°C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450°C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400°C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

  11. Catalytic cracking of vacuum distillate with additives in fluidized catalyst bed

    SciTech Connect

    Omaraliev, T.O.; Tanashev, S.T.; Kapustin, V.M.

    1987-03-01

    The authors report on a study of the catalytic cracking of straight-run 350-500/sup 0/C vacuum distillates differing substantially in contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and resins, as influenced by the addition of an extract from the No. III lube cut from West Siberian crude. The experiments were performed in a standard catalytic cracking unit in the fluidization mode, using KMTsR zeolitic microbead catalyst.

  12. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.

    1996-10-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen.

  13. VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

  14. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  15. Effect of added atmospheric resid on process indexes in cat cracking of vacuum distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglova, L.E.; Khadzhiev, S.N.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Smidovich, E.V.; Fedoseeva, V.I.; Kapustin, V.M.

    1987-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of vacuum distillates with West Siberia atmospheric resids was investigated to determine the optimal ratio of components in the blend and to define the influence of the quantity of added resid on the product yield and quality. The feedstocks tested included a low-sulfur hydrotreated vacuum distillate and a medium-sulfur atmospheric resid. Data on the quality, hydrocarbon composition, viscosity, distillation behavior, vanadium and nickel content, and sulfur content were determined and compared against a resid from a Texas crude. Physicochemical properties were determined for the naphtha and diesel fuel cuts obtained. Coke yields are also assessed.

  16. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  17. An Automated Distillation Column for the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Douglas M.; Bruce, David A.; Gooding, Charles H.; Butler, Justin T.

    2005-01-01

    A batch distillation apparatus has been designed and built for use in the undergraduate unit operations laboratory course. The column is fully automated and is accompanied by data acquisition and control software. A mixture of 1­-propanol and 2-­propanol is separated in the column, using either a constant distillate rate or constant composition…

  18. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  19. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  1. VOLATILE ORGANO-METALLOIDS IN BIO-SOLID MATERIALS: ANALYSIS BY VACUUM DISTILLATION-GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method based on vacuum distillation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (VD-GC-MS)

    was developed for determining volatile organo-metalloid contaminants in bio-solid materials. Method

    performance was evaluated for dimethylselenide (DMSe), dimethyldisel...

  2. SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

  3. Research on the Removal of Impurities from Crude Nickel by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. C.; Yang, B.; Wang, F.; Yu, Q. C.; Wang, L.; Dai, Y. N.

    The removal of impurity elements from crude nickel by vacuum distillation was carried out at the temperature 1773K∼1973K and the pressure less than 10 Pa using crude nickel(≥99.9%)as raw materials. A series of results of the impurity elements were obtained under the experimental conditions aforementioned.The experimental values βi andγio of the product were also calculted in this paper. The seperation of certain impurities from main element nickel was disscussed from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and alloy composition. Nickel (≥99.99%) was obtained and the purification and impurity removal from crude nickel by vacuum distillation method was feasible and determined. A China Patent on this new technology was also authorized. We consider that the vacuum distillation process of nickel can serve as a pretreatment step for the prepartion of highpurity nickel, and can relieve the following purification of the electrolyte, so that the whole process of preparation of the high-purity nickel is simplified, energy consumption and environmental pollution are reduced. Therefore, the vacuum distillation process is a green metallurgical method.

  4. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  5. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  6. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  7. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  8. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  9. Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, G.R.; Yang, I.C.

    1999-01-01

    The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  10. Using Mathematica to Teach Process Units: A Distillation Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasteiro, Maria G.; Bernardo, Fernando P.; Saraiva, Pedro M.

    2005-01-01

    The question addressed here is how to integrate computational tools, namely interactive general-purpose platforms, in the teaching of process units. Mathematica has been selected as a complementary tool to teach distillation processes, with the main objective of leading students to achieve a better understanding of the physical phenomena involved…

  11. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for biocrude production: Improving the biocrude properties with vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Eboibi, Blessing Elo-Oghene; Lewis, David Milton; Ashman, Peter John; Chinnasamy, Senthil

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a two-part process for producing biocrude with reduced impurities. The biocrude was produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina sp. and Tetraselmis sp. in a batch reactor at both 300 and 350°C, 5min, and 16%w/w solid feed composition. The resultant biocrudes were vacuum distilled at a maximum temperature of 360°C. It was shown that biocrude quality could be enhanced without using catalyst by vacuum distillation (VD). The biocrude yield for Spirulina sp. was 36wt% at 300°C, 42wt% at 350°C, and for Tetraselmis sp. was 34wt% at 300°C, and 58wt% at 350°C. VD of Spirulina sp. biocrude obtained at 300 and 350°C led to 62 and 67wt% distilled biocrudes yield, respectively. VD of Tetraselmis sp. biocrude obtained at 300°C was 70wt%, and 73wt% at 350°C. The higher heating values (HHV) increased from 32MJ/kg to 40MJ/kg. There were substantial reductions in oxygen, metallic content, and boiling point ranges in distilled biocrudes. PMID:25463802

  12. Prediction and extension of curves of distillation of vacuum residue using probability functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Riaño, P. A.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    The use of the probability functions for the prediction of crude distillation curves has been implemented in different characterization studies for refining processes. The study of four functions of probability (Weibull extreme, Weibull, Kumaraswamy and Riazi), was analyzed in this work for the fitting of curves of distillation of vacuum residue. After analysing the experimental data was selected the Weibull extreme function as the best prediction function, the fitting capability of the best function was validated considering as criterions of estimation the AIC (Akaike Information Criterion), BIC (Bayesian information Criterion), and correlation coefficient R2. To cover a wide range of composition were selected fifty-five (55) vacuum residue derived from different hydrocarbon mixture. The parameters of the probability function Weibull Extreme were adjusted from simple measure properties such as Conradson Carbon Residue (CCR), and compositional analysis SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes). The proposed method is an appropriate tool to describe the tendency of distillation curves and offers a practical approach in terms of classification of vacuum residues.

  13. 2,3-Butanediol recovery from fermentation broth by alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sangjun; Kim, Duk-Ki; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Hee Jong; Park, Sunghoon; Seung, Doyoung; Chang, Yong Keun

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a new and effective downstream process to recover 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from fermentation broth which is produced by a recombinant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain. The ldhA-deficient K. pneumoniae strain yielded about 90 g/L of 2,3-BD, along with a number of by-products, such as organic acids and alcohols, in a 65 h fed-batch fermentation. The pH-adjusted cell-free fermentation broth was firstly concentrated until 2,3-BD reached around 500 g/L by vacuum evaporation at 50°C and 50 mbar vacuum pressure. The concentrated solution was further treated using light alcohols, including methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol, for the precipitation of organic acids and inorganic salts. Isopropanol showed the highest removal efficiency, in which 92.5% and 99.8% of organic acids and inorganic salts were precipitated, respectively. At a final step, a vacuum distillation process enabled the recovery of 76.2% of the treated 2,3-BD, with 96.1% purity, indicating that fermentatively produced 2,3-BD is effectively recovered by a simple alcohol precipitation and vacuum distillation. PMID:24144809

  14. Heat and mass transport resistances in vacuum membrane distillation per drop

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, S.; Sarti, G.C.

    1999-07-01

    Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is a separation process based on the use of microporous hydrophobic membranes. The membrane is located between an aqueous phase and a permeate, which is kept under vacuum at pressure values below the equilibrium vapor pressure of the feed. The liquid stream vaporizes at one side of the membrane, and the vapors diffuse through the gas phase inside the membrane pores. The process rate and performance are affected highly by the transport phenomena both in the liquid phase and through the membrane. Heat- and mass-transfer resistance in the liquid phase, as well as mass-transfer resistance through the membrane, play an important role in determining the process performance. Based on VMD experimental data for several binary aqueous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds, a simple criterion to investigate the role of each transport resistance on the separation efficiency is discussed.

  15. 27 CFR 28.58 - Operations or unit bond-distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-distilled spirits. 28.58 Section 28.58 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... § 28.58 Operations or unit bond—distilled spirits. (a) Spirits. Where spirits are withdrawn without payment of tax, as authorized in § 28.91, from the bonded premises of a distilled spirits plant...

  16. Study on Exploration of Azeotropic Point of Pb-Sb Alloys by Vacuum Distillation and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bingyi; Jiang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Baoqiang; Kong, Lingxin; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of the separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was investigated theoretically. The results show that Pb and Sb can be separated by vacuum distillation. However, the experimental results show that vacuum distillation technique does not provide clear separation. According to the literature, Pb-Sb alloys belong to azeotropic compounds under some certain temperature; the experiment and computer simulation were carried out based on the exceptional condition so as to analyze the reason from the experiment and microstructure of Pb-Sb alloys perspective. The separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was experimentally carried out to probe the azeotropic point. Also, the functions, such as partial radial distributions functions, the structure factor, mean square displacement, and the density of state, were calculated by ab-initio molecular dynamics for the representation of the structure and properties of Pb-Sb alloys with different composition of Sb. The experimental results indicate that there exists common volatilization for Pb-Sb alloys when Sb content is 16.5 wt pct. On the other hand, the calculation results show that there is an intense interaction between Pb and Sb when Sb content is 22 wt pct, which supports the experimental results although Sb content is slightly deviation.

  17. VACUUM DISTILLATION CONCENTRATOR (VDC) IN COMBINATION WITH GC/MS TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Region 5 Central Regional Laboratory, Region 6 and Region 10 are presently involved in a Superfund interlaboratory study with ORD/NERL-Las Vegas, NV evaluating U.S. EPA SW 846 Method 8261. This method utilizes a new commercially available vacuum distillation concent...

  18. Distillation Kinetics of Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Peroxide and Water and the Isolation of Pure Hydrogen Peroxide in Ultrahigh Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teolis, B. D.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results of the growth of thin films of crystalline H2O2 and H2O2.2H2O (dihydrate) in ultrahigh vacuum by distilling an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. We traced the process using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, mass loss on a quartz crystal microbalance, and in a few cases ultraviolet-visible reflectance. We find that the different crystalline phases-water, dihydrate, and hydrogen peroxide-have very different sublimation rates, making distillation efficient to isolate the less volatile component, crystalline H2O2.

  19. Tuning the Model Predictive Control of a Crude Distillation Unit.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, André Shigueo; Zanin, Antonio Carlos; Odloak, Darci

    2016-01-01

    Tuning the parameters of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) of an industrial Crude Distillation Unit (CDU) is considered here. A realistic scenario is depicted where the inputs of the CDU system have optimizing targets, which are provided by the Real Time Optimization layer of the control structure. It is considered the nominal case, in which both the CDU model and the MPC model are the same. The process outputs are controlled inside zones instead of at fixed set points. Then, the tuning procedure has to define the weights that penalize the output error with respect to the control zone, the weights that penalize the deviation of the inputs from their targets, as well as the weights that penalize the input moves. A tuning approach based on multi-objective optimization is proposed and applied to the MPC of the CDU system. The performance of the controller tuned with the proposed approach is compared through simulation with the results of an existing approach also based on multi-objective optimization. The simulation results are similar, but the proposed approach has a computational load significantly lower than the existing method. The tuning effort is also much lower than in the conventional practical approaches that are usually based on ad-hoc procedures. PMID:26549567

  20. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  1. 27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.36c Section 26.36c Alcohol, Tobacco... Puerto Rico § 26.36c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from Puerto Rico without payment of...

  2. 27 CFR 26.201c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. 26.201c Section 26.201c Alcohol, Tobacco... Virgin Islands § 26.201c Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax. Bulk distilled spirits may be brought into the United States from the Virgin Islands without payment...

  3. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  4. 32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING UNIT #3. VACUUM PUMP ON LEFT, CONDENSER TURBINE ON RIGHT, JET CONDENSER IN CENTER REAR - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on discharge side of pump - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  6. A comparison of the toluene distillation and vacuum/heat methods for extracting soil water for stable isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, Neil L.; Shadel, Craig

    1992-12-01

    Hanford Loam, from Richland, Washington, was used as a test soil to determine the precision, accuracy and nature of two methods to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis: azeotropic distillation using toluene, and simple heating under vacuum. The soil was oven dried, rehydrated with water of known stable isotopic compositions, and the introduced water was then extracted. Compared with the introduced water, initial aliquots of evolved water taken during a toluene extraction were as much as 30 ‰ more depleted in D and 2.7 ‰ more depleted in 18O, whereas final aliquots were as much as 40 ‰ more enriched in D and 14.3 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Initial aliquots collected during the vacuum/heat extraction were as much as 64 ‰ more depleted in D and 8.4 ‰ more depleted in 18O than was the introduced water, whereas the final aliquots were as much as 139 ‰ more enriched in D, and 20.8 ‰ more enriched in 18O. Neither method appears quantitative; however, the difference in stable isotopic composition between the first and last aliquots of water extracted by the toluene method is less than that from the vacuum/heat method. This is attributed to the smaller fractionation factors involved with the higher average temperatures of distillation of the toluene. The average stable isotopic compositions of the extracted water varied from that of the introduced water by up to 1.4 ‰ in δD and 4.2 ‰ in δ18O with the toluene method, and by 11.0 ‰ in δD and 1.8 ‰ in δ18O for the vacuum/heat method. The lack of accuracy of the extraction methods is thought to be due to isotopic fractionation associated with water being weakly bound (not released below 110°C) in the soil. The isotopic effect of this heat-labile water is larger at low water contents (3.6 and 5.2% water by weight) as the water bound in the soil is a commensurately larger fraction of the total. With larger soilwater contents the small volume of water bound with an associated fractionation is

  7. Application of Molecular Interaction Volume Model for Phase Equilibrium of Sn-Based Binary System in Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingxin; Yang, Bin; Xu, Baoqiang; Li, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), the activities of components of Sn-Sb, Sb-Bi, Sn-Zn, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag alloys were predicted. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data, which indicate that the MIVM is of better stability and reliability due to its good physical basis. A significant advantage of the MIVM lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only two parameters. The phase equilibria of Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys were calculated based on the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients, which indicates that Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys can be separated thoroughly by vacuum distillation. This study extends previous investigations and provides an effective and convenient model on which to base refining simulations for Sn-based alloys.

  8. Waste acid/metal solution reduction and recovery by vacuum distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.O.; Wilcox, W.A.; Johnson, N.T.; Bowdish, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    Processes involving distillation under reduced pressure were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory several years ago to recover spent acid solutions generated during the manufacture of nuclear fuel for the N-Reactor at the Hanford site. Following construction and testing of a pilot-plant, the technology was licensed to Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc. for commercialization. The technology developed included specialized distillation and rectification of volatile acids, removal of water and/or volatile acid from sulfuric acid, and precipitation of salts. A key feature of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) technology is the development and use of advanced thermoplastic and fluoropolymer materials of construction in all critical process equipment. The technology was then expanded to include crystallization to recover metal salts for possible reuse. Economic and environmental advantages of the procedures include recovery of acids for reuse, simplification or elimination of the disposal of waste solutions, and possible recovery of metals. Industries expected to benefit from such applications include galvanizing, electroplating, sand leaching and any where metals are cleaned in acid solutions. Currently a modular system has been assembled for recovery of several different spent acid solutions.

  9. Identifying operating units for the design and synthesis of azeotropic-distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, G.; Fan, L.T.; Friedler, F.; Seib, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    A highly effective method has been established to identify processing or operating units necessary for the design or synthesis of azeotropic-distillation systems by resorting to the first principles and logical sequencing of such units. The materials represented in the space of the residue curve map are partitioned into lumped materials bounded by the thermodynamic boundaries and pinches. Subsequently, the operating units are identified on the basis of these lumped materials. The efficacy of the method has been amply illustrated by generating some feasible flowsheets with a set of relatively simple heuristics for the process of producing pure ethanol from its aqueous solution via azeotropic distillation, which is a typical complex process involving thermodynamic pinches, such as azeotropes, phase transition, and/or phase separation. The method is applicable to other complex processes, e.g., crystallization, extraction, reactive distillation, and their combinations. It is highly likely that the method can be an integral part of any conventional heuristic or algorithmic flowsheeting procedure because selecting plausible or candidate operating units is essential for synthesizing a flowsheet by any procedure.

  10. Distillation Column Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    Advanced Computational and Experimental Techniques will Optimize Distillation Column Operation. Distillation is a low thermal efficiency unit operation that currently consumes 4.8 quadrillion BTUs of energy...

  11. The vacuum system for technological unit development and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukeshov, A. M.; Gabdullina, A. T.; Amrenova, A. U.; Giniyatova, Sh G.; Kaibar, A.; Sundetov, A.; Fermakhan, K.

    2015-11-01

    The paper shows results of development of plasma technological unit on the basis of accelerator of vacuum arc and automated system. During the previous years, the authors investigated the operation of pulsed plasma accelerator and developed unique technologies for hardening of materials. Principles of plasma formation in pulsed plasma accelerator were put into basis of the developed unit. Operation of the pulsed arc accelerator was investigated at different parameters of the charge. The developed vacuum system is designed for production of hi-tech plasma units in high technologies in fields of nanomaterials, mechanical and power engineering and production with high added value. Unlike integrated solutions, the system is a module one to allow its low cost, high reliability and simple maintenance. The problems of use of robots are discussed to modernize the technological process.

  12. A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2013-06-18

    Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production. PMID:23663035

  13. Screening procedure for detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in cooked bacon by one-trap mineral oil vacuum distillation and thermal energy analyzer.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, E L; Vasco, G A; Legette, L; Malanoski, A

    1982-11-01

    A rapid screening procedure for the detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in fried bacon has been developed for the regulatory monitoring of bacon. This procedure uses vacuum mineral oil distillation of an alkaline sample. The distillate is collected in a prewet trap immersed in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the distillate is transferred to a separator. The trap is rinsed with methylene chloride which is then used to extract the nitrosamines. The methylene chloride is dried with Na2SO4 and concentrated. A gas-liquid chromatograph coupled to a thermal energy analyzer is used to identify and quantitate the nitrosamines. Recoveries of 7 volatile N-nitrosamines added to 25 g fried bacon at the 10 ppb level (microgram/kg) ranged from 78 to 92%. PMID:7174574

  14. New Smelting Process for Titanium: Magnesiothermic Reduction of TiCl4 into Liquid Bi and Subsequent Refining by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Yuya; Kishimoto, Akihiro; Uda, Tetsuya

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a new continuous smelting process for Ti that combines magnesiothermic reduction of TiCl4 into liquid Bi and refining by vacuum distillation. TiCl4 is reduced by Mg into liquid Bi to form Bi-Ti liquid alloys, and subsequently refined by vacuum distillation. The Bi-Ti liquid alloys can be easily transferred from a reduction vessel to a refining vessel; consequently, the reduction and refining steps can be performed continuously. Bi-Ti alloys with various compositions were confirmed to form, and the compositions were controllable via adjustment of the nominal composition of TiCl4, Mg, and Bi. After reduction, the alloys were efficiently separated from MgCl2 by differences in their densities. In addition, vacuum distillation of the alloys purified Ti to be greater than 99.6 at pct. Moreover, consideration of the heat balance in the reduction step indicated that the proposed process has the potential to unlimitedly improve the feed rate of TiCl4 when the concentration of Ti in the alloy is 6 to 7 at pct.

  15. Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units

    SciTech Connect

    Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

    2012-12-11

    A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

  16. Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

  17. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vacuum brakes shall operate in conjunction with the truck or truck tractor brake pedal. (2) Inspection procedure. (i) Check the trailer vacuum system by coupling trailer(s) to truck or truck tractor and...

  18. (Vapor + Liquid) Equilibrium (VLE) for Binary Lead-Antimony System in Vacuum Distillation: New Data and Modeling Using Nonrandom Two-Liquid (NRTL) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjie; Kong, Lingxin; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; You, Yanjun; Xu, Shuai; Zhou, Yuezhen; Li, Yifu; Liu, Dachun

    2016-07-01

    In this work, new experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of lead-antimony alloy (Pb-Sb alloy) in vacuum distillation are reported. The activity coefficients of components of Pb-Sb alloy were calculated by using the NRTL model. The calculated average relative deviations were ±0.1425 and ±0.2433 pct, and the average standard deviations were ±0.0009 and ±0.0007, respectively, for Pb and Sb. The VLE phase diagrams, such as the temperature composition (T-x) and pressure composition (P-x) diagrams of Pb-Sb alloy in vacuum distillation were predicted based on the NRTL model and VLE theory. The predicted results are consistent with the new experimental data indicating that VLE phase diagrams obtained by this method are reliable. The VLE phase diagrams of alloys will provide an effective and intuitive way for the technical design and realization of recycling and separation processes. The VLE data may be used in separation processes design, and the thermodynamic properties as the key parameters in specific applications.

  19. (Vapor + Liquid) Equilibrium (VLE) for Binary Lead-Antimony System in Vacuum Distillation: New Data and Modeling Using Nonrandom Two-Liquid (NRTL) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjie; Kong, Lingxin; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; You, Yanjun; Xu, Shuai; Zhou, Yuezhen; Li, Yifu; Liu, Dachun

    2016-09-01

    In this work, new experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of lead-antimony alloy (Pb-Sb alloy) in vacuum distillation are reported. The activity coefficients of components of Pb-Sb alloy were calculated by using the NRTL model. The calculated average relative deviations were ±0.1425 and ±0.2433 pct, and the average standard deviations were ±0.0009 and ±0.0007, respectively, for Pb and Sb. The VLE phase diagrams, such as the temperature composition ( T- x) and pressure composition ( P-x) diagrams of Pb-Sb alloy in vacuum distillation were predicted based on the NRTL model and VLE theory. The predicted results are consistent with the new experimental data indicating that VLE phase diagrams obtained by this method are reliable. The VLE phase diagrams of alloys will provide an effective and intuitive way for the technical design and realization of recycling and separation processes. The VLE data may be used in separation processes design, and the thermodynamic properties as the key parameters in specific applications.

  20. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ≤ 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  1. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

  2. Characterization of vacuum bottoms from the P-99 coal liquefaction unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, R.G.; Schmidt, C.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Hough, M.R.; Link, T.A.; Sprecher, R.F.; Retcofsky, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A composite sample of vacuum bottoms has been analyzed by structural sensitive techniques applicable to high molecular weight, highly functional coal-derived materials. The utilization and limitations of x-ray diffraction, infrared, high resolution and /sup 13/C-CP/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution and field ionization mass spectrometry, and electron spin resonance are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the characterization of methylene chloride soluble fractions, isolated by a combination of mild extraction and functionality-specific procedures, in terms of heteroatom functionality, molecular weight and carbon number distributions, and mean structural parameters. This nondistillate but soluble material is primarily a complex mixture of high molecular weight polynuclear aromatic and heterocyclic components with short alkyl substituents. The vacuum bottoms are low in phenolic OH functionality compared to typical SRC-II distillates. 9 references, 25 figures, 14 tables.

  3. Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of select volatile organic compounds in foods by using vacuum distillation with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Patricia J; Limm, William; Begley, Timothy H; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that headspace and purge and trap methods have limitations when used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in foods, including matrix effects and artifact formation from precursors present in the sample matrix or from thermal decomposition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8261A liberates VOCs from the sample matrix by using vacuum distillation at room temperature. The method was modified and validated for the determination of furan, chloroform, benzene, trichloroethene, toluene, and sytrene in infant formula, canned tuna (in water), peanut butter, and an orange beverage (orange-flavored noncarbonated beverage). The validation studies showed that the LOQ values ranged from 0.05 ng/g toluene in infant formula to 5.10 ng/g toluene in peanut butter. Fortified recoveries were determined at the first, second, and third standard additions, and concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 6.9 ng/g. When quantified by the method of standard additions, the recoveries ranged from 56 to 218% at the first standard addition and 89 to 117% at the third. The validated method was used to conduct a survey of the targeted VOCs in 18 foods. The amounts found ranged from none detected to 73.8 ng/g furan in sweet potato baby food. PMID:24830164

  4. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  5. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-09-01

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

  6. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.

    1997-10-27

    This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air

  7. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  8. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

  9. Distillation of Bell states in open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D.

    2010-04-15

    In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

  10. Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units

    DOEpatents

    Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

    2013-08-20

    A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

  11. Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

  12. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  13. Analyzing the contents of residual and plasma-supporting gases inside a vacuum deposition unit chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheev, A. Ye; Kharlamov, V. A.; Kruchek, S. D.; Cherniatina, A. A.; Khomenko, I. I.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a quadruple mass-spectrometer method, which is used to analyze the content of residual gas in a vacuum chamber of the ARM NTM (Automatised Working Area) ion-plasma unit. This unit is used to perfect the magnetron deposition process for coating radio-reflecting surfaces. The intake of pure argon into the chamber revealed up to 0.3 % of impurities in the plasma-supporting gas, including 0.02 % of water and oxygen. A significant presence of hydrocarbon gases is explained by the presence of solvents sorbed in rubber washers, joints of internal equipment, and other components inside the chamber. In order to decrease the level of impurities in the plasmasupporting atmosphere inside the chamber and improve the composition and properties of the coatings, it is necessary to take additional measures to cleanse and degas the surface of the chamber from condensation products and hydrocarbon compounds. To provide a minimal level of impurities in the coated surfaces it is vital to clean and degas the surfaces of the chamber, removing residual moisture and hydrocarbon compounds.

  14. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply

  15. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 and concomitantly manage humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Experimental results for full-size and sub-scale test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug ow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of ow rates (110-170 SLM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The relationship between swing adsorption cycles for an outlet criterion of 6.0 mm Hg of CO2 partial pressure has been established for each metabolic challenge. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new operational constraints. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space

  16. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  17. Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

  18. Revamp for more middle distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, D.J.; Pierce, V.E.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the continued decline in demand for residual fuel oil, the much publicised tightness of refining margins and hence funds for new investment, it is appropriate at this time to review some relatively inexpensive, but well-proven, revamp options that are available to the refiner for increasing yields of mid-distillate products at the expense of fuel oil components. With the partial or complete closure of so much refining capacity, much surplus equipment is available for implementing revamp projects. There is also scope for revamping hitherto moth-balled units and operating them in a manner different from that envisaged during their original design. Some long established conversion processes such as visbreaking and thermal cracking can enjoy a renaissance if demand for distillates remains strong. Mild hydrocracking and distillate dewaxing which are more recent developments in refinery processing can also figure prominently in plans for incremental production of middle distillates.

  19. Measurement of eddy-current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Tan, Y; Liu, Y Q

    2015-08-01

    Eddy currents have an important effect on tokamak plasma equilibrium and control of magneto hydrodynamic activity. The vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak is separated into two hemispherical sections by a toroidal insulating barrier. Consequently, the characteristics of eddy currents are more complex than those found in a standard tokamak. Thus, it is necessary to measure and analyze the eddy-current distribution. In this study, we propose an experimental method for measuring the eddy-current distribution in a vacuum vessel. By placing a flexible printed circuit board with magnetic probes onto the external surface of the vacuum vessel to measure the magnetic field parallel to the surface and then subtracting the magnetic field generated by the vertical-field coils, the magnetic field due to the eddy current can be obtained, and its distribution can be determined. We successfully applied this method to the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak, and thus, we obtained the eddy-current distribution despite the presence of the magnetic field generated by the external coils. PMID:26329187

  20. Measurement of eddy-current distribution in the vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Tan, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2015-08-01

    Eddy currents have an important effect on tokamak plasma equilibrium and control of magneto hydrodynamic activity. The vacuum vessel of the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak is separated into two hemispherical sections by a toroidal insulating barrier. Consequently, the characteristics of eddy currents are more complex than those found in a standard tokamak. Thus, it is necessary to measure and analyze the eddy-current distribution. In this study, we propose an experimental method for measuring the eddy-current distribution in a vacuum vessel. By placing a flexible printed circuit board with magnetic probes onto the external surface of the vacuum vessel to measure the magnetic field parallel to the surface and then subtracting the magnetic field generated by the vertical-field coils, the magnetic field due to the eddy current can be obtained, and its distribution can be determined. We successfully applied this method to the Sino-UNIted Spherical Tokamak, and thus, we obtained the eddy-current distribution despite the presence of the magnetic field generated by the external coils.

  1. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  2. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  3. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

  4. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled spirits. Containers of distilled spirits brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

  5. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  6. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  7. Hybrid nonlocality distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Keng-Shuo; Hsu, Li-Yi

    2013-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the notion of hybrid nonlocality distillation, in which different nonlocal boxes are exploited for nonlocality distillation. Here, we quantify the nonlocality using the violation degree of either the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality or the I3322 inequality. Our study shows that hybrid nonlocality distillation can outperform nonlocality distillation using copies of single nonlocal boxes. In particular, more nonlocality of undistillable boxes can be activated with the assistance of distillable boxes. Equivalently, distillable boxes can achieve more nonlocality with the assistance of undistillable boxes.

  8. Solar distillation of sea water

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanyam, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

  9. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  10. Demetallation catalysts improve the performance of vacuum gas oil and resid hydrotreating units

    SciTech Connect

    Plantenga, F.L.; Sonnemans, J.W.M.; Desai, P.H.; Sujuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    The application of special demetallation catalysts can improve the performance of resid and vacuum gas oil hydrotreaters considerably for product quality. This paper describes the effect of catalyst properties on activity, selectivity, and stability of demetallation catalysts. The effect of feedstock and pressure on metals removal rate is presented. Results of a stability test demonstrate the high metals tolerance of a recently developed Ketjen demet catalyst. This catalyst can pick up close to 180 percent of its own weight of metals. The results of this test also demonstrate the excellent performance of this catalyst for asphaltene conversion. Finally, information on the performance of two-stage catalyst systems for heavy oil treating is also presented.

  11. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  12. Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point distillation of H-Coal distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, M.D.; Malone, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of simulated distillation to true boiling point (TBP) from both actual TBP distillation and single theoretical plate distillations converted to TBP for various H-Coal distillates is presented. The TBP distillation data was obtained using a Todd distillation column having 15 theoretical plates and a 5:1 reflux ratio. The simulated data presented were obtained using a Hewlitt Packard 5731 gas chromatograph equipped with dual flame ionization detectors. Graphical comparisons of distillation curves obtained by direct weight % TBP distillation and simulated distillation for a full range H-Coal syncrude, of boiling point curves for H-Coal naphtha, H-Coal middle distillate, and H-Coal heavy distillate are included. From an examination of the distillation data, it was apparent that simulated distillation data compared favorable with weight % distillation data, whether derived from direct TBP distillation or single theoretical plate distillation data and converted to TBP data. (BLM)

  14. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility, October-November 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, William

    2002-01-01

    The Engineering Test Unit (ETU) of COR1 was made in two configurations. The first configuration, ETU-1, was for vibration testing, while the second, ETU-2, was for optical testing. This is a report on the optical testing performed on ETU-2 at the NCAR/HAO Vacuum Tunnel Facility during the months of October and November, 2002. This was the same facility used to test the two previous breadboard models. In both configurations, the first two tube sections were complete, with all optical elements aligned. The vibration model ETU-1 had the remaining tube sections attached, with mass models for the remaining optics, for the various mechanisms, and for the focal plane assembly. It was then converted into the optical model ETU-2 by removing tube sections 3 to 5, and mounting the remaining optics on commercial mounts. (The bandpass filter was also installed into tube 2, which had been replaced in ETU-1 by a mass model, so that pre- and post-vibration optical measurements could be made.) Doublet 2 was installed in a Newport LP-2 carrier, and aligned to the other optics in the first two tube sections. The LP-2 adjustment screws were then uralened so that the alignment could be maintained during shipping. Because neither the flight polarizer nor Hollow Core Motor were available, they were simulated by a commercial polarizer and rotational mount, both from Oriel corporation. The Oriel rotational stage was not designed for vacuum use, but it was determined after consultation with the company, and lab testing, that the stage could be used in the moderate vacuum conditions at the NCAR/HAO facility. The shutter and focal plane assembly were simulated with the same camera used for the previous two breadboard tests. The focal plane mask was simulated with a plane of BK7 glass with a mask glued on, using the same procedure as for the Lyot spot on Doublet 1, and mounted in an adjustable LP-2 carrier. Two masks were made, one made to the precise specifications of the optical design, the

  15. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  16. Neural network modeling of distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Baratti, R.; Vacca, G.; Servida, A.

    1995-06-01

    Neural network modeling (NNM) was implemented for monitoring and control applications on two actual distillation columns: the butane splitter tower and the gasoline stabilizer. The two distillation columns are in operation at the SARAS refinery. Results show that with proper implementation techniques NNM can significantly improve column operation. The common belief that neural networks can be used as black-box process models is not completely true. Effective implementation always requires a minimum degree of process knowledge to identify the relevant inputs to the net. After background and generalities on neural network modeling, the paper describes efforts on the development of neural networks for the two distillation units.

  17. Optimizing process vacuum condensers

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

  18. Extractive distillation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Sh.; Miyamoto, M.

    1984-05-08

    A method is disclosed for separating a hydrocarbon mixture into relatively difficulty soluble hydrocarbons and relatively easily soluble hydrocarbons by extractive distillation using a polar solvent. The method comprises feeding the starting hydrocarbon mixture to at least two evaporators, an extractive distillation column, a stripping column and a rectifying column; the improvement wherein (1) the polar solvent discharged at a high temperature from the bottom of the stripping column is recycled to the extractive distillation column after it has been cooled to a suitable temperature by giving up heat to a reboiler of the extractive distillation column, a reboiler of the rectifying column and successively to the two or more evaporators, and (2) the starting hydrocarbon mixture is divided into two or more streams and heated in two or more evaporators, one stream being evaporated in a first evaporator to a pressure necessary for introduction into the extractive distillation column and then fed to the extractive distillation column, and the other stream, after evaporation in a second and subsequent evaporators, being pressurized to a pressure required for introduction into the extractive distillation column by means of a compressor and then fed into the extractive distillation column.

  19. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  20. Catalytic distillation process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  1. Datalogging the Distillation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

    1995-01-01

    Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

  2. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  3. Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

  4. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  5. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  6. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  7. Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

    1968-01-01

    Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

  8. Vacuum force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  9. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  10. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  11. Distillation under electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.M.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C.

    1997-11-01

    Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

  12. Removal of water haze from distillate fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

    1989-04-04

    A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

  13. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  14. 27 CFR 26.66 - Bond, TTB Form 5110.50-Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-Distilled spirits. 26.66 Section 26.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.66 Bond, TTB Form 5110.50—Distilled spirits. (a) General. If any person intends to ship to the United States, distilled spirits products...

  15. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  16. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production of distilling material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

  17. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  18. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  19. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  20. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  1. 27 CFR 27.40 - Distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Distilled Spirits § 27.40 Distilled spirits. (a) A tax is imposed on...

  2. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  3. Conceptual design for a full-scale VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption unit. Final report, September 1992--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.R.

    1996-04-01

    Rust Federal Services is pleased to present this topical report on the results of our Phase II conceptual design work of the PRDA VAC*TRAX{sup SM} mobile vacuum thermal desorption technology demonstration program. Through the present Phase II conceptual design activities, Rust has developed an equipment design and permitting strategy that retains the flexibility of a mobile treatment system with the long term value and ease of access of a central facility. The process is designed to remove volatile matter from solid matrices by thermal desorption. The system is also designed with superior emission controls, making it an ideal system for the treatment of radioactive wastes.

  4. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  5. Cascade Distillation System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  6. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics—ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators—with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  7. An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

    1986-09-01

    To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs

  8. Understand vacuum-system fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.R. ); Lines, J.R. ); Golden, S.W. )

    1994-10-01

    Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

  9. Crude unit corrosion and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarian, A.; Feather, J.; Hull, B.; Stephenson, R.; Strong, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the petroleum refining process, the Crude Unit is the initial stage of distillation of the crude oil into useable fractions, either as end products or feed to downstream units. The major pieces of equipment found on units will vary depending on factors such as the assay of the design crude, the age of the refinery, and other downstream units. The unit discussed in this paper has all of the major pieces of equipment found on crude units including double desalting, a preflash section, an atmospheric section, a vacuum section, and a stabilization section. This paper reviews fundamental corrosion issues concerning the Crude Unit process. It is, in concise form, a description of the process and major equipment found in the Crude Unit; types of corrosion and where they occur; corrosion monitoring and inspection advice; and a list of related references for further reading. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  11. Honeywell Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a vacuum rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. The CDS was previously under development through Honeywell and NASA. In 2009, an assessment was performed to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. Based on the results of this testing, an expert panel concluded that the CDS showed adequate development maturity, TRL-4, together with the best product water quality and competitive weight and power estimates to warrant further development. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) worked to address weaknesses identified by The Panel; namely bearing design and heat pump power efficiency. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades. The CDS will also have been challenged with ISS analog waste streams and a subset of those being considered for Exploration architectures. This paper details interim results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  12. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  13. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  14. Evaluation of fit of cement-retained implant-supported 3-unit structures fabricated with direct metal laser sintering and vacuum casting techniques.

    PubMed

    Oyagüe, Raquel Castillo; Sánchez-Turrión, Andrés; López-Lozano, José Francisco; Montero, Javier; Albaladejo, Alberto; Suárez-García, María Jesús

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the vertical discrepancy of implant-fixed 3-unit structures. Frameworks were constructed with laser-sintered Co-Cr, and vacuum-cast Co-Cr, Ni-Cr-Ti, and Pd-Au. Samples of each alloy group were randomly luted in standard fashion using resin-modified glass-ionomer, self-adhesive, and acrylic/urethane-based cements (n = 12 each). Discrepancies were SEM analyzed. Three-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests were run (P < 0.05). Laser-sintered structures achieved the best fit per cement tested. Within each alloy group, resin-modified glass-ionomer and acrylic/urethane-based cements produced comparably lower discrepancies than the self-adhesive agent. The abutment position did not yield significant differences. All misfit values could be considered clinically acceptable. PMID:22075754

  15. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    PubMed

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow. PMID:26824532

  16. Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

    2006-09-16

    In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

  17. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  18. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  19. Vapor compression distillation module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuccio, P. P.

    1975-01-01

    A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

  20. Treatment of vacuum residues in hydroconversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Mendoza, D. L.; Espinosa, J. O.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the use of a liquid homogeneous catalyst has been studied in reactivity vacuum residues by hydroconversion under different conditions. To cover a wide range of compositions, six (6) vacuum residues were selected from crude mixtures. Hydroconversion test were performed in batch reactor with hydrogen atmosphere at about 2000psi in a temperature range between 430 and 480°C. The results allowed to establish that the reactivity hydroconversion conditions about coke formation is higher in vacuum residues with higher content of resins and asphaltenes. The reaction conditions promote distillate formation, however, with increasing stringency conditions, the distillate yield decreases due to distillate transformation into temperature range 430 and 460°C compared to the tests performed without catalyst demonstrating that the use of homogeneous catalyst is an alternative to treating vacuum residues and results are satisfactory in the conversion processes. Finally, predictive expressions have been developed in the formation of products depending on the conditions of temperature and physicochemical properties of processed vacuum residue.

  1. Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech

    2010-08-15

    The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

  2. Propellant Analysis and Distillation Unit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Michelle H.; Spangler, Cindy; Barrera, Louis K.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) routinely operates hypergolic propulsion systems. Some of the onsite activities include performing long duration studies on the operational life of these systems. A few of them have been in use for over twenty years. During this span of time contamination has built up in the propellant and some of the distribution infrastructure. This study investigated the nature of this contamination, the pathology of its generation, and developed a process for removal of the contamination that was cost efficient with minimal waste generation.

  3. Steam distillation of crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Duerksen, J.H.; Hsueh, L.

    1983-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to generate crude oil steam distillation data for the prediction of phase behavior in steamflood simulation and to correlate the steam distillation yields for a variety of crude oils. Thirteen steam distillation tests were run on 10 crude oils ranging in gravity from 9.4 to 37/sup 0/API (1.004 to 0.840 g/cm/sup 3/). In each test the crude was steam distilled sequentially at about 220, 300, 400, and 500/sup 0/F (104, 149, 204, and 260/sup 0/C). The cumulative steam distillation yields at 400/sup 0/F (204/sup 0/C) ranged from about 20 to 55 vol%. Experimental results showed that crude oil steam distillation yields at steamflood conditions are significant, even for heavy oils. The effects of differences in steam volume throughput and steam temperature were taken into account when comparing yields for different crudes or repeat runs on the same crude. Steam distillation yields show a high correlation with crude oil API gravity and wax content.

  4. Quantum distillation of bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  5. Distillation. Third World Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  6. Thermomechanically integrated distillation of ethylene from ethane

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.G.; Haddad, H.; Manley, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    The separation of ethylene from ethane by distillation is normally the final step in the production of ethylene. The critical temperature of ethylene is about 50 F, therefore moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures are typically used to provide optimum economic conditions. The optimum design can require thick walled and heavy pressure vessels which may be constructed of expensive alloy steels depending on the specific operating conditions. The required purity of ethylene usually exceeds 99.9%, and the economic level of recovery is approximately 99%. In addition, the relative volatility of ethylene to ethane is moderately small ranging from about 1.13 for high pressure mixtures rich in ethylene to 2.34 for low pressure mixtures rich in ethane. The relatively high purity and recovery and relatively low relative volatility dictate a large distillation column with more than 100 trays and a large diameter for world scale production levels of over a billion pounds per year of ethylene. The installed capital cost for a unit of this type and size can exceed twenty million dollars, and utility costs can exceed one million dollars per year. Consequently, there is a strong economic incentive to reduce costs through improved process designs for the distillation of ethylene from ethane, and the process is well studied in the literature. Thermomechanically integrated distillation provides an improved design which can reduce both capital and operating costs as compared to the best conventional designs. In this paper, the conventional designs for both vapor and liquid feeds are reviewed, the underlying thermodynamics characterizing the process is discussed, alternative thermomechanically integrated designs are presented, and utility and purchased equipment costs are compared.

  7. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOEpatents

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  8. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  9. Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

  10. Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

  11. Evaluation of vapor mass transfer in various membrane distillation configurations: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannella, G. A.; La Carrubba, V.; Brucato, V.

    2012-06-01

    Vapor mass transfer phenomena in four different membrane distillation (MD) configurations were examined through a self-built laboratory scale experimental apparatus: Air Gap MD, Sweeping Gas MD, Vacuum Sweeping Gas MD and Vacuum MD. Vapor fluxes were measured and compared with those predicted by various models, showing that MD performance under usual processing conditions is severely controlled by the permeate side resistance to mass transfer.

  12. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  13. A solar pond driven distillation and power production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

    In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  14. Distillation of cadmium from uranium plutonium cadmium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

    2005-04-01

    Uranium-plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U-Pu-Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9 wt% U and 8.7 wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10 g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser in a vacuum vessel. After distillation at 1073 K, the weight of the residue was in good agreement with that of the loaded actinides, where the content of Cd decreased to less than 0.05 wt%. The uranium-plutonium alloy product was recovered without adhering to the yttria crucible. The cross section of the product was observed using electron probe micro-analyzer and it was found to consist of a dense material. Almost all of the evaporated Cd was recovered in the condenser and so enclosed well in the apparatus.

  15. Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.H.; Leboeuf, C.M.; Waddington, D.

    1981-12-01

    A solar pond-driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodyanamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This model was used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

  16. 75 FR 11147 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Distilled Solutions, LLC a revocable, nonassignable, exclusive license to practice in the United States, the Government- owned invention described in U.S. Patent No. 6,893,540, entitled ``High Temperature Peltier Effect Water Distiller,'' issued May 17, 2005, Navy Case No....

  17. On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, K. Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D.

    2008-03-15

    High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

  18. FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

  19. Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

  20. Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2010-10-15

    Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

  1. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  2. Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

  3. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  4. Bakery product from distiller's grain

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, J.A.; Stoker, R.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for preparing a bran from a solid fermentation wet distiller's grain (WDG) or distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), which consisting essentially of: adding sodium bicarbonate at about 0.05-5 weight percent, amino acid at about 0.05-5 weight percent and potato starch at about 10-50 weight percent in the form of additives to WDG or DDGS; blending the WDG/DDGS-additive mix; and drying the blended mix to form a bran suitable for use in products for human consumption.

  5. Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

    2012-11-01

    A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65°C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

  6. Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Mundarain, D.; Orszag, M.

    2009-05-15

    We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

  7. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  8. Plant transpiration distillation of water

    SciTech Connect

    Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

  9. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Davis, B.H.; Sagues, A.A.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1985-04-30

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or subatmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid:...

  11. Validating the Equilibrium Stage Model for an Azeotropic System in a Laboratorial Distillation Column

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, B. P. M.; Coelho Pinheiro, M. N.; Silva, D. C. M.; Moura, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    The experiment described is an excellent opportunity to apply theoretical concepts of distillation, thermodynamics of mixtures and process simulation at laboratory scale, and simultaneously enhance the ability of students to operate, control and monitor complex units.

  12. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  13. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  14. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The...

  15. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  16. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  17. 27 CFR 19.301 - Distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distillation. 19.301 Section 19.301 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Spirits § 19.301 Distillation. The distillation of spirits must be done in a continuous...

  18. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilling material. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material... fruit residues, for use as distilling material, using any quantity of water desired to...

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  20. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, E; Streltsov, A; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2016-02-19

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed. PMID:26943512

  1. Assisted Distillation of Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, E.; Streltsov, A.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Adesso, G.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system, while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other; this is an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication. We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, an analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  2. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  3. Optimization of Tocopherol Concentration Process From Soybean Oil Deodorized Distillate Using Response Surface Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Vanessa Mayumi; Batistella, César Benedito; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    Soybean oil deodorized distillate is a product derived from the refining process and it is rich in high value-added products. The recovery of these unsaponifiable fractions is of great commercial interest, because of the fact that in many cases, the "valuable products" have vitamin activities such as tocopherols (vitamin E), as well as anticarcinogenic properties such as sterols. Molecular distillation has large potential to be used in order to concentrate tocopherols, as it uses very low temperatures owing to the high vacuum and short operating time for separation, and also, it does not use solvents. Then, it can be used to separate and to purify thermosensitive material such as vitamins.

  4. Vacuum phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Omori, Kazuhiko; Oode, Yasumasa; Ishikawa, Kouhei

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the theory of the formation of the vacuum phenomenon (VP), the detection of the VP, the different medical causes, the different locations of the presentation of the VP, and the differential diagnoses. In the human body, the cavitation effect is recognized on radiological studies; it is called the VP. The mechanism responsible for the formation of the VP is as follows: if an enclosed tissue space is allowed to expand as a rebound phenomenon after an external impact, the volume within the enclosed space will increase. In the setting of expanding volume, the pressure within the space will decrease. The solubility of the gas in the enclosed space will decrease as the pressure of the space decreases. Decreased solubility allows a gas to leave a solution. Clinically, the pathologies associated with the VP have been reported to mainly include the normal joint motion, degeneration of the intervertebral discs or joints, and trauma. The frequent use of CT for trauma patients and the high spatial resolution of CT images might produce the greatest number of chances to detect the VP in trauma patients. The VP is observed at locations that experience a traumatic impact; thus, an analysis of the VP may be useful for elucidating the mechanism of an injury. When the VP is located in the abdomen, it is important to include perforation of the digestive tract in the differential diagnosis. The presence of the VP in trauma patients does not itself influence the final outcome. PMID:27147527

  5. Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. PMID:23401139

  6. Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenko, E.A.

    1988-06-01

    Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

  7. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E.; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  8. Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchens, Cindy F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

  9. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

  10. Small codes for magic state distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark; Dawkins, Hillary

    2016-03-01

    Magic state distillation is a critical component in leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Relatively little is known, however, about how to construct a magic state distillation routine or, more specifically, which stabilizer codes are suitable for the task. While transversality of a non-Clifford gate within a code often leads to efficient distillation routines, it appears to not be a necessary condition. Here we have examined a number of small stabilizer codes and highlight a handful of which displaying interesting, albeit inefficient, distillation behaviour. Many of these distill noisy states right up to the boundary of the known undististillable region, while some distill toward non-stabilizer states that have not previously been considered.

  11. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  12. Collocation methods for distillation design. 2: Applications for distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Huss, R.S.; Westerberg, A.W.

    1996-05-01

    The authors present applications for a collocation method for modeling distillation columns that they developed in a companion paper. They discuss implementation of the model, including discussion of the ASCEND (Advanced System for Computations in ENgineering Design) system, which enables one to create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. They first investigate applying the model to compute minimum reflux for a given separation task, exactly solving nonsharp and approximately solving sharp split minimum reflux problems. They next illustrate the use of the collocation model to optimize the design a single column capable of carrying out a prescribed set of separation tasks. The optimization picks the best column diameter and total number of trays. It also picks the feed tray for each of the prescribed separations.

  13. A soil water distillation technique using He-purging for stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatev, A.; Velivetckaia, T.; Sugimoto, A.; Ueta, A.

    2013-08-01

    A new method of soil water extraction for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis has been developed; this method uses a helium flow system as an alternative to the conventional vacuum extraction method. The method significantly increases the efficiency of sample preparation and simplifies the extraction. During the water distillation, a helium carrier gas transfers water vaporized at 95 °C from the soil sample to a cold trap at liquid nitrogen temperature. An extraction time of 180 min is used to distill the water from the fine-grained soil completely. The proposed He-purging distillation technique makes it possible to distill approximately a dozen samples simultaneously. The method was tested using liquid water samples and clayey soil samples hydrated with water of known isotopic composition. The standard deviations for these tests were 0.08‰ for δ18O and 0.7‰ for δD. An intercomparison test was conducted for the helium and vacuum extraction methods using natural soil samples. The correlation coefficients between the methods were 0.9926 and 0.9939 for δD and δ18O, respectively. The proposed He-purging distillation method can achieve high precision for clayey soil samples with low water content and has the potential to provide adequate isotopic data in hydrological and ecological studies. The method is relatively fast, efficient, and inexpensive. We also recommend using the method to distill salt solutions (sea water, mineralized water) before determining the δD and δ18O values using a chromium or carbon reduction method to avoid “salt effects”.

  14. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  15. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  16. 27 CFR 1.90 - Distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits in bulk..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.90 Distilled spirits in bulk. By the terms of the...

  17. 27 CFR 1.91 - Bottled distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled distilled spirits..., NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Warehouse Receipts § 1.91 Bottled distilled spirits. The provisions of...

  18. Combined distillation and normal freezing to purify elements of groups II and VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    A practical system and its application to the purification of Te and Cd is described. Single crystals are grown directly in vitreous silica ampoules subsequently used for sealed Bridgman growth of (Hg-Cd)Te. The system also prepares the ampoules by heating in high vacuum. Purification of the elements is by the combined effect of distillation and normal freezing. Transport and segregation are discussed.

  19. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  20. Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

  1. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...

  2. 27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilling material. 24.216 Section 24.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.216 Distilling material. Wine may be produced on bonded...

  3. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  4. Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Sibasish; Joag, Pramod; Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir; Roy, Anirban

    2005-01-01

    A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

  5. A geometric design method for side-stream distillation columns

    SciTech Connect

    Rooks, R.E.; Malone, M.F.; Doherty, M.F.

    1996-10-01

    A side-stream distillation column may replace two simple columns for some applications, sometimes at considerable savings in energy and investment. This paper describes a geometric method for the design of side-stream columns; the method provides rapid estimates of equipment size and utility requirements. Unlike previous approaches, the geometric method is applicable to nonideal and azeotropic mixtures. Several example problems for both ideal and nonideal mixtures, including azeotropic mixtures containing distillation boundaries, are given. The authors make use of the fact that azeotropes or pure components whose classification in the residue curve map is a saddle can be removed as side-stream products. Significant process simplifications are found among some alternatives in example problems, leading to flow sheets with fewer units and a substantial savings in vapor rate.

  6. A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two

  7. The RHIC vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, R.; Hseuh, H. C.; Lee, R. C.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Smart, L.; Sondericker, J.; Weiss, D.; Welch, K.

    2003-03-01

    There are three vacuum systems in RHIC: the insulating vacuum vessels housing the superconducting magnets, the cold beam tubes surrounded by the superconducting magnets, and the warm beam tube sections at the insertion regions and the experimental regions. These systems have a cumulative length over 10 km and a total volume over 3000 m 3. Conventional ultrahigh vacuum technology was used in the design and construction of the cold and warm beam vacuum systems with great success. The long and large insulating vacuum volumes without vacuum barriers require careful management of the welding and leak checking of the numerous helium line joints. There are about 1500 vacuum gauges and pumps serial-linked to eight PLCs distributed around RHIC, which allow the monitoring and control of these devices through Ethernet networks to remote control consoles. With the exception of helium leaks through the cryogenic valve boxes into the insulating vacuum volumes, the RHIC vacuum systems have performed well beyond expectations.

  8. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  9. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  10. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  11. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  12. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  13. Development of multistage distillation in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Lam, K F; Cao, E; Sorensen, E; Gavriilidis, A

    2011-04-01

    Although there has been a lot of work on the development of microchemical processing systems such as micro-reactors and micro-sensors, little attention has been paid to micro-separation units, and in particular, microscale distillation. In this paper, various silicon-glass microscale distillation chips with different channel configurations were fabricated and tested. A temperature gradient was setup across the chip by heating and cooling the two ends. The feed was located at the middle of the microchannel. Arrays of micropillars were incorporated in order to guide the liquid flow. It was found that the separation performance was promoted by increasing the length of the microchannel. However, this created an imbalance of the liquid flows at the two sides of the microchannel and caused flooding. This hydrodynamic limitation was addressed by incorporating micropillars on both sides of the channel. The most efficient microdistillation chip consisted of a microchannel with 600 microns width and 40 cm length. Experimental results showed high efficiency for the separation of a 50 mol% acetone-water mixture when the heating and cooling temperature were 95 °C and 42 °C respectively. The concentrations of acetone were 3 mol% in the bottom stream and 95 mol% in the distillate, which was equivalent to at least 4 equilibrium stages at total reflux conditions. Furthermore, a 50 mol% methanol-toluene mixture was separated into nearly pure toluene in the bottom stream and 75 mol% methanol in the distillate. The performance of the microdistillation unit was reproducible in repeated tests. PMID:21327250

  14. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  15. High-efficient entanglement distillation from photon loss and decoherence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2015-11-30

    We illustrate an entanglement distillation protocol (EDP) for a mixed photon-ensemble which composed of four kinds of entangled states and vacuum states. Exploiting the linear optics and local entanglement resource (four-qubit entangled GHZ state), we design the nondemolition parity-checking and qubit amplifying (PCQA) setup for photonic polarization degree of freedom which are the key device of our scheme. With the PCQA setup, a high-fidelity entangled photon-pair system can be achieved against the transmission losses and the decoherence in noisy channels. And in the available purification range for our EDP, the fidelity of this ensemble can be improved to the maximal value through iterated operations. Compared to the conventional entanglement purification schemes, our scheme largely reduces the initialization requirement of the distilled mixed quantum system, and overcomes the difficulties posed by inherent channel losses during photon transmission. All these advantages make this scheme more useful in the practical applications of long-distance quantum communication. PMID:26698778

  16. Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

    1983-12-01

    Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

  17. Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

    2014-01-01

    The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

  18. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  19. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  20. Entanglement distillation using the exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Adrian; Schwonnek, René; Schoder, Christian; Dammeier, Lars; Werner, Reinhard F.; Burkard, Guido

    2016-03-01

    A key ingredient of quantum repeaters is entanglement distillation, i.e., the generation of high-fidelity entangled qubits from a larger set of pairs with lower fidelity. Here, we present entanglement distillation protocols based on qubit couplings that originate from exchange interaction. First, we make use of asymmetric bilateral two-qubit operations generated from anisotropic exchange interaction and show how to distill entanglement using two input pairs. We furthermore consider the case of three input pairs coupled through isotropic exchange. Here, we characterize a set of protocols which are optimizing the trade-off between the fidelity increase and the probability of a successful run.

  1. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  2. Vacuum Evaporation Technology for Treating Antimony-Rich Anode Slime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Keqiang; Lin, Deqiang; Yang, Xuelin

    2012-11-01

    A vacuum evaporation technology for treating antimony-rich anode slime was developed in this work. Experiments were carried out at temperatures from 873 K to 1073 K and residual gas pressures from 50 Pa to 600 Pa. During vacuum evaporation, silver from the antimony-rich anode slime was left behind in the distilland in a silver alloy containing antimony and lead, and antimony trioxide was evaporated. The experimental results showed that 92% by weight of antimony can be removed, and the silver content in the alloy was up to 12.84%. The antimony trioxide content in the distillate was more than 99.7%, and the distillate can be used directly as zero-grade antimony trioxide (China standard).

  3. Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

  4. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  5. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  6. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  7. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOEpatents

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  8. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  9. Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J. Ronald

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

  10. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  11. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  12. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  13. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  14. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  15. 7 CFR 160.8 - Steam distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Steam distilled wood turpentine. 160.8 Section 160.8... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.8 Steam distilled wood turpentine. The designation “steam distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine obtained by steam distillation...

  16. 27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits received in...

  17. 27 CFR 31.141 - Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 31.141 Section 31.141 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Purchases of Distilled Spirits § 31.141 Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits. (a) General. It is unlawful for any dealer to purchase distilled spirits for resale from any person other than: (1) A...

  18. 27 CFR 19.275 - Continuous distilling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuous distilling... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Construction, Equipment and Security § 19.275 Continuous distilling system. The distilling system shall be continuous, and...

  19. Method for desalinating water by preheating and distillation with solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, R.E.

    1980-11-25

    An apparatus and method for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein are described. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.

  20. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    -gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

  1. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine...

  6. Development of an Exploration-Class Cascade Distillation System: Flight Like Prototype Design Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam C.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to recover and purify water through physiochemical processes is crucial for realizing long-term human space missions, including both planetary habitation and space travel. Because of their robust nature, distillation systems have been actively pursued as one of the technologies for water recovery. One such technology is the Cascade Distillation System (CDS) a multi-stage vacuum rotary distiller system designed to recover water in a microgravity environment. The CDS provides a similar function to the state of the art (SOA) vapor compressor distiller (VCD) currently employed on the International Space Station, but its control scheme and ancillary components are judged to be more straightforward and simpler to implement into a more reliable and efficient system. Through the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) Project, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in collaboration with Honeywell International is developing a second generation flight forward prototype (CDS 2.0). A preliminary design fo the CDS 2.0 was presented to the project in September 2014. Following this review, detailed design of the system continued. The existing ground test prototype was used as a platform to demonstrate key 2.0 design and operational concepts to support this effort and mitigate design risk. A volumetric prototype was also developed to evaluate the packaging design for operability and maintainability. The updated system design was reviewed by the AES LSS Project and other key stakeholders in September 2015. This paper details the status of the CDS 2.0 design.

  7. Vacuum leak detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazokas, G. P. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A leak detector for use with high vacuum seals as used in feedthroughs and hatch covers for manned spacecraft and vacuum systems is described. Two thermistors are used, one exposed directly to vacuum and the other exposed to a secondary chamber formed by the seal being monitored and a second auxiliary seal. Leakage into the secondary chamber causes an unbalance of an electrical bridge circuit in which the thermistors are connected.

  8. Comparison of the volatile composition of Stachys pubescence oils obtained by hydro distillation and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Biglar, Mahmoud; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Shafiee, Abbas; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Salimpour, Fahimeh; Farjadmand, Fatemeh

    2014-07-01

    The oils obtained by hydrodistillation and steam distillation of the aerial part of Stachys pubescence Ten. was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Water distilled essential oil of the aerial part of S. pubescence, was rich in fatty acids like hexadecanoic acid and linoleic acid and also benzaldehyde and spathulenol whereas the steam distilled oil of the plant contained hexadecanoic acid, spathulenol and eugenol. Both of oils were rich in fatty acids (36.6 and 27.9%, respectively). Moreover, the content of oxygenated mono and sesquiterpenss were defined higher in steam distilled oil than hydrodistiledd oil (24.5, 17.2 and 6.1, 15.5%, respectively). In conclusion it seems that oxygenated terpenoids were trended to steam distillation method more than hydrodistillation, respectively. PMID:26035946

  9. COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also…

  10. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.