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1

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

2

[Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].  

PubMed

In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending. PMID:25739195

Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

2014-10-01

3

Combination of thermal cracking with vacuum distillation of cracked tar  

SciTech Connect

A method of obtaining greater amounts of distillate feedstocks from the heavy gasoil recovered by vacuum distillation of the products of thermal cracking of petroleum resids was examined. At the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, a two-furnace thermal cracking unit was reconstructed, adding a vacuum section for distillation of the cracked tar. A simplified flow plan of this unit is shown. Vacuum resid from atmospheric-vacuum tubestill units is heated in double-pipe heat exchangers, using heat from the gasoil and cracked tar. The new method makes it possible to curtail production of boiler fuel, expand the resources of feed, and improve the quality of petroleum coke.

Telyashev, G.G.; Gimaev, R.N.; Makhov, A.F.; Usmanov, R.M.; Baimbetov, A.M.; Vafin, I.A.

1987-11-01

4

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

1974-01-01

5

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-print Network

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01

6

Vacuum distillation of ethanol. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to determine whether distillation at or below a pressure of 70 mm of Hg would produce ethanol sufficiently anhydrous to permit mixing with gasoline without separation. The reason for this is that below 70 mm of Hg, the azeotrope does not form and, theoretically, 100% ethanol can be achieved by fractional distillation. There was insufficient information available to determine this by calculation. With the available experimental equipment, there were several problems (such as air leaks into the system, the vacuum pump was too small, temperature gradients in the column, condenser cooling water, etc.), but they did achieve reasonably anhydrous alcohol (99%). The distillation would require a heat source of about 140/sup 0/F (with a combination of simple and fractional distillation, a heat source of about 120/sup 0/F would suffice). These temperatures could be attained from a solar energy source for probably six months of the year. (LTN)

Weber, T.V.

1982-01-01

7

Hydrotreating vacuum distillate from mixed west Siberian crudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalysts that have been developed, designated GK-35 and D-69 have adequate activity in hydrotreating diesel fuel cuts; they can also be used for desulfurizing vacuum distillates. They have tested these catalysts in hydrotreating in a large single-pass unit at temperatures of 340-380°C, pressures 3-7 MPa, feedstock space velocities 1-2 h⁻¹, and hydrogen-rich gas circulation ratio 800 m³\\/m³. The feed was

A. N. Belousov; T. O. Omaraliev; E. K. Kaldygozov

1987-01-01

8

Hydrotreating vacuum distillate from mixed west Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect

Catalysts that have been developed, designated GK-35 and D-69 have adequate activity in hydrotreating diesel fuel cuts; they can also be used for desulfurizing vacuum distillates. They have tested these catalysts in hydrotreating in a large single-pass unit at temperatures of 340-380/sup 0/C, pressures 3-7 MPa, feedstock space velocities 1-2 h/sup -1/, and hydrogen-rich gas circulation ratio 800 m/sup 3//m/sup 3/. The feed was a vacuum distillate (350-500/sup 0/C cut) obtained from mixed West Siberian crudes at the Pavlodar refinery. They also performed comparative experiments on commercial alumina-cobalt-molybdenum (AKM) catalyst.

Belousov, A.N.; Omaraliev, T.O.; Kaldygozov, E.K.

1987-05-01

9

Vacuum membrane distillation: Experiments and modeling  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum membrane distillation is a membrane-based separation process considered here to remove volatile organic compounds from aqueous streams. Microporous hydrophobic membranes are used to separate the aqueous stream from a gas phase kept under vacuum. The evaporation of the liquid stream takes place on one side of the membrane, and mass transfer occurs through the vapor phase inside the membrane. The role of operative conditions on the process performance is widely investigated in the case of dilute binary aqueous mixtures containing acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylacetate, methylacetate, or methylterbutyl ether. Temperature, composition, flow rate of the liquid feed, and pressure downstream the membrane are the main operative variables. Among these, the vacuum-side pressure is the major design factor since it greatly affects the separation efficiency. A mathematical model description of the process is developed, and the results are compared with the experiments. The model is finally used to predict the best operative conditions in which the process can work for the case of benzene removal from waste waters.

Bandini, S.; Saavedra, A.; Sarti, G.C. [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)] [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)

1997-02-01

10

EVALUATION OF A VACUUM DISTILLER FOR PERFORMING METHOD 8261 ANALYSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation uses a specialized apparatus. This apparatus has been developed and patented by the EPA. Through the Federal Technology Transfer Act this invention has been made available for commercialization. Available vendors for this instrumentation are being evaluated. ...

11

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

12

Deterpenation of Brazilian orange peel oil by vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deterpenation of orange peel oil in most industries is accomplished by vacuum distillation, but surprisingly little information\\u000a on this matter can be found in the open literature. This work reports recent results on orange peel oil deterpenation carried\\u000a out in an automatic vacuum distillation column operated in the semibatch mode at the temperatures of 50, 65, and 80C, at

Giane R. Stuart; Dase Lopes; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2001-01-01

13

Vacuum distillation residue upgrading by an indigenous bacillus cereus  

PubMed Central

Background Biological processing of heavy fractions of crude oils offers less severe process conditions and higher selectivity for refining. Biochemical Processes are expected to be low demand energy processes and certainly ecofriendly. Results A strain of biosurfactant producing bacterium was isolated from an oil contaminated soil at Tehran refinery distillation unit. Based on selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristic including morphology, biochemical proprety, and 16 SrRNA sequencing identified as a novel strain of Bacillus cereus (JQ178332). This bacterium endures a wide range of pH, salinity and temperature. This specific strain utilizes both paraffin and anthracene as samples of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ability of this bacterium to acquire all its energy and chemical requirements from Vacuum Distillation Residue (VR), as a net sample of problematic hydrocarbons in refineries, was studied. SARA test ASTM D4124-01 revealed 65.5% decrease in asphaltenic, 22.1% in aliphatics and 30.3% in Aromatics content of the VR in MSM medium. Further results with 0.9% saline showed 55% decrease in asphaltene content and 2.1% Aromatics respectively. Conclusion Remarkable abilities of this microorganism propose its application in an ecofriendly technology to upgrade heavy crude oils. PMID:24499629

2013-01-01

14

Surface Depletion in the Vacuum Distillation of Metals from Bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings.

Bradley, R.F.

2001-08-29

15

Exergy and exergoeconomic analysis of a crude oil combined distillation unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined distillation unit is the first plant in a crude oil refinery, in which several intermediate products, i.e. liquid petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, gas oils and reduced crude, are obtained through atmospheric and vacuum distillation of the crude oil mixture. It is important to determine the critical points in the unit from the exergy

Ricardo Rivero; Consuelo Rendn; Salvador Gallegos

2004-01-01

16

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN IN YTTRIUM FLUORIDE BY A VACUUM DISTILLATION TECHNIQUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conventional vacuum fusion gas analysis unit is used for the ; determination of oxygen in yttrium fluoride. The yttrium fluoride ia distilled ; from the furnace, leaving the less volatile oxygen-containing compounds to be ; reduced by the carbon crucible. Recoveries of oxygen are quantitative when a ; liquid reaction medium is provided for the reduction. The effect of

V. M. Horrigan; V. A. Fassel; J. W. Goetzinger

1960-01-01

17

Improvement of gas-air regeneration of catalysts in hydrotreating vacuum distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the KT-1\\/1 combination unit at the Mazeikiai State Enterprise Nafta, in hydrotreating vacuum distillate as a cat cracker feed, the catalyst activity is restored by gas-air regeneration, with circulation of a sodium carbonate solution to absorb the sour gas. Beginning in mid-1989, the hydrotreating section of this combination unit has operated with new catalysts, manufactured by impregnating granules of

L. N. Osipov; A. A. Gimbutas; A. N. Chagovets; N. Ya. Vinogradova; G. Karbauskas; B. V. Bednov

1995-01-01

18

Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl3, kaolin, H2SO4 and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UVvis

Long Yan; Hongzhu Ma; Bo Wang; Wei Mao; Yashao Chen

2010-01-01

19

Fractional vacuum distillation of herring oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl esters of a Canadian Atlantic herring oil containing 62% monoethylenic fatty acids were subjected to batch fractional\\u000a distillation under vacuum on a pilot plant scale, to study the feasibility of fractionating fatty acid esters of marine oils\\u000a of low iodine value into monounsaturated fractions with increased commercial value for industrial chemical uses. A total of\\u000a 64 methyl ester fractions

R. G. Ackman; P. J. Ke; P. M. Jangaard

1973-01-01

20

High pressure hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil to middle distillates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocracking of heavier petroleum fractions into lighter ones is of increasing importance today to meet the huge demand, particularly for gasoline and middle distillates. Much work on hydrocracking of a gas oil range feed stock to mainly gasoline using modified zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with metals (namely Ni, Pd, Mo, etc.) has been reported. In India, however, present demand is for a maximum amount of middle distillate. The present investigation was therefore aimed to maximize the yield of middle distillate (140-270C boiling range) by hydrocracking a vacuum gas oil (365-450C boiling range) fraction from an Indian Refinery at high hydrogen pressure and temperature. A zeolite catalyst-base exchanged with 4.5% Ni was chosen for the reaction. A high pressure batch reactor with a rocking arrangement was used for the study. No pretreatment of the feed stock for sulphur removal applied as the total sulphur in the feed was less than 2%. The process variables studied for the maximum yield of the middle distillate were temperature 300-450C, pressure 100-200 bar and residence period 1-3 h at the feed to catalyst ratio of 9.3 (wt/wt). The optimum conditions for the maximum yield of 36% middle distillate of the product were: temperature 400C, pressure 34.5 bar (initially) and residence period 2 h. A carbon balance of 90-92% was found for each run.

Lahiri, C. R.; Biswas, Dipa

1986-05-01

21

Catalytic cracking of vacuum distillate with additives in fluidized catalyst bed  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a study of the catalytic cracking of straight-run 350-500/sup 0/C vacuum distillates differing substantially in contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and resins, as influenced by the addition of an extract from the No. III lube cut from West Siberian crude. The experiments were performed in a standard catalytic cracking unit in the fluidization mode, using KMTsR zeolitic microbead catalyst.

Omaraliev, T.O.; Tanashev, S.T.; Kapustin, V.M.

1987-03-01

22

Variation of hydrocarbon group composition of products from catalytic cracking of a vacuum distillate feed  

SciTech Connect

The relationships in the conversion of various groups of hydrocarbons of a vacuum distillate from a medium-sulfur crude of the Romashkino type by cracking on a powdered zeolitic catalyst was investigated in a continuous pilot unit in reactors of three types: with a fluidized bed of catalyst, cocurrent-flow with a final fluidized bed of catalyst, and cocurrent-flow. A simultaneous investigation was made of the relationships in the accumulation of various groups of hydrocarbons in the craced products.

Khadzhiev, S.N.; Romankova, I.K.; Svetozarova, O.I.

1985-09-01

23

Variation of hydrocarbon group composition of products from catalytic cracking of a vacuum distillate feed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships in the conversion of various groups of hydrocarbons of a vacuum distillate from a medium-sulfur crude of the Romashkino type by cracking on a powdered zeolitic catalyst was investigated in a continuous pilot unit in reactors of three types: with a fluidized bed of catalyst, cocurrent-flow with a final fluidized bed of catalyst, and cocurrent-flow. A simultaneous investigation

S. N. Khadzhiev; I. K. Romankova; O. I. Svetozarova

1985-01-01

24

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part II. Photographic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photographs of melt surface conditions and gas flows were taken during experiments which examined vacuum refining of melted steel scrap. The photographs illustrate the retarding effects of surface films on rates of copper and tin evaporation. The photographs also portray the characteristic variation in vapor flow pattern caused by altering chamber pressure. This was in agreement with the behavior predicted by the distillation model developed in Part I. It was also observed that vapor condensation may be a major problem area for industrial application of this process. Several solutions for this are suggested.

Harris, R.; Davenport, W. G.

1992-01-01

25

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part II. Photographic study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photographs of melt surface conditions and gas flows were taken during experiments which examined vacuum refining of melted steel scrap. The photographs illustrate the retarding effects of surface films on rates of copper and tin evaporation. The photographs also protray the characteristic variation in vapor flow pattern caused by altering chamber pressure. This was in agreement with the behavior predicted by the distillation model developed in Part I. It was also observed that vapor condensation may be a major problem area for industrial application of this process. Several solutions for this are suggested.

Harris, R.; Davenport, W. G.

1982-12-01

26

Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers  

E-print Network

The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

Nelson, R. E.

1982-01-01

27

Alaskan refiner raced against winter to relocate vacuum unit  

SciTech Connect

In late November 1994, San Antonio-based Tesoro Petroleum Corp. and Litwin Engineers and Constructors Inc. completed the relocation and refurbishment of a $25 million vacuum unit at Tesoro`s 72,000 b/d Kenai refinery. The addition of the vacuum distillation unit is a critical component in Tesoro`s market-driven strategy to enhance operating profits by maximizing production of higher-margin products such as gasoline and jet fuel. With its new vacuum distillation unit, Tesoro has reduced production of lower-value residual fuel oil while recovering more lighter, high-value material. The paper discusses the economic and strategic merits of purchasing and relocating an existing vacuum unit, the project schedule, new equipment, dismantling and transport, installation, tie-ins and start-up, products, operating changes, corrosion concerns, off gas, steam generation, design changes, environmental issues, reporting requirements, and accomplishments.

Gdula, L.M. [Tesoro Petroleum Corp., Kenai, AK (United States); Wentworth, J.A. [Litwin Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-03-20

28

Alaskan refiner raced against winter to relocate vacuum unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late November 1994, San Antonio-based Tesoro Petroleum Corp. and Litwin Engineers and Constructors Inc. completed the relocation and refurbishment of a $25 million vacuum unit at Tesoro`s 72,000 b\\/d Kenai refinery. The addition of the vacuum distillation unit is a critical component in Tesoro`s market-driven strategy to enhance operating profits by maximizing production of higher-margin products such as gasoline

L. M. Gdula; J. A. Wentworth

1995-01-01

29

Composition and properties of narrow naphtha cuts obtained in catalytic cracking of sour or hydrotreated vacuum distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern combination catalytic cracking units processing sour vacuum distillates, a hydrotreating section is provided for treatment of the feedstock or products. The hydrotreating process has a marked effect on the feedstock properties, so that the process balance is changed, and also the product quality and the technoeconomic indices of the process [i, 2]. With this background, it can be

O. I. Svetozarova; S. N. Khadzhiev; . P. Levashova; G. A. Zubova; I. K. Romankova; A. M. Golovenko

1977-01-01

30

Inverse gas chromatography for the examination of fractions separated from oil vacuum distillation residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new procedure for the separation of petroleum vacuum distillation residues is presented and discussed. This method reduces the separation time required to ca. 30 h for typical petroleum products. Three different petroleum vacuum distillation residues were processed and the separated fractions were characterized in a traditional way as well as by means of inverse gas chromatography.

A. Voelkel; J. Fall

1997-01-01

31

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.  

PubMed

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD. PMID:20659753

Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

2010-10-01

32

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT  

E-print Network

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several be regarded as an interim report. The success or otherwise of the risk analysis can only really be judged

33

Transformer oils prepared from the vacuum distillates of Egyptian crude paraffinic petroleum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum gas oil and spindle oil obtained from the vacuum distillation of paraffinic crude oil from the Western Desert region of Egypt were utilized for transformer oils production. The vacuum gas oil, spindle oil and blends therefrom containing different percentages of these oils and were subjected to aromatic extraction, dewaxing catalytic hydrogenation processes. The aromatic extraction process used N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as

M. Sh. El-Gayar; G. A. Gohar; A. M. Ibrahim; H. M. Ibrahim; A. M. Aly

2008-01-01

34

Advanced purification of petroleum refinery wastewater by catalytic vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

In our work, a new process, catalytic vacuum distillation (CVD) was utilized for purification of petroleum refinery wastewater that was characteristic of high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and salinity. Moreover, various common promoters, like FeCl(3), kaolin, H(2)SO(4) and NaOH were investigated to improve the purification efficiency of CVD. Here, the purification efficiency was estimated by COD testing, electrolytic conductivity, UV-vis spectrum, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and pH value. The results showed that NaOH promoted CVD displayed higher efficiency in purification of refinery wastewater than other systems, where the pellucid effluents with low salinity and high COD removal efficiency (99%) were obtained after treatment, and the corresponding pH values of effluents varied from 7 to 9. Furthermore, environment estimation was also tested and the results showed that the effluent had no influence on plant growth. Thus, based on satisfied removal efficiency of COD and salinity achieved simultaneously, NaOH promoted CVD process is an effective approach to purify petroleum refinery wastewater. PMID:20153580

Yan, Long; Ma, Hongzhu; Wang, Bo; Mao, Wei; Chen, Yashao

2010-06-15

35

Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UVvis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectroscopy (GC\\/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.

Quanlin Zhao; Zhengfang Ye; Mohe Zhang

2010-01-01

36

Fractionation of environmental samples according to volatility by vacuum line-cryogenic distillation  

SciTech Connect

A method for fractionating gases, and volatile liquids and solids dissolved in complex chemical matrices is described. The method, vacuum line-cryogenic distillation, requires no solvents or high temperatures and thereby minimizes losses of thermally unstable or highly volatile materials. Vacuum line-cryogenic distillation has been applied to diesel exhaust particles and process materials from a coal gasifier process stream. It promises to be useful for the analysis of a variety of environmental samples.

Dahl, A.R.; Benson, J.M.; Hanson, R.L.; Rothenberg, S.J.

1984-03-01

37

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11

38

Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

1973-01-01

39

Hydrocracking of petroleum vacuum distillate containing rapeseed oil: Evaluation of diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrocracking of pure petroleum vacuum distillate and the same fraction containing 5wt.% of rapeseed oil was carried out at 400 and 420C and under a hydrogen pressure of 18MPa over commercial NiMo catalyst. Reaction products were separated by distillation into kerosene, gas oil and the residue. Fuel properties of fractions suitable for diesel production were evaluated (gas oils and remixed

Pavel im?ek; David Kubi?ka

2010-01-01

40

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

None

1981-04-01

41

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pct of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial managanese, and 20 to 40 pct of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt masses were in the range 10 to 60 kg, melt temperatures in the range 1850 to 2050 K, and chamber pressures in the range 3 to 400 pascals. Crucible diameter was 0.2m. Mass transport has been described in terms of Machlin's model for melt phase diffusion, Langmuir's model for evaporation, and convective bulk flow for gas phase mass transport. Two preliminary criteria are shown to demonstrate the suitability of vacuum distillation to any particular system and a third operational criterion is developed to define the range of vacuum required to eliminate gas phase mass transport resistance effectively.

Harris, R.; Davenport, W. G.

1982-12-01

42

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments\\u000a found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pct of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial managanese, and 20 to 40\\u000a pct of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1982-01-01

43

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments\\u000a found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pet of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial manganese, and 20 to 40 pct\\u000a of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1992-01-01

44

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GS/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds. nalysis of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50 ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. na...

45

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

46

Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. PMID:20510431

Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

2010-08-01

47

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part II. Photographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs of melt surface conditions and gas flows were taken during experiments which examined vacuum refining of melted\\u000a steel scrap. The photographs illustrate the retarding effects of surface films on rates of copper and tin evaporation. The\\u000a photographs also protray the characteristic variation in vapor flow pattern caused by altering chamber pressure. This was\\u000a in agreement with the behavior predicted

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1982-01-01

48

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part II. Photographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photographs of melt surface conditions and gas flows were taken during experiments which examined vacuum refining of melted\\u000a steel scrap. The photographs illustrate the retarding effects of surface films on rates of copper and tin evaporation. The\\u000a photographs also portray the characteristic variation in vapor flow pattern caused by altering chamber pressure. This was\\u000a in agreement with the behavior predicted

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1992-01-01

49

Chemical and biological characterization of volatile components of environmental samples after fractionation by vacuum line cryogenic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile components from diesel exhaust particles and coal gasifier process gas condensate were vacuum fractionated by cryogenic distillation and identified by infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The vacuum distillation line consisted of a sample flask and nine traps cooled from 0C to -196C in approximately 20C steps. The pressure in the vacuum line of about 10-2 Torr was maintained

Ray L. Hanson; Alan R. Dahl; Simon J. Rothenberg; Janet M. Benson; Antone L. Brooks; John S. Dutcher

1985-01-01

50

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10

51

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None; )

2005-12-24

52

Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Davidson, G.R.; Yang, I.C.

1999-01-01

53

Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.  

PubMed

Supercritical CO2 can be used to separate oxygenated compounds from essential oils. This technique still cannot replace vacuum distillation as an industrial process because of low recoveries and inconsistent results. In the present work, a comparison between the two methods was made in terms of composition, recovery, and color. Vacuum distillation and supercritical CO2 are complementary processes for producing high quality oxygenated compounds with high recovery rates. The former is more suitable for removing monoterpenes at low fraction temperatures (< or =308 K), and the latter is more suitable for separating oxygenated compounds from pigments and waxes. Consequently, the two methods were combined. For supercritical CO2 fractionation, the parameters of pressure, temperature gradient, and the ratio of solvent to feed were investigated for the fractionation of oxygenated compounds with high recoveries (> or =85%) and without other macromolecules, such as pigments and waxes. PMID:15291491

Fang, Tao; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Hirose, Tsutomu

2004-08-11

54

Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae for biocrude production: Improving the biocrude properties with vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a two-part process for producing biocrude with reduced impurities. The biocrude was produced from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Spirulina sp. and Tetraselmis sp. in a batch reactor at both 300 and 350C, 5min, and 16%w/w solid feed composition. The resultant biocrudes were vacuum distilled at a maximum temperature of 360C. It was shown that biocrude quality could be enhanced without using catalyst by vacuum distillation (VD). The biocrude yield for Spirulina sp. was 36wt% at 300C, 42wt% at 350C, and for Tetraselmis sp. was 34wt% at 300C, and 58wt% at 350C. VD of Spirulina sp. biocrude obtained at 300 and 350C led to 62 and 67wt% distilled biocrudes yield, respectively. VD of Tetraselmis sp. biocrude obtained at 300C was 70wt%, and 73wt% at 350C. The higher heating values (HHV) increased from 32MJ/kg to 40MJ/kg. There were substantial reductions in oxygen, metallic content, and boiling point ranges in distilled biocrudes. PMID:25463802

Eboibi, Blessing Elo-Oghene; Lewis, David Milton; Ashman, Peter John; Chinnasamy, Senthil

2014-12-01

55

Non-condensing gases produced in the vacuum distillation of residual fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of study of eight industrial distillation plants the ranges of output and composition of uncondensed gases in the vacuum parts were determined1.The hydrocarbon part of the uncondensed gas is in the range 0.0050.42%. On average this gas includes 70% paraffin (from C1 to C6, and above), 515% naphthenes, 1520% olefins. The mean molecular weight of the hydrocarbon

A. K. Manovyan; O. K. Odintsov; A. I. Skoblo; D. A. Khachaturova

1969-01-01

56

Thin-layer high-vacuum distillation to isolate volatile flavour compounds of cocoa powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile fraction of commercial cocoa powders was isolated using thin-layer high-vacuum distillation (TLHVD) of Soxhlet extracts. Calculated and experimental recovery of the internal standard n-undecanoic acid methylester did agree, and a good reproducibility was found for the procedure. Around 70 volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified using internal standard-based gas chromatography (GC), coupled GCmass spectrometry (GCMS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O).

Ulrich Krings; Kateryna Zelena; Shimin Wu; Ralf G. Berger

2006-01-01

57

Attractancy to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) of volatile materials isolated from vacuum distillate of heat-treated carobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum distillation of heat-treated carobs gave an aqueous, colorless, sweet-smelling distillate which was tested over a wide range of concentrations and found to be highly attractive to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). The materials responsible for the aroma were isolated from the distillate by saturating with sodium chloride and extracting into diethyl ether as separate acidic, neutral, and basic fractions. The extraction

M. R. Stubbs; J. Chambers; S. B. Schofield; J. P. G. Wilkins

1985-01-01

58

Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis (VTGA) were utilized for simulated distillation (SIMDIS) of high-boiling petroleum fractions obtained by short-path vacuum distillation. The SFC method covers the approximate boiling range of 250-1400°F. Under the present conditions, even 42% of a nondistillable, nondeasphalted residue was recovered from the column at a calculated 1426°F atmospheric equivalent boiling point.

Herbert E. Schwartz; Robert G. Brownlee; Mieczyslaw M. Boduszynski; Fu. Su

1987-01-01

59

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pet of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial manganese, and 20 to 40 pct of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt masses were in the range 10 to 60 kg, melt temperatures in the range 1850 to 2050 K, and chamber pressures in the range 3 to 400 pascals. Crucible diameter was 0.2 m. Mass transport has been described in terms of Machlins model for melt phase diffusion, Langmuirs model for evaporation, and convective bulk flow for gas phase mass transport. Two preliminary criteria are shown to demonstrate the suitability of vacuum distillation to any particular system and a third operational criterion is developed to define the range of vacuum required to eliminate gas phase mass transport resistance effectively.

Harris, R.; Davenport, W. G.

1992-01-01

60

The relative merits of cylindrical and non-cylindrical extrudates in vacuum distillate hydrodesulfurization  

SciTech Connect

A number of developments have occurred in recent years with regard to the quality of heavy distillate fractions, all of which have led to greater demands on hydroprocessing catalysts. The long term trend in oil processing is towards the use of heavier crude. For heavier distillate fractions this has meant higher sulfur and nitrogen contents. At the same time, the fraction of straight-run stocks in the heavy distillate pool has decreased. Coker gas oil (CGO) is being used more and more, usually blended with vacuum gas oil (VGO) as a component in FCC feedstocks. Although CGO generally comprises a lighter boiling fraction than VGO, it is often more aromatic (particularly with respect to polynuclear aromatics) and gives a higher carbon residue. In addition, sulfur and nitrogen contents exceed those found in VGO of the same crude origin. These considerations serve to illustrate the factors involved in determining the best catalyst filling for heavy distillate hydroprocessing. It is seen that shaped catalysts are not necessarily an improvement on cylinders, nor is dense loading always an advantage as far as bed activity is concerned, if all the parameters are optimized.

Cooper, B.H.; Donnis, B.B.L.; Moyse, B.M.

1986-01-01

61

Reasons for low heavy vacuum gas oil yield in vacuum distillation of residual fuel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations are made of the heat balance of the vacuum column K-101 of the VDM-2 plant of LUKOIL Neftokhim Burgas AD, which\\u000a made it possible to disclose the reasons for decline in heavy vacuum gas oil yield with increase in plant load and to discard\\u000a the hypothesis that the reason for this is perforating of the plate from which the

V. Georgiev; D. Stratiev; K. Kirilov; K. Petkov; D. Minkov

2009-01-01

62

Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.  

PubMed

A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied. PMID:1141407

Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

1975-02-19

63

Heat and mass transport resistances in vacuum membrane distillation per drop  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is a separation process based on the use of microporous hydrophobic membranes. The membrane is located between an aqueous phase and a permeate, which is kept under vacuum at pressure values below the equilibrium vapor pressure of the feed. The liquid stream vaporizes at one side of the membrane, and the vapors diffuse through the gas phase inside the membrane pores. The process rate and performance are affected highly by the transport phenomena both in the liquid phase and through the membrane. Heat- and mass-transfer resistance in the liquid phase, as well as mass-transfer resistance through the membrane, play an important role in determining the process performance. Based on VMD experimental data for several binary aqueous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds, a simple criterion to investigate the role of each transport resistance on the separation efficiency is discussed.

Bandini, S.; Sarti, G.C. [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)] [Univ. degli Studi di Bologna (Italy)

1999-07-01

64

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2013-10-01

65

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2014-10-01

66

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2012-10-01

67

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2011-10-01

68

VACUUM DISTILLATION CONCENTRATOR (VDC) IN COMBINATION WITH GC/MS TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Region 5 Central Regional Laboratory, Region 6 and Region 10 are presently involved in a Superfund interlaboratory study with ORD/NERL-Las Vegas, NV evaluating U.S. EPA SW 846 Method 8261. This method utilizes a new commercially available vacuum distillation concent...

69

Aroma characteristics of stored tobacco cut leaves analyzed by a high vacuum distillation and canister system.  

PubMed

An extraction method using a high vacuum distillation extraction apparatus coupled to a canister was newly developed for the analysis and sensory test of tobacco leaf volatiles. We extended the application of the canister that is used in environmental analysis, to the extraction of the aroma components in tobacco leaves. The volatile components with vapor pressures higher than 0.1 mmHg were easily evaporated under decompression and then trapped into the vacuumed canister. After the collection of volatiles, the canister was pressurized by a slow stream of inert gas in order to emit the whole aroma under a controlled flow. Applying a preconcentrator--gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and sensory test to the headspace gas components, the aroma alteration between 0 and 2 weeks of storage was simultaneously or individually evaluated. As a result, after the storage, alcohols such as 1-hexanol, linalool, and benzyl alcohol decreased significantly. The amount of carotenoid derivatives that have the characteristic tobacco leaf aroma had not changed. Sensory evaluation of the same headspace gas with that used for GC/MS demonstrated the alternation of the aroma quality before and after storage. The main changes were the decrease of greenness and smoothness in aroma and the decrease of ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, 1-hexanol, benzaldehyde, and linalool concentrations. PMID:15612776

Chida, Masahiro; Sone, Yukio; Tamura, Hirotoshi

2004-12-29

70

Distillation Kinetics of Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Peroxide and Water and the Isolation of Pure Hydrogen Peroxide in Ultrahigh Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of the growth of thin films of crystalline H2O2 and H2O2.2H2O (dihydrate) in ultrahigh vacuum by distilling an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. We traced the process using infrared reflectance spectroscopy, mass loss on a quartz crystal microbalance, and in a few cases ultraviolet-visible reflectance. We find that the different crystalline phases-water, dihydrate, and hydrogen peroxide-have very different sublimation rates, making distillation efficient to isolate the less volatile component, crystalline H2O2.

Teolis, B. D.; Baragiola, R. A.

2006-01-01

71

Experimental analysis of a multi-effect distillation unit operated out of nominal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar thermal conversion systems can be used for driving a Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) unit, namely: parabolic trough collectors, compound parabolic concentrators, evacuated tube collectors, flat plate collectors and salinity-gradient solar ponds. This paper deals with an experimental test campaign of a Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) unit installed at the Plataforma Solar Almera (PSA-CIEMAT) operated out of its nominal working conditions in

Patricia Fernndez-Izquierdo; Lourdes Garca-Rodrguez; Diego-Csar Alarcn-Padilla; Patricia Palenzuela; Isabel Martn-Mateos

72

Volatile fatty acids in human peripheral and portal blood: quantitative determination vacuum distillation and gas chromatography.  

PubMed

In order to determine volatile fatty acids (VFA) in human blood, gas chromatographic analyses were performed after blood samples had been pre-treated by a vacuum distillation procedure with subsequent evaporation. Results of the reproducibility study, investigated by pre-treating five aliquots of one human serum sample showed C.V. values ranging from 7.4 to 18.2. Normal serum VFA values were determined in individual serum samples collected from healthy subjects and compared to those present in serum from patients undergoing gall-bladder surgery. The serum VFA values were comparable in the two groups. In the surgical patients, blood was also collected from the portal circulation. All portal serum VFA values, except that of iso-butyric acid, were higher than those found in the samples collected from the peripheral arm vein. VFA values were also determined in serum specimens obtained from blood collected from the arm vein of patients with extensive cirrhosis of the liver. The VFA values showed marked individual variations and were higher than those found in peripheral samples from healthy subjects and patients undergoing gall-bladder surgery, but were lower than those found in samples from the portal circulation from the surgical patients. PMID:7226534

Dankert, J; Zijlstra, J B; Wolthers, B G

1981-03-01

73

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

2011-11-01

74

The use of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter for the characterization of vacuum distillation residue fractions of mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?\\u000a 1,2\\u000a ?\\u000a , was determined for a number of fractions separated from vacuum distillation residues of natural oils. Examined fractions\\u000a were used as liquid stationary phases in inverse gas chromatography. The chemical character of the fractions was discussed\\u000a in terms of the interaction parameter.

A. Voelkel I; J. Fall

1995-01-01

75

The use of the flory-huggins interaction parameter for the characterization of vacuum distillation residue fractions of mineral oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe Flory-Huggins interaction parameter,?\\u000a 1,2,\\u000a ?\\u000a , was determined for a number of fractions separated from vacuum distillation residues of natural oils. Examined fractions\\u000a were used as liquid stationary phases in inverse gas chromatography. The chemical character of the fractions was discussed\\u000a in terms of the interaction parameter.

A. Voelkel; J. Fall

1995-01-01

76

The relative merits of cylindrical and non-cylindrical extrudates in vacuum distillate hydrodesulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of developments have occurred in recent years with regard to the quality of heavy distillate fractions, all of which have led to greater demands on hydroprocessing catalysts. The long term trend in oil processing is towards the use of heavier crude. For heavier distillate fractions this has meant higher sulfur and nitrogen contents. At the same time, the

B. H. Cooper; B. B. L. Donnis; B. M. Moyse

1986-01-01

77

Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis (VTGA) were utilized for simulated distillation (SIMDIS) of high-boiling petroleum fractions obtained by short-path vacuum distillation. The SFC method covers the approximate boiling range of 250-1400/sup 0/F. Under the present conditions, even 42% of a nondistillable, nondeasphalted residue was recovered from the column at a calculated 1426/sup 0/F atmospheric equivalent boiling point. The influence of temperature and pressure on resolution and retention was studied. SFC-SIMDIS was performed by using linear pressure programming at 100/sup 0/C, as compared to 400/sup 0/C+ temperatures required for comparable samples when capillary gas chromatography (GC) is employed. Polysiloxane-coated, 50-..mu..m-i.d. columns permitted fast analyses (30-min run time) yet maintained adequate resolution for SIMDIS analysis. VTGA-SIMDIS data of samples in the 500-1000/sup 0/F boiling range yielded excellent correlation with actual distillation data. However, thermal analysis revealed decomposition of samples at temperatures exceeding ca. 370/sup 0/C. The validity of the SFC method was demonstrated by comparing SFC-SIMDIS data with those obtained by GC and VTGA.

Schwartz, H.E.; Brownlee, R.G.; Boduszynski, M.M.; Su, F.

1987-05-15

78

HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT  

E-print Network

321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E hydrogen gas (so- called protium) must be used. It is necessary to avoid transfers of - to impurities imposes strict and critical requirements on the hydrogen gas system supporting the detector. Desirable

Titov, Anatoly

79

Process methodology for the small scale production of m6N5 purity zinc using a resistance heated vacuum distillation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra high purity Zn (m6N5) was obtained through triple vacuum distillation using an m4N5 Zn as input material. High-volatile impurities were removed from the zinc matrix by vacuum evaporation, while traces having lower volatility than the matrix remained in the residual material after finishing of the entire purification process. The time required for the removal of the main high-volatile impurity

Anil Gopala; Heinrich Kipphardt; Ralf Matschat; Ulrich Panne

2010-01-01

80

Waste acid/metal solution reduction and recovery by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Processes involving distillation under reduced pressure were developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory several years ago to recover spent acid solutions generated during the manufacture of nuclear fuel for the N-Reactor at the Hanford site. Following construction and testing of a pilot-plant, the technology was licensed to Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc. for commercialization. The technology developed included specialized distillation and rectification of volatile acids, removal of water and/or volatile acid from sulfuric acid, and precipitation of salts. A key feature of the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) technology is the development and use of advanced thermoplastic and fluoropolymer materials of construction in all critical process equipment. The technology was then expanded to include crystallization to recover metal salts for possible reuse. Economic and environmental advantages of the procedures include recovery of acids for reuse, simplification or elimination of the disposal of waste solutions, and possible recovery of metals. Industries expected to benefit from such applications include galvanizing, electroplating, sand leaching and any where metals are cleaned in acid solutions. Currently a modular system has been assembled for recovery of several different spent acid solutions.

Jones, E.O.; Wilcox, W.A.; Johnson, N.T.; Bowdish, F.W. [Viatec Recovery Systems, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-07-01

81

Fractionation of citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase by batch vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of citronella essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase during batch mode operation at different pressures, from 20 to 1mbar and reflux ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Fractions from column top and bottom were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC\\/FID) using authentic standards

Stephani C. Beneti; Eline Rosset; Marcos L. Corazza; Caren D. Frizzo; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2011-01-01

82

Screening procedure for detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in cooked bacon by one-trap mineral oil vacuum distillation and thermal energy analyzer.  

PubMed

A rapid screening procedure for the detection of volatile N-nitrosamines in fried bacon has been developed for the regulatory monitoring of bacon. This procedure uses vacuum mineral oil distillation of an alkaline sample. The distillate is collected in a prewet trap immersed in liquid nitrogen. After thawing, the distillate is transferred to a separator. The trap is rinsed with methylene chloride which is then used to extract the nitrosamines. The methylene chloride is dried with Na2SO4 and concentrated. A gas-liquid chromatograph coupled to a thermal energy analyzer is used to identify and quantitate the nitrosamines. Recoveries of 7 volatile N-nitrosamines added to 25 g fried bacon at the 10 ppb level (microgram/kg) ranged from 78 to 92%. PMID:7174574

Greenfield, E L; Vasco, G A; Legette, L; Malanoski, A

1982-11-01

83

New Smelting Process for Titanium: Magnesiothermic Reduction of TiCl4 into Liquid Bi and Subsequent Refining by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a new continuous smelting process for Ti that combines magnesiothermic reduction of TiCl4 into liquid Bi and refining by vacuum distillation. TiCl4 is reduced by Mg into liquid Bi to form Bi-Ti liquid alloys, and subsequently refined by vacuum distillation. The Bi-Ti liquid alloys can be easily transferred from a reduction vessel to a refining vessel; consequently, the reduction and refining steps can be performed continuously. Bi-Ti alloys with various compositions were confirmed to form, and the compositions were controllable via adjustment of the nominal composition of TiCl4, Mg, and Bi. After reduction, the alloys were efficiently separated from MgCl2 by differences in their densities. In addition, vacuum distillation of the alloys purified Ti to be greater than 99.6 at pct. Moreover, consideration of the heat balance in the reduction step indicated that the proposed process has the potential to unlimitedly improve the feed rate of TiCl4 when the concentration of Ti in the alloy is 6 to 7 at pct.

Kado, Yuya; Kishimoto, Akihiro; Uda, Tetsuya

2015-02-01

84

AN EXHAUSTIVE STEAM-DISTILLATION AND SOLVENT-EXTRACTION UNIT FOR PESTICIDES AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors have developed a modified Nielsen-Kryger steam-distillation apparatus that provides exhaustive distillation of pesticides and industrial chemicals from water, sediments, and tissue and the simultaneous extraction of the distillate by a small volume of organic solvent....

85

Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis-vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system.  

PubMed

This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF sample obtained from a drilling site in China, the hybrid system could achieve almost 90% water recovery. Quality of the reclaimed water was comparable to that of bottled water. In the hybrid FO-VMD system, FO functions as a pre-treatment step to remove most contaminants and constituents that may foul or scale the membrane distillation (MD) membrane, whereas MD produces high quality water. It is envisioned that the FO-VMD system can recover high quality water not only from SGDF but also other wastewaters with high salinity and complex compositions. PMID:24622553

Li, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Baolong; Wang, Zhouwei; Xie, Ming; Song, Jianfeng; Nghiem, Long D; He, Tao; Yang, Chi; Li, Chunxia; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

86

Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation  

E-print Network

Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation Feasibility and Operation by Efstathios Skouras and distillation is the dominating unit operation for such separations. However, the presence of azeotropes and non distillation as the best suited process. Among, various techniques to enhance distillation, heterogeneous

Skogestad, Sigurd

87

Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units  

DOEpatents

A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

2012-12-11

88

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides.  

PubMed

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710-759.5Torr of a reduced pressure at a fixed heating rate of 4 degrees C/min and the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was completely separated from the mixture. The required time for the salt distillation and the starting temperature for the salt vaporization were lowered with a reduction in the pressure. Dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was completed at a temperature below 1300 degrees C and this was dependent on the partial pressure of O2. The rare-earth oxychlorides (NdOCl/PrOCl) were transformed to oxides (Nd2O3/PrO2) during the dechlorination and oxidation process. These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process. PMID:18440139

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Yung Zun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2008-12-30

89

High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (EverSealed or ESW) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (VIGU or VIG) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIGs use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESWs goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

Stark, David

2012-08-16

90

Determination of methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride, and trichloroethylene as solvent residues in spice oleoresins, using vacuum distillation and electron capture gas chromatography.  

PubMed

A quantitative gas chromatographic (GC) method is described for the determination of residual methylene chloride, ethylene dichloride, and trichloroethylene in spice oleoresins. The proposed method involves vacuum distillation in a closed system with toluene as a carrier solvent. Quantitation by electron capture GC on Porapak Q is facilitated by water extraction and by the addition of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene as an internal standard. Recoveries from oleoresins spiked at 30, 15, and 6 ppm ranged from 93 to 102%. To assess the possibility of interference from spice volatiles, the procedure was applied to 17 different spice oleoresins from 3 different manufacturers. No interferences were found, but methylene chloride levels up to 83 ppm and ethylene dichloride levels up to 23 ppm were detected. Trichloroethylene was not detected in any of the oleoresins. PMID:1158825

Page, B D; Kennedy, B P

1975-09-01

91

Improved synthesis of [(18)F]FLETT via a fully automated vacuum distillation method for [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide purification.  

PubMed

The synthesis of [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide and its subsequent click reaction with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EDU) to form [(18)F]FLETT was performed using an iPhase FlexLab module. The implementation of a vacuum distillation method afforded [(18)F]2-fluoroethyl azide in 875.3% radiochemical yield. The use of Cu(CH3CN)4PF6 and TBTA as catalyst enabled us to fully automate the [(18)F]FLETT synthesis without the need for the operator to enter the radiation field. [(18)F]FLETT was produced in higher overall yield (41.36.5%) and shorter synthesis time (67min) than with our previously reported manual method (32.52.5% in 130min). PMID:25113535

Ackermann, Uwe; Plougastel, Lucie; Goh, Yit Wooi; Yeoh, Shinn Dee; Scott, Andrew M

2014-12-01

92

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

1980-10-01

93

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

94

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...force of 50 pounds after the engine is turned off without actuating...shutoff valves. Start the engine and after allowing approximately 1 minute to build up the vacuum, apply and...chamber rod movement. Run the engine to re-establish...

2010-10-01

95

Single-laboratory validation of a method for the determination of select volatile organic compounds in foods by using vacuum distillation with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Recent studies showed that headspace and purge and trap methods have limitations when used to determine volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in foods, including matrix effects and artifact formation from precursors present in the sample matrix or from thermal decomposition. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 8261A liberates VOCs from the sample matrix by using vacuum distillation at room temperature. The method was modified and validated for the determination of furan, chloroform, benzene, trichloroethene, toluene, and sytrene in infant formula, canned tuna (in water), peanut butter, and an orange beverage (orange-flavored noncarbonated beverage). The validation studies showed that the LOQ values ranged from 0.05 ng/g toluene in infant formula to 5.10 ng/g toluene in peanut butter. Fortified recoveries were determined at the first, second, and third standard additions, and concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 6.9 ng/g. When quantified by the method of standard additions, the recoveries ranged from 56 to 218% at the first standard addition and 89 to 117% at the third. The validated method was used to conduct a survey of the targeted VOCs in 18 foods. The amounts found ranged from none detected to 73.8 ng/g furan in sweet potato baby food. PMID:24830164

Nyman, Patricia J; Limm, William; Begley, Timothy H; Chirtel, Stuart J

2014-01-01

96

Progressive separation scheme for crude oil distillation  

SciTech Connect

For many years now, crude distillation units have not been concerned with major technical improvements. Only the use of packing in the vacuum towers has allowed a greater efficiency for heavy products. The reduction of operating costs has been achieved by optimization of the heat exchanger network. The authors show the evolution of the ratio between the fuel consumption and the feed rate with the year of construction, for French refineries. The most efficient unit, the D.E.E. was built in 1980. The energy consumption is around 1.4% of the feedstock. The analysis of this recent unit shows that no significant improvement can be made without modifying the process itself. Therefore, the authors studied and designed a new process, called Progressive Crude Distillation. The first part of this paper is devoted to the analysis of conventional technology and the second part to their latest process. It demonstrates the economic interest of the Progressive Crude Distillation. The comparison is based on the study of a complex oil distillation scheme.

Krueger, A.W. (American European Consulting Co. Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Gourlia, J.P.; Fromager, M. (Elf Aquitaine, Paris (FR))

1989-01-01

97

Optical cell with a temperature-control unit for a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

We constructed an assembled-type MgF2 cell that can function under a high vacuum (10(-4) Pa), and is capable of measuring the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrum in a wavelength region down to 140 nm for aqueous solutions. Its path length can be adjusted by various spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 microm. The temperature-control unit of the cell was also constructed with a Peltier thermoelectric element to keep the temperature of a sample within an accuracy of +/- 1 degrees C in the temperature range from -30 to 70 degrees C. The optical cell and the temperature-control unit were confirmed to have good performance by monitoring the VUVCD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate and myoglobin aqueous solutions. This cell is available not only for VUVCD spectroscopy, but also for vacuum-ultraviolet absorption measurements. PMID:12558036

Matsuo, Koichi; Sakai, Kenichi; Matsushima, Yosuke; Fukuyama, Takayuki; Gekko, Kunihiko

2003-01-01

98

Heavy oil distillation system  

SciTech Connect

A method for increasing the amount of volatiles produced and decreasing the amount of coke produced from a fixed amount of a vacuum reduced crude from a vacuum distillation tower is described comprising: (a) feeding the vacuum reduced crude from the vacuum distillation tower directly into a coker combination tower; (b) coking a residuum stripped of volatiles generating coke drum vapor; (c) feeding the coke drum vapor into the coker combination tower in contact with and in direct countercurrent heat exchange relationship with the vacuum reduced crude in the coker combination tower whereby some of the coke drum vapor is absorbed by the vacuum-reduced crude generating a coker combination tower residuum; (d) feeding the coker combination tower residuum into a resid flash down tower maintained at a pressure below the pressure in the coker combination tower; (e) fractionating the coker combination tower residuum in flash down tower into a vapor stream and a liquid stream comprising a residuum stripped of volatiles; (f) feeding the residuum stripped of volatiles to a delayed coke drum and coking the resdiuum stripped of volatiles as provided in step (b); condensing the fractionated vapor stream.

Heaney, W.F.; Nitsch, A.R.

1988-04-12

99

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

100

Catalytic distillation extends its reach  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

101

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-print Network

Distillation as a separation technique is widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. With the growth of these industries and the availability of cheap process computing, the interest in more accurate control of the distillation units has...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

1993-01-01

102

New catalysts for hydrotreating heavy distillates  

SciTech Connect

Compares the activity of experimental-commercial batches of type GO catalysts with the activity of alumina-cobaltmolybdenum (ACM) and alumina-nickel-molybdenum silicate (ANMS) catalysts in the hydrodesulfurization of a 350-500C vacuum distillate from Romashkino crude containing 2% sulfur and 0.1% nitrogen by weight. Finds that the GO-115, GO-116, and GO-117 catalysts are promising materials for use in hydrotreating vacuum distillates because their activities are higher than those of the commercial ACM and ANMS catalysts. Notes that the GO catalysts will give effective processing of vacuum distillates down to residual sulfur contents below 0.3% by weight.

Chagovets, A.N.; Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, B.L.; Osipov, L.N.; Perezhigina, I.Ya.

1982-11-01

103

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solar distillation is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

104

Present status of solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the

G. N. Tiwari; H. N. Singh; Rajesh Tripathi

2003-01-01

105

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10  

E-print Network

Distill, Distill_roll Distill for CASP10 C. Mirabello1, G. Tradigo1,2 , P.Veltri2, and G. Pollastri1 1 UCD Dublin, Ireland, 2 Universit di Cosenza, Italy gianluca.pollastri@ucd.ie Distill has to the distance maps of templates rather than to predicted contact maps. The difference between Distill

Pollastri, Gianluca

106

Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat conductive materials. This heating  

E-print Network

Vacuum Induction Melting Unit Induction heating is a process wherein induced eddy currents heat conductive materials. This heating can be used to melt metals and make alloys. Vacuum Induction melting on the melting process. The induction melting facility (Figure 1) was established in the Symmetry Lab (WL-207

Subramaniam, Anandh

107

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-print Network

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14

108

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

JOHNSON, R.E.

1999-09-01

109

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

110

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreements/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year. This application is intended to request sitewide approval for the new activities, and provide an option for any facility on the site to use this approval, within the terms of this NOC. The HVUs used in accordance with this NOC will support reduction of radiological contamination at various locations on the Hanford Site. Radiation Protection Air Emissions, Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247, require that the WDOH approve an NOC application before construction or modification of any emission unit that would release airborne radioactivity. This includes changes in the isotopic makeup of the source term or replacement of emission control equipment, which might contribute to an increase in the offsite dose from a licensed facility. Reduction of radiologically contaminated areas by HEPA vacuums is a current need. The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) potentially could generate numerous monthly applications.

Johnson, R.E.

1997-10-27

111

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION Background Distillation is a widely used technique for purifying liquids. The basic distillation process involves heating a liquid such that liquid molecules that is condensed and collected must be more pure than the original liquid mix. Distillation can be used to remove

Jasperse, Craig P.

112

New catalysts for hydrotreating heavy distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares the activity of experimental-commercial batches of type GO catalysts with the activity of alumina-cobaltmolybdenum (ACM) and alumina-nickel-molybdenum silicate (ANMS) catalysts in the hydrodesulfurization of a 350-500C vacuum distillate from Romashkino crude containing 2% sulfur and 0.1% nitrogen by weight. Finds that the GO-115, GO-116, and GO-117 catalysts are promising materials for use in hydrotreating vacuum distillates because their activities

A. N. Chagovets; L. N. Osipov; B. L. Lebedev; I. Ya. Perezhigina; A. V. Agafonov

1982-01-01

113

Flowsheet simulation models crude distillation and ammonia production  

SciTech Connect

Case studies at a major Middle East refinery, atmospheric and vacuum distillation units at Bombay refinery, and simulation of ammonia production at Cologne, Germany, have demonstrated the function, capabilities, and advantages of using flowsheet simulation to solve actual plant operating problems. Flowsheet simulation is becoming increasingly recognized as a valuable tool by designers and operating companies in the hydrocarbon processing industry. Using process simulation, engineers can gain valuable insight into real plant operations, ensure designs are sufficiently flexible, evaluate alternative operating scenarios, and optimize the performance of process units based on predictions from rigorous models.

Bird, G.; Limb, D. (ChemShare Process Systems, Ltd., Chesire (GB)); Pandit, A. (Hinditron Computers Pvt., Bombay (IN))

1990-07-23

114

Process for the preparation of light hydrocarbon distillates by hydrocracking and catalytic cracking  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for the preparation of a gasoline range petroleum distillate from a vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate. It comprises: passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy hydrocarbon oil distillate to a hydrocracking zone to hydrocrack the distillate into a product stream comprising a hydrocracked distillate residue having an initial boiling point of at least 300{sup 0}C; passing the hydrocracked distillate to a distillation separation zone to separate and recover the residue; passing the residue to a catalytic cracking zone to catalytically crack the residue; passing at least a portion of the vacuum heavy oil distillate prior to hydrocracking to the catalytic cracking to catalytically crack the vacuum heaving oil distillate; withdrawing the gasoline range petroleum distillate from the catalytic cracking zone.

DeVries, A.F.; Stork, W.H.J.

1989-08-22

115

Design and Optimization of Condenser and Centrifuge Units for Enhancement of a Batch Vacuum Frying System  

E-print Network

of the product under vacuum, which make the product healthier than what is currently available. The de-oiling mechanism consists of a centrifuge with a motor attached to the basket shaft, rotating up to 750 rpm (63 g units). The condenser consists of a... (counter- flow) spiral-coil heat exchanger (SHE) connected to a refrigeration system that uses R404a refrigerant. De-oiling for 40 s at 300 and 750 RPM removed up to 67% and 72% of the chip?s surface oil, respectively. At 750 RPM for 10 s, 40 s, and 60...

Pandey, Akhilesh

2011-02-22

116

Membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the separation process known as membrane distillation, MD. An introduction to the terminology and fundamental concepts associated with MD as well as a historical review of the developments in MD are presented. Membrane properties, transport phenomena, and module design are discussed in detail. A critical evaluation of the MD literature is incorporated throughout

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1997-01-01

117

Use idle crude unit for resid prep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Residue Solvent Refining (RSR) process which utilizes a selective solvent mixture for extraction and deasphalting atmospheric and vacuum residues, utilizes low pressure equipment, which makes possible conversion of idle crude distillation units. A satisfactory solvent is key to the process. A mixture has been identified that meets the primary characteristics: Selective at temperatures used in crude unit equipment; Liquid

A. H. Rhoe; G. D. Suciu

1986-01-01

118

Distillations Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the folks at the Chemical Heritage Foundation, Distillations is an award-winning podcast that offers commentary and perspective on the past, present, and future of chemistry. The program is hosted by Meir Rinde and new episodes are issued every other Friday. The archive here contains over 150 podcasts with titles such as "Shipwrecks," "Sweat," and "Something in the Air." Visitors can also sort through the documents by category and learn about the Distillations staff. The archives date back to 2007, so there's plenty to explore and visitors are free to use the materials as they see fit. An episode or two might be the perfect way to keep a group of students intrigued by the world of chemistry.

2012-09-14

119

Hydrothermal carbonization of distillers grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet distillers grains are intermediate byproducts of ethanol manufacture that have high moisture contents and require significant energy for drying and conversion into dry distillers grains. Hydrothermal carbonization was investigated as a wet process to provide alternative products, and chars were obtained in moderate yield that possessed high heats of combustion. The mechanism of char formation was also investigated employing

Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2011-01-01

120

Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) space suits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing re-generable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solid-amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA is the first RCA unit implementing radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or subambient atmosphere.

McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

121

Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units  

DOEpatents

A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

2013-08-20

122

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology ?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22

123

Catalytic Distillation  

E-print Network

is continously removed by distillation as it is formed, thus substantially negating the reverse reaction. Also HeOR can be added directly to the reaction zone at a point where the isobutylene concentration is the lowest which also helps drive... the equilibrium forward toward HTBE formation. The net effect is equivalent to "multiple equilibrium stages" and almost total conversion of isobutylene to HTBE. Another possibili ty is to hold the IB in molar excess of HeOH and react HeOH to near extinction...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01

124

Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

2011-01-01

125

Dry vacuum towers have lower operating costs  

SciTech Connect

Operating costs of crude vacuum towers can be reduced by modifying them to dry (no steam injected into the process) operation. Steam savings alone will often justify any heater revisions, tower internals replacement and ejector revisions necessary when converting an existing wet crude vacuum tower to a dry unit. The justification can be enhanced if the internals replaced are high-pressure-drop types such as bubble-cap types, valve types, or sieve trays. The two types of operation (dry vs. wet) are compared in a typical non-lube oil vacuum unit. Tower internals for both the wet and dry operation are assumed to be of lower pressure drop design, needed for dry operation. High pressure drop internals would increase steam requirements in the wet system tower over the relative rates presented. To further simplify the comparison, it is assumed that two gas oils, a heavy vacuum gas oil (HVGO) and a light gas oil (LVGO), are produced and that their distillation ranges are about the same for both wet and dry modes of operation. Schematic representations of typical wet and dry vacuum units are shown. Overall goals and operating conditions are essentially the same in most wet and dry vacuum units. The refiner wishes to maximize cracking unit feed in the form of gas oils and minimize production of resid.

Hendrickson, M.J.

1986-08-01

126

Analyzing the contents of residual and plasma-supporting gases inside a vacuum deposition unit chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a quadruple mass-spectrometer method, which is used to analyze the content of residual gas in a vacuum chamber of the ARM NTM (Automatised Working Area) ion-plasma unit. This unit is used to perfect the magnetron deposition process for coating radio-reflecting surfaces. The intake of pure argon into the chamber revealed up to 0.3 % of impurities in the plasma-supporting gas, including 0.02 % of water and oxygen. A significant presence of hydrocarbon gases is explained by the presence of solvents sorbed in rubber washers, joints of internal equipment, and other components inside the chamber. In order to decrease the level of impurities in the plasmasupporting atmosphere inside the chamber and improve the composition and properties of the coatings, it is necessary to take additional measures to cleanse and degas the surface of the chamber from condensation products and hydrocarbon compounds. To provide a minimal level of impurities in the coated surfaces it is vital to clean and degas the surfaces of the chamber, removing residual moisture and hydrocarbon compounds.

Mikheev, A. Ye; Kharlamov, V. A.; Kruchek, S. D.; Cherniatina, A. A.; Khomenko, I. I.

2015-01-01

127

27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico 26.36c Shipments of bulk...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico without payment of tax for...

2014-04-01

128

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

Westphal, B.R.

1996-03-01

129

Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space exploration.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2011-01-01

130

Conserve Energy: Modernize Your Solvent Deasphalting Unit  

E-print Network

the so-called "Bottom of the Barrel." This is the fraction of crude oil, not vaporized during vacuum distillation, which is not suitable for direct conversion to high value products such . s gasoline, diesel fuel, and turbine fuel because of high... the maximum total y~eld of high quality oil per barrel of solvent circulated. Therefore the feed to the deasphalting unit should be the shortest vacuum distillation residue possible, corresponding to a TBP cut point of at least 1000?F when a DAO viscosity...

Lambert, J. S.; Gleitsmann, J. W.

1983-01-01

131

Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1973-01-01

132

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOEpatents

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01

133

Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 and concomitantly manage humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with non-regenerative technologies. Experimental results for full-size and sub-scale test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug ow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of ow rates (110-170 SLM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The relationship between swing adsorption cycles for an outlet criterion of 6.0 mm Hg of CO2 partial pressure has been established for each metabolic challenge. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new operational constraints. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply computer-aided engineering practices to support the ongoing efforts to optimize and mature this technology for future application to space exploration.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2010-01-01

134

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

135

Extended testing of compression distillation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

1972-01-01

136

Complementarity, distillable secret key, and distillable entanglement  

E-print Network

We consider controllability of two conjugate observables Z and X by two parties with classical communication. The ability is specified by two alternative tasks, (i) agreement on Z and (ii) preparation of an eigenstate of X with use of an extra communication channel. We prove that their feasibility is equivalent to that of key distillation if the extra channel is quantum, and to that of entanglement distillation if it is classical. This clarifies the distinction between two entanglement measures, distillable key and distillable entanglement.

Masato Koashi

2007-04-27

137

Selective hydrocracking of middle distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents selective hydrocracking test results on the SGK-1 catalyst with various distillate feedstocks (both straight-run and stocks from secondary processes). The tests were performed in single-pass laboratory flow units (catalyst charge 20 cm³) and in pilot-plant units (catalyst charge 100-500 cm³). Data are presented on the composition and properties of the liquid product obtained by selective hydrogenation, in

L. D. Konovalchikov; O. D. Konovalchikov; V. Y. Kruglikov; B. K. Nefedov

1984-01-01

138

DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory.  

E-print Network

1 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway #12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Material Balance on a Distillation Stage

Skogestad, Sigurd

139

Selective hydrocracking of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

This article presents selective hydrocracking test results on the SGK-1 catalyst with various distillate feedstocks (both straight-run and stocks from secondary processes). The tests were performed in single-pass laboratory flow units (catalyst charge 20 cm/sup 3/) and in pilot-plant units (catalyst charge 100-500 cm/sup 3/). Data are presented on the composition and properties of the liquid product obtained by selective hydrogenation, in the pilot unit, of a straight-run hydrotreated kerosine cut from Romashkino-type crude. The results indicate that the SGK-1 catalyst, which was developed on the basis of the USSR high-silica zeolites TsVK and TsVM, has a high and stable catalytic activity and a high selectivity in cracking the n-alkanes present in middle distillates.

Konoval'chikov, L.D.; Konoval'chikov, O.D.; Kruglikov, V.Y.; Nefedov, B.K.

1984-09-01

140

Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

2012-01-01

141

Refinery analytical techniques optimize unit performance  

SciTech Connect

Refinery process engineers need to consider benefits of laboratory analytical techniques when evaluating unit performance. Refinery heavy-oil laboratory analytical techniques use both old and new technologies. Knowing how to use available laboratory analytical techniques within their limitations are critical to obtain correct refinery optimization decisions. Better refinery stream distillation and contaminant data ultimately improves the accuracy of various refinery decision-making tools. These laboratory analytical techniques are covered: high-temperature simulated distillation (HTSD); true boiling point (TBP) distillation--ASTM D2892; vacuum distillation--ASTM D5236; continuous-flash vaporizers; wiped-film evaporators; inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); Conradson--ASTM D189/Microcarbon residue--ASTM D4530; and asphaltene IP-143, ASTM D3279, ASTM D4124. Analysis of atmospheric crude, vacuum crude and delayed coker units highlight these laboratory techniques to identify potential yield and product quality benefits. Physical distillation or wiped-film evaporation in conjunction with HTSD, ICP-AES, microcarbon residue and asphaltened data will better characterize a feedstock as well as determine the source of contaminants. Economics are refinery specific, therefore, these examples focus on applying laboratory techniques as opposed to discussing specifics of unit improvement. These are discussed qualitatively.

Golden, S.W. [Process Consulting Services Inc., Grapevine, TX (United States); Craft, S. [Chempro, Inc., LaPorte, TX (United States); Villalanti, D.C. [Triton Analytics Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

142

Characterization of vacuum bottoms from the P-99 coal liquefaction unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite sample of vacuum bottoms has been analyzed by structural sensitive techniques applicable to high molecular weight, highly functional coal-derived materials. The utilization and limitations of x-ray diffraction, infrared, high resolution and ¹³C-CP\\/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution and field ionization mass spectrometry, and electron spin resonance are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the characterization of methylene chloride

R. G. Lett; C. E. Schmidt; D. H. Finseth; M. R. Hough; T. A. Link; R. F. Sprecher; H. L. Retcofsky

1984-01-01

143

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

144

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15

145

Vacuum pump aids ejectors  

SciTech Connect

The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

Nelson, R.E.

1982-12-01

146

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-print Network

DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... is closely approached on each stage Given the right perspective; the right application; and the right design - distillation is difficult to beat from an efficiency standpoint. ? The right perspective is that efficiency is the ratio of the work...

Steinmeyer, D.

147

Generalized entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We present a way for the entanglement distillation of genuine mixed state. Different from the conventional mixed state in entanglement purification protocol, each components of the mixed state in our protocol is a less-entangled state, while it is always a maximally entangled state. With the help of the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity, this entanglement distillation protocol does not require the sophisticated single-photon detectors. Moreover, the distilled high quality entangled state can be retained to perform the further distillation. These properties make it more convenient in practical applications.

Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

2014-04-14

148

Design and evaluation of dynamic equivalent test platform for thermal vacuum qualification test of docking units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a dynamic equivalent test platform for large-mass spacecraft docking in thermal vacuum has been successfully developed. An equivalent-mass docking test principle for reducing the size of the test platform has been introduced. In addition, by adopting a flywheel to simulate part equivalent mass of docking test, the scheme of making a more compact test platform has been realized. Furthermore, the identification of the friction force in the platform to guarantee the equivalent velocity of docking test has been demonstrated. At last, the performance of the test platform has been evaluated through both the docking simulation with software and the docking test on the platform. The results of comparison between the docking simulations and the experimental tests proved the effectiveness of the equivalent-mass docking test principle and also indicated that the docking test platform developed in this work has the ability to simulate the docking process precisely.

Zhu, Yanhe; Fan, Jizhuang; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Jie

2015-01-01

149

27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

2012-04-01

150

27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

2011-04-01

151

27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

2010-04-01

152

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION  

E-print Network

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1 The experimental verification of the operation of a multivessel batch distillation column, operated under total vessels, provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. We propose a simple

Skogestad, Sigurd

153

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01

154

Catalytic distillation process  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22

155

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) has evolved as the most promising approach to reclaim potable water from wastewater for future long-term manned space missions. Life Systems, Inc. (LSI), working with NASA, has developed a preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) which processes wastewater at 1.4 kg/h. The preprototype unit weighs 143 kg, occupies a volume of 0.47 cu m, and will reclaim 96 percent of the available wastewater. This unit has been tested by LSI and is scheduled for further testing at NASA-JSC. This paper presents the preprototype VCDS design, configuration, performance data, test results and flight system projections.

Thompson, C. D.; Ellis, G. S.; Schubert, F. H.

1981-01-01

156

Non-distillable entanglement guarantees distillable entanglement  

E-print Network

The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are entangled and non-distillable, then either of them is distillable with the third party. Our result leads to the classification of tripartite pure states based on bipartite reduced density operators, which is a novel and effective way to this long-standing problem compared to the means by stochastic local operations and classical communications. Furthermore we systematically indicate the structure of the classified states and generate them. We also extend our results to multipartite states.

Lin Chen; Masahito Hayashi

2012-09-19

157

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

158

Modelling reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation issues for reactive distillation systems are considerably more complex than those involved for either conventional reactors or conventional distillation columns. The introduction of an in situ separation function within the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vaporliquid equilibrium, vaporliquid mass transfer, intra-catalyst diffusion (for heterogeneously catalysed processes) and chemical kinetics. Such interactions have been shown

R. Taylor; R. Krishna

2000-01-01

159

High-Purity Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation is one of the most common separation techniques in chemical manufacturing. This multi-input, multi-output staged separation process is strongly interactive, as determined by the singular value decomposition of a linear dynamic model of the system. Process dynamics associated with the low-gain direction are critical to the design of high-performance controllers for high-purity distillation but are difficult to estimate from

DANIEL E. RIVERA; Hyunjin Lee; HANS D. MITTELMANN; MARTIN W. BRAUN

2007-01-01

160

High vacuum mercury retort recovery  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Apparatus Company is a worldwide supplier of extremely high purity quadruple distilled mercury. For 40 years, the process of continuous feed vacuum distillation of mercury has been used to achieve the highest levels of purity. In the early 1970`s Bethlehem developed a mercury retort process for the recovery of mercury from manufactured articles. This process is continuously updated with new innovations and is currently a relatively high vacuum system that is capable of handling a wide variety of mercury bearing waste materials.

Boyle, J.M. [Bethlehem Apparatus Co., Inc., Hellertown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

161

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2008-01-15

162

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2012-07-01

163

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2014-07-01

164

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

165

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2011-07-01

166

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2013-07-01

167

Pore characteristics as surrogates for permeability in mapping reservoir flow units: Vacuum San Andres field, Lea County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A study of the Vacuum San Andres field reveals that porosity and permeability in this anhydritic dolomite reservoir are not limited by facies boundaries. Processes of early dolomitization followed by leaching created a mainly diagenetic pore system with five fundamental pore types: (1) intercrystalline; (2) intergranular; (3) intragranular; (4) moldic; and (5) vuggy. Percent porosity, from core analyses and derived from borehole logs, was mapped by dividing the San Andres Formation within the field into 20 slices of 20 feet each. Average porosity for each slice was contoured by computer and spot-checked by hand contouring. Sectors with porosity less than 6%, 6-12%, 12-18%, and greater than 18% were hand-colored to form a 4-dimensional map of percent porosity in space. The maps for each slice were stacked to create a physical model of field-wide porosity distribution. Measurements of pore dimensions in each pore category in each thin section were made to determine the distribution of mean pore size by type in each percent-porosity sector. mean pore size was plotted against permeability to test for correspondence. The distribution of pore types and sizes within each percent-porosity sector was compared with core lith logs and with values from borehole logs to identify co-variant pore, rock, and borehole log properties with which to construct a flow-unit map. The flow units are thereby defined by using the correspondence between rock type and pore properties to extend mapping capabilities beyond cored wells as an aid in reservoir characterization for enhanced oil recovery.

Ahr, W.M. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1991-03-01

168

Application of direct steam generation into a solar parabolic trough collector to multieffect distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of the direct steam generation into a solar parabolic trough collector to multieffect distillation is proposed and economically evaluated. The thermal fluid of the solar field is pure water, which boils as circulating along the solar collectors. The steam generated drives a multieffect distillation unit. This solar distillation system is compared with multieffect plants connected

Lourdes Garca-Rodrguez; Ana I. Palmero-Marrero; Carlos Gmez-Camacho

1999-01-01

169

Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon*  

E-print Network

Optimization of a Diabatic Distillation Column with Sequential Heat Exchangers Edward Steven of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Diabatic distillation is a separation process in which heat is transferred is enormous because distillation is the single largest energy degrading unit operation worldwide. Introduction

Salamon, Peter

170

Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations  

E-print Network

Use of Two Distillation Columns in Systems with Maximum Temperature Limitations Rebecca H. Masel, Pennsylvania 18015, United States ABSTRACT: Maximum temperature limitations are encountered in distillation of the bottoms product fixes the column base pressure and, hence, the condenser pressure. The distillate

Gilchrist, James F.

171

Qutrit Magic State Distillation  

E-print Network

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

2012-01-01

172

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-print Network

Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

White, D. C.

2010-01-01

173

Efficient distillation beyond qubits  

E-print Network

We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogues of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states which are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1) parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

K. G. H. Vollbrecht; M. M. Wolf

2002-08-26

174

Distillation device supplies cesium vapor at constant pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Distillation apparatus in the form of a U tube supplies small amounts of pure cesium vapor at constant pressure to a thermionic converter. The upstream leg of the U tube is connected to a vacuum pump to withdraw noncondensable impurities, the bottom portion serves as a reservoir for the liquid cesium.

Basiulis, A.; Shefsiek, P. K.

1968-01-01

175

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-print Network

of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps...

Polley, G. T.

176

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

177

Topological Quantum Distillation  

E-print Network

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2007-03-29

178

The distillability problem revisited  

E-print Network

An important open problem in quantum information theory is the question of the existence of NPT bound entanglement. In the past years, little progress has been made, mainly because of the lack of mathematical tools to address the problem. (i) In an attempt to overcome this, we show how the distillability problem can be reformulated as a special instance of the separability problem, for which a large number of tools and techniques are available. (ii) Building up to this we also show how the problem can be formulated as a Schmidt number problem. (iii) A numerical method for detecting distillability is presented and strong evidence is given that all 1-copy undistillable Werner states are also 4-copy undistillable. (iv) The same method is used to estimate the volume of distillable states, and the results suggest that bound entanglement is primarily a phenomenon found in low dimensional quantum systems. (v) Finally, a set of one parameter states is presented which we conjecture to exhibit all forms of distillability.

Lieven Clarisse

2006-07-19

179

Distillation pressure control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a fractional distillation column; means for providing a feed mixture to be fractionated to the column; means for withdrawing an overhead vapor stream from the column; means for condensing at least a portion of the overhead vapor stream; an accumulator; means for passing the resulting at least partially condensed overhead stream into the accumulator;

Hofferber

1988-01-01

180

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-print Network

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

V. Vedral

1999-11-17

181

Vacuum desalination for water purification using waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum desalination is a process by which water is vaporized at a lower temperature when subjected to vacuum pressure. The heat energy requirement for desalination using a distillation process can be brought down by reducing the boiling temperature. The boiling temperature of seawater can be lowered to as low as 400C by the creation of a vacuum. Using waste heat

J. H. Tay; S. C. Low; S. Jeyaseelan

1996-01-01

182

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01

183

Cascade Distillation System Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

2014-01-01

184

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16

185

Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

1977-01-01

186

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1999-04-09

187

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products,\\u000a is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular\\u000a fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation.\\u000a At present, the distribution of distillation

Grzegorz Boczkaj; Andrzej Przyjazny; Marian Kami?ski

2011-01-01

188

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

189

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2012-04-01

190

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2011-04-01

191

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2010-04-01

192

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2013-04-01

193

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2014-04-01

194

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements Hilde K. Engelien and Sigurd distillation arrangements for separating a ternary mixture have been considered. The focus is on a heat-integrated complex distillation configuration, called a multieffect prefractionator arrangement. The comparison

Skogestad, Sigurd

195

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA SRENSEN in this paper provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback been built and the experiments verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation

Skogestad, Sigurd

196

Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings  

E-print Network

Multivessel Batch Distillation Potential Energy Savings Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

Skogestad, Sigurd

197

Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

198

Conceptual design for a full-scale VAC*TRAX vacuum thermal desorption unit. Final report, September 1992--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

Rust Federal Services is pleased to present this topical report on the results of our Phase II conceptual design work of the PRDA VAC*TRAX{sup SM} mobile vacuum thermal desorption technology demonstration program. Through the present Phase II conceptual design activities, Rust has developed an equipment design and permitting strategy that retains the flexibility of a mobile treatment system with the long term value and ease of access of a central facility. The process is designed to remove volatile matter from solid matrices by thermal desorption. The system is also designed with superior emission controls, making it an ideal system for the treatment of radioactive wastes.

Palmer, C.R.

1996-04-01

199

Distilling entanglement from Fermions  

E-print Network

Since Fermions are based on anti-commutation relations, their entanglement can not be studied in the usual way, such that the available theory has to be modified appropriately. Recent publications consider in particular the structure of separable and of maximally entangled states. In this talk we want to discuss local operations and entanglement distillation from bipartite, Fermionic systems. To this end we apply an algebraic point of view where algebras of local observables, rather than tensor product Hilbert spaces play the central role. We apply our scheme in particular to Fermionic Gaussian states where the whole discussion can be reduced to properties of the covariance matrix. Finally the results are demonstrated with free Fermions on an infinite, one-dimensional lattice.

M. Keyl

2008-12-03

200

ETBE via catalytic distillation  

SciTech Connect

Recent political developments have altered the focus of refiners and blenders concerning oxygenates for reformulated gasoline. Ethanol and ethyl ethers (ETBE and TAEE) will receive preferential treatment under proposed legislation. Operations of existing and future ether plants are interested in flexibility to produce whatever ether has legislative or economic preference in the future. The use of DCTECH`s catalytic distillation technology offers advantages for alcohol flexibility, capital cost and operating cost. Additional features include high product purity, high isobutylene conversion and long catalyst life. Further cost reductions are available through the use of wet ethanol feed. The paper will address the technology features and benefits as well as economics. The results of recent commercial demonstration of the process will also be reviewed.

Rock, K.L. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States)

1993-12-31

201

Vapor compression distillation module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) module was developed and evaluated as part of a Space Station Prototype (SSP) environmental control and life support system. The VCD module includes the waste tankage, pumps, post-treatment cells, automatic controls and fault detection instrumentation. Development problems were encountered with two components: the liquid pumps, and the waste tank and quantity gauge. Peristaltic pumps were selected instead of gear pumps, and a sub-program of materials and design optimization was undertaken leading to a projected life greater than 10,000 hours of continuous operation. A bladder tank was designed and built to contain the waste liquids and deliver it to the processor. A detrimental pressure pattern imposed upon the bladder by a force-operated quantity gauge was corrected by rearranging the force application, and design goals were achieved. System testing has demonstrated that all performance goals have been fulfilled.

Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

202

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

E-print Network

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

?ukasz Derkacz; Lech Jakobczyk

2010-08-17

203

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

SciTech Connect

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by a distance comparable with the radiation wavelength.

Derkacz, Lukasz; Jakobczyk, Lech [Opera Software International AS, Oddzialw Polsce, ul. Szewska 8, 50-122 Wroclaw (Poland); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

2010-08-15

204

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-print Network

percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil...

John, P.

1979-01-01

205

Propellant Analysis and Distillation Unit Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) routinely operates hypergolic propulsion systems. Some of the onsite activities include performing long duration studies on the operational life of these systems. A few of them have been in use for over twenty years. During this span of time contamination has built up in the propellant and some of the distribution infrastructure. This study investigated the nature of this contamination, the pathology of its generation, and developed a process for removal of the contamination that was cost efficient with minimal waste generation.

Barragan, Michelle H.; Spangler, Cindy; Barrera, Louis K.

2007-01-01

206

Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

2011-01-01

207

Thermomechanically integrated distillation of ethylene from ethane  

SciTech Connect

The separation of ethylene from ethane by distillation is normally the final step in the production of ethylene. The critical temperature of ethylene is about 50 F, therefore moderately low temperatures and moderately high pressures are typically used to provide optimum economic conditions. The optimum design can require thick walled and heavy pressure vessels which may be constructed of expensive alloy steels depending on the specific operating conditions. The required purity of ethylene usually exceeds 99.9%, and the economic level of recovery is approximately 99%. In addition, the relative volatility of ethylene to ethane is moderately small ranging from about 1.13 for high pressure mixtures rich in ethylene to 2.34 for low pressure mixtures rich in ethane. The relatively high purity and recovery and relatively low relative volatility dictate a large distillation column with more than 100 trays and a large diameter for world scale production levels of over a billion pounds per year of ethylene. The installed capital cost for a unit of this type and size can exceed twenty million dollars, and utility costs can exceed one million dollars per year. Consequently, there is a strong economic incentive to reduce costs through improved process designs for the distillation of ethylene from ethane, and the process is well studied in the literature. Thermomechanically integrated distillation provides an improved design which can reduce both capital and operating costs as compared to the best conventional designs. In this paper, the conventional designs for both vapor and liquid feeds are reviewed, the underlying thermodynamics characterizing the process is discussed, alternative thermomechanically integrated designs are presented, and utility and purchased equipment costs are compared.

Greene, D.G.; Haddad, H.; Manley, D.B. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

208

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

209

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-print Network

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01

210

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

211

Isotropic non-locality cannot be distilled  

E-print Network

We investigate non-locality distillation protocols for isotropic correlations. These correlations are the hardest instances which respect to distillability and only partial results are known about their behaviour under non-locality distillation protocols. We completely resolve this issue by proving that non-locality distillation is impossible for all non-local isotropic correlations.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-09-20

212

Quantum universality by state distillation  

E-print Network

Quantum universality can be achieved using classically controlled stabilizer operations and repeated preparation of certain ancilla states. Which ancilla states suffice for universality? This "magic states distillation" question is closely related to quantum fault tolerance. Lower bounds on the noise tolerable on the ancilla help give lower bounds on the tolerable noise rate threshold for fault-tolerant computation. Upper bounds show the limits of threshold upper-bound arguments based on the Gottesman-Knill theorem. We extend the range of single-qubit mixed states that are known to give universality, by using a simple parity-checking operation. For applications to proving threshold lower bounds, certain practical stability characteristics are often required, and we also show a stable distillation procedure. No distillation upper bounds are known beyond those given by the Gottesman-Knill theorem. One might ask whether distillation upper bounds reduce to upper bounds for single-qubit ancilla states. For multi-qubit pure states and previously considered two-qubit ancilla states, the answer is yes. However, we exhibit two-qubit mixed states that are not mixtures of stabilizer states, but for which every postselected stabilizer reduction from two qubits to one outputs a mixture of stabilizer states. Distilling such states would require true multi-qubit state distillation methods.

Ben W. Reichardt

2009-07-13

213

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of High Purity Distillation Columns for Cryogenic Air Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants that supply purified gases to a number of industries. We have developed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on the assumption of full-state feedback for a prototypical cryogenic distillation column to allow effective operation over a wide range of plant production rates. The controller design

Zhongzhou Chen; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

2010-01-01

214

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H 2 ( 0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H 2 and D 2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to 99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called "Heli-pack". The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.20.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H 2 to the purified HD gas.

Ohta, T.; Bouchigny, S.; Didelez, J.-P.; Fujiwara, M.; Fukuda, K.; Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S.; Rouill, G.; Tanaka, M.; Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M.; Wang, S. Y.; Yosoi, M.

2012-02-01

215

FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUES TO CONCENTRATE NUTRIENT STREAMS IN DISTILLERS GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn, the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounts for more than 90% of the total value and production of feed grains. It is also used for food, industrial materials, and fuel ethanol production. Distillers grains, the major coproduct from ethanol manufacturing, are used as li...

216

Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1981-12-01

217

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system has been performed and a performance model of the system has been developed. This has been used to size the system for the application of desalting saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D. H.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

218

Refinery short-term scheduling with tank farm, inventory and distillation management: An integrated simulation-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses primarily the scheduling of a refinery importing various types of crude oil. The refinery operation discussed in this paper involves the unloading of crude oil to storage tanks, the transfer and blending from storage tanks to charging tanks and crude oil distillation units, and the arrangement of the temperature cut-points for each distillation unit. The paper describes

George Chryssolouris; Nikolaos Papakostas; Dimitris Mourtzis

2005-01-01

219

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-print Network

----------------, .. 134 ESL-IE-86-06-25 Proceedings from the Eighth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, June 17-19, 1986 ~ A. Cascades 1. Cryogenic Distillation Since most cryogenic distillations, are inherently driven by work (Le... kPa 95.6 K AIR 117 kPa --. 138kPa NESTED CASCADE AIR AIR COMPRESSOR CONVENTIONAL Conv'l CASCADE NEC Pre kPa ssure asia Energy 579 84 1.0 441 64 .844 Figure 4. Energy Effect of Nested Cascade Distilla tion on Cryogenic Air...

Erickson, D. C.

220

Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distillers dried grains (DDG). The dried distillers grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

221

Antioxidant Activity of Phytochemicals from Dried Distillers Grain Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distillers dried grains (DDG). The dried distillers grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability i...

222

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

SciTech Connect

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

Kapoor, K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)], E-mail: kapoork@nfc.ernet.in; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)

2008-03-15

223

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15

224

Entanglement distillation using particle statistics  

E-print Network

We extend the idea of entanglement concentration for pure states(Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 187903) to the case of mixed states. The scheme works only with particle statistics and local operations, without the need of any other interactions. We show that the maximally entangled state can be distilled out when the initial state is pure, otherwise the entanglement of the final state is less than one. The distillation efficiency is a product of the diagonal elements of the initial state, it takes the maximum 50%, the same as the case for pure states.

H. L. Huang; L. H. Cheng; X. X. Yi

2005-10-25

225

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15

226

Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources  

E-print Network

We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

2010-10-15

227

Vacuum Virtues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this

Rathey, Allen

2007-01-01

228

Vacuum Energy  

E-print Network

There appears to be three, perhaps related, ways of approaching the nature of vacuum energy . The first is to say that it is just the lowest energy state of a given, usually quantum, system. The second is to equate vacuum energy with the Casimir energy. The third is to note that an energy difference from a complete vacuum might have some long range effect, typically this energy difference is interpreted as the cosmological constant. All three approaches are reviewed, with an emphasis on recent work. It is hoped that this review is comprehensive in scope. There is a discussion on whether there is a relation between vacuum energy and inertia. The solution suggested here to the nature of the vacuum is that Casimir energy can produce short range effects because of boundary conditions, but that at long range there is no overall effect of vacuum energy, unless one considers lagrangians of higher order than Einstein's as vacuum induced. No original calculations are presented in support of this position. This is not a review of the cosmological constant {\\it per se}, but rather vacuum energy in general, my approach to the cosmological constant is not standard.

Mark D. Roberts

2001-07-22

229

Vacuum mechatronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

1989-01-01

230

Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

2008-10-01

231

Mass spectrometric study of nitrogen bases in distillate cuts from Sakhalin crude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen bases that were studied were recovered from Grade DL diesel fuel, a vacuum gas oil, and a tarcoker distillate, all produced in the refinery from ~khabi (Sakhalin) crude. The bases were obtained by treating the cuts at room temperature with aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The acid extracts were reextracted with petroleum ether to remove neutral compounds and were

N. G. Baranova; N. V. Razumov; E. S. Brodskii

1975-01-01

232

East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit CO2 flood ten year performance review: Evolution of a reservoir management strategy and results of WAG optimization  

SciTech Connect

The East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) recently completed ten years of successful CO{sub 2} miscible WAG injection. This paper briefly reviews the original CO{sub 2} project design and field performance over the past ten years, and discusses the evolution of a CO{sub 2} reservoir management strategy from the original, fixed 2:1 WAG design to the current flexible, performance-driven WAG strategy. Variations in the magnitude and character of CO{sub 2} flood response across the Unit due to variability in local reservoir geology presented numerous reservoir management challenges. Problems were encountered in areas such as injection conformance, pattern balancing and sweep efficiency; managing large swings in gas production rates, and changes in injection gas composition and MMP due to construction of an NGL recovery facility. These challenges required a re-evaluation of our understanding of the reservoir and prompted a review of the original project design and operating philosophy by an interdisciplinary study team. Significant elements of this effort included surveillance and data collection on selected infill wells, extensive reservoir characterization work, and use of operations-oriented simulation modeling. This work resulted in the evolution of a more flexible reservoir management strategy for EVGSAU utilizing selective, geologically-targeted infill drilling, well conversions, pattern realignment, and a performance-driven WAG management strategy. Operating changes implemented over the past two years have produced significant improvements in profitability and performance in terms of both increased oil production and reduced gas handling problems and expenses.

Harpole, K.J.; Hallenbeck, L.D.

1996-12-31

233

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01

234

Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water  

E-print Network

Auble Lab Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Reagents: Sterile distilled water -mercaptoethanol Sorbitol Buffer conical tube at 3,000 rpms for 5 minutes. 3. Resuspend in 10 ml of sterile distilled (SD) water, then spin

Auble, David

235

Plant transpiration distillation of water  

SciTech Connect

A project using solar energy and the transpiration of plants for the distillation of water is described. Along with determining which of three plants thrived best growing in a still, the experiment also revealed that the still functioned nearly as well in inclement weather as in fair weather.

Virostko, M.K.; Spielberg, J.I.

1986-01-01

236

Properties of Distillers Grains Composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in renewable biofuel sources has intensified in recent years, leading to greatly increased production of ethanol and its primary coproduct, Distillers Dried Grain with Solubles (DDGS). Consequently, the development of new outlets for DDGS has become crucial to maintaining the economic viab...

237

OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

238

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

SciTech Connect

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15

239

Entanglement distillation by extendible maps  

E-print Network

It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Namely, instead of LOCC operations we consider k-extendible operations, defined as maps whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We find that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. it is capable of distilling EPR pairs even from product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which show that if we raise the extension index k simultaneously with the number of copies of the state, then the class of k-extendible operations is not that powerful anymore and provide a better approximation to the set of LOCC operations.

Lukasz Pankowski; Fernando G. S. L. Brandao; Michal Horodecki; Graeme Smith

2013-08-25

240

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

241

Predictive control of distillation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, predictive control is applied to two fundamental control problems found in most distillation processes: averaging level control and product quality control. An optimal averaging level control problem is defined and solved for a surge tank system. Two averaging level controllers, the ramp controller and the optimal predictive controller, are developed utilizing the optimal control policy. The ramp

1986-01-01

242

Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

Buggele, A. E.

1975-01-01

243

27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Distillates containing aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an adjacent bonded wine cellar for use therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from which the distillates were removed....

2010-04-01

244

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION Bernd Wittgens and Sigurd Skogestad 1, Norway ABSTRACT A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying the proposed policy is compared to the multivessel batch distillation column. In some cases we found

Skogestad, Sigurd

245

Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation  

E-print Network

Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation S. Skouras and S. Skogestad Dept.interscience.wiley.com). The separation of close-boiling and azeotropic mixtures by heterogeneous azeotropic distillation is addressed. The results show that heteroazeotropic batch distillation exhibits substantial flexibility. The column profile

Skogestad, Sigurd

246

Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states  

E-print Network

LETTERS Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states RUIFANG DONG1 , MIKAEL, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less entangled states, can be used414 . Here we report on the distillation of deterministically

Loss, Daniel

247

Process Svstems Enaineerina Instability of Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Process Svstems Enaineerina , Instability of Distillation Columns Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd recognized, distillation columns, operating with reflux and boilup as independent inputs, may have The dynamic behavior of distillation columns has been stud- ied quite extensively over the past decades

Skogestad, Sigurd

248

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

TOTAL REFLUX OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION BERND WITTGENS, RAJAB LITTO, EVA S RENSEN a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for total re verify the simulations. INTRODUCTION Although batch distillation generally is less energy e cient than

Skogestad, Sigurd

249

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen  

E-print Network

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen rsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler (temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2

Salamon, Peter

250

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

2011-04-01

251

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified with about 0.1 percent citric acid: Streptococcus...

2010-04-01

252

Concentration of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by solar membrane distillation.  

PubMed

A small solar energy collector was run to heat lignocellulosic hydrolyzates through an exchanger, and the heated hydrolyzate was concentrated by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). Under optimal conditions of velocity of 1.0m/s and 65C, glucose rejection was 99.5% and the flux was 8.46Lm(-2)h(-1). Fermentation of the concentrated hydrolyzate produced 2.64 times the amount of ethanol as fermentation using the original hydrolyzate. The results of this work indicated the possibility to decrease the thermal energy consumption of lignocellulosic ethanol through using VMD. PMID:22940345

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Yafei; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xinhua; Chen, Huanlin

2012-11-01

253

Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2009-01-01

254

Short-term biomarkers of tumor promotion in mouse skin treated with petroleum middle distillates.  

PubMed

Topical application of certain petroleum middle distillates (PMD) to mice produces skin tumors after long latency, and initiation/promotion protocols indicate that this effect is associated with their tumor promoting activity. Since induction of sustained, potentiated epidermal hyperplasia is predictive of promoting activity, five compositionally distinct PMD [hydrodesulfurized kerosene (API 81-07); hydrodesulfurized PMD (API 81-10); odorless light petroleum hydrocarbons; severely hydrotreated light vacuum distillate (LVD); and lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO)] were assessed for their effects on epidermal hyperplasia. PMD were administered (2 x/week for 2 weeks) to skin of CD-1 mice. Four quantitative biomarkers of epidermal hyperplasia were evaluated: epidermal thickness, number of nucleated epidermal cells per unit length of basement membrane, labeling (BrdUrd) index of epidermal cells, and induction of epidermal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. As positive controls, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-dodecane were utilized. PMD-induced skin irritation was evaluated visually and/or histopathologically. All five PMD produced dose-dependent, skin irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. On a weight basis the magnitude of the maximal PMD-induced effects was similar to that produced by n-dodecane, but > 1000-fold less than that produced by TPA. Epidermal hyperplasia and subacute skin irritancy produced by the five PMD were similar. Of the four short-term markers of tumor promotion assessed, labeling index and epidermal ODC activity were predictive of the relative promoting activities of those PMD for which tumorigenicity bioassay data are available, i.e., API 81-07 > API 81-10 > LRPO. An apparent discrepancy to the predictability of epidermal ODC activity occurred with LRPO:toluene [1:1 (v/v)]. This mixture is nontumorigenic, yet significantly induced epidermal ODC activity. This mixture, however, produced severe epidermal toxicity that precluded any meaningful analysis of short-term biomarkers in relationship to biological activity. PMID:9848120

Walborg, E F; DiGiovanni, J; Conti, C J; Slaga, T J; Freeman, J J; Steup, D R; Skisak, C M

1998-10-01

255

Distillate Market Model documentation report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

Not Available

1993-12-01

256

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss flow regimes of gas. The PDF includes 14 instructional slides demonstrating related concepts in vacuum technology. Keywords: Reynolds' number, Knudsen's number

Rack, Philip D.

257

Experimental Distillation of Quantum Nonlocality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first experimental demonstration of distillation of quantum nonlocality, confirming the recent theoretical protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)]. Quantum nonlocality is described by a correlation box with binary inputs and outputs, and the nonlocal boxes are realized through appropriate measurements on polarization entangled photon pairs. We demonstrate that nonlocality is amplified by connecting two nonlocal boxes into a composite one through local operations and four-photon measurements.

Zu, C.; Deng, D.-L.; Hou, P.-Y.; Chang, X.-Y.; Wang, F.; Duan, L.-M.

2013-08-01

258

Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (? 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (? 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (? 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. PMID:21493004

Lpez, Flix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco Jos; Lobato, Beln

2011-06-15

259

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

260

Distilling topological entropy from a single measurement of entanglement on projected systems  

E-print Network

Distilling topological entropy from a single measurement of entanglement on projected systems C. Castelnovo1 1 TCM group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, United Kingdom (Dated: March 17, 2014) Entanglement measures... calculations or numerical simulations is generally difficult due to the fact that it is an order one correction to leading terms that scale with the size of the system. In order to distil the topological entropy, one resorts to extrapolation as a function...

Castelnovo, C.

2014-04-30

261

Vacuum Waves  

E-print Network

As an example of the unification of gravitation and particle physics, an exact solution of the five-dimensional field equations is studied which describes waves in the classical Einstein vacuum. While the solution is essentially 5D in nature, the waves exist in ordinary 3D space, and may provide a way to test for an extra dimension.

Paul S. Wesson

2012-12-11

262

Coprocessing of straight run vacuum resid and cracked residua  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for simultaneously processing straight run vacuum resid and cracked residuum to produce distilled products and a 1,000°F+ fraction in an amount of not more than the sum of 40 volume percent of the 1,000°F+ material in the straight run vacuum resid and the 1,000°F+ fraction of the cracked residuum. The process consists of: (a) combining a

J. R. Jr. McConaghy; A. L. Anderson

1986-01-01

263

Vapor Compression Distillation Flight Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major requirements associated with operating the International Space Station is the transportation -- space shuttle and Russian Progress spacecraft launches - necessary to re-supply station crews with food and water. The Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) Flight Experiment, managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., is a full-scale demonstration of technology being developed to recycle crewmember urine and wastewater aboard the International Space Station and thereby reduce the amount of water that must be re-supplied. Based on results of the VCD Flight Experiment, an operational urine processor will be installed in Node 3 of the space station in 2005.

Hutchens, Cindy F.

2002-01-01

264

Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions  

E-print Network

We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

2011-03-24

265

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

Rack, Philip D.

266

Fume incinerator with vacuum baffle  

SciTech Connect

A single unit, shell and tube fume incinerator utilizes a vacuum baffle structure proximate a combustion zone to control the flow of combustion exhaust gas. The vacuum baffle is located slightly above the hot ends of a plurality of heat exchange tubes to deflect the hot exhaust gases from the combustion zone away from the ends of the tubes, and back to the outside of the tubes, thereby controlling the time at temperature'' for contaminants in the impure gas feed. A vacuum effect is created just below the baffle to draw cleansed exhaust below the baffle back up into the combustion zone to prevent the escape of impure gas. 3 figs.

Houston, R.

1994-01-04

267

Application of a New EMC Test Method for Space Unit Qualification in Cold Operational Condition - Radiated Susceptibility Tests in Thermal Vacuum on GAIA Payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In addition to the advantages of the reverberation chamber (statistically isotropic incident field), this method allows to perform radiated susceptibility tests which are impossible to realize in a typical anechoic chamber. This paper deals with a novel radiated susceptibility test method applied in thermal vacuum chamber to assess the GAIA focal plane assembly immunity in X-band. The TVAC (thermal vacuum chamber) has been used as a reverberation chamber with frequency stirring in order to be in the condition of an oversized cavity.

Lescoat, F.; Pelissou, P.; Bisognin, P.; Rougier, G.; Trougnou, L.

2012-05-01

268

CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION -EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION  

E-print Network

1 CLOSED OPERATION OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION - EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Submitted to AIChecient operation, multicomponent distillation, batch distillation, total re ux operation ABSTRACT. The multivessel batch distillation column, as well as conven- tional batch distillation, may be operated in a closed

Skogestad, Sigurd

269

ENRICHMENT OF A JET OF VAPOR ENTERING A VACUUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that in the purification of metals by vacuum distillation, ; the condensate is enriched by oxygen and nitrogen residual gas. The amount of ; enrichment was measured with a new apparatus. Mercury was vaporized and Hg\\/sup ; 203\\/ was used as the residual gas. The surface of the consensate covered with a ; layer of the residual

Burlakov

1957-01-01

270

Distillability and positivity of partial transposes in general quantum field systems  

E-print Network

Criteria for distillability, and the property of having a positive partial transpose, are introduced for states of general bipartite quantum systems. The framework is sufficiently general to include systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom, including quantum fields. We show that a large number of states in relativistic quantum field theory, including the vacuum state and thermal equilibrium states, are distillable over subsystems separated by arbitrary spacelike distances. These results apply to any quantum field model. It will also be shown that these results can be generalized to quantum fields in curved spacetime, leading to the conclusion that there is a large number of quantum field states which are distillable over subsystems separated by an event horizon.

Rainer Verch; Reinhard F. Werner

2005-04-11

271

Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems  

SciTech Connect

Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.

Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States))

1995-03-01

272

Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message

Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

2011-01-01

273

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived

Martyn J. Earle; Jos M. S. S. Esperana; Manuela A. Gilea; Jos N. Canongia Lopes; Lus P. N. Rebelo; Joseph W. Magee; Kenneth R. Seddon; Jason A. Widegren

2006-01-01

274

Distillability Criterion for all Bipartite Gaussian States  

E-print Network

We prove that all inseparable Gaussian states of two modes can be distilled into maximally entangled pure states by local operations. Using this result we show that a bipartite Gaussian state of arbitrarily many modes can be distilled if and only if its partial transpose is not positive.

G. Giedke; L. -M. Duan; J. I. Cirac; P. Zoller

2001-10-09

275

Potential bleaching techniques for corn distillers grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ethanol industry is booming, and extensive research is now being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock feed. P...

276

Optimization of Cryogenic Air Separation Distillation Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic air separation distillation columns are widely used in industry, which consume a large energy and need to produce a huge amount of need of nitrogen, oxygen and argon products with high purity. Of pervious optimal researches on cryogenic distillation column, few considers argon column due to the complex degree of process. In this work, rigorous optimization model of cryogenic

Yu Zhu; Xinggao Liu; Zhiyong Zhou

2006-01-01

277

Membrane distillation. II. Direct contact MD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure water direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) experiments were used to measure the permeability parameter associated with the molecular diffusion in membrane distillation (MD). The fluxes given by a recently reported MD model, which is based on the dusty-gas model of gas transport through porous media, showed good agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of feed temperatures

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1996-01-01

278

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-print Network

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07

279

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-print Network

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18

280

Relativity and Lorentz Invariance of Entanglement Distillability  

E-print Network

We study entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed spin states under Wigner rotations induced by Lorentz transformations. We define weak and strong criteria for relativistic isoentangled and isodistillable states to characterize relative and invariant behavior of entanglement and distillability. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states, where fully analytical methods can be achieved and all relevant cases presented.

L. Lamata; M. A. Martin-Delgado; E. Solano

2007-01-04

281

Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames  

E-print Network

We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

Moradi, Shahpoor

2012-01-01

282

Heat transport in the membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of membrane distillation (MD) with a laminar flow of the streams in a module has been performed. The equations describing the heat transfer in MD capillary modules were presented and verified experimentally. The equations were derived for the calculation of the feed and distillate temperature at a layer adjacent to the membrane. The heat transfer correlations were implemented in

Marek Gryta; Maria Tomaszewska

1998-01-01

283

Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames  

E-print Network

We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

Shahpoor Moradi

2012-01-06

284

POTENTIAL ENERGY SAVINGS OF MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION  

E-print Network

Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering, 7034 Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying that an increase in production rate up to 50 is possible by using multivessel batch distillation instead

Skogestad, Sigurd

285

Multivessel Batch Distillation -Potential Energy Savings  

E-print Network

Norwegian University of Science and Technology NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering, 7034 Trondheim, Norway ABSTRACT - A conventional batch distillation column operated under feedback control applying that an increase in production rate up to 50 is possible by using multivessel batch distillation instead

Skogestad, Sigurd

286

Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

Marek Gryta

2006-01-01

287

Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks  

E-print Network

Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks Gerardo J. Ruiz, Seon B. Kim energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy column, networks, temperature collocation, inverse design, Aspen validation Introduction Distillation

Linninger, Andreas A.

288

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

SciTech Connect

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01

289

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions.  

PubMed

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products, is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation. At present, the distribution of distillation temperatures is often investigated by simulated distillation (SIMDIS) using capillary gas chromatography (CGC) with a short capillary column with polydimethylsiloxane as the stationary phase. This paper presents the results of investigations on the possibility of replacing currently used CGC columns for SIMDIS with a deactivated fused silica capillary tube without any stationary phase. The SIMDIS technique making use of such an empty fused silica column allows a considerable lowering of elution temperature of the analytes, which results in a decrease of the final oven temperature while ensuring a complete separation of the mixture. This eliminates the possibility of decomposition of less thermally stable mixture components and bleeding of the stationary phase which would result in an increase of the detector signal. It also improves the stability of the baseline, which is especially important in the determination of the end point of elution, which is the basis for finding the final temperature of distillation. This is the key parameter for the safety process of hydrocracking, where an excessively high final temperature of distillation of a batch can result in serious damage to an expensive catalyst bed. This paper compares the distribution of distillation temperatures of the fraction from vacuum distillation of petroleum obtained using SIMDIS with that obtained by the proposed procedure. A good agreement between the two procedures was observed. In addition, typical values of elution temperatures of n-paraffin standards obtained by the two procedures were compared. Finally, the agreement between boiling points of polar compounds determined from their retention times and actual boiling points was investigated. PMID:21153592

Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kami?ski, Marian

2011-03-01

290

Combined distillation and normal freezing to purify elements of groups II and VI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A practical system and its application to the purification of Te and Cd is described. Single crystals are grown directly in vitreous silica ampoules subsequently used for sealed Bridgman growth of (Hg-Cd)Te. The system also prepares the ampoules by heating in high vacuum. Purification of the elements is by the combined effect of distillation and normal freezing. Transport and segregation are discussed.

Holland, L. R.

1984-01-01

291

Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.

2014-01-01

292

Advanced performance of small diaphragm vacuum pumps through the use of mechatronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-free diaphragm vacuum pumps have proven to be the best way in vacuum generation for the chemical laboratory and they also find increasing use as backing pumps for modern wide-range turbo molecular pumps. The majority of vacuum pumps in practical use pump only a rather small percentage of their lifetime at full gas load. A pump backing a turbo molecular pump does not have to pump a significant gas load when the high-vacuum pump is running at ultimate vacuum pressure. Also, for a vacuum distillation the vacuum pump has to operate at full speed only at the beginning to lower the pressure inside the system to a vacuum level where evaporation starts. In a rather leak-tight system the distillation process continues by evaporating from the hot liquid and condensing at the cold condenser without the need of a mechanical vacuum pump. Rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps are now available through progress in mechatronics and offer high pumping speed capability for fast pump-down cycles and precise pressure control for distillations. At low gas load the rotational speed can be reduced, improving maintenance intervals, power consumption, noise, vibration and - surprisingly - also ultimate pressure. The different behaviour in pumping speed and ultimate pressure of rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps in comparison to constant-speed pumps is related to the mechanical properties of the valves and gas dynamics .

Lachenmann, R.; Dirscherl, J.

293

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)] [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

294

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

SciTech Connect

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to process plutonium-containing feeds. The electrical parameters of the induction coil and tank circuit necessary for design were determined by two different methods; one is based solely on calculated impedance values, and the other used high-frequency impedance measurements on a mock-up of the induction coil/susceptor arrangement. During the design state, the two methods of determining electrical parameters gave similar results. With the as-built system, the impedance meter did detect some efficiency loss to the metal bell jar and coil support that the calculational method did not predict. These losses were not significant enough to cause operating problems, and thus, both methods were shown to be adequate for the intended purpose. Zinc and magnesium were distilled, and uranium was melted in a successful series of shake-down runs.

Vest, M.A.; Lewandowski, E.F.; Pierce, R.D.; Smith, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-12-01

295

Oil spill cleanup using vacuum technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum technique is established for oil spill cleanup. It consists of environmental tank, oil-collecting unit, vacuum system, and air distributors. The vacuum technique is found very effective under all possible operating conditions. Several operating parameters are investigated such as hole arrangement (vertical and horizontal slots), air distributors location (one-side and two-sides strategies), air volumetric flow rate over the range

Mazmdouh T Ghannam; Omar Chaalal

2003-01-01

296

On two-distillable Werner states  

E-print Network

We consider bipartite mixed states in a d x d quantum system with d at least 3. We say that such a state is PPT if its partial transpose is positive semidefinite, and otherwise that it is NPT. The well-known Werner states are partitioned into three types: a) the separable states (same as the PPT states), b) the 1-distillable states (necessarily NPT), and c) the NPT states which are not 1-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the type c) Werner states are not 2-distillable.

Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2010-03-23

297

Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

Kolenko, E.A.

1988-06-01

298

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed....

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01

299

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-print Network

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01

300

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation...

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01

301

On the irreversibility of entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

We investigate the irreversibility of entanglement distillation for a symmetric d-1 parameter family of mixed bipartite quantum states acting on Hilbert spaces of arbitrary dimension d x d. We prove that in this family the entanglement cost is generically strictly larger than the distillable entanglement, such that the set of states for which the distillation process is asymptotically reversible is of measure zero. This remains true even if the distillation process is catalytically assisted by pure state entanglement and every operation is allowed, which preserves the positivity of the partial transpose. It is shown, that reversibility occurs only in cases where the state is quasi-pure in the sense that all its pure state entanglement can be revealed by a simple operation on a single copy. The reversible cases are shown to be completely characterized by minimal uncertainty vectors for entropic uncertainty relations.

K. G. H. Vollbrecht; R. F. Werner; M. M. Wolf

2003-01-15

302

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

E-print Network

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

Mistry, Karan H.

303

Nonlocality Distillation for High-Dimensional System  

E-print Network

The intriguing and powerful capability of nonlocality in communication field ignites the research of the nonlocality distillation. The first protocol presented in Ref[Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401] shows that the nonlocality of bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes could be amplified by 'wiring' two copies of weaker-nonlocality boxes. Several optimized distillation protocols were presented later for bipartite binary-input and binary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes. In this paper, we focus on the bipartite binary-input and multi-nary-output nonsignaling correlated boxes---high-dimensional boxes, and design comparators-based protocols to achieve the distillation of high-dimensional nonlocality. The results show that the high-dimensional nonlocality can be distilled in different ways, and we find that the efficiencies of the protocols are influenced not only by the wirings but also by the classes the initial nonlocality boxes belongs to. Here, the initial nonlcalities may hav...

Pan, Guo-Zhu; Chen, Zheng-Gen; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2012-01-01

304

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01

305

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

306

Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations  

E-print Network

LIBRARY 4 A I4 COLLEGE QF TEXAS USE OF COMPUTERS FOB MULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr, Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1959 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering USE OF COMPUTERS FOR NULTICOMPONENT DISTILLATION CALCULATIONS A Thesis By Samuel Lane Sullivan Jr. Approved as to style and content by: Chairman...

Sullivan, Samuel Lane

1959-01-01

307

Steering Distillation by "Pulsed" and "Continuous" Measurements  

E-print Network

A new systematic strategy for steering the distillation process for a quantum system, that utilizes the so-called "pulsed" and "continuous" measurements on another quantum system in interaction with the former, is proposed. The distillation process characterized by the specific interaction between the two systems and the "pulsed" measurements is shown to be controllable through the "continuous" measurements, i.e., the quantum Zeno dynamics, providing an effective recipe to prefix the target.

B. Militello; H. Nakazato; A. Messina

2004-05-14

308

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

E-print Network

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted GHZ structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

2009-09-25

309

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-print Network

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns G.T.Polley Pinchtechnology.com In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine... each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimised if the temperature driving force is maximised. The design should therefore seek to minimise the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept...

Polley, G. T.

310

Distillation tray structural parameter study: Phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose here is to identify the structural parameters (plate thickness, liquid level, beam size, number of beams, tray diameter, etc.) that affect the structural integrity of distillation trays in distillation columns. Once the sensitivity of the trays' dynamic response to these parameters has been established, the designer will be able to use this information to prepare more accurate specifications for the construction of new trays. Information is given on both static and dynamic analysis, modal response, and tray failure details.

Winter, J. Ronald

1991-01-01

311

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,  

E-print Network

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total re ux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy e cient than continuous distillation, it has received increased attention

Skogestad, Sigurd

312

On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation  

E-print Network

On the Communication Complexity of Correlation and Entanglement Distillation Ke Yang May 4th, 2004 distillation, entanglement distillation, communication complexity, EPR pairs, quantum key distribution #12) information, and then engage in a protocol to \\distill" the correlation/entanglement via communication. We

313

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,  

E-print Network

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes. A simple feedback control strategy for the total reflux operation of a multivessel column distillation generally is less energy efficient than continuous distillation, it has received increased

Skogestad, Sigurd

314

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-print Network

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott for measuring distillation curves reveals the physicochemical properties of complex fluids such as fuels distillation curves of complex fluids. The distillation curve provides the only practical avenue to assess

315

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-print Network

O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Mller,1 of separation, particularly distillation. The 40,000 commercial distillation columns in use in the U. S. consume or product purity. Distillation is the critical energy-consuming step accounting for 70-85% of the energy

316

Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis  

E-print Network

Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

317

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

E-print Network

The hypothetical nonlocal box (\\textsf{NLB}) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the \\textsf{NLB}. Motivated by the limited distillability of \\textsf{NLB}s, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (\\textsf{qNLB}s). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value $1/2 (3\\sqrt{3}+1) \\approx 3.098076$, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 \\textsf{qNLB} copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semid...

Hyer, Peter

2012-01-01

318

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

319

THE VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM PROCESS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant process was developed. The process was developed for chicken, hot dogs, fruits and vegetables, and catfish. Optimum process conditions were determined as nominally, 138 C saturated steam, vacuum and steam times of 0.1 s except that the final...

320

Cellular Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Couldany universe satisfy the following conditions? (i) Each volume of space contains only a finite amount of information, because\\u000a space and time come in discrete units. (ii) Over some range of size and speed, the mechanics of this world are approximately\\u000a classical. Imagine a crystalline world of tiny, discrete cells, each knowing only what its nearest neighbors do. In such

Marvin Minsky

1982-01-01

321

An extractive distillation technique for producing CO 2 enriched injection gas in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sharp Separation of CO2 (carbon dioxide) from CO2-rich gases issuing from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) fields is investigated by different processing alternatives. A new extractive distillation technique without using an external solvent is introduced for debottlenecking of CO2 separation problem encountered in cryogenic distillation units. The technique involves the addition of a portion of produced C4+ (NGL) stream (natural gas

B. ZareNezhad; N. Hosseinpour

2009-01-01

322

Utilization of wet distillers grains in high-energy beef cattle diets based on processed grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distiller's grains (DG) are used extensively by beef cattle feeding operations in the United States, including the Southern Great Plains. Our regional research consortium has been conducting research focused on utilization of wet DG in feedlot diets based on steam-flaked corn (SFC). Effects of DG on...

323

Resistant starch, total dietary fiber and antioxidants in distillers dried grains (DDG)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers dried grains (DDG) is a cereal byproduct of the rapidly growing fuel ethanol industry in United States. Currently, DDG is used for livestock feed since it is high in protein. Because of the shear magnitude of agricultural crop biomass converted to fuel ethanol, large quantities of DDG a...

324

75 FR 11147 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Distilled Solutions, LLC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...in the United States, the Government- owned invention described in U.S. Patent No. 6,893,540, entitled ``High Temperature Peltier Effect Water Distiller,'' issued May 17, 2005, Navy Case No. 82,363. DATES: Anyone wishing to object...

2010-03-10

325

Effect of feeding distillers grains on reduced sulfur emissions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Odorous reduced sulfur compounds are produced during manure decomposition and emitted from confined animal feeding operations. Feeding high-sulfur distillers byproducts may increase the emission of these compounds. The objectives of a series of feedlot pen studies was to (i) determine if emission...

326

Decarburization kinetics of steel melt in circulatory vacuum treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the circulatory vacuum treatment of steel melt in converter shop 1 at OAO Novolipetskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (NLMK) is based on the compilation of an algorithm for calculating the change in the concentration of dissolved carbon and oxygen in vacuum decarburization and the implementation of that algorithm in a dynamic model of steel treatment in a circulatory vacuum-treatment unit.

S. V. Sebyakin; I. A. Geld

2008-01-01

327

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

E-print Network

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

2007-05-28

328

Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU)  

E-print Network

Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU) Some graphs courtesy of KJLesker, Edwards, Veeco #12;I. VacuumI. Vacuum 1 atm= 760 torr = 1.0132 bar = 1.013x105 Pa = 14.7 psi Rough Vacuum (RV) 1 torr 760 torrg ( ) Medium Vacuum (MV) 10-5 torr

Liu, Kai

329

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development] [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

330

Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

Constantz, J.

1989-01-01

331

Co-processing of straight run vacuum resid and cracked residua  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for simultaneously processing straight run vacuum resid and cracked residuum to produce distilled products and a 1,000/sup 0/F+ fraction in an amount of not more than the sum of 40 volume percent of the 1,000/sup 0/F+ material in the straight run vacuum resid and the 1,000/sup 0/F+ fraction of the cracked residuum. The process consists of: (a) combining a partially hydrogenated donor diluent solvent with the vacuum resid; (b) subjecting the combined vacuum resid and solvent to hydrogen donor diluent cracking under conditions at which at least 60 volume percent of the fraction of the resid boiling above 1,000/sup 0/F is converted to material boiling below 1,000/sup 0/F; (c) combining the effluent from the donor diluent cracking step with quench material selected from the group consisting of cracked residuum, vacuum gas oil and mixtures thereof in an amount sufficient to substantially prevent coke formation at the donor diluent cracking furnace outlet; (d) combining with the effluent from the donor diluent cracking step a cracked residuum in an amount of from 3 to 100 volume percent of the straight run vacuum resid; (e) subjecting the effluent cracked residuum, quench material and cracked residuum to fractionation to produce distilled products and a fractionator bottoms stream; (f) subjecting the fractionator bottoms stream to vacuum distillation to produce a residual product and a vacuum gas oil stream comprised in part of the aromatic components of the cracked residuum; (g) subjecting at least a part of the vacuum gas oil stream to a catalytic hydrogenation step to produce a partially hydrogenated hydrogen donor diluent product; (h) utilizing at least a part of the partially hydrogenated hydrogen donor diluent product as the solvent in step (a); and (i) recovering distilled product streams and a 1,000/sup 0/F+ product stream.

McConaghy, J.R. Jr.; Anderson, A.L.

1986-08-05

332

Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2005-09-15

333

Distillation of local purity from quantum states  

E-print Network

Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states, by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

I. Devetak

2004-06-30

334

Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory  

E-print Network

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2005-03-01

335

Design and the parametric testing of the space station prototype integrated vapor compression distillation water recovery module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potable water for the Space Station Prototype life support system is generated by the vapor compression technique of vacuum distillation. A description of a complete three-man modular vapor compression water renovation loop that was built and tested is presented; included are all of the pumps, tankage, chemical post-treatment, instrumentation, and controls necessary to make the loop representative of an automatic, self-monitoring, null gravity system. The design rationale is given and the evolved configuration is described. Presented next are the results of an extensive parametric test during which distilled water was generated from urine and urinal flush water with concentration of solids in the evaporating liquid increasing progressively to 60 percent. Water quality, quantity and production rate are shown together with measured energy consumption rate in terms of watt-hours per kilogram of distilled water produced.

Reveley, W. F.; Nuccio, P. P.

1975-01-01

336

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

337

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

E-print Network

The hypothetical nonlocal box (\\textsf{NLB}) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the \\textsf{NLB}. Motivated by the limited distillability of \\textsf{NLB}s, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (\\textsf{qNLB}s). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value $1/2 (3\\sqrt{3}+1) \\approx 3.098076$, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 \\textsf{qNLB} copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that \\textsf{qNLB}s are a stronger resource for nonlocality than \\textsf{NLB}s. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the \\textsf{NLB} model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of \\textsf{qNLB}s rather than \\textsf{NLB}s.

Peter Hyer; Jibran Rashid

2012-04-20

338

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21

339

A hybrid liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) process in conjunction with membrane distillation (MD) for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel hybrid system combining liquid-phase precipitation (LPP) and membrane distillation (MD) is integrated for the treatment of the INEEL sodium-bearing liquid waste. The integrated system provides a full separation approach that consists of three main processing stages. The first stage is focused on the separation and recovery of nitric acid from the bulk of the waste stream using vacuum

M. S. H. Bader

2005-01-01

340

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-print Network

on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize...

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2000-01-01

341

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2013-07-01

342

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2011-07-01

343

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2012-07-01

344

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2010-07-01

345

40 CFR 1065.703 - Distillate diesel fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels...703 Distillate diesel fuel. (a) Distillate diesel fuels for testing...adequate for proper engine operation. (b...three grades of #2 diesel fuel...

2014-07-01

346

27 CFR 17.184 - Distilled spirits container marks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Distilled spirits container marks. 17.184 Section 17.184...Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...184 Distilled spirits container marks. All marks required by Part 19 of this...

2010-04-01

347

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

2012-04-01

348

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

2013-04-01

349

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

2011-04-01

350

27 CFR 19.307 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Distillates that contain substantial quantities of fusel oil, aldehydes, or other extraneous substances may be removed from the...at adjacent bonded wine cellar. Distillates that contain aldehydes may be removed, without payment of tax, to an...

2014-04-01

351

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-print Network

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger...

Hill, J.H.

352

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

353

Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study

M. W. Biddulph

1986-01-01

354

EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS  

E-print Network

, Johannesburg, in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, 2007 #12 for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. It has not been used to predict the composition changes in the distillation column but also to determine

Skogestad, Sigurd

355

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

356

Distillation plant development and cost update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in desalination technology have resulted in significant savings in cost compared with earlier plants. Both distillation and reverse osmosis processes are now viable means of water production from a seawater source in the developing countries of the MENA area as well as in the more traditional oil-producing Gulf States. Three processes are commercially available for large size plants

Neil M. Wade

2001-01-01

357

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

358

Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization (Book)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book, Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization, brings together cutting edge information on many aspects of DDGS. It consists of six major sections, having 26 chapters in total. Section 1 has six chapters and covers introduction, perspectives, history, structure and compositio...

359

Preparation of Tritiated Water Samples by Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN many experiments using tritium as a tracer it is necessary to prepare a sample of pure water from organic material. During measurements of total body water using tritiated water in a dilution technique we have obtained pure water samples from urine by distillation. The urine is placed in a small vessel (Fig. 1) the bulb of which is put

J. D. Simpson; J. R. Greening

1960-01-01

360

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple to implement, and suitable for use in optimization of water and power cogeneration systems. The MED system is modeled in a modular method in which each of the

Karan H. Mistry; Mohamed A. Antar; John H. Lienhard V

2012-01-01

361

Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years, increasing demand for ethanol as a fuel additive and decreasing dependency on fossil fuels have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amount of grains used for ethanol production. Dry-grind is the major process, resulting in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a major ...

362

Preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem. [recovering potable water from wastewater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which includes a compressor, centrifuge, central shaft, and outer shell; (2) a purge pump; (3) a liquids pump; (4) a post-treat cartridge; (5) a recycle/filter tank; (6) an evaporator high liquid level sensor; and (7) the product water conductivity monitor. A computer based control monitor instrumentation carries out operating mode change sequences, monitors and displays subsystem parameters, maintains intramode controls, and stores and displays fault detection information. The mechanical hardware occupies 0.467 m3, requires 171 W of electrical power, and has a dry weight of 143 kg. The subsystem recovers potable water at a rate of 1.59 kg/hr, which is equivalent to a duty cycle of approximately 30% for a crew of three. The product water has no foul taste or odor. Continued development of the subsystem is recommended for reclaiming water for human consumption as well as for flash evaporator heat rejection, urinal flushing, washing, and other on-board water requirements.

Ellis, G. S.; Wynveen, R. A.; Schubert, F. H.

1979-01-01

363

Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

Saha, T. K.

2008-03-01

364

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-06-15

365

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

E-print Network

We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Frank Verstraete

2004-05-12

366

Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states  

E-print Network

For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

Bryan Eastin

2013-02-21

367

Distinguishing locally of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement  

E-print Network

This paper try to probe the relation of distinguishing locally and distillation of entanglement. The distinguishing information (DI) and the maximal distinguishing information (MDI) of a set of pure states are defined. The interpretation of distillation of entanglement in term of information is given. The relation between the maximal distinguishing information and distillable entanglement is gained. As a application of this relation the distillable entanglement of Bell-diagonal states is present.

ping-xing. chen; Cheng-zu Li

2002-02-27

368

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2013-04-01

369

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2012-04-01

370

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...transfers to or from distilled spirits plants. 19.739 Section 19.739 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants 19.739 Authorized transfers...

2014-04-01

371

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

372

Water distiller\\/condenser by radiative cooling of ambient air  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water distiller\\/condenser system by radiative cooling of ambient air is designed. A mathematical model is proposed to describe the thermal performance of the radiative distiller. The results of the mathematical model predicts condensation rates within the range 37 litre\\/m2 night. Also, the effects of different design parameters on the distiller performance are investigated.

M. A. Al-Nimr; O. Haddad

1998-01-01

373

Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states  

E-print Network

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

2007-11-16

374

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

E-print Network

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA E-mail: greg.burgess@anu.edu.au Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) is generally assisted) desalination has been conducted. Solar thermal driven Multiple Effect Distillation (MED) has been

375

Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column  

E-print Network

Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd (e-mail: skoge@ntnu.no) Abstract: This is a simulation study on controlling a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared

Skogestad, Sigurd

376

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous  

E-print Network

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation John Watrous Department of Computer state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only |+ = (|00 + |11 )/ 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable

Watrous, John

377

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance  

E-print Network

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reactie distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if truee distillation columns cannot use conseratie estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

378

Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis  

E-print Network

Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system of the TREC Blog Track. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of the blog search task. It is defined

Sebastiani, Fabrizio

379

Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns  

E-print Network

Active constraint regions for optimal operation of distillation columns Magnus G. Jacobsen the control structure of distillation columns, with optimal operation in mind, it is important to know how for distillation columns change with variations in energy cost and feed flow rate. The production of the most

Skogestad, Sigurd

380

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-print Network

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed these, the feasibility of using the distillatebottom structure for control (which was believed

Skogestad, Sigurd

381

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-print Network

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed, the feasibility of using the distillate-bottomstructure for control which was believed to be impossible

Skogestad, Sigurd

382

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements  

E-print Network

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch distillation-up period is required, followed by a heteroazeotropic distillation step (Figure 3) Modified: The separation

Skogestad, Sigurd

383

Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures  

E-print Network

Analysis of Closed Multivessel Batch Distillation of Ternary Azeotropic Mixtures using Elementary) diagrams like distillation lines and isotherms maps may be used in analysis of the closed (total reflux) multivessel batch distillation column. An indirect level control strategy is implemented that eliminates

Skogestad, Sigurd

384

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,  

E-print Network

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA S RENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total re ux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

Skogestad, Sigurd

385

Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models  

E-print Network

Bloggers as Experts Feed Distillation using Expert Retrieval Models Krisztian Balog kbalog Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam ABSTRACT We address the task of (blog) feed distillation: to find blogs- ness as feed distillation strategies. The two models capture the idea that a human will often search

de Rijke, Maarten

386

Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b  

E-print Network

Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b a SINTEF ICT, Applied Keywords: Distillation Minimum energy Energy saving Dividing wall column Petlyuk arrangement Vmin-diagram a b s t r a c t Distillation is responsible for a significant amount of the energy consumption

Skogestad, Sigurd

387

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-print Network

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine

Taber, Douglass

388

Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints  

E-print Network

Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints Ren Henrion1 Universitt Berlin, Germany Abstract A continuous distillation process with random inflow rate is considered model including the dynamics of the distillation process and proba- bilistic constraints under different

Henrion, Ren

389

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-print Network

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction Taylor Emanuelle Sweet 2013 Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation microns in size and use Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to shrink droplets to 5-10 microns

Petta, Jason

390

Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation  

E-print Network

Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation Elling W. Jacobsen and Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering Dept., University of Trondheim-NTH, N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Simple distillation and compositions in the column. Introduction Multiple steady states (multiplicity) in distillation columns have

Skogestad, Sigurd

391

Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1  

E-print Network

Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

Dundee, University of

392

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS,  

E-print Network

MULTIVESSEL BATCH DISTILLATION 1 SIGURD SKOGESTAD 2 , BERND WITTGENS, EVA SRENSEN 3 and RAJAB distillation schemes, including the inverted column and the middle vessel column. The total reflux operation of the multivessel batch distillation column was presented recently, and the main contribution of this paper

Skogestad, Sigurd

393

Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu  

E-print Network

Human versus Machine in the Topic Distillation Task Mingfang Wu 1 , Gheorghe Muresan2 , Alistair Mc. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system

Wu, Mingfang

394

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

395

Radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

396

Cosmology of Vacuum  

E-print Network

Shortly the vacuum component of the Universe from the geometry point of view and from the point of view of the standard model of physics of elementary particles is discussed. Some arguments are given to the calculated value of the cosmological constant (Zeldovich approximation). A new component of space vacuum (the gravitational vacuum condensate) is involved the production of which has fixed time in our Universe. Also the phenomenon of vacuum selforganization must be included in physical consideration of the Universe evolution.

V. Burdyuzha; G. Vereshkov

2007-12-29

397

Vacuum String Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

398

Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling  

E-print Network

FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones #12;13 July 2002 Snowmass Review: FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling 2 Presentation Outline Vacuum Vessel - Design requirements - Design concept and features - Analysis to date - Status and summary

399

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

400

Vacuum pumping system for TPX  

SciTech Connect

The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

St. Onge, K.D.

1995-12-31

401

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

SciTech Connect

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

402

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-print Network

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2010-09-22

403

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01

404

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01

405

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

SciTech Connect

Among seawater desalination processes the absorption freezing based on the thermal heat pump, the AF-VC/sup t/, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low grade (exergy) solar heat. The novel feature in this system involves a use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydro-phobic intermediate heat transfer material. 13 refs.

Kvajic, G.

1981-01-01

406

Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

2013-01-01

407

The distillation and volatility of ionic liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that a defining characteristic of ionic liquids (or low-temperature molten salts) is that they exert no measurable vapour pressure, and hence cannot be distilled. Here we demonstrate that this is unfounded, and that many ionic liquids can be distilled at low pressure without decomposition. Ionic liquids represent matter solely composed of ions, and so are perceived as non-volatile substances. During the last decade, interest in the field of ionic liquids has burgeoned, producing a wealth of intellectual and technological challenges and opportunities for the production of new chemical and extractive processes, fuel cells and batteries, and new composite materials. Much of this potential is underpinned by their presumed involatility. This characteristic, however, can severely restrict the attainability of high purity levels for ionic liquids (when they contain poorly volatile components) in recycling schemes, as well as excluding their use in gas-phase processes. We anticipate that our demonstration that some selected families of commonly used aprotic ionic liquids can be distilled at 200-300C and low pressure, with concomitant recovery of significant amounts of pure substance, will permit these currently excluded applications to be realized.

Earle, Martyn J.; Esperana, Jos M. S. S.; Gilea, Manuela A.; Canongia Lopes, Jos N.; Rebelo, Lus P. N.; Magee, Joseph W.; Seddon, Kenneth R.; Widegren, Jason A.

2006-02-01

408

The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

E-print Network

In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Pter Lvay; Szilrd Szalay

2010-04-14

409

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

410

Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

2010-01-01

411

Vacuum Head Checks Foam/Substrate Bonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical inspection system quickly gives measurements indicating adhesion, or lack thereof, between rigid polyurethane foam and aluminum substrate. Does not damage inspected article, easy to operate, and used to perform "go/no-go" evaluations or as supplement to conventional destructive pull-plug testing. Applies vacuum to small area of foam panel and measures distance through which foam pulled into vacuum. Probe head applied to specimen and evacuated through hose to controller/monitor unit. Digital voltmeter in unit reads deflection of LVDT probe head.

Lloyd, James F.

1989-01-01

412

Ultrahigh vacuum equipment described  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrahigh vacuum equipment for filming with a blockade value and a substrate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The equipment has the following characteristics: (1) the vacuum chamber is exposed to the atmosphere, the lockade valve can maintain a vacuum of 1 to 10 to the -9 power torr for a long period of time; (2) it greatly reduces the working cycle compared to before the blockade valve was installed; and (3) the temperature of the sample substrate in the vacuum chamber can be adjusted continuously between 77 K and room temperature. The ultrahigh vacuum filming equipment China now produces does not have an ultrahigh vacuum valve, when inserting and removing samples, the pump casing is exposed to the atmosphere so that even after the pump has operated for a time, its limited vacuum is 10 to the -8 power torr. A bakeable metallic blockade valve is installed between the vacuum pump intake and the vacuum chamber to form a fliming device. The device is simple, the vacuum is increased several levels, and it can make samples at different substrate temperatures.

Li, Yuzhi; Jing, Shiqun; Peng, Xianhui

1985-10-01

413

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

414

Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect

The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

Ushiba, K. K.

1980-02-01

415

Growth performance and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of the ethanol distillery industry is less expensive than soybeal meal (SBM) on a per unit protein basis, but its use in fish feed is limited due to the lack of information on its nutritional value in fish diets. Approximately 98% of the DD...

416

Physical Vacuum in Superconductors  

E-print Network

Although experiments carried out by Jain et al. showed that the Cooper pairs obey the strong equivalence principle, The measurement of the Cooper pairs inertial mass by Tate et al. revealed an anomalous excess of mass. In the present paper we interpret these experimental results in the framework of an electromagnetic model of dark energy for the superconductors' vacuum. We argue that this physical vacuum is associated with a preferred frame. Ultimately from the conservation of energy for Cooper pairs we derive a model for a variable vacuum speed of light in the superconductors physical vacuum in relation with a possible breaking of the weak equivalence principle for Cooper pairs.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-08-31

417

NSLS II Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

2009-09-13

418

Vacuum probe surface sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

419

Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20?W at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

2012-11-01

420

Preparation of distilled and purified continuous variable entangled states  

E-print Network

The distribution of entangled states of light over long distances is a major challenge in the field of quantum information. Optical losses, phase diffusion and mixing with thermal states lead to decoherence and destroy the non-classical states after some finite transmission-line length. Quantum repeater protocols, which combine quantum memory, entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping, were proposed to overcome this problem. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of entanglement distillation in the continuous-variable regime. Entangled states were first disturbed by random phase fluctuations and then distilled and purified using interference on beam splitters and homodyne detection. Measurements of covariance matrices clearly indicate a regained strength of entanglement and purity of the distilled states. In contrast to previous demonstrations of entanglement distillation in the complementary discrete-variable regime, our scheme achieved the actual preparation of the distilled states, which might therefore be used to improve the quality of downstream applications such as quantum teleportation.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Alexander Franzen; Jaromir Fiurasek; Roman Schnabel

2008-12-03

421

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

SciTech Connect

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15

422

Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence  

E-print Network

The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromr Fiurek; Roman Schnabel

2010-07-09

423

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-print Network

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

2013-01-29

424

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

425

Distillation and the Role of Weak Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will examine how distillation works and the roles of all components involved in the process. The site is filled with thorough diagrams accompanied by solid textual explanations. Aside from diagrams and text, students will engage in simple quizzes testing the concepts they have just learned. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

426

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

SciTech Connect

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15

427

Distillation by repeated measurements: continuous spectrum case  

E-print Network

Repeated measurements on a part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part not measured, whose dynamics is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the latter system is driven into a pure state irrespective of the initial state, provided the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We here show that even in the case of continuous spectrum an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bruno Bellomo; Giuseppe Compagno; Hiromichi Nakazato; Kazuya Yuasa

2010-10-25

428

W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation  

E-print Network

We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

2009-09-09

429

Characterization of distillability of entanglement in terms of positive maps  

E-print Network

A necessary and sufficient condition for 1-distillability is formulated in terms of decomposable positive maps. As an application we provide insight into why all states violating the reduction criterion map are distillable and demonstrate how to construct such maps in a systematic way. We establish a connection between a number of existing results, which leads to an elementary proof for the characterisation of distillability in terms of 2-positive maps.

Lieven Clarisse

2005-03-27

430

Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations  

E-print Network

We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.

M. Navascues; J. Bae; J. I. Cirac; M. Lewenstein; A. Sanpera; A. Acin

2004-05-20

431

Gaussian transformations and distillation of entangled Gaussian states  

E-print Network

We prove that it is impossible to distill more entanglement from a single copy of a two-mode bipartite entangled Gaussian state via LOCC Gaussian operations. More generally, we show that any hypothetical distillation protocol for Gaussian states involving only Gaussian operations would be a deterministic protocol. Finally, we argue that the protocol considered by Eisert et al. [quant-ph/0204052] is the optimum Gaussian distillation protocol for two copies of entangled Gaussian states.

Jaromir Fiurasek

2002-04-19

432

Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable  

E-print Network

It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

2007-11-06

433

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results From the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, CA) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5%. The average specific energy of the system was calculated to be less than 130 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2009-01-01

434

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

2010-01-01

435

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

E-print Network

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

2011-03-23

436

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-print Network

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31

437

Distillation of GHZ states by selective information manipulation  

E-print Network

Methods for distilling maximally entangled tripartite (GHZ) states from arbitrary entangled tripartite pure states are described. These techniques work for virtually any input state. Each technique has two stages which we call primary and secondary distillation. Primary distillation produces a GHZ state with some probability, so that when applied to an ensemble of systems, a certain percentage is discarded. Secondary distillation produces further GHZs from the discarded systems. These protocols are developed with the help of an approach to quantum information theory based on absolutely selective information, which has other potential applications.

Oliver Cohen; Todd A. Brun

2000-02-02

438

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15

439

Local distinguishability of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement  

E-print Network

This paper tries to probe the relation between the local distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states and the distillation of entanglement. An new interpretation for the distillation of entanglement and the distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states in terms of information is given, respectively. By constraining our discussion on a special protocol we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the local distinguishability of the orthogonal pure states, and gain the maximal yield of the distillable entanglement. It is shown that the information entropy, the locally distinguishability of quantum states and the distillation of entanglement are closely related.

Ping-Xing Chen; Cheng-Zu Li

2003-03-13

440

Nonlocality distillation for high-dimensional correlated boxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the existing distillation protocols only work for binary-input binary-output nonlocal boxes (two-dimensional boxes), and they cannot be generalized to the binary-input multi-output nonlocal boxes (high-dimensional boxes) in a trivial way. We will design some comparator-based protocols to distill high-dimensional nonlocal boxes. Our protocols are more powerful and universal than the previous ones in the sense that they can distill the arbitrary-dimensional boxes rather than the limited two-dimensional ones. The initial nonlocalities and the wiring manners between the boxes are two main factors deciding the distillation efficiency.

Pan, Guo-Zhu; Li, Chao; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Gang; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

2015-02-01

441

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

442

Experimental results of hydrogen distillation at the low power cryogenic column for the production of deuterium depleted hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The Deuterium Removal Unit (DRU) has been designed and built at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst. (PNPI) to produce isotopically pure hydrogen with deuterium content less than 1 ppm. The cryogenic distillation column of 2.2 cm inner diameter and 155 cm packing height is the main element of the DRU. Column performances at different hydrogen distillation operating modes have been measured. The height equivalent to theoretical plate (HETP) for the column is 2.2 cm and almost constant over a wide range of vapour flow rates. Deuterium depleted hydrogen with a deuterium content of less than 0.1 ppm was produced in required quantity. (authors)

Alekseev, I.; Fedorchenko, O.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.; Vznuzdaev, M. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15

443

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16

444

Vacuum Energy Decay  

E-print Network

The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude ${\\mathcal A}(z, z')$. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior is discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\l$.

Enrique lvarez; Roberto Vidal

2011-11-09

445

Modeling Vacuum Arcs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a model of vacuum arcs to describe vacuum breakdown in 805 MHz systems, however the basic mechanisms at work should apply to other applications. The model assumes: 1) that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, 2) this is followed by ionization of fragments by field emitted currents and

J. Norem; Z. Insepov; Th. Proslier; D. Huang; S. Mahalingam; S. Veitzer

2010-01-01

446

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

447

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11

448

Rugged Preheaters For Vacuum Plasma Spraying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electric preheater units built to ensure large workpieces to be coated with metals by vacuum plasma spraying heated uniformly to requisite high temperatures by time plasma torch arrives. Units similar to electrical-resistance ribbon heaters in toasters and in some small portable electric "space" heaters. Nichrome resistance-heating ribbons wrapped around ceramic insulating spools on rings and on plates. Round workpiece placed in middle of ring preheater. Plate preheaters stacked as needed near workpiece.

Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Sander, Lewis D.; Power, Christopher A.; Sander, Heather L.; Nguyen, Dalton D.

1994-01-01

449

EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH ALFALFA POWDERS AND DISTILLERS GRAINS ON NUTRITION AND GROWTH OF CANOLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pot experiments were carried out under controlled environment conditions in the growth chamber to assess the potential use of alfalfa powders and distiller grains as organic fertilizers. Two types of dehydrated alfalfa powders (one with canola meal protein extraction by-product and one without) and two types of distiller grains (dried distillers grain with distillation solubles added and wet distillers

P. Qian; J. J. Schoenau; T. King; C. Fatteicher

2011-01-01

450

Concentration and Drying of Tea Polyphenols Extracted from Green Tea Using Molecular Distillation and Spray Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a method of combining molecular distillation and spray drying to concentrate and dry tea polyphenols extracts. Molecular distillation and spray drying of tea phenols extracts were performed using an orthogonal array design. The order of importance that influenced molecular distillation was distillation temperature>flux>rotational speed. The optimal conditions for concentration by molecular distillation

Wei-Qiang Tang; Di-Cai Li; Yang-Xiao Lv; Jian-Guo Jiang

2011-01-01

451

Advanced system controls catalytic reformer unit at Texaco Canada  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of a computer-based control system was completed in early 1986 on a 24,000-b/d semiregenerative reformer at Texaco Canada's Nanticoke refinery. The objectives of the system were to maintain product octane, maximize unit charge rate and C/sub 5/+ yields, improve energy efficiency, and enhance the operator's tasks. Nonlinear, feedforward, interacting, and advanced model-based predictive control techniques were utilized to manipulate charge rate, reactor heater temperatures, recycle hydrogen, and unit pressure in order to achieve the control objectives. Variations in product octane have been reduced by an estimated 50% while improvements in C/sub 5/+ yields on the order of 0.5 wt % have been realized. Operator acceptance has been excellent with the on-line factor for the controls being in the range of 95%+. Texaco Canada's 100,000-b/d Nanticoke refinery, located in southern Ontario, includes crude and vacuum distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, alkylation, and sulfur recovery as its primary processing units. A description of the reforming unit, along with a summary of the main control objectives and the advanced control functions used to achieve those objectives, is discussed.

Mc Pherson, M.; Crosby, J.E.; Delaney, M.C.; Badgwell, T.

1987-05-25

452

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26

453

Estimating vent emissions from a distillation column: An alternative to stack testing  

SciTech Connect

This technical paper points out the cost-effectiveness and data manageability of material balance over the epidemic use of stack testing in the chemical industry. An example is drawn from a Title V emissions inventory prepared for an international manufacturer of pharmaceuticals and fuel additives. This example case focuses on the use of mass balance to estimate noncondensibles generated by a typical large-scale distillation column. Distillation fundamentals are reviewed, including discussion of relative volatility, x-y and McCabe-Thiele diagrams, and basic sieve tray mechanics. A seemingly complex set of energy and material balance equations is simplified by the application of constant molar overflow. The example case concludes with a calculation of column noncondensibles, and the paper closes with a review of the material balance approach, including its strengths, limitations, and applicability to other unit operations.

Dickerson, D.L. Jr. [ERM-Southeast, Charleston, SC (United States)

1996-12-31

454

Hydrodynamics of the Vacuum  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamics is the appropriate "effective theory" for describing any fluid medium at sufficiently long length scales. This paper treats the vacuum as such a medium and derives the corresponding hydrodynamic equations. Unlike a normal medium the vacuum has no linear sound-wave regime; disturbances always "propagate" nonlinearly. For an "empty vacuum" the hydrodynamic equations are familiar ones (shallow water-wave equations) and they describe an experimentally observed phenomenon -- the spreading of a clump of zero-temperature atoms into empty space. The "Higgs vacuum" case is much stranger; pressure and energy density, and hence time and space, exchange roles. The speed of sound is formally infinite, rather than zero as in the empty vacuum. Higher-derivative corrections to the vacuum hydrodynamic equations are also considered. In the empty-vacuum case the corrections are of quantum origin and the post-hydrodynamic description corresponds to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. I conjecture the form of the post-hydrodynamic corrections in the Higgs case. In the 1+1-dimensional case the equations possess remarkable `soliton' solutions and appear to constitute a new exactly integrable system.

P. M. Stevenson

2005-07-30

455

Measurement of volatile oxidation products from milk using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation and solid phase microextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for direct distillation of milk was developed using a high-vacuum distillation unit: solvent-assisted flavour evaporation unit (SAFE unit). Distillation of flavour compounds was carried out at low temperature, reducing the risk of artefact formation during the distillation process. After distillation, volatiles were extracted into dichloromethane and concentrated before separation on a gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer detection

M. S. Havemose; P. Justesen; W. L. P. Bredie; J. H. Nielsen

2007-01-01

456

Screening Processed Milk for Volatile Organic Compounds Using Vacuum Distillation\\/Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptation is presented of method 8261from the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical\\/Chemical Methods (SW-846)to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matrix exhibits a strong affinity for organic compounds and the surrogate based matrix normalization described in method 8261 provided accurate results. This

M. H. Hiatt; J. H. Pia

2004-01-01

457

Screening processed milk for volatile organic compounds using vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An adaptation is presented of method 8261--from the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846)-to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matrix exhibits a strong affinity for organic compounds and the surrogate based matrix normalization described in method 8261 provided accurate results. This method had the sensitivity necessary to detect volatile organic analytes at or below maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) set by EPA for drinking water. In a survey of milk samples available in Las Vegas, Nevada, 32 of 88 targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected. Many of the detected VOCs have not previously been reported and a rationale for their presence in milk is presented. PMID:15106669

Hiatt, M H; Pia, J H

2004-02-01

458

ANALYSES OF FISH TISSUE BY VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of fish tissue using VD/GC/MS with surrogate-based matrix corrections is described. Techniques for equilibrating surrogate and analyte spikes with a tissue matrix are presented, and equilibrated spiked samples are used to document method performance. The removal of a...

459

SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

460

Multiparty quantum protocols for assisted entanglement distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum information theory is a multidisciplinary field whose objective is to understand what happens when information is stored in the state of a quantum system. Quantum mechanics provides us with a new resource, called quantum entanglement, which can be exploited to achieve novel tasks such as teleportation and superdense coding. Current technologies allow the transmission of entangled photon pairs across distances up to roughly 100 kilometers. For longer distances, noise arising from various sources degrade the transmission of entanglement to the point that it becomes impossible to use the entanglement as a resource for future tasks. One strategy for dealing with this difficulty is to employ quantum repeaters, stations intermediate between the sender and receiver that can participate in the process of entanglement distillation, thereby improving on what the sender and receiver could do on their own. Motivated by the problem of designing quantum repeaters, we study entanglement distillation between two parties, Alice and Bob, starting from a mixed state and with the help of repeater stations. We extend the notion of entanglement of assistance to arbitrary tripartite states and exhibit a protocol, based on a random coding strategy, for extracting pure entanglement. We use these results to find achievable rates for the more general scenario, where many spatially separated repeaters help two recipients distill entanglement. We also study multiparty quantum communication protocols in a more general context. We give a new protocol for the task of multiparty state merging. The previous multiparty state merging protocol required the use of time-sharing, an impossible strategy when a single copy of the input state is available to the parties. Our protocol does not require time-sharing for distributed compression of two senders. In the one-shot regime, we can achieve multiparty state merging with entanglement costs not restricted to corner points of the entanglement cost region. Our analysis of the entanglement cost is performed using (smooth) min- and max-entropies. We illustrate the benefits of our approach by looking at different examples.

Dutil, Nicolas

461

Vegetable Oil Deodorizer Distillate: Characterization, Utilization and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on the sources, deodorizer distillates usually have significantly different characteristics, uses, and value. Soybean oil deodorizer distillate has been suggested as an alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene and as a good raw material for the production of fatty acid steryl esters, tocopherols, free phytosterols and fatty acids. The aim of this review paper is to

Setiyo Gunawan

2009-01-01

462

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2010-04-01

463

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2012-04-01

464

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2011-04-01

465

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2013-04-01

466

27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...containing aldehydes may be received on wine premises for use in the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant...Distillates produced from one kind of fruit may not be used in the fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit....

2014-04-01

467

Sorption Isotherm Characteristics of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) is widely recognized as a highly nutritious animal feed ingredient. With the exponential growth of the fuel ethanol industry in the past several years, significant quantities of distillers grains are now being produced. To effectively utilize these feeds ...

468

Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment, it is not yet applied in industry. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the

G. W. Meindersma; C. M. Guijt; Haan de A. B

2005-01-01

469

Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are hydrophobic, which allows water vapour (but not liquid water) to pass. The vapour pressure gradient is created

G. W. Meindersma; C. M. Guijt; A. B. de Haan

2006-01-01

470

Microbial Characterization of Distillers Wet Grains: Results and Challenges  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distillers grains are co-produced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We have characterized the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG...

471

Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,  

E-print Network

in the same way. As a result, we have n copies of the same mixed two-qubit state . Protocols like hashing#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

472

Potential Bleaching Techniques for use in Distillers Grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ethanol industry is booming. And extensive research is currently being pursued to develop alternative uses for distillers dried grains (DDG) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), coproducts of the ethanol production process. Currently, DDG and DDGS are used exclusively as livestock f...

473

Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential o...

474

Internally Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat-integrated distillation column to be addressed in this paper is a special distillation column that involves internal heat integration between the whole rectifying and the whole stripping sections. An overview of the research on this process is presented in this work. It covers from the thermodynamic development and evaluations to the practical design and operation investigations for the process.

M. Nakaiwa; K. Huang; A. Endo; T. Ohmori; T. Akiya; T. Takamatsu

2003-01-01

475

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

SciTech Connect

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08

476

Enhanced topic distillation using text, markup tags, and hyperlinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topic distillation is the analysis of hyperlink graph structure to identify mutually reinforcing authorities (popular pages) and hubs (comprehensive lists of links to authorities). Topic distillation is becoming common in Web search engines, but the best-known algorithms model the Web graph at a coarse grain, with whole pages as single nodes. Such models may lose vital details in the markup

Soumen Chakrabarti; Mukul Joshi; Vivek Tawde

2001-01-01

477

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the problems chemistry majors have with learning distillation concepts in traditional chemistry laboratory courses. Reports that students take the generalized concepts at face value, construct decontextualized concepts for distillation, and cannot interpret their observations or make reasoned decisions based on the theoretical

Keulen, Hanno van; And Others

1995-01-01

478

Distillation protocols: Output entanglement and local mutual information  

E-print Network

A complementary behavior between local mutual information and average output entanglement is derived for arbitrary bipartite ensembles. This leads to bounds on the yield of entanglement in distillation protocols that involve disinguishing. This bound is saturated in the hashing protocol for distillation, for Bell-diagonal states.

Michal Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

2004-12-08

479

Teaching and Learning Distillation in Chemistry Laboratory Courses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation in the chemistry laboratory is an essential part of a practicing chemists' and a chemistry educators' work. Nevertheless, regardless of the degree of importance in each of the aforementioned professions, few educational studies on teaching and learning distillation exist. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the Department of

van Keulen, Hanno; And Others

480

Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching and

Pritchard, Colin

1986-01-01

481

A framework for better understanding membrane distillation separation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as distillation or reverse osmosis. Since its appearance in the late of the 1960s and its development in the early of 1980s with the growth of membrane engineering, MD claims to be a cost effective separation process that can utilize low-grade waste

M. S. El-Bourawi; Z. Ding; R. Ma; M. Khayet

2006-01-01

482

Estimation of convective mass transfer in solar distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article a thermal model has been developed to determine the convective mass transfer for different Grashof Number range in solar distillatiOn process. The model is based on simple regression analysis. Based on the experimental data obtained from the rigorous outdoor experimentation on passive and active distillation systems for summer climatic conditions, the values of C and n have

Sanjay Kumar; G. N. Tiwari

1996-01-01

483

Shell Egg Vacuum Loader Cup Microbiological and Physical Quality Changes Associated with the Use of Various Sanitizing Compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies were conducted to determine the effects of various sanitizing compounds on the microbial and physical quality of shell egg processing vacuum loader cups. The sanitizing compounds utilized were: sterile, distilled water; 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite; 200 ppm calcium hypochlorite and 200 ppm ...

484

Evading death by vacuum  

E-print Network

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; Joo P. Silva

2013-03-15

485

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01

486

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2001-01-01

487

On Entanglement with Vacuum  

E-print Network

The so-called entanglement with vacuum is not a property of the Fock space, but of some rather pathological representations of CCR/CAR algebras. In some other Fock space representations the notion simply does not exist. We have checked all the main Gedanken experiments where the notion of entanglement with vacuum was used, and found that all the calculations could be performed at a representation-independent level. In particular any such experiment can be formulated in a Fock-space representation where the notion of entanglement with vacuum is meaningless. So, for the moment there is no single experiment where the notion is needed, and probably it is simply unphysical.

Marcin Pawlowski; Marek Czachor

2005-07-16

488

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

2013-07-01

489

40 CFR 721.10621 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). 721.10621...10621 Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (generic). (a) Chemical...generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product (PMN P-12-196)...

2014-07-01

490

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2010-04-01

491

27 CFR 27.61 - Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. 27.61 Section 27.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...Distilled Spirits 27.61 Containers of distilled spirits to bear closures. No person shall transport, buy,...

2011-04-01

492

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2012-04-01

493

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2014-04-01

494

27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Requirements... Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar....

2013-04-01

495

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2013-04-01

496

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2014-04-01

497

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2011-04-01

498

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2012-04-01

499

27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. Internal revenue taxes payable on imported distilled spirits, including perfumes containing distilled spirits, and on wines and beer, are collected, accounted for, and deposited as internal revenue...

2010-04-01

500

77 FR 38758 - Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period Extension  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits; Comment Period...Proposed Amendment to the Standards of Identity for Distilled Spirits, for an additional...TTB proposes to amend the standards of identity regulations for distilled spirits...

2012-06-29