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1

Vacuum Distillation of Americium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200 exp 0 C and 10 exp -6 torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal we...

J. W. Berry J. B. Knighton C. A. Nannie

1982-01-01

2

Vacuum distillation of americium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200°C and 10⁻⁶ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

J. W. Berry; J. B. Knighton; C. A. Nannie

1982-01-01

3

Commercial application of process for hydrotreating vacuum distillate in G-43-107 unit at the Moscow petroleum refinery  

SciTech Connect

The authors present results obtained during the shakedown run on the hydrotreating section of the title catalytic cracking unit. The flow plan of the unit is shown. The characteristics of the hydrotreater feed and the product are given. Changes in hydrotreating process parameters during unit operation are shown, as are changes in the raw and hydrotreated feed quality during the periods before and after a shutdown.

Kurganov, V.M.; Samokhvalov, A.I.; Osipov, L.N.; Lebedev, B.L.; Chagovets, A.N.; Melik-Akhnazarov, T.K.; Kruglova, T.F.; Imarov, A.K.

1987-05-01

4

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

5

A Hydration of an Alkyne Illustrating Steam and Vacuum Distillation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the conversion 2,5-dimethylhexyne-2,5-diol(I) to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran-3-one(II) using aqueous mercuric sulfate without the use of acid. The experiment has been successfully performed in introductory organic chemistry laboratories demonstrating alkyne hydration, steam distillation, vacuum distillation, drying of organic

Wasacz, J. P.; Badding, V. G.

1982-01-01

6

Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to determine whether distillation at or below a pressure of 70 mm of Hg would produce ethanol sufficiently anhydrous to permit mixing with gasoline without separation. The reason for this is that below 70 mm of Hg, the azeotrope does not...

T. V. Weber

1982-01-01

7

Treating process wastewater employing vacuum distillation using mechanical vapor recompression  

SciTech Connect

Process wastewater has been successfully treated using an enhanced variable vacuum distillation system (VVDS). The removal of contaminants is achieved initially by degassing the liquid under an intense vacuum which removes the volatile organic compounds. The resulting liquid is then distilled under a vacuum using mechanical vapor recompression. The system was invented by Derald McCabe. This innovative treatment system removes virtually all of the contaminants, such as TSS, TDS, BOD{sub 5}, COD, heavy metals and mineral compounds. The resultant aqueous portion normally returns to a neutral pH. Due to the unique system operation, scaling problems (often encountered in conventional distillation) have not been detected in this system. The VVDS is extremely energy efficiency because the heat for distillation is generated and recycled mechanically. Using electricity as the energy source, the approximate operating cost, based on $0.05 KWH, may vary from $0.005 to $0.01 per gallon depending on the size and capacity of the equipment. Based on applications in waste streams performed to-date, the VVDS process has yielded a distilled water stream and the concentrated solids have been used as a byproduct or as a concentrated non-dischargeable waste for disposal.

McCabe, D.L. [Brandt, Houston, TX (United States); Vivona, M.A. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Water and Wastewater Dept.

1999-05-01

8

Surface Depletion in the Vacuum Distillation of Metals from Bismuth  

SciTech Connect

Surface depletion was investigated in laboratory- and plant-scale distillation units with mixing by natural convection or by mechanical surface agitation. A model was developed for predicting the degree of surface depletion during the distillation of metals from bismuth as a function of temperature, still pot dimensions, and degree of agitation. This paper discusses those findings.

Bradley, R.F.

2001-08-29

9

Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.  

PubMed

A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

2010-01-18

10

Recovery of 2,3Butanediol by Vacuum Membrane Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum membrane distillation process using a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was developed to concentrate 2,3-butanediol from model 2,3-butanediol solutions and fermentation broths. A 0.22-?m PTFE membrane passed water vapor while retaining 2,3-butanediol. Water flux through the membrane was 4 kg\\/mh at 35C and 1214 kg\\/mh at 55C. Medium components, especially yeast extract and fermentation broth, reduced flux as compared

N. Qureshi; M. M. Meagher; R. W. Hutkins

1994-01-01

11

Fractional vacuum distillation of herring oil methyl esters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methyl esters of a Canadian Atlantic herring oil containing 62% monoethylenic fatty acids were subjected to batch fractional\\u000a distillation under vacuum on a pilot plant scale, to study the feasibility of fractionating fatty acid esters of marine oils\\u000a of low iodine value into monounsaturated fractions with increased commercial value for industrial chemical uses. A total of\\u000a 64 methyl ester fractions

R. G. Ackman; P. J. Ke; P. M. Jangaard

1973-01-01

12

Catalytic cracking of vacuum distillate with additives in fluidized catalyst bed  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on a study of the catalytic cracking of straight-run 350-500/sup 0/C vacuum distillates differing substantially in contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and resins, as influenced by the addition of an extract from the No. III lube cut from West Siberian crude. The experiments were performed in a standard catalytic cracking unit in the fluidization mode, using KMTsR zeolitic microbead catalyst.

Omaraliev, T.O.; Tanashev, S.T.; Kapustin, V.M.

1987-03-01

13

Removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation.  

PubMed

In this study, vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was used to remove two prototypical fermentation inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural) from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. The effect of operating parameters, such as feed temperature and feed velocity, on the removal efficiencies of inhibitors was investigated. Under optimal conditions, more than 98% of furfural could be removed by VMD. However, the removal efficiency of acetic acid was considerably lower. After furfural and acetic acid were selectively removed from hydrolyzates by VMD, ethanol production efficiency increased by 17.8% compared to original hydrolyzates. PMID:23907067

Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Mi, Xigeng; Huang, He

2013-07-11

14

Treatment of dye solutions by vacuum membrane distillation.  

PubMed

In this work, the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process has been applied to treat water containing different types of dyes. The influence of operating parameters, as feed temperature, feed flow rate, feed concentration, on the permeate flux and on rejection has been investigated. In all experimental tests, a complete rejection has been achieved and pure water has been recovered at the permeate side. Furthermore, experiments with water as feed have been carried out before and after the tests with dyes, in order to analyze the effect of fouling on the performance of the VMD. The water vapor fluxes immediately after the tests with dyes were higher than the values registered before the tests, probably due to an interaction with the polymeric membrane material which promotes a swelling of the membrane when in contact with the dye solutions. However, initial fluxes are recovered after prolonged cleaning with only water. PMID:18945467

Criscuoli, A; Zhong, J; Figoli, A; Carnevale, M C; Huang, R; Drioli, E

2008-10-01

15

Influence of evaporation space geometry on rate of distillation in high-vacuum evaporator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of calculation of a necessary evaporation surface area in a high-vacuum distillation apparatus with complicated geometry has not been fully resolved yet. Surface evaporation ranges (molecular distillation, the intermediate range, equilibrium distillation), in which different conditions of collisions between vapor particles exist, and their influences on effective evaporation still remain to be taken into account. An example of

Zdzis?aw Kawala; Pawe? Dakiniewicz

2002-01-01

16

Study on the distillation rates of LiClKCl eutectic salt under different vacuum conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the distillation rate of LiClKCl eutectic salt under different vacuums from 0.5 to 50Torr was performed by using thermogravimetric (TG) method. A distillation rate of the order of 10?410?5molcm?2s?1 was obtainable at temperatures of 12001300K and vacuums of 550Torr. Based on the non-isothermal TG data, model distillation flux equations could be derived as a function of temperature.

H.-C. Yang; H.-C. Eun; I.-T. Kim

2009-01-01

17

Vacuum membrane distillation of seawater reverse osmosis brines.  

PubMed

Seawater desalination by Reverse Osmosis (RO) is an interesting solution for drinking water production. However, because of limitation by the osmotic pressure, a high recovery factor is not attainable. Consequently, large volumes of brines are discharged into the sea and the flow rate produced (permeate) is limited. In this paper, Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) is considered as a complementary process to RO to further concentrate RO brines and increase the global recovery of the process. VMD is an evaporative technology that uses a membrane to support the liquid-vapour interface and enhance the contact area between liquid and vapour in comparison with conventional distillation. This study focuses on VMD for the treatment of RO brines. Simulations were performed to optimise the operating conditions and were completed by bench-scale experiments using actual RO brines and synthetic solutions up to a salt concentration of 300 g L(-1). Operating conditions such as a highly permeable membrane, high feed temperature, low permeate pressure and a turbulent fluid regime allowed high permeate fluxes to be obtained even for a very high salt concentration (300 g L(-1)). For the membrane studied, temperature and concentration polarisation were shown to have little effect on permeate flux. After 6 to 8 h, no organic fouling or biofouling was observed for RO brines. At high salt concentrations, scaling occurred (mainly due to calcium precipitation) but had only a limited impact on the permeate flux (24% decrease for a permeate specific volume of 43L m(-2) for the highest concentration of salt). Calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitated first due to their low solubility and formed mixed crystal deposits on the membrane surface. These phenomena only occurred on the membrane surface and did not totally cover the pores. The crystals were easily removed simply by washing the membrane with water. A global recovery factor of 89% can be obtained by coupling RO and VMD. PMID:20659753

Mericq, Jean-Pierre; Laborie, Stphanie; Cabassud, Corinne

2010-07-07

18

VACUUM DISTILLATION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

A procedure is presented that uses a vacuum distillation/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system for analysis of problematic matrices of volatile organic compounds. The procedure compensates for matrix effects and provides both analytical results and confidence intervals from...

19

Performance of batch vacuum distillation process with promoters on coke-plant wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simple study of laboratory-scale vacuum distillation process with promoters (VDP) on coke-plant wastewater, which has the advantage that the chemical reaction and pollutants separation can be concurrent in one pot. The main parameters that evaluate the efficiency of VDP are conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen compounds (NH3-N). The blank experiment, vacuum distillation (VD)

Wei Mao; Hongzhu Ma; Bo Wang

2010-01-01

20

Performance evaluation of solar distillation using vacuum tube coupled with photovoltaic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distillation is one of the important methods of getting distilled water using the free energy supply from the sun. This\\u000a study presented a short review on solar still distillation. Also, the study is to enhance the thermal performance of stills\\u000a through coupling the still with the Super Heat Conduction Metal Vacuum Tube (SHCMV). A SHCMV process achieved a continuous

S. Abdallah; M. M. Abu-Khader; O. Badran

2009-01-01

21

Effect of added atmospheric resid on process indexes in cat cracking of vacuum distillate  

SciTech Connect

The catalytic cracking of vacuum distillates with West Siberia atmospheric resids was investigated to determine the optimal ratio of components in the blend and to define the influence of the quantity of added resid on the product yield and quality. The feedstocks tested included a low-sulfur hydrotreated vacuum distillate and a medium-sulfur atmospheric resid. Data on the quality, hydrocarbon composition, viscosity, distillation behavior, vanadium and nickel content, and sulfur content were determined and compared against a resid from a Texas crude. Physicochemical properties were determined for the naphtha and diesel fuel cuts obtained. Coke yields are also assessed.

Kruglova, L.E.; Khadzhiev, S.N.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Smidovich, E.V.; Fedoseeva, V.I.; Kapustin, V.M.

1987-09-01

22

Rheological Properties and Composition of Some Vacuum Distillates Derived from Indian Crudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three vacuum distillates boiling range 400C530C derived from Bakrola, Dholka, and PY-3 crudes of Gujarat region (India) were subjected to urea adduction to isolate n-paraffin components from them. The deparaffinized base oils obtained after removal of n-paraffin components from the distillate fractions were further fractionated into various hydrocarbon-type constituents viz iso + cyclo paraffins, aromatics, and polar components by column

S. P. Nautiyal; H. U. Khan; K. P. Bhatt; K. M. Agrawal

2008-01-01

23

Development of a process for PCB removal from triaryl phosphate hydraulic fluids by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

A method of separating PCBs (Aroclor 1242) from a triaryl phosphate ester based hydraulic fluid that yields a fluid suitable for reuse in an aluminum die casting foundry was identified in a laboratory study. Experiments were done to determine the separation efficiency and product qualities resulting from the use of vacuum, steam, and azeotropic distillation, solvent extraction, foam fractionation, filtration, and adsorption techniques. Vacuum distillation was found to remove over 98% of the PCBs with recoveries of fluid, containing less than 50 ppm PCBs, of 90% at 5 mmHg vacuum, and 85% at 30 mmHg vacuum. The PCBs (bp 225-365/sup 0/C) were distilled from the hydraulic fluid (bp>400/sup 0/C). The product met industry standards for acid number and viscosity required for reuse. The data needed to design a 5 gallon/min pilot plant for the vacuum distillation of PCBs from hydraulic fluid in storage at an aluminum die casting foundry were also obtained.

Longanbach, J.R.; Mink, W.H.

1983-01-01

24

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

None

1981-04-01

25

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments\\u000a found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pet of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial manganese, and 20 to 40 pct\\u000a of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1992-01-01

26

Vacuum distillation of liquid metals: Part I. Theory and experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of vacuum distilling copper, tin, manganese, and sulfur from melted steel scrap have been measured. The experiments\\u000a found that 70 to 90 pct of initial copper, 60 to 80 pct of initial tin, 80 to 100 pct of initial managanese, and 20 to 40\\u000a pct of initial sulfur can be eliminated in 30 minutes exposure to vacuum. Melt

R. Harris; W. G. Davenport

1982-01-01

27

Treatment of waters colored with methylene blue dye by vacuum membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile industries consume large amounts of water and generate highly dye-contaminated effluents. Textile wastewaters have to be treated in order to be recycled in the process or to meet legislative requirements before being discharged. The objective of the present study was to examine the potential use of the vacuum membrane distillation process for the treatment of dyed solutions. Methylene blue

F. Banat; S. Al-Asheh; M. Qtaishat

2005-01-01

28

Hydrochloric acid recovery from rare earth chloride solutions by vacuum membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of the recovery of hydrochloric acid from rare earth (RE) chloride solutions was first experimentally studied by batch vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The recovery by continuous VMD was also studied to devise methods that enabled the operation of VMD setup in a stable condition as well as to increase the membrane-operating life The results indicated that HC1 separation

Jianjun TANG; Kanggen ZHOU

2006-01-01

29

Removal of benzene traces from contaminated water by vacuum membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum membrane distillation was investigated as a possible alternative technique for the removal of volatile organic compounds from contaminated water. A mechanism for the trans-membrane removal of benzene was postulated and corroborating experimental evidence is presented. Batch experiments were conducted on dilute benzene-water mixtures using a tubular polypropylene membrane module. The concentration within the feed reservoir was monitored over time

Fawzi A. Banat; Jana Simandl

1996-01-01

30

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GC/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analyses of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. Analyte re...

31

SEPARATION AND ISOLATION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION WITH GS/MS DETERMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA's vacuum distillation of water, soil, oil, and fish samples is presented as an alternative technique for determining volatile organic compounds. nalysis of samples containing VOCs and non-VOCs at 50 ppb concentrations were performed to evaluate method limitations. na...

32

Design of a unit for sharp fractionation by direct distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the operation of several industrial fractionation units for the separation of a broad gasoline fraction into sharp fractions revealed [ 1] that the presence of hydrocarbons of low molecular weight in the feed is one of the factors responsible for the unsatisfactory operation of the sharp-fractionation units. The content of these hydrocarbons amounts to 8-10% in the distillate

D. M. Slavinskii; T. G. Luzhanskaya

1965-01-01

33

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10

34

Changes in14c activity over time during vacuum distillation of carbon from rock pore water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The radiocarbon activity of carbon collected by vacuum distillation from a single partially saturated tuff began to decline after approximately 60% of the water and carbon had been extracted. Disproportionate changes in 14C activity and ??13C during distillation rule out simple isotopic fractionation as a causative explanation. Additional phenomena such as matrix diffusion and ion exclusion in micropores may play a role in altering the isotopic value of extracted carbon, but neither can fully account for the observed changes. The most plausible explanation is that distillation recovers carbon from an adsorbed phase that is depleted in 14C relative to DIC in the bulk pore water. ?? 1999 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

Davidson, G. R.; Yang, I. C.

1999-01-01

35

High vacuum distillation of ionic liquids and separation of ionic liquid mixtures.  

PubMed

The vaporisation of ionic liquids has been investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) distillation. 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids, [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] (n = 2, 8), have been distilled at UHV and T > 500 K in a specially designed still. The distillation process yielded spectroscopically pure ionic liquid distillates with complete removal of volatile impurities such as water, argon and 1-methylimidazole. Such UHV distillation offers a method of obtaining high purity ionic liquids for analytical applications. The vapour phase of the ionic liquid mixtures [C(2)C(1)Im](0.05)[C(8)C(1)Im](0.95)[Tf(2)N] and [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] has been analysed by TPD using line-of-sight mass spectrometry (LOSMS). The vapour phase consisted of all possible combinations of neutral ion pairs (NIPs) from the liquid mixture. Neither mixture showed evidence of decomposition during TPD, and the [C(2)C(1)Im](0.05)[C(8)C(1)Im](0.95)[Tf(2)N] mixture was shown to obey Raoult's law. Based on the TPD results, fractional distillations were attempted for [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N](2) and [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] mixtures. The distillate from [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N](2) was enhanced in the more volatile [C(2)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] components, but the [C(2)C(1)Im][C(8)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N][EtSO(4)] mixture underwent significant decomposition. The similarities and differences between UHV TPD, and high vacuum distillation, of ionic liquids, are discussed. Design parameters are outlined for a high vacuum ionic liquid still that will minimise decomposition and maximise separation of ILs of differing volatility. PMID:20145842

Taylor, Alasdair W; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Deyko, Alexey; Licence, Peter; Jones, Robert G

2010-01-06

36

Simple high vacuum distillation equipment for deodorizing fish oil for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple piece of glass equipment for deodorizing fish oil (sardine oil) by high vacuum distillation was designed and constructed.\\u000a The equipment has a throughput of 450500 ml\\/hr working at 140C and at a constant pressure of 210?2 mm Hg. It reduces the peroxide value and the cholesterol content of the oil and improves the flavor without affecting the\\u000a EPA

E. Dinamarca; F. Garrido; A. Valenzuela

1990-01-01

37

Application of high vacuum fractional distillation to complex mixtures of methyl esters of polyunsaturated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for the high vacuum fractional distillation, with a spinning band column, of methyl esters of polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids employing a carrier of long chain acetates is described. The carrier is used to facilitate the fractionation of\\u000a minor components and minimize artifact formation in mixtures of methyl esters containing up to six double bonds. The technique\\u000a is demonstrated on

O. S. Privett; J. D. Nadenicek; F. J. Pusch; E. C. Nickell

1969-01-01

38

Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure, and interfacing the fermenter with the distillation unit are important considerations in the design of a reliable system. Temperature controllers were used to control the temperature of the fermenters (primary and secondary) and the re-boiler pot of the fractional distillation column. The fermenter distillate receiver was interfaced with the vacuum distillation system using an intermediate reservoir and a system of solenoid valves. A microprocessor control system was constructed around a personal computer (Sinclair ZX-81 or Timex 1000) and has been interfaced with the COVFAD System so that it can be operated with modular controllers or under microprocessor control. The operation of the COVFAD System has been evaluated with two feedstocks (glucose and blackstrap molasses) for the production of high proof ethanol (98 to 99%). The rate of ethanol productivity attained by this system was significantly lower than expected. Preliminary energy requirement studies suggest that additional design refinement will be needed to develop a system that economically produces high proof ethanol.

Robinson, J.L.; Wright, J.R.; Chan, L.C.

1983-03-01

39

Reasons for low heavy vacuum gas oil yield in vacuum distillation of residual fuel oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations are made of the heat balance of the vacuum column K-101 of the VDM-2 plant of LUKOIL Neftokhim Burgas AD, which\\u000a made it possible to disclose the reasons for decline in heavy vacuum gas oil yield with increase in plant load and to discard\\u000a the hypothesis that the reason for this is perforating of the plate from which the

V. Georgiev; D. Stratiev; K. Kirilov; K. Petkov; D. Minkov

2009-01-01

40

Attractancy to Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) of volatile materials isolated from vacuum distillate of heat-treated carobs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum distillation of heat-treated carobs gave an aqueous, colorless, sweet-smelling distillate which was tested over a wide range of concentrations and found to be highly attractive to adultOryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). The materials responsible for the aroma were isolated from the distillate by saturating with sodium chloride and extracting into diethyl ether as separate acidic, neutral, and basic fractions. The extraction

M. R. Stubbs; J. Chambers; S. B. Schofield; J. P. G. Wilkins

1985-01-01

41

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2010-10-01

42

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2009-10-01

43

Application of MIVM for Pb-Sn System in Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activity coefficients of components of the Pb-Sn binary alloy system were calculated based on the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). A significant advantage of this model lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only two binary infinite activity coefficients. Based on the MIVM, the vapor-liquid phase equilibrium of the Pb-Sn alloy system in vacuum distillation has been predicted using the activity coefficients of Pb and Sn. The results showed that the content of tin in the vapor phase was 0.008 wt pct, while in the liquid phase, it was 83 wt pct at 1173 K (900 C); it reached 0.022 wt pct in the vapor phase, while in the liquid phase, it was 92 wt pct at 1223 K (950 C); and it was 0.052 wt pct in the vapor phase, while in the liquid phase, it was 97.88 wt pct at 1273 K (1000 C). The content of tin in the vapor phase increased with the distillation temperature increasing. Experimental investigations into the separation of Pb and Sn from the Pb-Sn alloy by vacuum distillation were carried out for the proper interpretation of the results of the model. The influence of the distillation time (20 to 80 minutes) and the distillation temperatures of 1173 K, 1223 K, and 1273 K (900 C, 950 C, and 1000 C) on the separating effect was also studied. The experimental results showed that the content of tin in the vapor phase was 0.085 wt pct, while in liquid phase, it was 83 wt pct under the operational conditions of distillation temperature of 1173 K (900 C), evaporation time of 20 minutes, and chamber pressure of 20 Pa; it reached 0.18 wt pct in the vapor phase, while in the liquid phase, it was 92 wt pct at 1223 K (950 C), 20 minutes, and 20 Pa; and it was 0.35 wt pct in the vapor phase, while in the liquid phase, it was 97.88 wt pct at 1273 K (1000 C), 20 minutes, and 20 Pa. In all these experiments, it was observed that the content of tin in the vapor phase increased as the distillation time and temperatures were increased. The experimental results are in good agreement with the predicted values of the MIVM for the Pb-Sn binary system.

Kong, Lingxin; Yang, Bin; Li, Yifu; Xu, Baoqiang; Liu, Dachun; Jia, Guobin

2012-12-01

44

The relative merits of cylindrical and non-cylindrical extrudates in vacuum distillate hydrodesulfurization  

SciTech Connect

A number of developments have occurred in recent years with regard to the quality of heavy distillate fractions, all of which have led to greater demands on hydroprocessing catalysts. The long term trend in oil processing is towards the use of heavier crude. For heavier distillate fractions this has meant higher sulfur and nitrogen contents. At the same time, the fraction of straight-run stocks in the heavy distillate pool has decreased. Coker gas oil (CGO) is being used more and more, usually blended with vacuum gas oil (VGO) as a component in FCC feedstocks. Although CGO generally comprises a lighter boiling fraction than VGO, it is often more aromatic (particularly with respect to polynuclear aromatics) and gives a higher carbon residue. In addition, sulfur and nitrogen contents exceed those found in VGO of the same crude origin. These considerations serve to illustrate the factors involved in determining the best catalyst filling for heavy distillate hydroprocessing. It is seen that shaped catalysts are not necessarily an improvement on cylinders, nor is dense loading always an advantage as far as bed activity is concerned, if all the parameters are optimized.

Cooper, B.H.; Donnis, B.B.L.; Moyse, B.M.

1986-01-01

45

A new method for permeability measurement of hydrophobic membranes in Vacuum Membrane Distillation process.  

PubMed

In this paper, a new method for permeability measurement of hydrophobic membranes used in Vacuum Membrane Distillation, instead of common measurement methods, was proposed. As VMD is a pressure and temperature driven process, the idea of this work is to propose a new water vapour permeability measurement method based on variation of feed temperature at a fixed vacuum pressure. This new method showed a greater stability and simplicity than the existing pressure variation method by not only allowing a wide range of feed temperature (25 C 60 C) to be scanned continuously, but also avoiding fluctuations of the system as observed in the pressure variation test. Permeabilities of two different kinds of hydrophobic membranes were measured by this new method and also by the existing pressure variation test. A comparison between these two methods was also presented to assess the feasibility and applicability of this new method. PMID:23415955

Dao, T D; Mericq, J-P; Laborie, S; Cabassud, C

2013-01-31

46

Distillation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science in its earliest beginnings consisted of a practice called alchemy. Alchemy includes the study of chemistry, biology, astronomy, spirituality, physics, and art. Distillation or experiments in purification of substances may have been a part of the practice of alchemy.

N/A N/A (None;)

2005-12-24

47

Application of Vacuum Salt Distillation Technology for the Removal of Fluoride and Chloride From Legacy Fissile Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO2) scrap. Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and

R. Pierce; T. Caldwell; D. Pak

2012-01-01

48

Development of Continuous-Vacuum Fermentation/Fractional Distillation for the Small-Scale Production of High-Proof Ethanol. Annual Report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and eval...

J. L. Robinson J. R. Wright L. C. Chan

1983-01-01

49

Hybrid separation processes combining vacuum distillation with fractional crystallization, partial melting, and granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical fundamentals of the combined processes of distillative crystallization (also called distillation crystallization\\u000a or distillative freezing) and distillative sweating (also called distillation sweating or distillation melting) are considered.\\u000a Results of the experimental study of the kinetics of separation of binary and ternary organic mixtures of various forms (liquids,\\u000a powders, continuous layers, and granules) are presented. The high efficiency of

S. K. Myasnikov; A. D. Uteshinsky; N. N. Kulov

2009-01-01

50

VACUUM DISTILLATION CONCENTRATOR (VDC) IN COMBINATION WITH GC/MS TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MATRICES.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA Region 5 Central Regional Laboratory, Region 6 and Region 10 are presently involved in a Superfund interlaboratory study with ORD/NERL-Las Vegas, NV evaluating U.S. EPA SW 846 Method 8261. This method utilizes a new commercially available vacuum distillation concent...

51

Concentration of ginseng extracts aqueous solution by vacuum membrane distillation 2. Theory analysis of critical operating conditions and experimental confirmation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling mechanism in the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was studied both theoretically and experimentally by using ginseng crude extract aqueous solution as a model concentrate system. The concept of critical fouling operating conditions in VMD within which fouling is difficult to occur was introduced for the first time. By analyzing the forces acting on solute particles (microaggregates of biomacromolecules

Zhi-Ping Zhao; Chun-Yan Zhu; Dian-Zhong Liu; Wen-Fang Liu

2011-01-01

52

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

2011-11-01

53

Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail unit 5, showing discharge pipe and vacuum valve on discharge side of pump - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

54

The relative merits of cylindrical and non-cylindrical extrudates in vacuum distillate hydrodesulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of developments have occurred in recent years with regard to the quality of heavy distillate fractions, all of which have led to greater demands on hydroprocessing catalysts. The long term trend in oil processing is towards the use of heavier crude. For heavier distillate fractions this has meant higher sulfur and nitrogen contents. At the same time, the

B. H. Cooper; B. B. L. Donnis; B. M. Moyse

1986-01-01

55

Simulated distillation of high-boiling petroleum fractions by capillary supercritical fluid chromatography and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis  

SciTech Connect

Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and vacuum thermal gravimetric analysis (VTGA) were utilized for simulated distillation (SIMDIS) of high-boiling petroleum fractions obtained by short-path vacuum distillation. The SFC method covers the approximate boiling range of 250-1400/sup 0/F. Under the present conditions, even 42% of a nondistillable, nondeasphalted residue was recovered from the column at a calculated 1426/sup 0/F atmospheric equivalent boiling point. The influence of temperature and pressure on resolution and retention was studied. SFC-SIMDIS was performed by using linear pressure programming at 100/sup 0/C, as compared to 400/sup 0/C+ temperatures required for comparable samples when capillary gas chromatography (GC) is employed. Polysiloxane-coated, 50-..mu..m-i.d. columns permitted fast analyses (30-min run time) yet maintained adequate resolution for SIMDIS analysis. VTGA-SIMDIS data of samples in the 500-1000/sup 0/F boiling range yielded excellent correlation with actual distillation data. However, thermal analysis revealed decomposition of samples at temperatures exceeding ca. 370/sup 0/C. The validity of the SFC method was demonstrated by comparing SFC-SIMDIS data with those obtained by GC and VTGA.

Schwartz, H.E.; Brownlee, R.G.; Boduszynski, M.M.; Su, F.

1987-05-15

56

Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation\\/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981November 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure,

J. L. Robinson; J. R. Wright; L. C. Chan

1983-01-01

57

Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology: Sweeping gas versus vacuum membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature (1045C), feed flow rate (300500L\\/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.22m3\\/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds

Rico Bagger-Jrgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Manuel Pinelo; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson

2011-01-01

58

Removing lead from metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation: Factorial design and removal mechanism.  

PubMed

The lead removal from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards by vacuum distillation was optimized using experimental design, and a mathematical model was established to elucidate the removal mechanism. The variables studied in lead evaporation consisted of the chamber pressure, heating temperature, heating time, particle size and initial mass. The low-level chamber pressure was fixed at 0.1Pa as the operation pressure. The application of two-level factorial design generated a first-order polynomial that agreed well with the data for evaporation efficiency of lead. The heating temperature and heating time exhibited significant effects on the efficiency, which was validated by means of the copper-lead mixture experiments. The optimized operating conditions within the region studied were the chamber pressure of 0.1Pa, heating temperature of 1023K and heating time of 120min. After the conditions were employed to remove lead from the metallic mixture of waste printed circuit boards, the efficiency was 99.97%. The mechanism of the effects was elucidated by mathematical modeling that deals with evaporation, mass transfer and condensation, and can be applied to a wider range of metal removal by vacuum distillation. PMID:23830119

Li, Xingang; Gao, Yujie; Ding, Hui

2013-07-02

59

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiClKCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiClKCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiClKCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710759.5Torr of a reduced pressure

Hee Chul Eun; Hee Chul Yang; Yung Zun Cho; Han Soo Lee; In Tae Kim

2008-01-01

60

Variations in quantitative and qualitative characteristics of wild marigold ( Tagetes minuta L.) oils distilled under vacuum and at NTP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil of Tagetes minuta was distilled in vacuo in a mini distillation apparatus to study and compare the qualitative and quantitative characteristics vis--vis oil distilled by conventional distillation technique at normal temperature and pressure (NTP), which revealed that higher oil yield (1.56%) was obtained in the oil distilled by conventional distillation technique at NTP and decreased gradually with increase

Kiran G. D. Babu; V. K. Kaul

2007-01-01

61

Ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled with under vacuum distillation of flavour compounds from spearmint (carvone-rich) plants: Comparison with conventional hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

Ultrasonically assisted extraction of flavour compounds from different varieties of Mentha spicata, using 70% ethanol, have been carried out for 5, 10 and 15min and coupled with under vacuum distillation. The ultrasound distilled extracts have been analysed by GC-MS and compared with essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The results have showed that ultrasonically assisted extraction in combination with under vacuum distillation have provided extracts with higher flavouring strength due to the increased concentration of desirable oxygenated compounds (from 5 to 8 times) compared with hydrodistillation. Extraction yields of flavour volatiles have been calculated giving a range 0.04-0.13% by ultrasound and 0.01-0.02% by hydrodistillation. PMID:19406680

Da Porto, Carla; Decorti, Deborha

2009-04-05

62

Fractionation of citronella ( Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase by batch vacuum distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to assess the performance of a vacuum fractionating column for the fractionation of citronella essential oil and concentrated orange oil phase during batch mode operation at different pressures, from 20 to 1mbar and reflux ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Fractions from column top and bottom were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC\\/FID) using authentic standards

Stephani C. Beneti; Eline Rosset; Marcos L. Corazza; Caren D. Frizzo; Marco Di Luccio; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2011-01-01

63

Prevention of failure in a distillation unit exhibiting extensive scale formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of 2years in service, a heavy scale buildup was observed at the outer surfaces of heating tube bundles that make up the evaporator shell of a multi-effects distillation vapor compression (MED-VC) unit employed in an onshore oil producing facility. The unit production rate dropped by 30% below design capacity due to scale formation. A series of acid

Said S. Al-Jaroudi; Anwar Ul-Hamid; Jamal A. Al-Matar

2010-01-01

64

On the feasibility of large vapor-compression distillation units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large vapor-compression units allow cogenerations of low power\\/water ratios including zero ratio whereby complete independence is achieved for the products of power and water. Mismatches in needs and load variations are avoided and more flexible planning for these two important commodities is permitted. A single-effect 2.5 mgd (11,000 t\\/d) vapor-compression system is theoretically analyzed with a conventional axial flow compressor

Yehia M. El-Sayed

1996-01-01

65

Assessment of an absorption heat pump coupled to a multi-effect distillation unit within AQUASOL project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorption heat pump coupled to a multi-effect distillation unit is able to recover part of the thermal energy rejected in the distillation process, thus increasing its performance ratio. At the beginning of the nineties, a pilot plant installed at the Plataforma Solar de Almera (CIEMAT, Spain) showed a consumption of 108 kJ\\/kg of distilled water at 180 C, thus

Diego-Csar Alarcn-Padilla; Lourdes Garca-Rodrguez; Julin Blanco-Glvez

2007-01-01

66

Flexible edge seal for vacuum insulating glazing units  

SciTech Connect

A flexible edge seal is provided for a vacuum insulating glazing unit having a first glass pane and a second glass pane spaced-apart from the first. The edge seal comprises a seal member formed of a hermetically bondable material and having a first end, a second end and a center section disposed therebetween. The first end is hermetically bondable to a first glass pane. The second end is hermetically bondable to a second glass pane. The center section comprises a plurality of convolutes.

Bettger, Kenneth J.; Stark, David H.

2012-12-11

67

A new-generation asymmetric multi-bore hollow fiber membrane for sustainable water production via vacuum membrane distillation.  

PubMed

Due to the growing demand for potable water, the capacities for wastewater reclamation and saline water desalination have been increasing. More concerns are raised on the poor efficiency of removing certain contaminants by the current water purification technologies. Recent studies demonstrated superior separation performance of the vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) technology for the rejection of trace contaminants such as boron, dye, endocrine-disruptive chemical, and chloro-compound. However, the absence of suitable membranes with excellent wetting resistance and high permeation flux has severely hindered the VMD application as an effective water production process. This work presents a new generation multibore hollow fiber (MBF) membrane with excellent mechanical durability developed for VMD. Its micromorphology was uniquely designed with a tight surface and a fully porous matrix to maximize both high wetting resistance and permeation flux. Credit to the multibore configuration, a 65% improvement was obtained on the antiwetting property. Using a synthetic seawater feed, the new membrane with optimized fabrication condition exhibits a high flux and the salt rejection is consistently greater than 99.99%. In addition, a comparison of 7-bore and 6-bore MBF membranes was performed to investigate the optimum geometry design. The newly designed MBF membrane not only demonstrates its suitability for VMD but also makes VMD come true as an efficient process for water production. PMID:23663035

Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

2013-05-28

68

A small scale multi-effect distillation (MED) unit for rural micro enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aspects of fabrication, design and operation with design optimization of various components of the small scale multiple effect distillation (MED) unit have been discussed in part I of the paper. The MED system can be operated as n effects+condenser (n+C), where 1?n?9. Extensive experiments were carried out respectively using 9+C, 6+C and 3+C systems. The present part II is

P. K. Sen; Padma Vasudevan Sen; Anurag Mudgal; S. N. Singh

2011-01-01

69

Separation of Pure LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt from a Mixture of LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt and Rare-Earth Precipitates by Vacuum Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the vacuum distillation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth precipitates was carried out to evaluate the vaporization characteristics of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. It was confirmed that the required time for salt vaporization was reduced by a reduction in the pressure. It appeared that the vaporization of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing

Hee-Chul EUN; Hee-Chul YANG; Yong-Jun CHO; Hwan-Seo PARK; Eung-Ho KIM; In-Tae KIM

2007-01-01

70

Energy efficient distillation apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is

Melton

1982-01-01

71

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...indicator activation level shall not be less than 8 inches of mercury. (1) Inspection procedure. Run the engine to evacuate...applications until the vehicle vacuum gauge reads 8 inches of mercury. Observe the functioning of the low-vacuum indicator....

2012-10-01

72

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...indicator activation level shall not be less than 8 inches of mercury. (1) Inspection procedure. Run the engine to evacuate...applications until the vehicle vacuum gauge reads 8 inches of mercury. Observe the functioning of the low-vacuum indicator....

2011-10-01

73

Vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts and RE oxidative precipitates and a dechlorination and oxidation of RE oxychlorides.  

PubMed

In this study, a vacuum distillation of a mixture of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and rare-earth oxidative precipitates was performed to separate a pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the mixture. Also, a dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was carried out to stabilize a final waste form. The mixture was distilled under a range of 710-759.5Torr of a reduced pressure at a fixed heating rate of 4 degrees C/min and the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was completely separated from the mixture. The required time for the salt distillation and the starting temperature for the salt vaporization were lowered with a reduction in the pressure. Dechlorination and oxidation of the rare-earth oxychlorides was completed at a temperature below 1300 degrees C and this was dependent on the partial pressure of O2. The rare-earth oxychlorides (NdOCl/PrOCl) were transformed to oxides (Nd2O3/PrO2) during the dechlorination and oxidation process. These results will be utilized to design a concept for a process for recycling the waste salt from an electrorefining process. PMID:18440139

Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Cho, Yung Zun; Lee, Han Soo; Kim, In Tae

2008-03-22

74

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is in...

R. E. Johnson

1997-01-01

75

Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction for HEPA Filtered Vacuum Radioactive Air Emission Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is in...

1999-01-01

76

A small scale multi-effect distillation (MED) unit for rural micro enterprises: Part-III Heat transfer aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient (OHTC) is the governing factor for heat transfer and depends on surface area utilized for heat transfer and temperature difference. The aspects of fabrication, design and operation along with design optimization of various components of the small scale multiple effect distillation (MED) unit have been discussed in part I and part II of the paper. As

P. K. Sen; Padma Vasudevan Sen; Anurag Mudgal; S. N. Singh

2011-01-01

77

Vacuum Deaeration - A New Unit Operation for Waterflood Treating Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conoco uses vacuum deaeration in treating seawater for injection in California and Dubai. With multistage towers, oxygen concentration in the effluent water is reduced to <0.05 mg\\/l, precluding need for corrosion inhibitor treatment. Improvements in the Dubai towers are noted, as are problems, such as foaming, which have been encountered. Data on throughput and oxygen concentrations are included.

B. L. Carlberg

1976-01-01

78

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

Gray, J.A.; Mathias, S.T.

1980-10-01

79

Optical cell with a temperature-control unit for a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

We constructed an assembled-type MgF2 cell that can function under a high vacuum (10(-4) Pa), and is capable of measuring the vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrum in a wavelength region down to 140 nm for aqueous solutions. Its path length can be adjusted by various spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 microm. The temperature-control unit of the cell was also constructed with a Peltier thermoelectric element to keep the temperature of a sample within an accuracy of +/- 1 degrees C in the temperature range from -30 to 70 degrees C. The optical cell and the temperature-control unit were confirmed to have good performance by monitoring the VUVCD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate and myoglobin aqueous solutions. This cell is available not only for VUVCD spectroscopy, but also for vacuum-ultraviolet absorption measurements. PMID:12558036

Matsuo, Koichi; Sakai, Kenichi; Matsushima, Yosuke; Fukuyama, Takayuki; Gekko, Kunihiko

2003-01-01

80

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Froth Flotation and Vacuum-Filtratrion Units.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dynamic mathematical models are developed to simulate the operation of froth flotation and vacuum filtration units as found in the coal-preparation industry. A set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations is derived for each system based on mass b...

G. O. Allgood C. H. Brown G. S. Canright W. R. Hamel

1981-01-01

81

Dynamic modeling and simulation of froth flotation and vacuum-filtratrion units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic mathematical models are developed to simulate the operation of froth flotation and vacuum filtration units as found in the coal-preparation industry. A set of ordinary differential and algebraic equations is derived for each system based on mass balances. The models are then implemented using IBM's Continuous System Modeling Program (CSMP). The open-loop response of the systems is presented.

G. O. Allgood; C. H. Jr. Brown; G. S. Canright; W. R. Hamel

1981-01-01

82

Experimental assessment of connection of an absorption heat pump to a multi-effect distillation unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis of integrating an absorption heat pump cycle in a multi-effect distillation (MED) process has shown better performance than with other types of heat pumps conventionally used as thermocompressors. However, to date, only two pilot facilities have been implemented worldwide. Both of them have been developed and tested in the framework of two different research and demonstration projects carried

Diego C. Alarcn-Padilla; Lourdes Garca-Rodrguez; Julin Blanco-Glvez

2010-01-01

83

Cumene by catalytic distillation  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic distillation, a combination of catalytic reaction and distillation in a single column, has several advantages when used in a process to make cumene from benzene and propylene. An extremely high purity cumene is obtained in high yield. The catalytic distillation principle was used in an earlier process to make MTBE. A unit, started up up in Houston refinery in 1981, operated successfully for four years. Since then, three other MTBE units of this design have gone into service.

Shoemaker, J.D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1987-06-01

84

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture...

B. R. Westphal

1996-01-01

85

Computer-based Didactic Unit based on a simulator for the process of simple and fractioned distillation in the context of the education learning of Chemistry - UDQuim  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contains the general description of the Computer-based Didactic Unit based on a simulator for the process of simple and fractioned distillation in the context of the education learning of Chemistry - UDQuim developed from the work of the research group Metis, of Universidad Distrital Francisco Jos of Caldas. The Computer-based Didactic Unit based on a simulator for the

J. C. Guevara Bolaos; A. Garca Martnez; C. S. Cruz Aguilar; A. Snchez Lozano

86

Preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three-person capacity preprototype vapor compression distillation subsystem for recovering potable water from wastewater aboard spacecraft was designed, assembled, and tested. The major components of the subsystem are: (1) a distillation unit which incl...

G. S. Ellis R. A. Wynveen F. H. Schubert

1979-01-01

87

Radioactive air emissions notice of construction HEPA filtered vacuum radioactive air emission units  

SciTech Connect

This notice of construction (NOC) requests a categorical approval for construction and operation of certain portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered vacuum radionuclide airborne emission units (HVUs). Approval of this NOC application is intended to allow operation of the HVUs without prior project-specific approval. This NOC does not request replacement or supersedence of any previous agreements/approvals by the Washington State Department of Health for the use of vacuums on the Hanford Site. These previous agreement/approvals include the approved NOCs for the use of EuroClean HEPA vacuums at the T Plant Complex (routine technical meeting 12/10/96) and the Kelly Decontamination System at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant (routine technical meeting 06/25/96). Also, this NOC does not replace or supersede the agreement reached regarding the use of HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners for routine cleanup activities conducted by the Environmental Restoration Project. Routine cleanup activities are conducted during the surveillance and maintenance of inactive waste sites (Radioactive Area Remedial Action Project) and inactive facilities. HEPA hand-held/shop-vacuum cleaners are used to clean up spot surface contamination areas found during outdoor radiological field surveys, and to clean up localized radiologically contaminated material (e.g., dust, dirt, bird droppings, animal feces, liquids, insects, spider webs, etc.). This agreement, documented in the October 12, 1994 Routine Meeting Minutes, is based on routine cleanup consisting of spot cleanup of low-level contamination provided that, in each case, the source term potential would be below 0.1 millirem per year.

JOHNSON, R.E.

1999-09-01

88

Reliable vacuum system cuts steam requirements 50%  

SciTech Connect

In choosing a new high-vacuum system for fractional distillation, Polarome Manufacturing Company, New York, NY and Newark, NJ, a producer of high-quality flavor and fragrance chemicals, considered reliability and performance and steam consumption to be the most important factors. Distillation is carried out under vacuum to minimize thermal degradation. For stable operation, the vacuum system for the distillation column has to be ultra-reliable, and has to be able to go on-line quickly. Fluctuations in vacuum affect operating temperature and fractionation and cause deterioration of the product quality. Polarome's process requires a gas removal rate from the distillation column of 7.5 lg/hr of air plus 7.5 lb/hr of condensible vapors at 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure at 105/sup 0/F. Polarome chose a combination ejector/liquid ring pump system that combines the two distinctly different types of equipment to improve high-vacuum efficiency. The unit requires only 400 lb/hr of motive steam at 125 psig, and the liquid ring pump only draws 5.7 brake hp. Polarome purchased two virtually identical four-stage systems, each composed of two ejector stages, a shell-and-tube condenser, and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The fully packaged systems were delivered skid-mounted, ready to pipe and operate. Polarome found a number of advantages with their combined system. Steam savings are considerable - up to 50% over a conventional ejector system - because the liquid-ring pump is substituted for the less efficient final two ejector stages. In Polarome's vacuum range of 0.5 mm Hg, this was considered the most efficient way of drawing vacuum, with lowest investment and operating costs for the greatest capacity.

Not Available

1985-12-01

89

From Justification to Selection: An Automated Supervisory System for the East Vacuum Grayburg-San Andres Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phillips Petroleum Company, as operator for the East Vacuum Grayburg-San Andres Unit, New Mexico, has included an innovative automated supervisory system in the Unit's development plan. The system, featuring redundant minicomputers, approximately 200 microprocessor-based remote terminal units, UHF-radio communications, automatic well testing, and local pumpoff and injection controllers, will increase Unit profitability by improving operation and management of the enhanced

Leslie Krusen III

1981-01-01

90

Heavy oil distillation system  

SciTech Connect

A method for increasing the amount of volatiles produced and decreasing the amount of coke produced from a fixed amount of a vacuum reduced crude from a vacuum distillation tower is described comprising: (a) feeding the vacuum reduced crude from the vacuum distillation tower directly into a coker combination tower; (b) coking a residuum stripped of volatiles generating coke drum vapor; (c) feeding the coke drum vapor into the coker combination tower in contact with and in direct countercurrent heat exchange relationship with the vacuum reduced crude in the coker combination tower whereby some of the coke drum vapor is absorbed by the vacuum-reduced crude generating a coker combination tower residuum; (d) feeding the coker combination tower residuum into a resid flash down tower maintained at a pressure below the pressure in the coker combination tower; (e) fractionating the coker combination tower residuum in flash down tower into a vapor stream and a liquid stream comprising a residuum stripped of volatiles; (f) feeding the residuum stripped of volatiles to a delayed coke drum and coking the resdiuum stripped of volatiles as provided in step (b); condensing the fractionated vapor stream.

Heaney, W.F.; Nitsch, A.R.

1988-04-12

91

Filament-strung stand-off elements for maintaining pane separation in vacuum insulating glazing units  

DOEpatents

A vacuum insulating glazing unit (VIGU) comprises first and second panes of transparent material, first and second anchors, a plurality of filaments, a plurality of stand-off elements, and seals. The first and second panes of transparent material have edges and inner and outer faces, are disposed with their inner faces substantially opposing one another, and are separated by a gap having a predetermined height. The first and second anchors are disposed at opposite edges of one pane of the VIGU. Each filament is attached at one end to the first anchor and at the other end to the second anchor, and the filaments are collectively disposed between the panes substantially parallel to one another. The stand-off elements are affixed to each filament at predetermined positions along the filament, and have a height substantially equal to the predetermined height of the gap such that the each stand-off element touches the inner surfaces of both panes. The seals are disposed about the edges of the panes, enclosing the stand-off elements within a volume between the panes from which the atmosphere may be evacuated to form a partial vacuum.

Bettger, Kenneth J; Stark, David H

2013-08-20

92

Intelligent Design Approach for Vacuum Suction Cup Units in Aircraft Flexible Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum suction cups are key subassembly used in flexible fixture for aircraft flexible assembly system; it becomes an important issue in intelligent design to rapid design and automatic location of vacuum cups. In this paper, typical structure and properties of vacuum suction cups used in aircraft flexible assembly are analyzed; A general definition model-semantic model employed in developed Flexible Fixture

Qiu Yi; Zheng Guolei; Zheng Hongyong; Liu Fang

2009-01-01

93

Azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent and ongoing research in the distillation of nonideal mixtures is reviewed focusing on advances in the methodologies for the synthesis, design, analysis and control of separation sequences involving homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic towers. Maps of residue curves and distillation lines are examined, as well as geometric methods for the synthesis and design of separation sequences, trends in the steady-state

Soemantri Widagdo; Warren D. Seider

1996-01-01

94

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24

95

Distillation stability using passivity and thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation is one of the most important unit operations in the chemical process industry. The stability of distillation systems has always been difficult to determine due to the nonlinear natural of the unit operation. Previous work in the area has had limited success and no theory has been able to show the stability criteria for a general multicomponent distillation column.

Duncan P. Coffey; B. Erik Ydstie; Chad A. Farschman

2000-01-01

96

Catalytic distillation extends its reach  

SciTech Connect

Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

1997-07-01

97

Closed-Loop Helical Distillation Apparatus. Progress Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the project are to: design and construct a more efficient mash distillation unit; reduce physical size and material cost in distillation; use readily available material in the construction of distillation equipment; and improve the opera...

D. L. Gahimer

1981-01-01

98

New catalysts for hydrotreating heavy distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares the activity of experimental-commercial batches of type GO catalysts with the activity of alumina-cobaltmolybdenum (ACM) and alumina-nickel-molybdenum silicate (ANMS) catalysts in the hydrodesulfurization of a 350-500C vacuum distillate from Romashkino crude containing 2% sulfur and 0.1% nitrogen by weight. Finds that the GO-115, GO-116, and GO-117 catalysts are promising materials for use in hydrotreating vacuum distillates because their activities

A. N. Chagovets; L. N. Osipov; B. L. Lebedev; I. Ya. Perezhigina; A. V. Agafonov

1982-01-01

99

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of

1996-01-01

100

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

SciTech Connect

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15

101

Solar Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Solar distillation is a technology for producing potable water from brackish and underground water of low-quality at low\\u000a cost. It can reduce water-scarcity problems together with other water purification technologies. Solar distillation is analogous\\u000a to natural hydrological cycle. It uses an apparatus called a solar still in which water is evaporated using solar energy,\\u000a a form of renewable energy, and

Rahul Dev; Gopal Nath Tiwari

102

Fractional distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

While practically all the fatty acids produced in the fatty acid industry are distilled products, these materials are all,\\u000a at least to some degree, fractionated fatty acids. Rarely indeed are todays fatty acids suited for any of the many applications\\u000a to which they are put without the quality and homolog distribution improvements which only fractional distillation can guarantee.\\u000a Thus, this

R. Berger; W. McPherson

1979-01-01

103

Cumene by catalytic distillation  

SciTech Connect

Chemical Research and Licensing Co. (CR and L) began developing its catalytic distillation technology in 1978. The first commercially significant application was for the manufacture of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which started up in a Houston refinery in 1981. This unit has operated successfully, since then several other MTBE Units have gone into service. During the last two years, CR and L has worked intensively on development of aromatics alkylation by catalytic distillation, with specific emphasis on the manufacture of cumene. Previous papers have described the catalytic distillation process as applied to MTBE manufacture. This paper presents the advantages of the CR and L cumene process compared to some others which are widely used in the U.S. today.

Shoemaker, J.D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

1987-01-01

104

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01

105

Azeotropic distillation  

SciTech Connect

Recent and ongoing research in the distillation of nonideal mixtures is reviewed focusing on advances in the methodologies for the synthesis, design, analysis and control of separation sequences involving homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic towers. Maps of residue curves and distillation lines are examined, as well as geometric methods for the synthesis and design of separation sequences, trends in the steady-state and dynamic analysis of homogeneous and heterogeneous towers, the nonlinear behavior of these towers, and strategies for their control. Emphasis is placed on the methods of computing all of the azeotropes associated with a multicomponent mixture, on the features that distinguish azeotropic distillations from their zeotropic counterparts, on the potential for steady-state multiplicity, and on the existence of maximum and minimum reflux bounds. Important considerations in the selection of entrainers are examined. For the synthesis of separation trains, when determining the feasible production compositions, the graphical methods are clarified, especially the conditions under which distillation boundaries can be crossed and bounding strategies under finite reflux. The application of geometric theory to locate the fixed points, at minimum reflux, is reviewed in connection with homotopy-continuation algorithms for this purpose. The use of homotopy-continuation algorithms, especially for the steady-state simulation of heterogeneous azeotropic distillations, is justified. Methods for phase stability analysis are reviewed in connection with the location of real bifurcation points at phase transitions, an important feature of algorithms for the dynamic simulation of heterogeneous azeotropic distillations.

Widagdo, S. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States); Seider, W.D. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-01-01

106

Present status of solar distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the

G. N. Tiwari; H. N. Singh; Rajesh Tripathi

2003-01-01

107

Biomass derived feedstock co-processing with vacuum gas oil for second-generation fuel production in FCC units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis-oils (HDO-oil) are considered promising renewable liquid energy carriers. As such, it cannot be applied in in-stationary combustion engines so more upgrading is required. A considerable alternative is to co-process HDO-oil along with vacuum gas oil (VGO) in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking unit (FCC). This study evaluates the impact of adding 20wt.% HDO-oil to a conventional FCC feedstock. The

Gabriella Fogassy; Nicolas Thegarid; Guy Toussaint; Andre C. van Veen; Yves Schuurman; Claude Mirodatos

2010-01-01

108

Membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the separation process known as membrane distillation, MD. An introduction to the terminology and fundamental concepts associated with MD as well as a historical review of the developments in MD are presented. Membrane properties, transport phenomena, and module design are discussed in detail. A critical evaluation of the MD literature is incorporated throughout

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1997-01-01

109

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

110

Hydrothermal carbonization of distillers grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet distillers grains are intermediate byproducts of ethanol manufacture that have high moisture contents and require significant energy for drying and conversion into dry distillers grains. Hydrothermal carbonization was investigated as a wet process to provide alternative products, and chars were obtained in moderate yield that possessed high heats of combustion. The mechanism of char formation was also investigated employing

Steven M. Heilmann; Lindsey R. Jader; Michael J. Sadowsky; Frederick J. Schendel; Marc G. von Keitz; Kenneth J. Valentas

2011-01-01

111

Separation of azeotropic mixtures by batch distillation using an entrainer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch Distillation is an efficient unit operation which allows the separation of a multicomponent mixture into its components in a single column. However, the separation of azeotropic mixtures via distillation is quite complex because at the azeotrope liquid and gas have the same composition and, therefore, the driving force for distillation disappears. A systematical presentation of batch distillation processes for

R. Dssel; J. Stichlmair

1995-01-01

112

Vacuum pump aids ejectors  

SciTech Connect

The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

Nelson, R.E.

1982-12-01

113

27 CFR 26.36c - Shipments of bulk distilled spirits to the United States without payment of tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.36c Shipments of bulk...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico without payment of tax for...

2013-04-01

114

Distillation modeling for a uranium refining process  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of uranium following an electrorefining process. Distillation of a salt electrolyte, containing a eutectic mixture of lithium and potassium chlorides, from uranium is achieved by a simple batch operation and is termed {open_quotes}cathode processing{close_quotes}. The incremental distillation of electrolyte salt will be modeled by an equilibrium expression and on a molecular basis since the operation is conducted under moderate vacuum conditions. As processing continues, the two models will be compared and analyzed for correlation with actual operating results. Possible factors that may contribute to aberrations from the models include impurities at the vapor-liquid boundary, distillate reflux, anomalous pressure gradients, and mass transport phenomena at the evaporating surface. Ultimately, the purpose of either process model is to enable the parametric optimization of the process.

Westphal, B.R.

1996-03-01

115

Demetallation catalysts improve the performance of vacuum gas oil and resid hydrotreating units  

SciTech Connect

The application of special demetallation catalysts can improve the performance of resid and vacuum gas oil hydrotreaters considerably for product quality. This paper describes the effect of catalyst properties on activity, selectivity, and stability of demetallation catalysts. The effect of feedstock and pressure on metals removal rate is presented. Results of a stability test demonstrate the high metals tolerance of a recently developed Ketjen demet catalyst. This catalyst can pick up close to 180 percent of its own weight of metals. The results of this test also demonstrate the excellent performance of this catalyst for asphaltene conversion. Finally, information on the performance of two-stage catalyst systems for heavy oil treating is also presented.

Plantenga, F.L.; Sonnemans, J.W.M.; Desai, P.H.; Sujuki, T.

1985-01-01

116

Advanced control improves MHC-VGO unit operation. [Mild HydroCracking-Vacuum Gas Oil  

SciTech Connect

Constraint and multivariable predictive (MPC) controllers were implemented on an FCC preheater (MHC-VGO unit), which runs in mild hydrocracking (MHC) mode. In only a few weeks following commissioning, better control provided an average reduction in steam use of 38%, an average reduction of 22% in DEA use and a 5 to 10% reduction in fuel consumption. OMV's refinery in Schwechat was commissioned in 1960 and is now one of the largest and most complex inland-refineries in Europe with an annual crude oil processing capacity of 10 million metric tons. Every product stream is desulfurized by hydrodesulfurization (HDS) units. As part of a refinery-wide advanced control (ADVC) project which includes 27 units implemented on four process computers and two DCSs, advanced controls were installed on the MHC-VGO unit. The entire project was executed over a period of two and a half years. The paper describes the process, advanced control, the weighted average bed temperature controller, feed maximization control, stripper feed temperature control, stripping steam/feed ratio controller, stripper pressure minimization, H[sub 2]/oil controller, recycle/DEA ratio controller, stripper bottoms level controller, and advanced control benefits.

Richard, L.; Watson, D. (Setpoint Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Danzinger, F.; Tuppinger, D.; Schuster, R.; Wilmsen, W. (OMV AG, Schwechat (Germany))

1995-03-01

117

Better Vacuum by Removal of Diffusion-Pump-Oil Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation techno...

A. E. Buggele

1975-01-01

118

Distillation (1980-1990): A bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Distillation is one of the fundamental unit operations of chemical engineering. Over the past 50 years a significant proportion of the published literature has been concerned with distillation fundamentals and applications. This article is a bibliography of 451 published papers on selected distillation topics for the period 1980-1990. The topics covered are: theory and principles; calculations and design methods; efficiency; column design data; and control and instrumentation.

Ray, M.S. (Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia))

1992-01-01

119

Studies on dynamics and control of distillation columns.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Distillation is an important unit operation in which a given feed is separated into two or more products of different compositions. The separation requires input of relatively large amounts of energy. Improved composition control of distillation columns m...

E. W. Jacobsen

1991-01-01

120

Distillation pressure control troubleshootingThe hidden pittfalls of overdesign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating pressure of a distillation column is one of the main handles with which to control and optimise separation as it affects most other parameters as well as the overall stability of the column. It is therefore one of the most important parameters to control.Controlling a distillation column, designed to be operated under a vacuum, at the intended operating

Jacques van der Merwe

2011-01-01

121

Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process. Flashing of SRC-II Slurry in the Vacuum Column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim Report, February-June 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No...

J. A. Gray S. T. Mathias

1980-01-01

122

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use

J. A. Gray; S. T. Mathias

1980-01-01

123

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

124

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has

K. Kapoor; C. Padmaprabu; D. Nandi

2008-01-01

125

Solar distillation of sea water  

SciTech Connect

Indian coastal and fishing villages suffer from scarcity of potable water. Solar distillation could provide a solution to this problem by adopting the following criteria: (1) Integration of distillation and storage systems with the house design. (2) Public supply of sea water and a public drain pipe system to periodically drain away the concentrated brine. (3) Harvest and store rain water to tide over cloudy rainy periods. In India there has been a thrust towards centralized non-conventional energy systems. Decentralized non-conventional energy devices and centralized service support units may offer a better solution. 1 fig.

Subramanyam, S. (Kakatiya Institute of Technology and Science, Warangal (India))

1989-01-01

126

Hybrid nonlocality distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter, we introduce the notion of hybrid nonlocality distillation, in which different nonlocal boxes are exploited for nonlocality distillation. Here, we quantify the nonlocality using the violation degree of either the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality or the I3322 inequality. Our study shows that hybrid nonlocality distillation can outperform nonlocality distillation using copies of single nonlocal boxes. In particular, more nonlocality of undistillable boxes can be activated with the assistance of distillable boxes. Equivalently, distillable boxes can achieve more nonlocality with the assistance of undistillable boxes.

Wu, Keng-Shuo; Hsu, Li-Yi

2013-08-01

127

Maximize distillate liquid products  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the growing use of heavy crude is making delayed coking more important for increased liquid yields. More cokers are being designed to operate in low pressure and ultra low recycle. The type of projects executed include: traditional revamps for heavy feeds, maximum liquid yield greenfield cokers, true zero recycle-single pass cokers (as opposed to an ultra low recycle coker) and units designed for flexibility in product yield distribution. Although delayed coking has been around since the mid-30-s, the current engineering innovations in design and operation of these units by Foster Wheeler focus on the following: increased fuel coke production, paying greater attention to crude desalting operations, reviewing the impacts of vacuum unit outpoint and preprocessing of feeds, operations involving longer heater run lengths, shorter operating cycles and increased automation, safety and environmental concerns.

Elliott, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Perryville, NJ (US))

1992-01-01

128

Extractive Distillation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation is more and more commonly applied in industry, and becomes an important separation method in chemical engineering. This paper provides an in?depth review for extractive distillation. Separation sequence of the columns, combination with other separation processes, tray configuration and operation policy are included in process of extractive distillation. Since the solvent plays an important role in the design

Zhigang Lei; Chengyue Li; Biaohua Chen

2003-01-01

129

Preparation of high pure zinc for electronic applications using selective evaporation under vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

m6N pure (99.9999%) zinc (Zn) was obtained through multiple vacuum distillations using 99.9% (m3N) pure Zn as input material at 2 kg batch-size. The soaking (distillation) temperature and the time of distillation at a dynamic vacuum level of 2.1 ? 10-3 Torr were optimized to achieve the desired purity, distillation rate and yield. The detailed analysis of input as well

S. T. Ali; K. Srinivas Rao; C. Laxman; N. R. Munirathnam; T. L. Prakash

130

Solventless (Extruded) Powder (N-5) General. Cost Improvement for Inhibiting Process of Mark 43 Grain. Reclamation of Run-off Elba Solvent by Distillation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Used ELBA solvent (Ethyl Lactate/Butyl Acetate) contaminated with components of N-5 propellant and water, was reclaimed by vacuum and ambient pressure distillation. Nitroglycerin (NG), water, and butyl acetate contents of the distillates are reported. Wat...

K. D. Cowan J. A. Rasmussen

1969-01-01

131

Vacuum desalination for water purification using waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum desalination is a process by which water is vaporized at a lower temperature when subjected to vacuum pressure. The heat energy requirement for desalination using a distillation process can be brought down by reducing the boiling temperature. The boiling temperature of seawater can be lowered to as low as 400C by the creation of a vacuum. Using waste heat

J. H. Tay; S. C. Low; S. Jeyaseelan

1996-01-01

132

Enzymatic methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methylation of canola oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by a nonspecific lipase was investigated. The conversion of fatty\\u000a acids to methyl esters has been optimized by using a statistical design. Up to 96.5% conversion of fatty acids to their methyl\\u000a esters has been achieved without the aid of vacuum or any water-removing agent. The effects of temperature, ratio of the reactants

Suresh Ramamurthi; Prakash R. Bhirud; Alan R. McCurdy

1991-01-01

133

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15

134

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

2010-11-01

135

Distillation plus membrane processing of gas streams  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for separating components of a feed gas stream comprising carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, methane, and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons to form a carbon dioxide-rich stream and a methane-rich stream. It comprises: passing the feed gas stream to a first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first overhead stream from the first fractional distillation column; withdrawing a first bottoms stream from the first fractional distillation column; passing the first overhead stream to a second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second overhead stream wherein the second overhead stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; withdrawing a second bottoms stream wherein the second bottoms stream is withdrawn from the second fractional distillation column; passing the second overhead stream to a membrane separation unit; withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form the methane-rich stream; and withdrawing a residual gas stream from the membrane separation unit to form a recycle stream having a substantially increased concentration of carbon dioxide relative to the concentration of carbon dioxide in the second overhead stream.

Waldo, R.A.; Burkinshaw, J.R.

1990-06-26

136

Distillation pressure control  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus comprising: a fractional distillation column; means for providing a feed mixture to be fractionated to the column; means for withdrawing an overhead vapor stream from the column; means for condensing at least a portion of the overhead vapor stream; an accumulator; means for passing the resulting at least partially condensed overhead stream into the accumulator; means for withdrawing condensate from the accumulator and for passing a first portion of the thus withdrawn condensate into an upper portion of the column as an external reflux therefore and for passing a second portion of the thus withdrawn condensate as an overhead liquid product stream; means for withdrawing a first vapor stream from the accumulator and for passing a first portion of the thus withdrawn vapor through a first control valve to a vapor recovery unit and for passing a second portion of the thus withdrawn vapor stream through a second control valve to a waste gas disposal unit; means for providing a second vapor stream from an external source to the column through a third control valve wherein the second vapor stream is compatible with the first vapor stream.

Hofferber, J.A.

1988-09-06

137

Distillation for alcohol  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because

T. Kawase; K. Sawai

1983-01-01

138

Convolutional entanglement distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory of entanglement distillation that exploits a convolutional coding structure. We provide a method for converting an arbitrary classical binary or quaternary convolutional code into a convolutional entanglement distillation protocol. The yield and error-correcting properties of such a protocol depend respectively on the rate and error-correcting properties of the imported classical convolutional code. In a convolutional entanglement

Mark M. Wilde; Hari Krovi; Todd A. Brun

2010-01-01

139

Non-distillable entanglement guarantees distillable entanglement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monogamy of entanglement is one of the basic quantum mechanical features, which says that when two partners Alice and Bob are more entangled then either of them has to be less entangled with the third party. Here we qualitatively present the converse monogamy of entanglement: given a tripartite pure system and when Alice and Bob are entangled and non-distillable,

Lin Chen; Masahito Hayashi

2011-01-01

140

Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

141

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

142

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on process development Unit P-99: supplementary experiments while processing Ireland Mine Coal. Interim report, September-December 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of twelve tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during SRC-II processing of an 11% ash Ireland Mine Coal are discussed. The objective of this work was to obtain vacuum flash separation data at well-defined flash zone pressures on slurry produced from Ireland Mine coal in order to supplement 12 earlier experiments on

Gray

1981-01-01

143

Distillation and absorption  

SciTech Connect

Two volumes, focusing on dynamics and control, packing, absorption and other mass transfer processes, synthesis and simulation, trays, and vapor liquid equilibria. These volumes are reference sources for distillation and absorption, equipment manufacture, and pharmaceuticals.

Haselden, G.G.

1988-01-01

144

Datalogging the Distillation Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a distillation experiment that uses temperature sensors connected to a computer in place of thermometers, and enables the whole class to view the data on a monitor and interpret and discuss the data in real time. (JRH)|

Soares, Allan; Creevy, Steven

1995-01-01

145

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

SciTech Connect

The most widely used separation technique in the petroleum industry and other liquid fuel production processes as well as in much of the chemical industry is distillation. To design and operate an appropriate commercial and laboratory distillation unit requires a knowledge of the boiling point distribution of the materials to be separated. In recognition of these needs, the ASTM developed the distillation procedures of D86, D216, D447, D850, and D1078. They are widely used in laboratories for the purposes of sample characterization, product and quality control, and distillation column design. However, the significant drawbacks of these ASTM methods include (1) close monitoring of the distillation is required. This is particularly difficult for those samples which are very toxic and/or cause any other safety problems; (2) the sample under test must be transparent and free of separated water; and (3) results obtained by these methods are not particularly precise. This motivated the development of a novel automatic distillation system based on the use of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

146

Experimental study of desalination using direct contact membrane distillation: a new approach to flux enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

New membrane distillation configurations and a new membrane module were investigated to improve water desalination. The performances of three hydrophobic microporous membranes were evaluated under vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) with a turbulent flow regime and with a feed water temperature of only 40C. The new configurations provide reduced temperature polarization effects due to better mixing and increased

Tzahi Y. Cath; V. Dean Adams; Amy E. Childress

2004-01-01

147

Delayed birth of distillable entanglement in the evolution of bound entangled states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical creation of entanglement between three-level atoms coupled to the common vacuum is investigated. For the class of bound entangled initial states, we show that the dynamics of closely separated atoms generates stationary distillable entanglement of asymptotic states. We also find that the effect of delayed sudden birth of distillable entanglement occurs in the case of atoms separated by

Lech Jakobczyk; Lukasz Derkacz

2010-01-01

148

Convolutional Entanglement Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory of entanglement distillation that exploits a convolutional coding structure. We provide a method for converting an arbitrary classical binary or quaternary convolutional code into a convolutional entanglement distillation protocol. The imported classical convolutional code does not have to be dual-containing or self-orthogonal. The yield and error-correcting properties of such a protocol depend respectively on the rate

Mark M. Wilde; Hari Krovi; Todd A. Brun

2007-01-01

149

Modelling reactive distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation issues for reactive distillation systems are considerably more complex than those involved for either conventional reactors or conventional distillation columns. The introduction of an in situ separation function within the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vaporliquid equilibrium, vaporliquid mass transfer, intra-catalyst diffusion (for heterogeneously catalysed processes) and chemical kinetics. Such interactions have been shown

R. Taylor; R. Krishna

2000-01-01

150

High-Purity Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation is one of the most common separation techniques in chemical manufacturing. This multi-input, multi-output staged separation process is strongly interactive, as determined by the singular value decomposition of a linear dynamic model of the system. Process dynamics associated with the low-gain direction are critical to the design of high-performance controllers for high-purity distillation but are difficult to estimate from

DANIEL E. RIVERA; Hyunjin Lee; HANS D. MITTELMANN; MARTIN W. BRAUN

2007-01-01

151

Crude Oil Steam Distillation in Steam Flooding. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields i...

C. H. Wu R. B. Elder

1980-01-01

152

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable

John L. Woodward; Michael D. Moosemiller; Robert Chopp

1996-01-01

153

CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY WATER BY DISTILLATION AND ELECTROLYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy water is extracted from natural water at the Savannah River Plant ; using a combination of three processes; (1) Dual temperature exchange between ; hydrogen sulfide and water. The product from this step contains about 15% D\\/sub ; 2\\/0. (2) Vacuum distillation, which carries the conccntration to about 90% D\\/sub ; 2\\/0. (3) Electrolysis, which takes the concentration to

W. P. Bebbington; V. R. Thayer

1958-01-01

154

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01

155

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2009-07-01

156

40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721...Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation...

2010-07-01

157

VACUUM TRAP  

DOEpatents

An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

Gordon, H.S.

1959-09-15

158

Anaesthetic effects of Adenia gummifera distillates on Apis mellifera (Honeybee).  

PubMed

The anaesthetic activities of steam distillates of Adenia gummifera stem on Apis mellifera were evaluated by a diffusion method. Live, direct and fractional (61-80 degrees C fraction) distillates had greater anaesthetic effect while vacuum distillates were mild. The anaesthetic activity significantly increased with concentration up to 6% (v/v), and then it levelled off, while excessive exposure was lethal. The number of bees in a given volume had no significant effect on anaesthetic activity but container volume (F(cal) = 66.4; F(3,8) = 4.07) and bee-distillate distance (F(cal) = 31.0; F(2,6) = 5.14) did, suggesting the rate of diffusion of active component could be the determining factor. The active component is likely to contain amines and the rest halogenated alkane. PMID:19023797

Ngarivhume, T; Dzomba, P; Gwizangwe, I; Zendera, C H; Katsvanga, C A T; Jimu, L; Moyo, M; Chagonda, T

2008-01-01

159

Cumene by Catalytic Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The novel concept of Catalytic Distillation has been commercialized in the CRandL MTBE process, in which combined reaction and distillation provide energy savings over conventional processes. This concept has now been extended to production of cumene from benzene and propylene. In this case the advantages of the technique are not only energy savings but significant reductions in by-product losses and capital requirements. In this paper the development of the process is discussed and the economics of commercial operation are presented.

Jones, E.M.; Mawer, J.

1986-01-01

160

Efficient distillation beyond qubits  

SciTech Connect

We provide generalizations of known two-qubit entanglement distillation protocols for arbitrary Hilbert space dimensions. The protocols, which are analogs of the hashing and breeding procedures, are adapted to bipartite quantum states that are diagonal in a basis of maximally entangled states. We show that the obtained rates are optimal, and thus equal to the distillable entanglement, for a (d-1)-parameter family of rank deficient states. Methods to improve the rates for other states are discussed. In particular, for isotropic states it is shown that the rate can be improved such that it approaches the relative entropy of entanglement in the limit of large dimensions.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Wolf, Michael M. [Institute for Mathematical Physics, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

2003-01-01

161

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R/sub a/ZSiO/sub (3-a)/2/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon atoms, provided that one R may be a hydroxyl group when a has the value 2, Z represents a quaternary ammonum group having the formula R'N/sup +/(R/sup 2/)/sub 3/X/sup -/ linked to the silicon atom of the siloxane unit, in which R' represents a divalent hydrocarbon group linking the silicon and nitrogen atoms, each R/sup 2/ represents an alkyl group having up to 20 carbon atoms and X/sup -/ represents a halogen ion, the distillate fuel containing up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water dispersed therein. The patent also describes a mixture consisting essentially of a distillate fuel and up to about 0.1 percent by weight of water based on the weight of the distillate fuel; with a de-hazing amount of an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit.

Easton, T.; Thomas, B.

1989-04-04

162

Steam savings of 33% provided by vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbott Laboratories needed a vacuum system for a batch distillation process used in the manufacture of an anticonvulsant known as Depakene. The system was to handle 10 lb\\/hr of air at a suction pressure of 2 torr. A vacuum system that was reliable and also one that used a minimum amount of energy was required. Another requirement was a low-level

Aslam

1979-01-01

163

Membrane distillation for water desalination: How to chose an appropriate membrane?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) using hollow-fibre modules for seawater desalination. VMD is an evaporative process using porous and hydrophobic membranes, which physically separate the aqueous liquid feed from the gaseous permeate kept under vacuum. In the case of a salty water, the water passes through the membrane as a vapour without salt and is then condensed

Corinne Cabassud; David Wirth

2003-01-01

164

All-metal sealing elements for high-vacuum components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of high-vacuum technology in many areas of science and engineering requires vacuum equipment to be simpler in service and to take less expense for manufacture. A sealing element of a new design for high-vacuum equipment and brief results of tests of specimens of vacuum valves are presented in this article. A vacuum valve consists of a sealing unit in

N. G. Gavrilov; L. A. Mironenko

2000-01-01

165

Distillation under electric fields  

SciTech Connect

Distillation Is the most common separation process used in the chemical and petroleum industry. Major limitations in the applicability and efficiency of distillation come from thermodynamic equilibria, that is, vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), and heat and mass transfer rates. In this work, electric fields are used to manipulate the VLE of mixtures. VLE experiments are performed for various binary mixtures in the presence of electric fields on the order of a few kilovolts per centimeter. The results show that the VLE is changed by electric fields, with changes in the separation factor as high as 10% being observed. Batch distillation experiments are also carried out for binary mixtures of 2-propanol and water with and without an applied electric field. Results show enhanced distillation rates and separation efficiency in the presence of an electric field but decreased separation enhancement when the electric current is increased. The latter phenomenon is caused by the formation at the surface of the liquid mixture of microdroplets that are entrained by the vapor. These observations suggest that there should be an electric field strength for each system for which the separation enhancement is maximum.

Shah, V.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Blankenship, K.D.; Tsouris, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-11-01

166

Tritium Attenuation by Distillation  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

Wittman, N.E.

2001-07-31

167

Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

168

Solar distillation in Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar stills are found to be a more economical means of providing fresh water than flash distillation, reverse osmosis or vapor compression when daily requirements amount to less than 100 cu m. The basin-type solar still design examined in this paper involves simple construction and inexpensive materials. More efficient than the simple solar still is the multiple-effect still, which relies

P. J. Catania; P. C. Lobo

1979-01-01

169

Methanol Distillation Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michigan BioDiesel, LLC of Bangor, Michigan has called for an analysis of their methanol distillation process. The goal of this project was to determine the current operating parameters of the column and suggest improvements to the operation of the column in order to maximize the amount of methanol recovered as product and minimize the amount of waste. It was also

Kristen L. Bellmer; Scott Sherrod

2011-01-01

170

Complex binary distillation  

SciTech Connect

This procedure extends the McCabe-Thiele diagram to columns having multiple feeds, one or more side-products, one or more points of heat removal or addition, and any combination of these. Although derived for binary systems, the procedure can be adapted for multicomponent distillation.

Kister, H.Z.

1985-01-21

171

Continuous-variable-entanglement distillation with photon addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon subtraction (PS), due to its feasibility in physical implementation, has been widely utilized in Gaussian entanglement distillation. However, in this paper, we will show that photon addition (PA) can be employed to provide an additional enhancement in both the quality of distilled entanglement and the success probability if the input state is a weak two-mode squeezed vacuum state. Moreover, compared with biside PS, the distillation probability gains a O((1)/(?2)) improvement, which increases rapidly when ??1. Our PA-based scheme is obtained first by single-photon injection and later by vacuum state projection. The performance of PA in the presence of both an approximated single photon and amplitude-damping noise has been analyzed. Our result sheds more light on the indispensable non-Gaussian ingredients in Gaussian-state distillation and could be of great use in developing more efficient distillation schemes. Finally, the sensitivity of the PA scheme to inefficient photon detection has also been investigated.

Zhang, ShengLi; Dong, YuLi; Zou, XuBo; Shi, BaoSen; Guo, GuangCan

2013-09-01

172

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01

173

Free Boundary Problems in Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes

Frederick Karl Wohlhuter

1992-01-01

174

Recycling of acetone by distillation  

SciTech Connect

The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone.

Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

1992-09-01

175

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the goal of this project to develop and demonstrate a one (1) gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. The unit constructed was originally built for strictly ambient temperature operation, but later modified to permit elevated temperature operation. It has successfully separated

1981-01-01

176

Vacuum requirements for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

In this note the lifetime due to inelastic scattering of beam and residual gas ions is calculated in units of pressure (Torr). In addition, the transverse emittance growth due to elastic scattering is expressed in units of pressure. The definition of inelastic scattering includes both capture of an electron from a residual gas ion and central nuclear collisions between beam ion and gas atom. Emittance growth via elastic scattering is a simple consequence of multiple Coulomb scattering. Is is important to note that in an accelerator only the density of residual gas atoms is relevant to the machine operation. The measure of this density is the vacuum gauge, where this gauge is calibrated in pressure units at some known temperature T{sub G}. The vacuum unit or pressure is of course temperature dependent, and thus when quoting vacuum requirements for RHIC it is vital to state the temperature at which the pressure is computed. It might be necessary to scale any computed gas density to the pressure appropriate for the measurement with the vacuum gauge. Typically, the vacuum gauge operates at room temperature {approximately}300{degree}K. An explanation on how to rescale pressure as a function of temperature is given in the text. This note assumes the residual gas density in the so-called warm section (300{degree}K) of RHIC to be composed of 90% H{sub 2}, 5% CH{sub 4} and 5% CO. The gas in the cold section (5{degree}K) is assumed to be 100% He. The beam ions are taken to be {sup 197}Au{sup 79+}.

Rhoades-Brown, M.J.; Harrison, M.

1991-12-01

177

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01

178

A new procedure for the determination of distillation temperature distribution of high-boiling petroleum products and fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of distillation temperatures of liquid and semi-fluid products, including petroleum fractions and products,\\u000a is an important process and practical parameter. It provides information on properties of crude oil and content of particular\\u000a fractions, classified on the basis of their boiling points, as well as the optimum conditions of atmospheric or vacuum distillation.\\u000a At present, the distribution of distillation

Grzegorz Boczkaj; Andrzej Przyjazny; Marian Kami?ski

2011-01-01

179

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

180

Removal of water haze from distillate fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for de-hazing distillate fuel which comprises adding to the fuel an organosiloxane having at least one quaternary ammonium substituted siloxane unit having the general formula R\\/sub a\\/ZSiO\\/sub (3-a)\\/2\\/ in which a has the value 1 or 2, each R is selected from the group consisting of substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon groups having up to 10 carbon

T. Easton; B. Thomas

1989-01-01

181

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

SciTech Connect

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16

182

Dynamic and Steady State Behaviour of an Extractive Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project was the second part of a long-term study into the control of an extractive distillation unit. A fifteen stage extractive distillation column was re-built and operated over a range of operating levels. Overhead product acetone composition was limited to approximately 0.94 mole fraction acetone due to tray liquid priming. A steady state simulation was developed to aid in

Dwayne L. ONeill

1975-01-01

183

Grey Correlation Analysis of Corrosion on Oil Atmospheric Distillation Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion exacerbated on atmospheric distillation unit when Shengli plant refined high-sulfur and high-acid crude oil imported from Middle-east. Measured the corrosion pate on the top of atmospheric distillation tower with electric resistance probe and monitored sulfur value, salt value, salt value after desalt, acid value in crude oil and iron ion in product container every month. Carried on grey correlation

Zhengfang Wang; Yong Wang; Jan Zhang; Dawei Qu; Xiuhua Liu

2008-01-01

184

Primary and Secondary Distillates as Marine Fuel Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The component compositions of marine fuel oils satisfying the requirements of TU 38.401-58-302-2001 (ISO 8217) with maximum inclusion of gasoils from destructive refining of crude oil were developed. Light gasoils replace standard diesel fuel in marine fuel oil. The demulsifiability of light and heavy catalytic and coker gasoils and vacuum distillates I and II was evaluated. Its dependence on not

T. N. Mitusova; I. A. Pugach; N. P. Averina; M. V. Bobkova; E. E. Safonova

2005-01-01

185

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum\\/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to

M. A. Vest; E. F. Lewandowski; R. D. Pierce; J. L. Smith

1997-01-01

186

Synthesizing alternative sequences via a P-graph-based approach in azeotropic distillation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work proposes a P-graph based approach capable of systematically generating all combinatorially feasible alternative sequences for both continuous and batch azeotropic distillation systems when the feeds, products, and operating units and their concomitant intermediate materials are known. To facilitate synthesis, a highly effective method has been established to identify processing or operating units necessary for constructing azeotropic-distillation systems

Gangyi Feng; L. T. Fan; F. Friedler

2000-01-01

187

Qutrit magic state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays an important role in fault-tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of an MSD protocol generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. MSD was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher-dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the five-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distils non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state-injected implementation of a non-Clifford phase gate, enabling non-Clifford unitary computation.

Anwar, Hussain; Campbell, Earl T.; Browne, Dan E.

2012-06-01

188

Vacuum Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let me say from the beginning that it was a pleasure to peruse this book and I recommend it to researchers and engineers from the field of Cryogenics, both as an introduction and for use in day-to-day work.There are many areas in pure science in which vacuum conditions are required for conducting an experiment, such as solid state physics at

L N Rozanov

2002-01-01

189

27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled...brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not...

2013-04-01

190

Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container.

Danielle R. D. Campanizzi; Brenda Mason; Christine K. F. Hermann

1999-01-01

191

27 CFR 24.216 - Distilling material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...material, using any quantity of water desired to facilitate fermentation or distillation. No sugar may be added in the production...material. Distillates containing aldehydes may be used in the fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material. Lees,...

2013-04-01

192

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It is the goal of this project to develop and demonstrate a one (1) gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. The unit constructed was originally built for strictly ambient temperature operation, but later modified to permit elevated temperature operation. It has successfully separated ethanol from a dilute solution, but only at a very low production rate. The initial configuration had the compressor located outside of the distillation vessel and was losing excessive energy to the environment. Also, therefore, it would not have been possible to operate that design at elevated temperature. Thus, during the period covered, the compressor was moved inside the distillation vessel.

Ellis, G.

1981-01-01

193

Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems  

SciTech Connect

Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.

Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States))

1995-03-01

194

Evaluation of vapor mass transfer in various membrane distillation configurations: an experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vapor mass transfer phenomena in four different membrane distillation (MD) configurations were examined through a self-built laboratory scale experimental apparatus: Air Gap MD, Sweeping Gas MD, Vacuum Sweeping Gas MD and Vacuum MD. Vapor fluxes were measured and compared with those predicted by various models, showing that MD performance under usual processing conditions is severely controlled by the permeate side resistance to mass transfer.

Mannella, G. A.; La Carrubba, V.; Brucato, V.

2012-06-01

195

Distillation. Third World Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;

Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

196

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Approximately 5% (1 in 20) of all deliveries in the United States are operative vaginal deliveries. The past 20 years have seen a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favor of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice. This article reviews in detail the indications, contraindications, patient selection criteria, choice of instrument, and technique for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. The use of vacuum extraction at the time of cesarean delivery will also be discussed. With vacuum extraction becoming increasingly popular, it is important that obstetric care providers are aware of the maternal and neonatal risks associated with such deliveries and of the options available to effect a safe and expedient delivery.

Ali, Unzila A; Norwitz, Errol R

2009-01-01

197

Low energy distillation systems  

SciTech Connect

Much work, aimed at improvements in the manufacture and recovery of ethyl alcohol, is currently being conducted in connection with the production of substitute liquid fuels; e.g., gasohol. A primary consideration all schemes for producing substitute liquid fuels lies in the energy consumed to produce the fuels. By energy re-use, pressure cascading and waste heat recovery, the expenditure of energy in distillation (alcohol recovery) can be greatly reduced. Such energy savings have been industrially demonstrated in three systems described in this paper. For high grade industrial ethanol production, a steam consumption of 3.0 to 4.2 Kg/liter (25 to 35 lb/US gallon) of 100/sup 0/ G.L. alcohol is realized. For motor fuel grade anhydrous alcohol, the steam consumption is 1.8 to 2.5 Kg/liter (15 to 20 lb/US gallon) of 99.5/sup 0/ G.L. alcohol, and for hydrous motor fuel grade alcohol, the steam consumption is 1.2 to 1.4 Kg/liter (10 to 12 lb/US gallon) of 96/sup 0/ G.L. alcohol.

Katzen, R.; Ackley, W.R.; Moon, G.D. Jr.; Meesick, J.R.; Brush, B.F.; Kaupisch, K.F.

1980-01-01

198

Oil spill cleanup using vacuum technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum technique is established for oil spill cleanup. It consists of environmental tank, oil-collecting unit, vacuum system, and air distributors. The vacuum technique is found very effective under all possible operating conditions. Several operating parameters are investigated such as hole arrangement (vertical and horizontal slots), air distributors location (one-side and two-sides strategies), air volumetric flow rate over the range

Mazmdouh T Ghannam; Omar Chaalal

2003-01-01

199

A comparative study on the performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using distilled tyre pyrolysis oildiesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate fuels like ethanol, biodiesel, LPG, CNG, etc., have been already commercialised in the transport sector. In this context, pyrolysis of solid waste is currently receiving renewed interest. The disposal of waste tyres can be simplified to a certain extent by pyrolysis. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolyisis oil (TPO) was desulphurised and then distilled through vacuum distillation.

S. Murugan; M. C. Ramaswamy; G. Nagarajan

2008-01-01

200

Eliminating foaming in hydrocarbon distillations  

SciTech Connect

A method for eliminating foam in hydrocarbon distillation systems where the foaming is caused by an ionic surface-active substance is involved. Foam is eliminated by the addition of an effective amount of a surfactant electrolytically opposite to the surface-active material already in the system. The surfactant added and the surface-active substance already in the system complex to form a non-foaming combination, allowing distillation to proceed without foaming.

Veatch, F.C.; Orrell, D.D.

1984-09-25

201

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

DOEpatents

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03

202

On the evolution of morphology of zirconium sponge during reduction and distillation  

SciTech Connect

High purity zirconium metal is produced by magnesio-thermic reduction of zirconium tetrachloride followed by vacuum distillation. The reduction process is carried out in a batch giving metal sponge and magnesium chloride in the reduced mass. The sponge is purified to using by vacuum distillation. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction and its influence on further processing has significant importance. In the present study, a detailed investigation involving evolution of the morphology of sponge particles and its implication during the vacuum distillation was carried out. The study of the microstructure was done using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the nascent sponge formed is highly unstable which transforms to a needle-like morphology almost immediately, which further transforms to rounded and finally to a bulk shape. Faceting of the surface and needle-shape formation were observed in these particles, this is probably due to anisotropy in the surface energy. The morphology of the sponge formed during the reduction influences the distillation process. The fine needle-like shape sponge morphology leads to particle ejection, which is explained to be due to curvature effect. This is responsible for the formation of unwanted mass during distillation. XRD line broadening analysis indicates that the individual sponge particles are free from structural defects (dislocation) and are nearly single crystalline in nature.

Kapoor, K. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)], E-mail: kapoork@nfc.ernet.in; Padmaprabu, C.; Nandi, D. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad, 500 062 (India)

2008-03-15

203

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting

Boyd T. Safrit; Arthur W. Westerberg

1997-01-01

204

Distillation control: For productivity and energy conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of new types of distillation control equipment has necessitated the publication of this second edition. Thermodynamic principles, flow ratios, composition control, and azeotropic distillation are among the topics covered. It includes bibliographies, computer programs suitable for distillation calculations, and a subject index. Contents Distillation fundamentals. Control system structure. Complex processes. Optimization. Appendices. Index.

Skinskey

1984-01-01

205

Azeotropic Distillation: A Review of Mathematical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azeotropic distillation as an early and important special distillation process is commonly used in laboratory and industry. It can be used for separating the mixture with close boiling point or forming azeotrope. This paper tries to provide a review on azeotropic distillation for general readers, focusing on entrainer selection and mathematical models. Since the 1950s, along with extractive distillation, azeotropic

Jianwei Li; Zhigang Lei; Zhongwei Ding; Chengyue Li; Biaohua Chen

2005-01-01

206

Optimal Distillation Sequencing Using a Genetic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal distillation sequencing is a method for obtaining the best structure of multicomponent separation processes. Due to the significant contribution of the distillation sequences to the capital and operating costs for the whole chemical process, the development of a systematic framework that will select the optimal distillation sequences becomes an important research issue. Since distillation sequencing is a combinatorial problem,

P. Piumsomboon

2001-01-01

207

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for polarized HD targets in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H2 (?0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1-5% impurities of H2 and D2 in commercially available HD gases, it is necessary to purify the HD gas up to ?99.99%. The distillation system is equipped with a cryogenic distillation unit filled with many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. The distillation unit consists of a condenser part, a rectification part, and a reboiler part. The unit is kept at the temperature of 17-21 K. The Heli-pack has a large surface area that makes a good contact between gases and liquids. An amount of 5.2 mol of commercial HD gas is fed into the distillation unit. Three trials were carried out to purify the HD gas by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. One mol of HD gas with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained for the first time. The effective NTP (Number of Theoretical Plates), which is an indication of the distillation performances, is obtained to be 37.20.6. This value is in good agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by adding an optimal amount of ortho-H2 to the purified HD gas.

Ohta, T.; Bouchigny, S.; Didelez, J.-P.; Fujiwara, M.; Fukuda, K.; Kohri, H.; Kunimatsu, T.; Morisaki, C.; Ono, S.; Rouill, G.; Tanaka, M.; Ueda, K.; Uraki, M.; Utsuro, M.; Wang, S. Y.; Yosoi, M.

2012-02-01

208

Solar pond-driven distillation and power production system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A solar pond driven distillation and power production system is described. The storage layer of the solar pond serves as the holding tank for the concentrated brine effluent from the distillation process as well as the collector and storage medium for solar energy used to heat incoming salty river water. Steam from the distillation process expands through a turbine/generator combination to provide power for the water circulation and vacuum pumps of the system. Water from the surface mixed layer of the pond is used to condense the steam. The closely integrated distillation and power production system converts an incoming stream of brackish or saline water into an outlet stream of the required purity. Salt and power are also products of the system. A thermodynamic analysis of the energy and mass balances of the system was performed and a performance model of the system is developed. This model is used to compute the requirements for desalting several saline tributaries of the Colorado River.

Johnson, D.; Leboeuf, C. M.; Waddington, D.

1981-12-01

209

Distillation of cadmium from uranium plutonium cadmium alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium plutonium alloy was prepared by distillation of cadmium from U Pu Cd ternary alloy. The initial ternary alloy contained 2.9 wt% U and 8.7 wt% Pu other than Cd, which were recovered by molten salt electrolysis with liquid Cd cathode. The distillation experiments were conducted in 10 g scale of the initial alloy using a small-scale distillation furnace equipped with an evaporator and a condenser in a vacuum vessel. After distillation at 1073 K, the weight of the residue was in good agreement with that of the loaded actinides, where the content of Cd decreased to less than 0.05 wt%. The uranium plutonium alloy product was recovered without adhering to the yttria crucible. The cross section of the product was observed using electron probe micro-analyzer and it was found to consist of a dense material. Almost all of the evaporated Cd was recovered in the condenser and so enclosed well in the apparatus.

Kato, Tetsuya; Iizuka, Masatoshi; Inoue, Tadashi; Iwai, Takashi; Arai, Yasuo

2005-04-01

210

Grey Correlation Analysis of Corrosion on the First Oil Atmospheric Distillation Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion is serious on the first atmospheric distillation unit when the plant processes high-acid crude oil from Shengli oil field. Measured the corrosion pate on the top of atmospheric distillation tower with electric resistance probe every two month, monitored sulfur value, salt value, salt value after desalt, acid value in crude oil, iron ion in product container and pH value

Zhengfang Wang; Weiqiang Wang; Hui Qi

2009-01-01

211

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of High Purity Distillation Columns for Cryogenic Air Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

High purity distillation columns are critical unit operations in cryogenic air separation plants that supply purified gases to a number of industries. We have developed a nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) strategy based on the assumption of full-state feedback for a prototypical cryogenic distillation column to allow effective operation over a wide range of plant production rates. The controller design

Zhongzhou Chen; Michael A. Henson; Paul Belanger; Lawrence Megan

2010-01-01

212

Mass spectrometric study of nitrogen bases in distillate cuts from Sakhalin crude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen bases that were studied were recovered from Grade DL diesel fuel, a vacuum gas oil, and a tarcoker distillate, all produced in the refinery from ~khabi (Sakhalin) crude. The bases were obtained by treating the cuts at room temperature with aqueous sulfuric acid solution. The acid extracts were reextracted with petroleum ether to remove neutral compounds and were

N. G. Baranova; N. V. Razumov; E. S. Brodskii

1975-01-01

213

High recovery of concentrated RO brines using forward osmosis and membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum-enhanced direct contact membrane distillation (VEDCMD) and forward osmosis (FO) were investigated for water recovery enhancement in desalination of brackish water. Past studies have demonstrated that both VEDCMD and FO can be effectively utilized in the treatment of a wide range of highly concentrated feed solutions. In the current study, two reverse osmosis (RO) brine streams with total dissolved solids

C. Riziero Martinetti; Amy E. Childress; Tzahi Y. Cath

2009-01-01

214

Use of rerefined oil distillation bottoms as extenders for roading bitumens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum distillation bottoms from the rerefining of waste automotive oils (WODB) can be successfully blended with standard petroleum bitumen to produce a stable binder with acceptable physical properties for roading applications. The increase in viscosity and shear susceptibility after accelerated ageing of thin films at 163C is slightly less for bitumen extended with WODB than for bitumen itself; but at

P. R. Herrington

1992-01-01

215

On the Development of a Distillation Process for the Electrometallurgical Treatment of Irradiated Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at the Idaho National Laboratory, a vacuum distillation process is being employed for the recovery of actinide products following an electrorefining process. Separation of the actinide products from a molten salt electrolyte and cadmium is achieved by a batch operation called cathode processing. A cathode processor has been designed and developed to

B. R. Westphal; K. C. Marsden; J. C. Price; D. V. Laug

2008-01-01

216

Vacuum vessel and pumping system of TEXTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designs of the vacuum vessel and pumping system of the TEXTOR toroidal plasma experiment are presented. The vacuum vessel is an all-metal welded torus consisting of four large and four small rigid sections connected by eight bellows sections, and can be heated up to 400 C. Numerous portholes are provided for diagnostics, as well as pumping units, divertors and

D. A. Butzek; K. Derichs; W. Graf; A. Cosler; K. H. Dippel; M. Schuerer; W. Bieger

1979-01-01

217

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

218

Fractional distillation as a strategy for reducing the genotoxic potential of SRC-II coal liquids: a status report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results of studies on the effects of fractional distillation on the genotoxic potential of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-II) liquids. SRC-II source materials and distilled liquids were provided by Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. Fractional distillations were conducted on products from the P-99 process development unit operating under conditions approximating those anticipated at the SRC-II demonstration facility. Distillation cuts were subjected to chemical fractionation, in vitro bioassay and initial chemical analysis. Findings are discussed as they relate to the temperature at which various distillate cuts were produced. This document is the first of two status reports scheduled for 1981 describing these studies.

Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1981-09-01

219

Saving energy in distillation towers by feed splitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a common procedure to save energy in industrial distillation towers by preheating the feed with heat recovered from the bottom product. It will be demonstrated theoretically, and shown by simulation means, that if, before entering the unit, the feed is split into two streams, and only one of them is preheated, further savings of energy (up to 50%)

Giorgio Soave; Josep A. Feliu

2002-01-01

220

Antioxidant activity of phytochemicals from dried distillers grain oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A distillate was obtained by molecular distillation of oil extracted from distillers dried grains (DDG). The dried distillers grains distillate (DDGD) contained phytosterols, steryl ferulates, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids. DDGD was tested for its impact on the oxidative stability in...

221

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

SciTech Connect

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15

222

Digital distillation the easy way  

SciTech Connect

Designing distillation columns may well be the most common problem for chemical engineers. For decades, engineering students have grunted through the iterations of McCabe-Thiele diagrams; working engineers regularly cast a critical eye at column efficiencies and maintenance requirements in their plants. The design and optimization of distillation columns is a problem that has been adapted smoothly to computerization, especially on personal computers. The extensive need for accurate equilibrium and thermodynamics data is tailormade for digital storage. The iterative nature of the design process is also a common element of programming algorithms. Most of the programs on the market feature at least three components: a library of commercially available databases of fluid properties; a distillation or separations engine, using one or several design methods; and algorithms for generating physical-property data synthetically. This paper describes many of the programs on the market for this purpose.

Basta, N.

1995-10-01

223

The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-10

224

Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 461, 207 (2005)], in the special case of an independent and identically distributed resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called ``hashing bound,'' which, in turn, provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

Buscemi, Francesco; Datta, Nilanjana

2010-10-01

225

Australia: Grain and Feed. Dried Distillers Grain, 2008. GAIN Report No. AS8060.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Australia recently successfully imported and processed a trial shipment of Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles (DDGS) from the United States. The trial proved that US DDGSS can be successfully imported under strict Australian Quarantine guidelines and c...

M. Darby

2008-01-01

226

Pilot-Scale for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation-Based Desalination Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A small pilot plant for direct contact membrane distillation- (DCMD) based desalination was built and operated successfully on a daily basis at United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut, for 3 months. The operation employed hot brine...

K. K. Sirkar L. Song

2009-01-01

227

Multivariable control of an energy-integrated distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Distillation columns that have design modifications for the purpose of more efficient-energy utilization are often complex systems which present difficult process control problems. The work discusses the theory and development of several algorithms that offer improved controller responses and operational flexibility. One of the major contributions of this work is the development of methods where the number of manipulated variables exceeds the number of controlled variables. The system is a binary distillation column equipped with an intermediate heat exchanger that partially condenses vapors in the rectifying section of the column. This intermediate condenser allows a portion of the energy expended in the reboiler to be recovered at a useful temperature. The inter-condenser heat duty was examined for use as an extra process control input, used for regulating the distillate and bottoms product compositions, which were the controlled variables. Both conventional energy balance control pairing and material balance pairing were examined in conjunction with the intermediate condenser system. Three different controller algorithms were developed for designing non-square process controllers; a switching MVSISO method, multivariable optimal control, and structural compensation were implemented on a computer simulation of the distillation unit. A second part of the research is the development of accurate low order models for distillation systems. In particular, a reduced order, compartmental modeling approach was investigated for simulation and process control applications. This research identified critical parameters of the compartmental model which affect the accuracy of the resulting low order dynamic model.

Horton, R.R.

1987-01-01

228

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION BY SALT EFFECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation employing a dissolved salt instead of a liquid third component as the separating agent is a promising but relatively neglected technique for achieving azeotropic and other difficult separations. In systems for which a soluble and effective salt can be found, major savings in both capital and energy costs are possible. The technical aspects of such processing are described

WILLIAM F. FURTER

1992-01-01

229

DISTILLERS GRAINS IN POULTRY DIETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anticipation of increased supplies of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the Midwest has rekindled the interest in utilization of this by-product in animal feeds. In the Midwest US, corn is the primary feed stock although other grains can be processed as well. With increasing numbers of chicken layers and a large turkey industry in the Midwest, use of

S. Noll; V. Stangeland; G. Speers; J. Brannon

230

OPPORTUNITIES FOR UTILIZING DISTILLERS GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fuel ethanol industry is currently experiencing unprecedented growth. In conjunction with this expansion, the quantity of distillers grains produced over time has grown in parallel. This industry has continually evolved, and technological innovations and process changes have been implemented tha...

231

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOEpatents

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01

232

Heat recovery in distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A distillation process for recovering concentrated ethanol from an aqueous fermentate comprises fractionation of components of the aqueous fermentate under reduced pressure with vapor recompression and recovery of waste heat in a manner which obviates the need for substantial external sources of heat to operate the fractionation apparatus. The process includes a preliminary enrichment of the fermentate to separate volatile

1982-01-01

233

Membrane distillation: theory and experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical approach is presented that describes membrane distillation processes due to the simultaneous action (in a proactive or in a counteractive way) of temperature and concentration differences through porous hydrophobic membranes. The model developed emphasizes the importance of the boundary layers, shows the existence of a coupling term between the two thermodynamic forces acting on the system, and permits

Paz Godino; Luis Pea; Juan I. Mengual

1996-01-01

234

Hydrodynamics of Distillation Trays: Review and Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the physical modeling of gas-liquid flows has been studied and flow simulations at distillation trays have been performed. In the literature review the flow behavior on the distillation plate, measurement methods and experimental results by...

T. Koiranen

2001-01-01

235

Multiple steady states in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors study multiple steady states in ternary heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. They show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays, one can construct bifurcation diagrams on physical grounds with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. Multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies nonmonotonically along the continuation path of

Nikolaos Bekiaris; George A. Meski; Manfred Morari

1996-01-01

236

Multiple Steady States in Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we study multiple steady states in ternary homogeneous azeotropic distillation. We show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays, multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies non-monotonically along the continuation path of the bifurcation diagram with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. We derive a necessary and sufficient

Nikolaos BekiarisGeorge; George A. Meski; Cristian M. Radu; Manfred Morari

1993-01-01

237

Limit Cycles in Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of significant nonlinearities even in the simplest model, the distillation literature generally takes for granted that distillation columns display relatively simple dynamic behavior. For example, although widely observed in chemical reactors, any instances of periodic oscillations have not yet been associated with models of distillation columns. In this paper we study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the

Moonyong Lee; Cornelius Dorn; George A. Meski; Manfred Morari

1999-01-01

238

New Glassware for Small-Scale Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillation of less than a ml of sample can be accomplished with a jacketed Hickman still. The jacket allows positioning of a coolant such as dry ice\\/acetone at the site of desired condensation. A jacketed distillation head will accommodate samples up to a volume of 3 ml. Distillate is easily removed with a Pasteur pipette. Details of the glassware design

Richard J. Petroski; Hugh J. Bowe

1996-01-01

239

Pilot plant formaldehyde distillation: experiments and modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their industrial importance, only few experimental studies on distillation of aqueous, methanolic formaldehyde solutions are described in the literature. In the present work, for the first time, results from pilot-scale distillation of mixtures of formaldehyde, water, and methanol are presented. The experiments were carried out in a 250mm diameter distillation column equipped with 2m Sulzer BX wire gauze packing.

K. Terelak; S. Trybula; M. Majchrzak; M. Ott; H. Hasse

2005-01-01

240

Chromatographic distillation in petroleum product quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extreme differences in the distillation temperatures of petroleum products are responsible for the existence of several standard methods for determining the distillation curves. In this paper, the feasibility was demonstrated of determining these curves on various petroleum products by chromatographic distillation, using the same procedure and the same apparatus in all cases. Mixtures were separated in a capillary column

G. G. Kholostova; G. S. Shimonaev; M. O. Burova

1988-01-01

241

Feasibility of application of Thayer method to crude oil distillation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of an evaluation of Victor R. Thayer's invention: ''Process and Apparatus for reducing the Energy Required to Separate Liquids by Distillation'', applied to crude oil distillation. In brief, Thayer claims that given a side draw-off pump-around on a distillation column for energy conservation, there would be a significant cost advantage by using on-tray heat exchange rather than external exchange. Preliminary cost estimates were made: external case, $1,091,000 +- 15%; on-tray case, $882,200 +- 20%; both values falling within the estimated uncertainity limits. Therefore, and coupled with much greated annual maintenance costs, a significant cost advantage of the on-tray system was not verified. The primary conclusion of the evaluation was that, in our opinion, the Thayer method will not be used for retrofit of crude oil distillation units, and probably will not be used in the design of new crude units. 12 refs.

Prengle, H.W. Jr.; Althaus, Y.E.

1987-07-31

242

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

2012-07-31

243

Reaction pathways and product yields in mild thermal cracking of vacuum residues: A multi-lump kinetic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild thermal cracking of vacuum residue is used in an oil refinery for bottom of the barrel upgradation in the form of visbreaking. Lab scale studies were conducted in a batch reactor to study the cracking behavior of vacuum residues at mild severity conditions in terms of lumping of distillate fractions. Four residual feedstocks of Indian and Middle East origin,

Jasvinder Singh; M. M. Kumar; Alok K. Saxena; Surendra Kumar

2005-01-01

244

Understand the limitations of air/water testing of distillation equipment  

SciTech Connect

Distillation continues to be a unit operation of major importance--and a dynamic area for technical development. The designs of trays and packings are rapidly evolving, and the application of equipment also is changing. As chemical processes are pushed to become more efficient and lower cost, a general reduction in the traditional values for equipment safety factors are being seen. The net results is that one now has a greater need for a more thorough and fundamental understanding of distillation equipment. One technique to improve the understanding of distillation equipment is air/water testing. Such testing of distillation trays has become very common, and air/water test results for packed columns also are being reported. In this article, the authors will provide some guidance on how to assess the validity of such tests to industrial applications. In addition, they will discuss several possible approaches to test--and develop confidence in--the design of distillation equipment.

Bennett, D.L.; Ludwig, K.A. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

1994-04-01

245

Automobile flywheel energy storage: practical vacuum requirements  

SciTech Connect

For passenger automobiles with 1367 kg curb weight during typical driving conditions in city traffic, fuel efficiency improvements of 50 to 100% (5 to 7 km) can be realized by proper utilization of a flywheel-energy storage unit (0.2 kWh) and a heat engine. A brief introduction is given concerning the pros and cons of flywheels compared to other energy storage options. Discussion is then given regarding a serious concern of composite-flywheel energy storage for vehicles: that of a suitable vacuum environment for the rotating, composite flywheel. To be practical, a vacuum system for such an environment must be reliable, safe and economical (in energy resources and dollars) to manufacture, monitor, maintain and repair. Each embodiment of flywheel energy storage may be sufficiently unique to require a vacuum environment tailored to suit it. A general discussion of the important vacuum parameters and practical vacuum systems is followed by examples of candidate designs.

Frank, D.N.; Milleron, N.

1981-10-23

246

Reactive distillation and kinetic azeotropy  

SciTech Connect

The general pattern of trajectories of equilibrium distillation with nonequilibrium reversible reaction in the liquid phase is discussed. In some cases there is a continuous line of singular points belonging to different ratios of the evaporation rate and the reaction rate. These points are the kinetic azeotropes. When this line has a common intersection point with the hypersurface of chemical equilibrium, then the evaporation ratio approaches zero at the intersection point and the equilibrium reactive azeotrope, described by Barbosa and Doherty, exists there. The continuation of the kinetic azeotropy line after crossing the equilibrium surface is not a set of singular points. The stationary point of reactive distillation can be controlled, along the line of kinetic azeotropy, by the evaporation ratio.

Rev, E. (Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-09-01

247

Experimental distillation of quantum nonlocality.  

PubMed

We report the first experimental demonstration of distillation of quantum nonlocality, confirming the recent theoretical protocol [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)]. Quantum nonlocality is described by a correlation box with binary inputs and outputs, and the nonlocal boxes are realized through appropriate measurements on polarization entangled photon pairs. We demonstrate that nonlocality is amplified by connecting two nonlocal boxes into a composite one through local operations and four-photon measurements. PMID:23952373

Zu, C; Deng, D-L; Hou, P-Y; Chang, X-Y; Wang, F; Duan, L-M

2013-08-02

248

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

249

Vacuum String Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

250

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

251

Control of a fractional distillation process  

SciTech Connect

In a fractional distillation process in which a heating fluid and waste heat stream are utilized to supply heat to a fractional distillation column and in which the heat supplied from the waste heat stream is not controllable, control of the liquid level in the fractional distillation column is accomplished by manipulating the flow rate of the heating fluid so as to maintain a desired liquid level until such time as the flow rate of the heating fluid becomes zero at which time the flow rate of the external reflux to the fractional distillation column is manipulated to maintain a desired liquid level in the fractional distillation column. A switching of control of the liquid level provides a means by which an uncontrollable heat input may be provided to the fractional distillation column without losing control of the liquid level in the fractional distillation column.

Skraba, F.W.; Tuck, L.

1983-03-22

252

Toxicity and toxicokinetics of binary combinations of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.  

PubMed

Petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) act via narcosis and are expected to have additive toxicity. However, previous work has demonstrated less-than-additive toxicity with PHC distillates and earthworms. A study was initiated to investigate this through toxicity and toxicokinetic studies with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Three petroleum distillate fractions, F2 (>C10-C16), F3a (>C16-C23), and F3b (>C23-C34), were used in two binary combinations, F2F3a and F3aF3b. In the toxicity study, clean soil was spiked with equitoxic combinations of the two distillates ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 toxic units. In the toxicokinetic study, a binary combination consisting of one concentration of each distillate was used. On a soil concentration basis, the toxicity of the binary combinations of distillates was less than additive. Accumulation of the individual distillates, however, was generally reduced when a second distillate was present, resulting in lower body burden. This is thought to be due to the presence of a nonaqueous-phase liquid at the soil concentrations used. On a tissue concentration basis, toxicity was closer to additive. The results demonstrate that tissue concentrations are the preferred metric for toxicity for earthworms. They also demonstrate that the Canada-wide soil standards based on individual distillates are likely protective. PMID:23401139

Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

2013-03-29

253

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

SciTech Connect

The encapulation of germanium detectors has been a long sought after goal. We have begun to develop encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented in the paper.

Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Phel, R.H.; Cork, C.P.; Luke, P.N.; Landis, D.A.; Pollard, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States))

1991-08-01

254

27 CFR 19.165 - Unit bonds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Unit bonds. (a) Unit bond covering operations and withdrawals. If a person is otherwise required to file bonds for both operations at...distilled spirits plants, the person may instead submit a single unit bond that provides all of...

2013-04-01

255

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

256

Membrane distillation-crystallization of seawater reverse osmosis brines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at investigating the performance, in terms of water recovery and NaCl crystallization kinetics, of a membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) bench-scale plant operated on brines discharged from a seawater reverse osmosis (RO) unit.Experimental tests carried out on artificial RO concentrates resulted in the production of 21kg\\/m3 of NaCl crystals, exhibiting substantially a ordinary cubic shape with size between 20

Xiaosheng Ji; Efrem Curcio; Sulaiman Al Obaidani; Gianluca Di Profio; Enrica Fontananova; Enrico Drioli

2010-01-01

257

Vacuum pumping system for TPX  

SciTech Connect

The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

St. Onge, K.D.

1995-12-31

258

CONTINUOUSLY MEASURING pH AND CONDUCTIVITY OF DISTILLED WATER IN THE PRIMARY CIRCUIT OF THE CZECHOSLOVAK NUCLEAR REACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experience with the operation of the Czechoslovak experimental reactor ; (VVR-S cooled and moderated by distilled water) made it desirable to extend the ; original measuring equipment by units checking important characteristics of the ; distilled water used for cooling the active zone. The usual procedure of samples ; drawn and analyzed periodically proved unaccommodating and a continuous method ;

Vozenilek

1963-01-01

259

Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes as coker feeds  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum resids from Syrian and Cuban crudes were compared with a resid from Osino crude. Product yields in the coking operation and coke quality indexes were determined. It was established that the Syrian and Cuban vacuum resids may be used as coker feedstocks of high density and carbon residue. High sulfur content characterized the Syrian and Cuban resids with 1.5 to 2 times that of the Osino resid. Coker gases from the resids had high hydrogen sulfide contents and gave 45 to 50% gasoil cuts relative to feed. The cuts had low ash contents which suggested their use in the production of middle-distillate fuels with preliminary hydrotreating.

Stekhun, A.I.; Varfolomeev, D.F.

1988-01-01

260

Gaussification and Entanglement Distillation of Continuous-Variable Systems: A Unifying Picture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distillation of entanglement using only Gaussian operations is an important primitive in quantum communication, quantum repeater architectures, and distributed quantum computing. Existing distillation protocols for continuous degrees of freedom are only known to converge to a Gaussian state when measurements yield precisely the vacuum outcome. In sharp contrast, non-Gaussian states can be deterministically converted into Gaussian states while preserving their second moments, albeit by usually reducing their degree of entanglement. In this workbased on a novel instance of a noncommutative central limit theoremwe introduce a picture general enough to encompass the known protocols leading to Gaussian states, and new classes of protocols including multipartite distillation. This gives the experimental option of balancing the merits of success probability against entanglement produced.

Campbell, Earl T.; Eisert, Jens

2012-01-01

261

Vacuum Fluctuations, Geometric Modular Action and Relativistic Quantum Information Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of some lines of ideas leading to model-independent frameworks of relativistic quantum field theory is given. It\\u000a is followed by a discussion of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem and geometric modular action of Tomita-Takesaki modular objects\\u000a associated with the quantum field vacuum state and certain algebras of observables. The distillability concept, which is significant\\u000a in specifying useful entanglement in quantum

Rainer Verch

2005-01-01

262

Low-temperature distillation processes in single- and dual-purpose plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, intensive research and development have been invested to improve further the advantages of the low-temperature process by increasing the unit's capacities and decreasing the energy consumption. This paper presents the advantages of the low-temperature distillation process, describes practical commercial application for steam driven multi-effect distillation plants in dual-purpose (electricity and water production) applications and the latest

Gustavo Kronenberg; Fredi Lokiec

2001-01-01

263

Water desalination using membrane distillation: comparison between inside\\/out and outside\\/in permeation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for seawater desalination. The aim of the work was to compare two hollow fibre module configurations (inside\\/out and outside\\/in). Experiments were carried out with pure water and with 15 g\\/L up to 300 g\\/L NaCl solutions and for two different material and structure of fibres. Pure water permeability and global heat transfer

David Wirth; Corinne Cabassud

2002-01-01

264

Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of dielectric drops subject to an applied electric field are determined by solving simultaneously the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and the Maxwell equations for field distribution. Both linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops are studied, as are drops that are pendant/sessile on a supporting plate and those that are floating freely between two plates. The range of parameters for which hysteresis in drop deformation can be observed is given for linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops. Properly accounting for the effects of nonlinear polarization brings the theoretical results of this work into accord with previously published experimental results. Detailed examination of the electric fields inside nonlinearly polarizable drops reveals that they are very nonuniform, in contrast to the nearly uniform fields usually found in linearly polarizable drops. The concept of depth averaging the equations of motion for a thin film (relative to the length of the distillation tray) is used to reduce the three-dimensional, free surface flow problem to two dimensions. A one-dimensional model is first used to gain understanding into the behavior of the bulk flow, ignoring any edge effects. A rise in the height profile on the tray, or hydraulic jump, is predicted. The effects of Reynolds number, capillary number (surface tension), tray geometry, and film thickness are all examined. The importance of the downcomers is shown. The two-dimensional model allows examination not only of rectangular trays, but also round trays and trays which are annular arcs, so called "race track" trays. A large zone of recirculation is predicted near the walls of round trays. This is confirmed in published experimental results and in experimental observations reported here. Race track trays did not show recirculation even at large arc angles.

Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

265

Process mechanisms in coking a distillate feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The coking mechanism for distillate feedstocks has been studied in the example of an extract from a coker gas oil.2.In contrast to the coking of residual stocks, the coking of a distillated feedstock that is essentially asphaltene-free, within the limits of the process conditions investigated, brings about a continuous accumulation of asphaltenes in the residue.3.Another difference observed with distillate feedstock

G. D. Golubkova; E. V. Smidovich

1974-01-01

266

?-vacuum and inflationary bispectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the non-Gaussianity originated from the ?-vacuum on the CMB anisotropy. For ?-vacuum, there exist correlation between points in the acausal two patches of de Sitter spactime. Such kind of correlation can lead to large local form non-Gaussianity in ?-vacuum. For the single field slow- roll inflationary scenario, the spacetime is in a quasi-de Sitter phase

Wei Xue

2009-01-01

267

Free fatty acid separation from vegetable oil deodorizer distillate using molecular distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distillates of the vegetable oil deodorization are composed of free fatty acids (FFA), sterols, tocopherols, sterol esters, hydrocarbons and breakdown products of fatty acids, aldehydes, ketones and acylglycerols. The content of free fatty acids in deodorizer distillates varies between 25 and 75%. Due to its high content, free fatty acid separation from deodorizer distillate is an important step to concentrate

P. F. Martins; V. M. Ito; C. B. Batistella; M. R. W. Maciel

2006-01-01

268

The Distillate Bottoms Control of Distillation Columns: Modeling, Tuning and Robustness Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DB (distillate-bottoms) structure was proposed by Luyben and coworkers on the basis of operators experience for the dual composition control of a distillation column. The DB structure, in regards to a relatively low volatibility and high purity column, has been indicated by the results to possess a better disturbance rejection capability over the conventional DV (distillate-vapor boilup) structure. The

DER-MING CHANG; CHENG-CHING Yu

269

Synthesis of separation systems for azeotropic mixtures: Preferred distillation region  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for automatic generation of sequences of distillation columns and decanters for separation of azeotropic mixtures has been developed where distillation boundaries can be crossed by moving them with pressure change, by exploring curvatures of distillation boundaries or by liquid-liquid splits in decanters. Based on a broad knowledge of distillation regions and distillation boundaries for the separated mixture, open-loop

Stanislaw K. Wasylkiewicz

2006-01-01

270

A geometric design method for side-stream distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

A side-stream distillation column may replace two simple columns for some applications, sometimes at considerable savings in energy and investment. This paper describes a geometric method for the design of side-stream columns; the method provides rapid estimates of equipment size and utility requirements. Unlike previous approaches, the geometric method is applicable to nonideal and azeotropic mixtures. Several example problems for both ideal and nonideal mixtures, including azeotropic mixtures containing distillation boundaries, are given. The authors make use of the fact that azeotropes or pure components whose classification in the residue curve map is a saddle can be removed as side-stream products. Significant process simplifications are found among some alternatives in example problems, leading to flow sheets with fewer units and a substantial savings in vapor rate.

Rooks, R.E.; Malone, M.F.; Doherty, M.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-10-01

271

Applying risk assessment principles to a batch distillation column  

SciTech Connect

Some distillation columns in the chemical industry are operated in batch mode with a fairly short operating cycle. At the end of each cycle the columns are cooled and recharged. During the cooling cycle, air will be drawn into the column by the action of a vacuum relief valve. Consequently, for a finite portion of the operating cycle a flammable mixture will exist in the column. Here we evaluate the risk posed by such an operation to see if a mitigation measure is justified. We develop a fault tree and estimate the frequency of ignition by all possible ignition sources. By comparing the risk reduction attainable by installing a lightning protection system with that attainable by using an inert blanketing system the lightning protection system is found to be the preferred solution. It provides about the same risk reduction at a lower overall cost. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Woodward, J.L.; Moosemiller, M.D. [DNV Technica, Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

272

Optimal design of complex azeotropic distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric methods are valuable tools for process synthesis and design since they provide designers with intuition and quantitative results. The calculation and graphical representation of azeotropes, residue curves and distillation boundaries provide a wealth of knowledge about the entire composition space. This paper shows how these tools can be used for optimal design of complex azeotropic distillation columns. Two examples

Stanislaw K Wasylkiewicz; Leo C Kobylka; Francisco J. L Castillo

2000-01-01

273

Extractive distillation of binary azeotropic mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conditions have been determined under which an azeotropic binary mixture can be separated by extractive distillation and\\u000a under which separation into almost pure components is impossible at any amount of the extracting agent. A general algorithm\\u000a is suggested for analysis of special manifolds in order to see whether extractive distillation is efficient.

L. A. Serafimov; A. K. Frolkova; D. I. Bushina

2008-01-01

274

Numerically optimized performance of diabatic distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the concept of equal thermodynamic distance (ETD) has been proposed to minimize entropy production in a distillation process using a diabatic column. ETD gives the optimal temperature profile to first-order in N?1, where N is the number of trays. ETD, however, does not generally give the true minimum for distillation columns with few trays. We therefore apply a fully

Markus Schaller; Karl Heinz Hoffmann; Gino Siragusa; Peter Salamon; Bjarne Andresen

2001-01-01

275

Water Purification by Membrane Distillation Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demineralization of water by membrane distillation (MD) has been investigated. In the first stage of investigations the tap water or boiled tap water was employed as a feed, and the water recovery coefficient exceeding 75% was achieved. The obtained concentrate was supplied to the second stage of MD installation. The quality of distillate was stable and practically independent of

Marek Gryta

2006-01-01

276

Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message

Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

2011-01-01

277

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived s...

H. Huang K. Wang S. Wang M. T. Klein W. H. Calkins

1996-01-01

278

Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message

Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

2011-01-01

279

Simulation and control of reactive distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses about the application of PID controller and fuzzy controller in reactive distillation column. A generic mathematical model of reactive distillation has been taken for simulation. The PID and fuzzy controllers are designed for the process and then the overall process is controlled by using conventional (PID) and intelligent (fuzzy) controllers separately. Conventional PID controller is used to

Ujjwal Kapoor; Asha Rani; Vijander Singh; J. R. P Gupta

2011-01-01

280

Heat transport in the membrane distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of membrane distillation (MD) with a laminar flow of the streams in a module has been performed. The equations describing the heat transfer in MD capillary modules were presented and verified experimentally. The equations were derived for the calculation of the feed and distillate temperature at a layer adjacent to the membrane. The heat transfer correlations were implemented in

Marek Gryta; Maria Tomaszewska

1998-01-01

281

Membrane distillation. II. Direct contact MD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure water direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) experiments were used to measure the permeability parameter associated with the molecular diffusion in membrane distillation (MD). The fluxes given by a recently reported MD model, which is based on the dusty-gas model of gas transport through porous media, showed good agreement with the experimental results over the entire range of feed temperatures

Kevin W. Lawson; Douglas R. Lloyd

1996-01-01

282

Locally accessible information and distillation of entanglement  

SciTech Connect

A different type of complementarity relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for a given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well-known distillation protocols, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Ghosh, Sibasish [Department of Computer Science, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 (United Kingdom); Joag, Pramod [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Kar, Guruprasad; Kunkri, Samir [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India); Roy, Anirban [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

2005-01-01

283

Mixed solvent dewaxing of Kuwait middle distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw distillate fractions of petroleum contain a considerable concentration of paraffin waxes, which leads to a high pour point. However, for some special purposes, a low pour point of these oils is required as well as a fixed viscosity. For this reason, the paraffin waxes have to be removed from the oil distillates. The dewaxing process is one of the

M. J. Ijam; R. S. Al-Ameeri; M. A. Fahim; S. F. Aref

1986-01-01

284

Companded total condensation loxboil air distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a dual pressure cryogenic distillation process for producing gaseous oxygen from a supply of compressed and cleaned air, comprising: a. cooling a major fraction of the compressed and cleaned air; b. rectifying the major fraction in a high pressure rectifier to liquid nitrogen overhead product and kettle liquid bottom product; c. distilling the kettle liquid in a

1989-01-01

285

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

ScienceCinema

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

286

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

287

Vacuum technology for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum systems for ITER are characterized by the requirements for tritium compatibility, tolerance of high magnetic and radiation fields and remote maintainability. In addition, although the vacuum levels are relatively modest, high pumping speeds are needed to achieve the high gas throughputs required. The design solutions adopted, the status of the development programme and the issues still to be

D. Murdoch; A. Antipenkov; C. Caldwell-Nichols; C. Day; M. Dremel; H. Haas; V. Hauer; H. Jensen

2008-01-01

288

The ITER vacuum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the

C. Day; D. Murdoch

2008-01-01

289

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in

B. Broda; P. Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-01-01

290

Predictive control of distillation processes  

SciTech Connect

In this study, predictive control is applied to two fundamental control problems found in most distillation processes: averaging level control and product quality control. An optimal averaging level control problem is defined and solved for a surge tank system. Two averaging level controllers, the ramp controller and the optimal predictive controller, are developed utilizing the optimal control policy. The ramp controller is compared with seven averaging level control schemes discussed in the literature for a variety of inlet flow step disturbances and maximum level specifications. The optimal predictive controller, a feedforward/feedback controller based on an extension of the optimal control law, is compared with previously published classical and predictive averaging level controllers for step and sinusoidal inlet flow disturbances. A predictive, computer control algorithm (DMC) is applied to dual composition control of moderate and high purity, binary distillation towers. In this study, nonlinear dynamic simulations are used to evaluate the performance of DMC for the dual composition control problem. Modifications to the DMC algorithm which compensate for process nonlinearity are compared. The first approach incorporates multivariate gain and time constant scheduling using a simple model to update the important process model parameters on-line. This approach results in a significant improvement in control performance over e standard application of DMC. The second approach involves variable transformations to reduce process nonlinearity. The predictive control algorithm is then applied to the transformed (but more linear) system. For the transformations used in this study, the improvement in control performance for load disturbances is not very significant due to the fact that the transformations did not linearize both of the loops.

McDonald, K.A.

1986-01-01

291

Entanglement distillation from Gaussian input states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement distillation is an essential protocol for long-distance quantum communications, typically for extending the range of quantum key distribution. In the field of continuous variable quantum information processing, quantum as well as classical information is encoded in the light field quadratures, often in the form of Gaussian states. However, distillation from Gaussian input states has not yet been accomplished. It is made difficult by a prominent no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, such distillation from Gaussian input states, realized by the implementation of non-Gaussian operations. By subtracting one or two photons, a large gain of entanglement was observed. For two photons, Gaussian-like entanglement was also improved. Other than quantum key distribution, this distilled entanglement can also be used for downstream applications such as high-fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

Takahashi, Hiroki; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Takeuchi, Makoto; Takeoka, Masahiro; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Furusawa, Akira; Sasaki, Masahide

2010-03-01

292

Reduced pressure distillation of an alcoholic mixture  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for distilling an alcoholic mixture under reduced pressure, wherein a portion of the fluid alcoholic mixture is distilled at a temperature below about 0.degree. C. such that the fluid alcoholic mixture remains fluid while distilling. The present invention further relates to condensing the alcoholic distillate with a first condenser at a first condenser temperature of from about -269.degree. C. to about -15.degree. C. to provide a first alcoholic condensate. The alcoholic mixtures contemplated for use according to the method of the present invention include, but are not limited to, gin, vodka, rum, or neutral spirits. The present invention also relates to an alcoholic beverage prepared by the reduced pressure distillation method of the invention.

2010-08-24

293

27 CFR 19.32 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Experimental distilled spirits plants. 19.32 Section 19.32 Alcohol...TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions...32 Experimental distilled spirits plants. (a) General. The...

2013-04-01

294

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

SciTech Connect

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01

295

Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past research and the current status of understanding of electrical breakdown of vacuum is reviewed. This review includes DC, AC and pulsed vacuum gap breakdown. Measurements have been performed to determine the role of microparticles in pulsed vacuum gap...

J. E. Thompson T. S. Sudarshan J. M. Butner

1981-01-01

296

Shadowing Technique for Electron Microscopy-A Possible Substitute for the High-Vacuum Evaporation Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of shadowing samples directly within the electron microscope has been developed in this Laboratory. This method, which uses thallium chloride immersed in distilled water as the shadowing material, is much less time consuming than is the usual method that involves high-vacuum metal evaporation; the results obtained are not of the same high quality as those of the usual

Alvin E. Bills; Robert Lefker

1954-01-01

297

Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20?W at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

2012-11-01

298

Inductive energy storage driven vacuum arc thruster  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of vacuum arc thruster in combination with an innovative power processing unit (PPU) has been developed that promises to be a high efficiency (~15%), low mass (~100 g) propulsion system for micro- and nanosatellites. This thruster accelerates a plasma that consists almost exclusively of ions of the cathode material and has been operated with a wide variety

J. Schein; N. Qi; R. Binder; M. Krishnan; J. K. Ziemer; J. E. Polk; A. Anders

2002-01-01

299

Measurement of the Vacuum Arc Plasma Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The axial force carried by the expanding plasma plume from 50-250-A copper and aluminum vacuum arcs was measured using a pendulum whose axle was equipped with a rotary optical encoder. It was found that the force was a linear function of current. The electrode geometry was varied to find the maximum force. At maximum, the average forces per unit current

Harry S. Marks; Isak I. Beilis; Raymond L. Boxman

2009-01-01

300

Synthesis of azeotropic batch distillation separation systems  

SciTech Connect

The sequencing of batch distillation systems, in particular batch distillation columns, can be complicated by the existence of azeotropes in the mixture. These azeotropes can form batch distillation regions where, depending on the initial feed to the batch column, the types of feasible products and separations are limited. It is very important that these distillation regions are known while attempting to synthesize sequences of batch columns so infeasible designs can be eliminated early on in the design phase. The distillation regions also give information regarding the feasible products that can be obtained when the mixture is separated by using a variety of batch column configurations. The authors will show how a tool for finding the batch distillation regions of a particular mixture can be used in the synthesis of batch distillation column sequences. These sequences are determined by the initial feed composition to the separation network. The network of all possible sequences will be generated by using state-task networks when batch rectifying, stripping, middle vessel, and extractive middle vessel columns are allowed. The authors do not determine which sequence is the best, as the best sequence will depend on the particular application to which one is applying the algorithms. They show an example problem for illustration of this technique.

Safrit, B.T. [Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN (United States); Westerberg, A.W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1997-05-01

301

Fractional distillation of acid contaminants from sevoflurane.  

PubMed

On two occasions, sevoflurane distributed for clinical practice has been found to be contaminated with compounds thought to include hydrogen fluoride (HF) and silicon tetrafluoride (SiF(4)). Both compounds can produce pulmonary injury. However, injury would require fractional distillation of the compounds during the course of sevoflurane vaporization. We hypothesized that such distillation would occur and that the compounds would vaporize more rapidly than would sevoflurane. Thus, we tested whether fractional distillation occurs during vaporization of sevoflurane containing HF or SiF(4), or from sevoflurane containing HF converted to other compounds by contact with glass. Vaporization of < 10% of the sevoflurane distilled 65%-99% of these compounds, SiF(4) distilling most rapidly, HF (converted to other acidic compounds, including SiF(4)) distilling nearly as rapidly, and HF slowest. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that HF interaction with glass changed all HF to three other compounds, one being SiF(4) and the others being unknown. HF and SiF4 distill from sevoflurane more rapidly than sevoflurane is vaporized. Measurement of acidity after sevoflurane administration may not reveal a previous presence of such contaminants. PMID:11004061

Laster, M J; Eger, E I; Cherry, W R; Gong, D

2000-10-01

302

Solar distillation of fuel alcohol. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to demonstrate the application of solar energy to the distillation of ethanol for use as a fuel or fuel additive. An experimental facility was constructed to study the distillation of ethanol from a low concentration in water (10 to 20%) to a high concentration (>90%) using solar energy as the only heat source. Concentrating solar collectors were used to supply energy to a thermocline storage tank which provided a near constant temperature energy source to drive a laboratory scale distillation column. Various tests were performed on each component of the system to study its behavior. The data gathered during these tests were compared to predicted performance from theoretical considerations. Close agreement between theory and experiment was obtained in all cases. In the laboratory, energy was supplied at slightly above 210/sup 0/F to a column of 20 actual trays and a still concentration of 10% ethanol to yield a 90% ethanol distillate. Obviously, solar energy can successfully be utilized for the distillation of fuel alcohol. In an example scenario, 7500 Btu per pound of distillate are found to be needed to produce 90% ethanol. If combusted, this distillate would yield 1.7 times the energy used to produce it.

Green, S.T.; Deffenbaugh, D.M.

1981-08-31

303

Vacuum deposition system  

SciTech Connect

The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

Austin, S.; Bark, D.

1990-05-31

304

Unique features improved crude unit advanced control  

SciTech Connect

Rafinor A/S and Co. initiated a project to investigate and implement advanced control on their crude distillation unit. Project implementation, control system architecture, crude unit control strategies and project results are presented.

Veland, L.H.; Hoyland, J.; Aronson, C.R.; White, D.C.

1987-09-01

305

Study of vacuum systems for a heat engine/flywheel automotive propulsion system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated vacuum systems for a heat engine/flywheel automotive propulsion system. A vacuum environment is required to keep rotational losses and subsequent overheating of the flywheel energy storage unit (ESU) to a minimum. The overall vacuum system includes the vacuum pumps, flywheel shaft seals, vacuum sensors, tubing and any other components expressly designed with the purpose of maintaining the vacuum level in the ESU. The vacuum pump is the main component of the overall vacuum system and as such, most of this report details with selection of a vacuum pump. This study provides information for selecting a vacuum system design with the ultimate goal of incorporating the flywheel into a mass-produced automotive vehicle.

Lieber, M.D.

1982-07-11

306

Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 25137 (China)

2011-02-15

307

Distillation: Still towering over other options  

SciTech Connect

Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

308

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

309

Vacuum Erection Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum erection devices (VEDs) are safe, effective treatments for erectile dysfunction with few side effects. Vacuum negative\\u000a pressure more than 100 mmHg causes a combination of arterial and venous blood to fill the corpora cavernosum. The use of an\\u000a elastic band to trap the blood within the penis allows sufficient rigidity for penetration. Devices approved by the Food and\\u000a Drug

Hunter Wessells

310

Improved multiple all-glass distillation apparatus for determination of fluorine in plant samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorine distillation apparatus designed in this laboratory is more efficient than the Claissen-type flask, less complex and easier to charge and clean than the one-piece units, and better adapted to routine determination of low fluorine concentrations in vegetation samples than all-glass multiple units. The unit is relatively easy to fabricate from standard laboratory glassware. It is simple to operate

R. F. Brewer; G. F. Jr. Liebig

1960-01-01

311

Continuous Vacuum Processing System for Quartz Crystal Resonators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ultrahigh vacuum continuous cycle quartz crystal fabrication facility has been developed that assures an essentially contamination-free environment throughout the final manufacturing steps of the crystal unit. The system consists of five essentially tu...

R. J. Ney E. Hafner

1979-01-01

312

Prediction of point efficiency for sieve trays in distillation  

SciTech Connect

A new semiempirical model for the prediction of the number of mass-transfer units, hence tray efficiency, for distillation has been developed. The interfacial area of sieve tray dispersion is estimated by the Levich theory, and the mass-transfer coefficients are determined by the penetration theory. Two constants that are required to complete the model were obtained by fitting the model to the tray efficiency data of cyclohexane/n-heptane mixtures published by Fractionation Research Inc. (FRI). The predicted efficiency and percent liquid-phase resistance are in good agreement with the experimental values for ethylbenzene/styrene published by Billet and additional data from FRI.

Chen, G.X.; Chuang, K.T. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1993-04-01

313

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOEpatents

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01

314

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the remainder is a mixture of butterlike flavor compounds. Diacetyl is the major flavor component, constituting as much as 80 to 90 percent of the mixture of organic flavor compounds. Besides diacetyl, starter distillate contains minor amounts of...

2010-01-01

315

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the remainder is a mixture of butterlike flavor compounds. Diacetyl is the major flavor component, constituting as much as 80 to 90 percent of the mixture of organic flavor compounds. Besides diacetyl, starter distillate contains minor amounts of...

2009-04-01

316

Simplified Design of Batch Reactive Distillation Columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes a simplified methodology for the analysis and design of reactive batch distillation columns based on the McCabe-Thiele method for reactive continuous columns and on the concept of a reactive difference point. To extend the application of the concept of a reactive difference point for reactive batch distillation columns, expressions for the McCabe-Thiele operating line and for the

Maria E. Huerta-Garrido; Vicente Rico-Ramirez; Salvador Hernandez-Castro

2004-01-01

317

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

SciTech Connect

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15

318

Fractional distillation of hydrocarbons from coal  

SciTech Connect

Process and apparatus is disclosed for recovering volatile distillates from coal, and other solid carbonaceous fuel sources, by heating the top surface of a bilayer of coal formed of an upper layer of recycled coal and a lower layer of green coal, maintaining the lower level of green coal at a temperature cool enough to condense constituents distilled from the upper layer of recycle coal, and recycling the once passed green coal as recycle coal.

Esztergar, E.P.

1983-07-26

319

Non-pinched, minimum energy distillation designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-pinched, minimum energy solutions are important class of distillation designs that offer the potential advantage of a better trade-off between capital investment and operating costs. In this paper, two important tasks associated with non-pinched distillation designs are studied. Thus the novel contributions of this work to the literature are(1)A comprehensive methodology for finding non-pinched minimum energy designs.(2)Understanding of the reasons

Amit S. Amale; Angelo Lucia

2008-01-01

320

Vacuum Technology and Space Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market: Those involved in vacuum technology and complex vacuum facilities. While specific projects have changed in the 30 years since this book was first published, the need for large complex vacuum facilities has not. And despite new developments in pumping, measurement, and outgassing, this book will remain for many years to come the standard of practical vacuum operation.

D. J. Santeler; D. H. Hokeboer; D. W. Jones; F. Pagano

1993-01-01

321

System Study, Vacuum Sewage Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effectiveness/cost comparison was made between gravity sewer systems and vacuum sewer systems for use in Navy advanced bases. The vacuum systems considered were single pipe system where vacuum toilets are connected directly to a vacuum sewer while the ...

R. Waller C. W. Mallory

1971-01-01

322

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats

M. Mapes; L. Smart; D. Weiss; A. Steszyn; R. Todd

2010-01-01

323

Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3? {3}+1) ? 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

Hyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

2013-06-01

324

Influence of multicomponent mass transfer on homogeneous azeotropic distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residue-curve and distillation-line maps are useful tools for the design of azeotropic distillation sequences. The calculation of residue curves uses the assumption that the vapour and liquid are always in equilibrium. The computation of distillation lines assumes that the vapour and liquid leaving a tray are in equilibrium. In this work, the equations defining residue curves and distillation lines are

F. J. L. Castillo; G. P. Towler

1998-01-01

325

A novel structured catalyst packing for catalytic distillation of ETBE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic distillation can offer significant reduction of capital costs in G\\/L\\/S processes that are equilibrium limited. As an alternative to existing catalytic distillation packings, containing bales or pockets of catalyst stacked in (a section of) the distillation column, a novel structured catalyst packing is proposed. The novel packing consists of a common structured distillation packing, on which a binderless film

O. L. Oudshoorn; M. Janissen; W. E. J. van Kooten; J. C. Jansen; H. van Bekkum; C. M. van den Bleek; H. P. A. Calis

1999-01-01

326

27 CFR 17.162 - Receipt of distilled spirits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Receipt of distilled spirits. 17.162 Section 17.162 Alcohol...LIQUORS DRAWBACK ON TAXPAID DISTILLED SPIRITS USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS...Records § 17.162 Receipt of distilled spirits. (a) Distilled spirits...

2010-04-01

327

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive

ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

2011-01-01

328

Nocturnal distillation in basin-type solar stills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal distillation, which dominates the output of deep basin stills, has been studied experimentally. From observations of continuous temperature and distillate measurements, the important factors affecting night-time distillation are identified. A dimensionless analysis of these factors was carried out in an attempt to generalise the night-time behaviour of solar stills. The results indicate that the distillate output is uniquely determined

S. O. Onyegegbu

1986-01-01

329

Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor  

DOEpatents

An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

Ayers, Marion J. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

330

Pilot-scale distillation and characterization of diesel-fuel fractions of Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oils. Interim report, December 1985February 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little, beyond crude assay data, has been known about the properties of various fuel fractions, including diesel fuel, that might ensue in the event crude oils available at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve were actually to be refined. Accordingly, eight distinct crude-oil streams were collected from the Reserve and subjected to distillation in a pilot-scale unit. Middle distillate fractions were prepared

D. L. Morris; B. K. Bailey; L. L. Stavinoha; H. N. Giles

1987-01-01

331

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

332

COED Transactions, Vol. X, No. 5, May 1978. STAGEF, A Program to Compute the Internal Variables of an Operating Distillation Column.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A digital computer program, STAGEF, designed for use with the distillation experiments in a typical undergraduate Chemical Engineering laboratory in Unit Operations is explained. The program enables the student to determine the rate of liquid overflow and vapor boil-up which leaves each tray within the distillation column. The student may also

Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

333

Central vacuum system with programmable controller reduces energy costs 40%  

SciTech Connect

The B.F. Goodrich Company needed a more efficient vacuum source for the pilot plant facilities in Avon Lake, OH where new products and manufacturing procedures are developed and evaluated. Fourteen multi-stage steam jet ejector vacuum systems were installed in one building, since a number of vacuum users could be operating concurrently at different levels in the range of 15 to 150 Torr. Ejectors were normally turned on or off to provide the desired vacuum and to conserve steam. Steam is wasted, however, if all stages are on and the amount of vacuum is regulated by bleeding inert gas into the system. Water can also enter the system by kick back, if steam to the ejectors is abruptly shut off. The jet ejector vacuum systems required a steady supply of high pressure steam day and night, but fluctuating demands could create problems in the quality of vacuum obtained. Steam and maintenance costs were also significant. Goodrich decided to replace most of the steam-operated vacuum units because of the high energy requirements, and concurrently reduce hydrocarbon emissions. A major manufacturer or mechanical vacuum equipment was asked to design a vacuum system that could provide steady vacuum in the range of 10 to 250 Torr. The system had to have sufficient capacity for a number of concurrently operating processes, and handle a wide variety of hydrocarbons. The system, designed to meet these requirements and installed in June 1984, consists of a Roots-type vacuum booster with bypass valves, discharging into an intercondenser. The progammable-controlled vacuum system has reduced energy requirements by approximately 40%, and has helped in minimizing emissions. The projected pay-back for the entire system is 1 1/2 years.

De Silva, R.; Varnes, W.; Gaines, A.

1985-11-01

334

Material processing with vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of controlled atmosphere, especially vacuum, is the integral part of much the materials processing effort involving special materials. The underlying reasons that warrant the presence of vacuum along with high temperatures in these processing schemes are rooted in the thermodynamic properties of the materials particularly in relation to their interaction with gases and other interstitials. Apart from this pressure is also a highly usable process parameter that can be tailored to establish the desired heterogeneous equilibrium, in turn determined by the material to be produced or process to be executed. The range and depth of vacuum metallurgy or vacuum materials processing is vast. The present paper covers a selection of materials processing activities that have been carried out in the Materials Group, BARC involving production of materials, their processing and also basic property determination. A range of vacuum and furnace systems have been used and the practice of designing the process from fundamentals and executing through various batch sizes, and the solution of issues involved are all covered.

Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A. K.

2008-05-01

335

ISABELLE vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

Halama, H J

1980-01-01

336

40 CFR 60.661 - Definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...given them. Batch distillation operation means a noncontinuous distillation operation in which a discrete quantity or batch of liquid feed is charged into a distillation unit and distilled...reboiler, condenser, vacuum pump,...

2009-07-01

337

China's Market for Distillers Dried Grains and the Key Influences on Its Longer Run Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The expansion of corn-based ethanol production in the United States yields a large volume of residual co-products called distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS). Most DDGS are utilized in the domestic U.S. market, but Chinese importers seeking raw mat...

F. Gale M. Jewison

2012-01-01

338

Application of absorption heat pumps to multi-effect distillation: a case study of solar desalination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupling of a double-effect absorption heat pump and a multi-effect distillation unit was demonstrated at the Plataforma Solar de Almera (CIEMAT), Spain, within a solar desalination research project. Improvements that were identified have been implemented in a new prototype within the framework of the European project entitled AQUASOL (March 2002 February 2006). The prototype, which will be tested

Diego-Csar Alarcn-Padilla; Lourdes Garca-Rodrguez

2007-01-01

339

An Analogy between Fractional Distillation and Separating Physically Fit and Physically Less Fit Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separating two liquids in a fractional distillation column on the basis of their difference in boiling points is analogous to separating a group of people on the basis of their physical fitness by making them climb a flight of stairs. Several aspects of this unit operation such as column height, flooding, and reflux ratio are explained with the help of

Doble Mukesh

2001-01-01

340

Enrichment of decanoic acid in cuphea fatty acids by molecular distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new crop often requires the development of new products and purification techniques of either the oil or fatty acids. Most new crops enter the cosmetic market first due to their high rates of return. However, the cosmetic market often demands highly pure and colorless materials. A molecular distillation unit is a powerful method of separation; separation

Steven C. Cermak; Amber L. John; Roque L. Evangelista

2007-01-01

341

Vacuum-assisted delivery.  

PubMed

The literature seems to allow certain general conclusions regarding the choice of instrument for assisted vaginal delivery. Both forceps and vacuum extraction offer certain advantages and drawbacks. Forceps are more difficult to apply, more prone to potentially significant facial injuries, require generally better maternal analgesia, and are associated with increased maternal soft tissue trauma. Vacuum extractors in general are easier to apply, are more likely to result in scalp trauma, and may be associated with increased rates of intracranial trauma. It seems likely that factors particular to each patient may play a significant role in the genesis of delivery associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. Because of the ease of application, vacuum extractors may be used potentially in circumstances in which forceps assistance would not be attempted, allowing an operator of average experience to perform rotational deliveries. The use of vacuum extraction does appear to decrease the incidence of cesarean section in delivery populations. Given the apparent association between difficult assisted deliveries and increased neonatal morbidity, it is incumbent on the operator to attempt delivery only when vaginal delivery seems to be a safe option. Furthermore, the operator in such circumstances must be willing to reassess the attempt if initial attempts are not met with success. The minimal rates of significant intracranial injury associated with vacuum extraction in randomized studies of the method demonstrate the relative safety of the vacuum extraction when used judiciously. The ultimate choice of the route of delivery and method of assisted delivery should reflect a consideration of the fetal station, presentation, and maternal and fetal circumstances. It is hoped that further investigations in this area may clarify some of the issues discussed in this article. PMID:8665766

Williams, M C

1995-12-01

342

Vacuum pseudoscalar susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

We derive a novel model-independent result for the pion susceptibility in QCD via the isovector-pseudoscalar vacuum polarization. In the neighbourhood of the chiral limit, the pion susceptibility can be expressed as a sum of two independent terms. The first expresses the pion-pole contribution. The second is identical to the vacuum chiral susceptibility, which describes the response of QCD's ground state to a fluctuation in the current-quark mass. In this result one finds a straightforward explanation of a mismatch between extant estimates of the pion susceptibility.

Chang Lei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Liu Yuxin [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Roberts, Craig D. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Shi Yuanmei [Department of Physics, Nanjing Xiaozhuang College, Nanjing 211171 (China); Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-03-15

343

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Broda, B.; Bronowski, P.; Ostrowski, M.; Szanecki, M.

2008-11-01

344

Is the vacuum extractor really the instrument of first choice?  

PubMed

This study was a retrospective analysis of the pattern of usage of both the forceps and vacuum extractor as well as the neonatal outcome on all the instrumental deliveries conducted in 1995 at the Kandang Kerbau Hospital, Singapore. There were a total of 927 forceps deliveries and 495 vacuum extractions but neonatal data was available for only 481 forceps and 255 vacuum extractor babies. (There were 2 neonatal units which accepted admissions on alternate days; all of the data were collected from 1 of the units only). Demographic data were comparable in most aspects except that vacuum deliveries were significantly associated with higher parity and shorter labours. There was a trend towards using the vacuum extractor in less difficult cases. Almost all the instrumental deliveries were conducted by specialists. Birth trauma was significantly more likely to occur with the vacuum extractor. Almost all the deliveries were conducted with similar expertise in both groups, yet the use of the vacuum extractor resulted in more birth trauma even in the presence of 'easier' cases. This may suggest an inherent risk in using the vacuum extractor. PMID:10554939

Chan, C C; Malathi, I; Yeo, G S

1999-08-01

345

Limits and Consequences of Nonlocality Distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only in the last few decades have we realized how to view quantum nonlocal correlations as possible information theoretic resources rather than as apparent paradoxes. Unfortunately, the past perspective in terms of paradoxes still persists in our considerations of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) that offer stronger than quantum nonlocal correlations. We argue that a more pragmatic approach is to consider the physical framework under which such correlations may be realized. Our consideration immediately yields fruit by allowing us to identify limitations of the NLB model and develop the generalized notion of a quantum nonlocal box ( qNLB). We analyze the NLB and qNLB models within the framework of nonlocality distillation protocols. The ability to concentrate the correlations of many identical noisy copies of a nonlocal correlation source is known as nonlocality distillation. The idea is still in its early stages of development and and we pursue it in this thesis. We develop multiple new nonlocality distillation protocols and prove the optimality of non-adaptive distillation protocols for both NLBs and qNLBs. We show that qNLBs offer stronger non-adaptive distillation protocols than NLBs. At the same time, the understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal adaptive protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB. Through our investigation of nonlocality distillation protocols we conclude that the qNLB model is a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs. As a first step towards the re-examination of such principles, we provide numerical evidence that the distillability of nonlocal correlations depends on properties that are local. We claim that the differing strength of distillation protocols for NLBs and qNLBs can be interpreted as a separation between classical and quantum predictions at the macroscopic level. This implies that there exist quantum correlations that can be observed in principle, at the macroscopic level or that the principle of macroscopic locality identifies exactly the set of quantum correlations.

Rashid, Jibran

346

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

SciTech Connect

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Krovi, Hari; Devetak, Igor [Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2007-07-15

347

Design of processes with reactive distillation line diagrams  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of the transformation of concentration coordinates, the concept of reactive distillation lines is developed. It is applied to study the feasibility of a reactive distillation with an equilibrium reaction on all trays of a distillation column. The singular points in the distillation line diagrams are characterized in terms of nodes and saddles. Depending on the characterization of the reactive distillation line diagrams, it can be decided whether a column with two feed stages is required. On the basis of the reaction space concept, a procedure for identification of reactive distillation processes is developed, in which the reactive distillation column has to be divided into reactive and nonreactive sections. This can be necessary to overcome the limitations in separation which result from the chemical equilibrium. The concentration profile of this combined reactive/nonreactive distillation column is estimated using combined reactive/nonreactive distillation lines.

Bessling, B. [BASF Ludwigshafen (Germany). Engineering Research and Development; Schembecker, G.; Simmrock, K.H. [Univ. of Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

348

Quantum Vacuum Pathway Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theorized that the quantum vacuum is a random electromagnetic field that permeates the universe. It will be shown that acceleration between a quark and a random electromagnetic energy field is an analog of the reaction between a charge moving at constant velocity with respect to an organized electromagnetic field. The difference is that with a quark any natural

Eric John Habegger

2005-01-01

349

Vacuum Kundt waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

2013-03-01

350

Electrospray deposition in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the established technique of electrospray in developing a portable vacuum electrospray system which can deposit, in vacuo, dissolved molecules onto a sample which may then be analysed by UHV techniques. As an initial test of the system we have analysed silicon samples with an electrosprayed layer of poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The polymer

Janine C. Swarbrick; J. Ben Taylor; James N. O'Shea

2006-01-01

351

Vacuum System at IUAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

Mandal, A.

2012-11-01

352

Ultra high vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical

Oswald Grbner

2001-01-01

353

Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, in the "jelly" model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

Veklenko, B. A.

2012-06-01

354

Vacuum configurations for superstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

1985-01-01

355

Large Rotary Vacuum Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seal is described which permits rotation of large circular sections or ; ports in the walls of a vacuum chamber. The seal is an unlubricated Tec-Ring (a ; Teflon O-ring with a core of rubber), and the friction is low even at large ; diameters. The behavior of such a seal is compared with that of a lubricated ;

D. E. Armstrong; Normand Blais

1963-01-01

356

Vacuum in Multicolor QCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is assumed that among asymptotic solutions to the Makeenko-Migdal equation of the form exp(-aA - bL) (A = area, L = perimeter, A and L are large) there is also the solution which has asymptotic freedom at small distances. It is then shown that vacuum i...

P. Olesen

1980-01-01

357

Type D Vacuum Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, the vacuum field equations are solved for Petrov type D. An exhaustive set of ten metrics is obtained, including among them a new rotating solution closely related to the Ehlers-Kundt ``C'' metric. They all possess at least two Killing vectors and depend only on a small number of arbitrary constants.

William Kinnersley

1969-01-01

358

Vacuum arc recovery phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

1964-01-01

359

Various unique vacuum holders  

SciTech Connect

Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

Gregar, J.S.

1992-12-01

360

Cryogenic vacuum pump design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed.

A. J. Bartlett; P. A. Lessard

1984-01-01

361

The LHC Vacuum System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting b ending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at

Oswald Grbner

1998-01-01

362

Electtra vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elettra is a third-generation synchrotron light source which is being built especially for the use of high brilliance radiation from insertion devices and bending magnets. The UHV conditions in a storage ring lead to a longer beam lifetime-one of the most important criterion. The Elettra vacuum system presents some peculiarities which cannot be found in any already existing machine. The

M. Bernardini; F. Daclon; F. Giacuzzo; R. Kersevan; J. Miertusova; F. Pradal

1993-01-01

363

Vacuum insulator coating development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

1997-01-01

364

RF Vacuum Electronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We summarize our second quarter progress and discuss third quarter plans for the development of an edge emitter based vacuum triode with performance goals of 10 microA/micrometer emission current density at less than 250V and which can be modulated at1 GH...

D. Arch J. Holmen P. Bauhahn T. Akinwande T. Ohnstein

1992-01-01

365

Interpreting cosmological vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

The cosmological vacuum decay scenario recently proposed by Wang and Meng [Classical Quantum Gravity 22, 283 (2005)] is rediscussed. From thermodynamic arguments it is found that the {epsilon} parameter quantifying the vacuum decay rate must be positive in the presence of particle creation. If there is no particle creation, the proper mass of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particles is necessarily a time-dependent quantity, scaling as m(t)=m{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}. By considering the presence of baryons in the cosmological scenario, it is also shown that their dynamic effect is to alter the transition redshift z{sub *} (the redshift at which the Universe switches from decelerating to accelerating expansion), predicting values of z{sub *} compatible with current estimates based on type Ia supernova. In order to constrain the {omega}{sub m}-{epsilon} plane, a joint statistical analysis involving the current supernovae observations, gas mass fraction measurements in galaxy clusters and CMB data is performed. At 95% c.l. it is found that the vacuum decay rate parameter lies on the interval {epsilon}=0.06{+-}0.10. The possibility of a vacuum decay into photons is also analyzed. In this case, the energy density of the radiation fluid scales as {rho}{sub r}={rho}{sub ro}a{sup -4+{epsilon}}, and its temperature evolution law obeys T(t)=T{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}{sup /4-1}.

Alcaniz, J.S.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatorio Nacional, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, USP, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2005-09-15

366

Triggered vacuum gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a sealed vacuum gap are described and the difficulties encountered in applying this gap as an overvoltage protection device are discussed. It is shown how these difficulties can be ameliorated by the use of gas-free electrode materials and by triggering the gap when breakdown is required. Several methods of triggering are discussed and some practical triggering devices are

J. M. Lafferty

1966-01-01

367

Mild hydrocracking of virgin vacuum gas oil, cycle oils and coker gas oil with the T-STAR{reg_sign} process  

SciTech Connect

Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research recently completed a successful pilot plant program demonstrating the use of the T-STAR{reg_sign} process for mild hydrocracking of blends of low value feedstocks (cycle oils, coker gas oils), virgin distillates and vacuum gas oils to generate high quality diesel and improved quality FCC feed. The T-STAR{reg_sign} Process runs at constant temperature. Catalytic activity is maintained by daily catalyst addition and withdrawal while the unit is on stream. No unit shutdown is needed to replace the catalyst. The possibility of bed plugging or blockage from accumulation of fine solids in the feed is virtually eliminated in this ebullated bed system and the reactor operates with a low and constant pressure drop. The process handles a variety of feedstocks including light and heavy coker gas oils and deasphalted oils. Yields and product properties from a blend of virgin vacuum gas oil, light cycle gas oil and heavy coker gas oil are discussed. A scheme for integrating this process in an existing refinery is also presented.

Nongbri, G.; Rodarte, A.I. [Texaco Fuels and Lubricants Research Dept., Port Arthur, TX (United States); Falsetti, J.S. [Texaco Inc., White Plains, NY (United States). Alternate Energy Resources Dept.

1996-12-01

368

Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation  

SciTech Connect

We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani [Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control and Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2005-12-15

369

Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory  

SciTech Connect

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set Z{sub D}{sup n} associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of Z{sub D}{sup n} into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D. When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2005-09-15

370

Distillation of local purity from quantum states  

SciTech Connect

Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

Devetak, I. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2005-06-15

371

ISAC target vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF has been in full operation since 1999. The ISAC east and west targets use proton beam from the cyclotron to produce various radioactive isotopes, which are then ionized and extracted. The ions are then passed through the mass separator and selected ions are transferred to the low energy experiments or injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The accompanying radioactive contamination from the production of radioactive ions requires a complex vacuum system. The main target vacuum space consists of two semiseparate (primary and secondary) volumes pumped by turbo-molecular pumps. The primary volume uses four pumps while the secondary volume uses two pumps. Two hermetic rotary vane pumps are used as backing pumps. The nominal vacuum in both volumes is about 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa (1.0x10{sup -6} Torr). The pressure is monitored by two cold cathode and two hot filament ion gauges. The cold cathode gauges are used to interlock the system, which is critical during the bake out of the target and beam production. The exhaust gas from the vacuum pumps can be radioactive. Three gas storage tanks (decay tanks) are used for temporary storage of the radioactive exhaust and its controlled release to the atmosphere. Gas-species insensitive membrane gauges are used for monitoring the pressure in the storage tanks. This article describes the details of the ISAC target vacuum system as well as some procedures related to the handling of the exhaust gas with traces of radioactive contamination produced by the targets.

Yosifov, Dimo; Sekachev, Igor [TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2006-07-15

372

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

373

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

374

Mercury vacuum cleaner operational test and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Dental Investigation Service, USAFSAM, Brooks AFB, has outlined the need for a vacuum unit to be used in the Air Force dental clinics. The unit must be capable of effectively picking up mercury and at the same time not redistribute mercury vapors throughout the dental clinic during normal operations or mercury-spill situations. The Dental Investigation Service selected the MRS-3, Minuteman Mercury Recovery System, product of American Cleaning Equipment Corporation as the mercury vacuum to be used for T E. The USAF OEHL/ECH was requested by the Dental Investigation Service to perform the T E on the MRS-3 for possible health hazards due to exposures of mercury vapors.

Bennett, R.G.

1981-03-01

375

Efficiencies of trays in cryogenic distillation columns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Paper considers the behaviour of the distillation trays in conventional use in cryogenic air separation plants. An earlier study showed that the trays should operate at higher efficiencies than plant experience would indicate. This conclusion was based on the assumption of uniform liquid flow across the trays. In practice, stagnant zones can occur which reduce the efficiency. A study of a small hole-size tray, rectangular in shape, providing uniform flow has confirmed the predictions of the theoretical model by producing high efficiencies. These results, together with those from the earlier study, provide an indication of the benefits of improving the flow behaviour of air separation distillation trays.

Biddulph, M. W.

1986-01-01

376

Temperature cascade control of distillation columns  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines how difficult control tasks are enhanced by introducing secondary measurements, creating control cascades. Temperature is much used as secondary measurement because of cheap implementation and quick and accurate response. Distillation is often operated in this manner due to slow or lacking composition measurements, although the benefits have hardly been investigated closely, especially for multivariable control applications. The authors therefore use distillation as the example when quantifying improvements in interaction and disturbance rejection. They also give analytical expressions for the secondary controller gain. The improvements are reached through simple cascade operation of the control system and require no complicated estimator function.

Wolff, E.A.; Skogestad, S. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-01

377

Zinc halide hydrocracking process for distillate fuels from coal. Annual technical progress report, February 1, 1977January 31, 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major efforts during the year were (1) to construct a 1 TPD Process Development Unit (PDU) for conversion of coal to distillate fuels using a molten zinc chloride catalyst and (2) to explore the effects of operating variables on a 2 lb\\/hr continuous bench-scale unit and develop correlations predicting conversion and product yields with Montana subbituminous coal. Construction of

M. Pell; W. A. Parker; J. T. Maskew; C. W. Zielke; R. T. Struck

1978-01-01

378

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

379

Vacuum Mechanisms of Nanoscale Precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of design of vacuum mechanims of nanoscale precision are presented. Physical basics of the mechanisms nanoscale\\u000a precision are discussed. Vacuum multicoordinate drives and manipulators are also shown.\\u000a \\u000a The analysis of vacuum technological equipment and vacuum research equipment shows that the most strict requirements for the\\u000a object transference are in electron beam micro lithography equipment. For example, electron beam

E. A. Deulin; V. P. Mikhailov; Yu. V. Panfilov; R. A. Nevshupa

380

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

381

VACUUM OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum osmotic dehydration leads a special behaviour of mass transfer in fruit-sugar soluion system.Vacuum treatments intensify the capillary flow function and increase water transfer ratio.but have no significant influence on sugar uptake.Fruits such as pineapples which have higher porosity are more suitable to be treated under vacuum during the osmotic dehydration.

Xian Quan Shi; Pedro Fito Maupoey

1993-01-01

382

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOEpatents

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

1980-01-01

383

Insertion device vacuum system designs  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

Hoyer, E.

1988-05-01

384

Challenges For Vacuum Interrupter Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum interrupters form the key component of a medium voltage (MV) vacuum switchgear design. Vacuum interrupter technology is now well established and key manufacturers across the world are routinely producing interrupters for ratings up to 52kVrms. Manufacturers have focused on reducing the cost of interrupter components by adapting to more efficient contact geometry, improved contact materials, finite element modelling for

R. Parashar; A. Baker; A. Sitzia

2006-01-01

385

Vacuum chuck having vacuum-nipples wafer support  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vacuum chuck is disclosed which has nipples as support structure and for vacuum delivery. In the preferred embodiment, two types of nipples are used: "plain" nipples which provide only support and vacuum nipples which provide support and deliver vacuum to retain the wafer on the chuck. The contact surface of the plain nipples is made smaller than that of the vacuum nipples. The chuck is secured to a stage using special supports which have limited flexibility in two axis with respect to the chuck, so as to prevent warping the chuck. Special vacuum nipples are disclosed which do not deliver vacuum unless the wafer exerts sufficient predetermined pressure on the nipple. The chuck is designed to hold both 200 mm and 300 mm wafers.

2001-07-10

386

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

387

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

388

Dry vacuum pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

Sibuet, R.

2008-05-01

389

Edison's vacuum technology patents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Mller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

Waits, Robert K.

2003-07-01

390

An automated vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

Atkins, W.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vaughn, G.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Bridgman, C. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

391

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on a medium consisting of skim milk usually fortified...dextranicum. The ingredient contains more than 98 percent water, and the remainder is a mixture of butterlike flavor...

2013-04-01

392

Membrane-distillation desalination: Status and potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an assessment of membrane distillation (MD) based on the available state of the art and on ourpreliminary analysis. The process has many desirable properties such as low energy consumption, ability to use low temperature heat, compactness, and perceivably more immunity to fouling than other membrane processes. Within the tested range, the operating parameters of conventional MD configurations

A. M. Alklaibi; Noam Lior

2005-01-01

393

Desalination by Membrane Distillation: A Parametric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane distillation was investigated as a possible technique for desalination. An air-gap module with built-in Condensing surface was used for conducting experiments on polyvinylidene fluoride flat membrane sheets. The feed stream tested was artificial seawater. The quality of the permeate, quantified by conductivity measurements, and the permeate flux were monitored as the feed temperature, feed flow rate, cooling temperature, and

Fawzi A. Banat; Jana Simandl

1998-01-01

394

Seawater desalination by direct contact membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling still posts as one of the major obstacles in membrane distillation (MD). This is why the MD approach still cannot successfully compete with other conventional seawater desalination methods. In this study, both the NaCl solution and real seawater are used as the feed of MD processes to investigate the differences in permeate flux, product water quality and membrane

S. T. Hsu; K. T. Cheng; J. S. Chiou

2002-01-01

395

EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION WITH AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF HYDROTROPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrotropes on vapor-liquid equilibrium of a mixture provides a potential technique of extractive distillation for systems which are difficult or impossible to separate by normal rectification. Various hydrotropes, such as sodium toluate, sodium toluence sulfonate, sodium cymcnc sulfonate, sodium mesitylene sulfonate and sodium salicylate, in aqueous solutions have been tested for the separation of close-boiling point mixtures,

MAMTA AGARWAL; V. G. GAIKAR

1992-01-01

396

Industry and Trade Summary: Distilled Spirits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. distilled spirits industry is characterized by a three-tier structure of (1) producers/suppliers, (2) wholesale distributors, and (3) retailers. Each tier must operate independently from the other two tiers as mandated by Federal and State laws. ...

2000-01-01

397

Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the

Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

1983-01-01

398

Physiochemical Characterization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased use of industrial waste and byproducts fits the need of industry to comply with environmental rules. The substitution of natural products for artificial ingredients has gained worldwide attention in the food, pharmaceutical and other industries. These facts justify the study on the utilization of Soybean Oil Deodorizer Distillate (SODD) as tocopherol supplements. Tocopherol, which is physiologically active as vitamin

Cibelem Iribarrem BENITES; Soely Maria

399

Avoid problems during distillation column startups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The startup of a distillation column is the end product of the design process. Indeed, startup is the culmination of the theory and practice of designing the column to meet the process objectives. The author will direct most of this discussion towards column revamps due to their inherent complexity; however, the points apply equally to new columns, as well. The

Sloley

1996-01-01

400

Distillation plant development and cost update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in desalination technology have resulted in significant savings in cost compared with earlier plants. Both distillation and reverse osmosis processes are now viable means of water production from a seawater source in the developing countries of the MENA area as well as in the more traditional oil-producing Gulf States. Three processes are commercially available for large size plants

Neil M. Wade

2001-01-01

401

Optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the optimal design of thermally coupled distillation columns and dividing wall columns using detailed column models and mathematical optimization. The column model used is capable of describing both conventional and thermally coupled columns, which allows comparisons of different structural alternatives to be made. Possible savings in both operating and capital costs of up to 30% are illustrated

G. Duennebier; Constantinos C. Pantelides

1999-01-01

402

Oxidative desulfurization of lube oil distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of manufacturing low-sulfur oils has become much more acute with the increase in refining of medium-sulfur crudes. The difficulties in obtaining lube oils with a low sulfur content are due to the restricted selection of feedstock, changes in its composition, and especially the lack of hydrotreating in the refinery. The method of selective treatment of lube oil distillates

V. R. Nigmatullin; R. R. Mukhametova; I. R. Nigmatullin

2008-01-01

403

The fermentation process integrated with membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production in tubular bioreactor integrated with the membrane distillation (MD) system has been investigated. The fermentation of sugar with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proceeds with the formation of by-products, which tends to inhibit the yeast productivity. The removal of by-products from the fermenting broth by MD process increased the efficiency and the rate of sugar conversion to ethanol. The fermentation process

Marek Gryta

2001-01-01

404

MODELLING OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION - PROPYLENE OXIDE PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectivity and equilibrium of chemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the distillation of one or more products from the reaction mixture. Simultaneous reaction and separation of the desired product is very important in the case of consecutive reactions. Simulation of the reactor for propylene oxide (POX) synthesis from propylenechlorohydrine (PCH) and calcium hydroxide is presented in the paper. The

M. Kotora; Z. vandov

2005-01-01

405

Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.  

PubMed

This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops." PMID:20082455

Cohen, M Michael

2010-02-15

406

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation on the Winter Distillate Outlook was created for the PPMCSA Meeting and Trade Show of this year. It gives basic information and forecasts on the prices of a variety of energy sources through a collection of slides and accompanying notes.

407

Nonequilibrium modeling of three-phase distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonequilibrium (NEQ) model for a complete three-phase distillation in tray columns is described. The model consists of a set of mass and energy balances for each of the three possible phases present. Mass and heat transfer between these phases is modeled using the MaxwellStefan equations. Equilibrium is only assumed at the phase boundary between two phases. The equilibrium stage

A. Higler; R. Chande; R. Taylor; R. Baur; R. Krishna

2004-01-01

408

Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2005-01-01

409

Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled

Vwani Roychowdhury; Somshubhro Bandyopadhyay

2005-01-01

410

Vacuum actuated gas delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Vacuum Actuated Cylinder (VACTM) gas source provides sub-atmospheric pressure delivery of the metal fluorides commonly used as dopants for ion implant. The VAC gas source is a mechanical system based on an embedded pressure control device located inside the cylinder. A pre-set sub-atmospheric pressure must be achieved in the delivery manifold before flow is permitted from the cylinder.

W. K. Olander; M. Donatucci; J. Mayer; L. Wang

2000-01-01

411

LHC vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the

Oswald Grbner

1999-01-01

412

The LHC vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9

O. Grbner

1997-01-01

413

The ITER vacuum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the torus exhaust pumping, the cryopumps for the neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating, and the cryopumps for the ITER cryostat. All customized cryosorption pumps are force-cooled with supercritical helium and share a similar modular design of cryosorption pumping panels. For regeneration of the cryopumps as well as for roughing down the system volumes prior to operation, four identical sets of forepump trains are used. This paper will focus on the areas of the ITER vacuum systems which require customized developments and cannot rely on commercial solutions. The complex pumps have been tailored for the very specific applications and requirements at ITER, especially characterised by the need to be tritium compatible. An outline of the development path which was needed to come up with a sound design for the ITER cryopumps is given. The way of development is culminating in the manufacturing of 1:1 scale prototypes, which will be extensively tested in dedicated test facilities to ensure compatibility with all design requirements.

Day, C.; Murdoch, D.

2008-05-01

414

27 CFR 19.651 - Liability for distilled spirits tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liability for distilled spirits tax...651 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...by the Vaporizing Process Liability for Distilled Spirits Tax...

2013-04-01

415

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the re...

K. T. Lim H. J. Ramey W. E. Brigham

1992-01-01

416

DISTILLATION OF LIGHT WATER FROM HEAVY WATER MODERATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of the equipment and method of operation of a ; distillation system to remove light water from heavy water moderator. The basic ; principles of the theory of distillation are reviewed. ( auth);

Bertsche

1958-01-01

417

Combination process for the conversion of a distillate hydrocarbon to maximize middle distillate production  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the conversion of an aromatic-rich, distillable gas oil charge stock which is essentially free from asphaltenic hydrocarbons. This process possesses an aromatic hydrocarbon concentration greater than about 20 volume percent to selectively produce large quantities of high quality middle distillate while minimizing hydrogen consumption. The steps for the process are: reacting the charge stock with hydrogen, in a catalytic hydrocracking reaction zone, at hydrocracking conditions; separating the resulting hydrocracking reaction zone effluent to provide a middle distillate product stream and a paraffin-rich hydrocarbonaceous stream; recovering the middle distillate product stream; reacting the paraffin-rich hydrocarbonaceous stream in a non-catalytic thermal reaction zone at mild thermal cracking conditions including an elevated temperature; separating the non-catalytic thermal reaction zone effluent to provide a fraction boiling and a hydro-carbonaceous stream boiling; and reacting at least a portion of the hydrocarbonaceous stream boiling.

Humbach, M.J.; Hale, J.G.

1987-04-28

418

Control of a fractional distillation process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for preventing the actual pressure in a fractional distillation column from exceeding a high limit for the pressure in the fractional distillation column. This method consists of the steps of: establishing a first signal representative of the flow rate of the external reflux required to maintain a process variable at a desired value for a process variable; establishing a second signal representative of the actual pressure in the fractional distillation column means; establishing a third signal representative of a high limit for the pressure in the fractional distillation column means; comparing the second signal and the third signal and establishing a pressure compensating signal which is responsive to the difference between the second signal and the third signal. The pressure compensating signal has a magnitude of zero if the magnitude of the second signal is not greater than the magnitude of the third signal and has a first magnitude with the dimension of flow rate if the second signal is greater than the third signal; combining the first signal and the pressure compensating signal to establish a control signal; and manipulating the flow rate of the external reflux in response to the control signal. The first magnitude of the pressure compensating signal is such that combining the first signal and the pressure compensating signal results in a reduction in the flow rate of the external reflux required by the first signal if the actual pressure in the fractional distillation column means is greater than the high limit represented by the third signal.

Albers, L.R.

1986-03-25

419

Thermal Integration of a Distillation Column Through Side-Exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal integration of a distillation column with the background process through side exchangers (side reboilers\\/condensers) is important for designing an energy-efficient distillation column. Thermal integration of a distillation column through side exchangers also improves the exergetic efficiency of the column. Invariant rectifying and stripping (IRS) curves are employed for thermodynamic analysis of a distillation column. Different configurations for side-exchanger integration

S. Bandyopadhyay

2007-01-01

420

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

SciTech Connect

We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-06-15

421

Study on a Continuous Heat Integrated Distillation Column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel continuous heat integrated distillation column called a concentric column has been studied using computer simulation. It is shown that a concentric column is a novel implementation of a thermodynamically reversible distillation column and has a lower energy loss than an ordinary distillation column. Our studies show that a concentric column has reduced column height, since the stripping section

Thomas Glenchur; Rakesh Govind

1987-01-01

422

Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch

Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

2011-01-01

423

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed

K. T. Lim; H. J. Jr. Ramey; W. E. Brigham

1992-01-01

424

Multiple steady states of distillation and its realisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiplicity of steady states is known for distillation of mixtures with certain type of distillation line map. This paper presents the study of its realisation for the ternary mixture with one binary azeotrope formed between light and heavy component. Continuous single-feed distillation column with a finite number of trays is considered. The steady states are determined by simulation of the

Valeri N. Kiva; Bella M. Alukhanova

1997-01-01

425

Control of a heat pump assisted distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the basic concepts and techniques involved for automatic control of continuous distillation columns for binary systems, a scheme is proposed for the control of distillation column for the ethanolwater system. Using the established norms for the control of mechanical vapor compression heat pumps, a control scheme is proposed for the heat pump assisted distillation column for the ethanolwater

Ishwar Chandra; Sukumar Devotta

1998-01-01

426

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation

A. Ashida; K. Mitani; K. Ebara; H. Kurokawa; I. Sawada; H. Kashiwagi; T. Tsuji; S. Hayashi; K. Otsubo; K. Nitta

1987-01-01

427

SCREENING PROCESSED MILK FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

An adaptation of Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response' Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste Physical/Chemical Methods (SW-846) method 8261 to analyze milk for an expanded list of volatile organic compounds is presented. The milk matriz exhibits a strong affinity for o...

428

A Comparison of Vacuum and Steam Distillation for Determining the Volatile Acidity of Evaporated Milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidity and changes in acidity of milk are known to be of importance in milk processing and storage. Many workers have shown that heat causes the formation of acids in milk. As early as 1895 Cazeneuve and Haddon (2) reported that the acid formed by heating was mainly formic acid. This view is in accordance with the recent work

P. G. Miller; P. L. Zimmerman; E. B. Oberg

1948-01-01

429

ANALYSES OF FISH TISSUE BY VACUUM DISTILLATION/GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of fish tissue using VD/GC/MS with surrogate-based matrix corrections is described. Techniques for equilibrating surrogate and analyte spikes with a tissue matrix are presented, and equilibrated spiked samples are used to document method performance. The removal of a...

430

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2010-04-01

431

27 CFR 1.82 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for redistillation, processing, rectification...NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits...

2009-04-01

432

27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants...Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled...Plants § 19.739 Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits...

2013-04-01

433

Industrial process control in distillation--Research and development  

SciTech Connect

The unit-operation distillation represents a relatively important part of operating costs of industry, including petroleum, chemical, or food industry. With a tighter process control, part of these costs can be saved. Advanced control allows, on the one hand, to reduce energy or raw material consumption, and, on the other, to ensure a more stable and a higher quality of production. In this paper, past studies in this field, as well as industrial or pilot-plant-scale developments are summarized. The evolution of process control, from the classical single-input single-output regulation to the advanced multivariable adaptive control, has been described. Starting from the different dynamic models and the different identification procedures proposed in the literature, some control algorithms are compared. Their application in the industrial field is discussed. Finally, trends and limits in advanced process control are taken into consideration, relating them to process constraints.

Chapat, C. (Societe Francaise Hoechst, Paris (France)); Depeyre, D. (Ecole Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Chatenay (France))

1993-04-01

434

Influence of hydrocarbon composition of hydrocracking feedstocks on lubricant base stock and middle distillate products  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of the hydrocracking process is the formation of carbonium ions as intermediate species, which then give the final products, characterized by a majority of branched paraffin isomers and the virtual absence of small fragments (methane and ethane). The kinetics of the hydrocracking process depends on the operating conditions, including among others the hydrocarbon composition of the feedstock, the type of catalyst, and the pressure, temperature and hydrogen-hydrocarbon ratio. The hydrocracking process is very versatile, applicable to a wide variety of feedstocks. This versatility gives rise to an interesting case to study: i.e., the feasibility of obtaining lube oil base stock and or fuel oil from Minas waxy reside, because the high wax content of the latter gives considerable difficulty in processing by conventional means. In order to gain more data on the hydrocracking process, the authors have studied the influence of hydrocarbon composition of the hydrocracking feedstocks, i.e., non-parafinnic vacuum distillate, paraffinic vacuum distillate, and wax, on the performance of hydrocracked products, i.e., lubricant base stock, middle distillate, and naphtha. The operating conditions used were: temperature, 400/sup 0/C to 420C; pressure, 100 kg cm/sup 2/; and H/sub 2/ HC ratio, 1000 1 m/sup 3//L. Bi-functional catalysts were tested in a continuous-flow test apparatus. Samples were taken from gas and liquid products, respectively. Liquid product was fractionated to get the following cuts: 1BP-80/sup 0/C, 80/sup 0/-150/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/-250/sup 0/C, 250/sup 0/-380/sup 0/C and 380/sup 0/C.

Nasution, A.S.

1986-09-01

435

Energetic Deposition in Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

In hoping to improve Niobium deposition on Copper cavity, a vacuum deposition system has been built to test the idea of Nb energetic condensation on copper substrate. The system directly uses microwave power to create the pure Nb plasma, which can be used to extract energetic Nb ion flux to do direct deposition on copper substrate. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, discuss the potential benefit of this technique and report the initial result of Nb plasma creation and Niobium thin film deposition.

G. Wu; L. Phillips; R. Sundelin; T. Goodman

2001-09-01

436

Solving gas processing problems. Part 7. Distillation programs ease calculations  

SciTech Connect

Short cut distillation and tray-by-tray programs make a valuable addition to the minicomputer library for anyone involved in the processing of natural gas and/or natural gas liquids. There are two distillation packages available. The first is the shortcut distillation program which uses minimum trays and minimum reflux calculations to provide estimates of the values of operating reflux and plates required in a multicomponent distillation. The second is a tray-by-tray calculation which provides rigorous heat and material balances in combination with equilibrium calculations to estimate performance of multicomponent distillation columns.

Maddox, R.N.; Erbar, J.H.

1981-06-15

437

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is expected that the scaling problem will be insignificant in comparison with that encountered in the conventional multistage flash process. The novel feature here is the use of enlarged capacity for heat exchange between distillate and brine via latent heat of solid-liquid phase change of a suitable hydrophobic intermediate heat transfer material.

Kvajic, G.

438

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20

439

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOEpatents

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27

440

Quantum Nonlocality Does Not Imply Entanglement Distillability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entanglement and nonlocality are both fundamental aspects of quantum theory, and play a prominent role in quantum information science. The exact relation between entanglement and nonlocality is, however, still poorly understood. Here we make progress in this direction by showing that, contrary to what previous work suggested, quantum nonlocality does not imply entanglement distillability. Specifically, we present analytically a 3-qubit entangled state that is separable along any bipartition. This implies that no bipartite entanglement can be distilled from this state, which is thus fully bound entangled. Then we show that this state nevertheless violates a Bell inequality. Our result also disproves the multipartite version of a long-standing conjecture made by Peres.

Vrtesi, Tams; Brunner, Nicolas

2012-01-01

441

ANALYSIS OF AZEOTROPIC DISTILLATION SEQUENCES START UP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimal start-up of a two-distillation tower process involving multiple steady states is a very complex task, since a rigorous dynamic optimization is necessary. Searching for optimal start-up strategies for tower sequences is far from trivial. Besides of the multiplicity of solutions, one of the complicating factors is the activation of the recycle stream, which severely constrains the possible start-up

Nicols J. Scenna; Sonia J. Benz; Nestor H. Rodrguez; Juan Ignacio Klaric

442

Ammonia removal from coal dry distillation wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

the article used coke oven gas as desorption agent, pilot-scale packed tower as desorption equipment, removed ammonia from wastewater produced by coal dry distillation process. Gas stripping method is a new technology for ammonia removal. Through experiments conducted in the coking plant, when the temperature of wastewater T=85C, pH=1l.5, the ratio of liquid and gas volume n=550:1 and the addition

Guanghua Wang; Fanjie Gong; Wenbing Li; Yunzhou Lu; Mingdong Sun; Tiejun Liu; Yuhe Liang; Xiaoyuan Li; Zengqiang Huang

2011-01-01

443

Campaign optimization of multicomponent reactive batch distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When resource utilization and\\/or minimization of waste are comparable in importance to the production rate, the design of the operation policy should encompass an entire campaign of batches rather than a single batch. This notion of campaign optimization is particularly relevant to reactive batch distillation which produces significant amounts of off-cuts; reprocessing these off-cuts merely based on consideration of a

Rajesh Maruti Wajge

1997-01-01

444

Solar desalination by freezing and distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that among seawater desalination processes the absorption-freeze vapor compression processes based on the thermal heat pump, although untested commercially and still in the development stage, appears technically and economically an attractive application of low-grade (exergy) solar heat. The distillation processes proposed here may be conveniently powered by low-grade solar heat (from flat plate solar collectors). It is

G. Kvajic

1981-01-01

445

Water shedding agents in distillate fuel oils  

SciTech Connect

Block polymers of organosiloxane and polyalkylene oxide are used in middle distillate petroleum fuel oils for separating out or otherwise reducing water haze in the oil. These block polymers are particularly useful in heating oils and diesel fuels, containing wax crystal modifier additives to improve the low temperature flow properties of the oil, particularly those modifiers which are copolymers of ethylene and an unsaturated ester and which have a tendency to stabilize and maintain the water haze in the oil.

Rehrer, D.H.

1984-07-17

446

General theory of assisted entanglement distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the one-shot entanglement of assistance for an arbitrary bipartite state. This yields another interesting result, namely a characterization of the one-shot distillable entanglement of a bipartite pure state. This result is shown to be stronger than that obtained by specializing the one-shot hashing bound to pure states. Finally, we show how the one-shot result yields the operational interpretation

Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

2010-01-01

447

RF vacuum electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize our second quarter progress and discuss third quarter plans for the development of an edge emitter based vacuum triode with performance goals of 10 micro-A/micron emission current density at less than 250 V and which can be modulated at 1 GHz for 1 hour. Design and layout of the emitter test mask was completed and fabrication of two process runs of edge emitter diodes were completed. These diode emitters utilize a comb emitter design where high resistivity TaN thin films act as current limiters to prevent edge burnout. Testing of these devices will start during the third quarter. Initial design work on the edge emitter triode was started and is described. Extensive finite element modeling (FEM) and analysis to aid in the triode design took place and is described. Significant process development also took place. Experimental studies of dielectrics such as sputtered SiO2, Si3N4, and PECVD SiO2 and Si3N4 were carried out to understand their leakage characteristics and, thus, to understand their impact on emitter performance. A description of our vacuum test station is also given.

Akinwande, T.; Bauhahn, P.; Ohnstein, T.; Holmen, J.; Arch, D.

1992-04-01

448

Accelerator Vacuum Protection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and elaborate automatic vacuum protection system using fast acting valve has been installed to avoid accidental venting of accelerator from experimental chamber side. To cover all the beam lines and to reduce the system cost, it has been installed at a common point from where all the seven beam lines originate. The signals are obtained by placing fast response pressure sensing gauges (HV SENSOR) near all the experimental stations. The closing time of the fast valve is 10 milli-second. The fast closing system protects only one vacuum line at a time. At IUAC, we have seven beam lines so one sensor was placed in each of the beam lines near experimental chamber and a multiplexer was incorporated into the fast closing system. At the time of experiment, the sensor of the active beam line is selected through the multiplexer and the Fast closing valve is interlocked with the selected sensor. As soon as the pressure sensor senses the pressure rise beyond a selected pressure, the signal is transferred and the fast valve closes within 10 to 12 millisecond.

Barua, Pradip; Kothari, Ashok; Archunan, M.; Joshi, Rajan

2012-11-01

449

MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP  

DOEpatents

A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

Eckberg, E.E.

1960-09-27

450

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

SciTech Connect

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15

451

Heat Integration in Batch Distillation Column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new heat integrated batch distillation column has been configured in this paper. Here the column and reboiler are connected in an annular arrangement and a compressor is positioned between them to maintain the pressure difference. The heat integration is between the rectifying batch column and one concentric reboiler. Ethanol-Water binary system is chosen as an example for the design and analysis of this heat integrated batch distillation column (HIBDiC). In this work, a sensitivity test for selecting the optimal value of the total number of trays and reboiler duty and a thermodynamic feasibility test for its design acceptability has been accomplished. The principal objective of this study is to investigate the influence of compression ratio (CR) on the energy consumption of distillation and to find out the optimal value of CR. Also a comparative analysis of HIBiDC on energy consumption in steady state as well as in dynamic state has been carried out on the basis of its conventional model. The proposed scheme is capable to save the energy up to 50.52% compared to its conventional one by selecting the CR of 1.4 as an optimal value.

Maiti, Debadrita; Jana, Amiya K.; Samanta, Amar Nath

2010-10-01

452

Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Monticello, D.J. (Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

453

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

Anderson, G.H.

1983-08-09

454

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps\\/ceramic-packages and caps\\/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses

Takeshi Matsumura; Takayuki Tokuda; Akinobu Tsutinaga; Masafumi Kimata; Hideyuki Abe; Naotaka Tokashiki

2010-01-01

455

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction mechanisms, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are introduced. Applications of vacuum technology in the field of surface science, microfabrication, particle accelerators and analytical techniques are described. Finally, the use of vacuum in different industries with their corresponding applications is briefly reviewed.

Moshfegh, A. Z.

2004-06-01

456

Removal of persistent organic pollutants in fish oils using short-path distillation with a working fluid.  

PubMed

Two fish oils, varying in origin, species and catching season, were decontaminated in a commercial scale short-path distillation equipment, aided by a working fluid (distilled ethyl esters of marine fatty acids). The processing conditions for the two oils varied by different processing temperature and pressure in the distillation column. The concentration of total cholesterol, vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin A and vitamin D were reduced due to the decontamination process with the highest loss for the treatment with the highest temperature and lowest pressure (i.e. highest vacuum). Peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV) were slightly reduced, and the content of the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA were reduced marginally. PCDD/PCDF, dl-PCB and ndl-PCB were efficiently removed with the highest efficiency for the treatment with the highest temperature (PCDD/PCDF, 76-96%; dl-PCB, 89-99%; ndl-PCB, 91-99%). For the treatment with the lowest temperature, the congeners were removed to varying degree, and there seemed to be a correlation between decontamination and the degree of chlorine substitution. Brominated flame retardants (PBDE) and chlorinated pesticides were only analysed in one of the oils (with highest process temperature). The overall decontamination efficiency was very high (PBDE, >86%, chlorinated pesticides, >89%). The short-path distillation, with working fluid, removes a broad group of persistent organic pollutants from fish oil efficiently with only minor negative effect on nutritionally important compounds. PMID:23528833

Olli, Jan Josef; Breivik, Harald; Thorstad, Olav

2013-03-22

457

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

458

Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

2012-12-20

459

Pseudoredundant vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss models that can account for todays dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

2008-08-01

460

THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE  

DOEpatents

A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

Price, G.W.

1954-08-01

461

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14

462

CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees

J. B. Fitzpatrick

1987-01-01

463

Chemical pumping in vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical pumping in vacuum technology has gained an ever increasing importance during the last two decades. It is based on the capability of metals, such as Zr, Ti, Ba and others, in pure or (more usually) alloy forms, to chemisorb the active residual gases present in vacuum devices or systems. These metals, used in powder form or in many different

B Ferrario

1996-01-01

464

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction

A. Z. Moshfegh

2004-01-01

465

Ultrahigh Vacuum Twist Compression Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new apparatus is described which is used for bonding of metals in ultrahigh vacuum by the twist compression technique. It is shown that adhesion between hard metal specimens can be readily measured in ultrahigh vacuum after some initial mechanical abrasion of the surfaces, while adhesion tests in air at atmospheric pressure do not yield measurable adhesion coefficients. Experimental results

J. M. Bradford; K. B. Wear; M. E. Sikorski

1970-01-01

466

Vacuum Requirements for LAMPF II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LAMPF II accelerator will require sufficient vacuum to prevent beam loss or beam blowup within the time the beam is in the accelerator. Because this time is quite short (tau < 0.03 s), the vacuum requirements should be somewhat less strict than for th...

D. Neuffer

1984-01-01

467

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, l...

T. M. Simko R. E. Collins F. A. Beck D. Arasteh

1995-01-01

468

Vacuum Dewatering During Paper Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water removal during paper making is one of the most energy-intensive and capital-intensive processes. Vacuum dewatering is one of the intermediate stages of water removal on the paper machine where the compressible, wet mat is dewatered using applications of higher vacuum. A summary of the various stages of dewatering on the paper machine wire and the potential mechanisms of dewatering

S. Ramaswamy

2003-01-01

469

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

470

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

471

The AGS Booster vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Hseuh, H.C.

1989-01-01

472

Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

1987-09-01

473

Growth performance and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fed diets containing distiller's dried grains with solubles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of the ethanol distillery industry is less expensive than soybeal meal (SBM) on a per unit protein basis, but its use in fish feed is limited due to the lack of information on its nutritional value in fish diets. Approximately 98% of the DD...

474

Model about the separation of molecular species of hydrogen isotopes by cryogenic distillation using the elementary theory of transport phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper we developed a separation model for a cryogenic distillation column of hydrogen and it's isotopes, deuterium and tritium. Using the law of mass diffusion for mixtures (deduced in the frame of elementary theory of transport phenomena) we computed the components concentrations on two phases: vapor and liquid for a separation unit (theoretical plate). The multicomponent coefficients of

I. Cristescu; V. Poenariu; Irina Preda; L. Stefan

2000-01-01

475

Inductive energy storage driven vacuum arc thruster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of vacuum arc thruster in combination with an innovative power processing unit (PPU) has been developed that promises to be a high efficiency (~15%), low mass (~100 g) propulsion system for micro- and nanosatellites. This thruster accelerates a plasma that consists almost exclusively of ions of the cathode material and has been operated with a wide variety of cathodes. The streaming velocity of the plasma exhaust varies with cathode material, from a low of 11 km/s for Ti up to 30 km/s for Al, with a corresponding range of specific impulse from 1100 s for Ta to 3000 s for Al. Initiation of the arc requires only a few hundred volts due to an innovative ``triggerless'' approach in which a conductive layer between the cathode and the anode produces the initial charge carriers needed for plasma production. The initial starting voltage spike as well as the energy to operate the vacuum arc are generated by a low mass (<300 g) inductive energy storage PPU which is controlled using +5 V level signals. The thrust-to-power ratio has been estimated to reach up to ~20 ?N/W. The vacuum arc thruster was tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using W as cathode material. Experimental results are within 65% of the estimated values.

Schein, J.; Qi, N.; Binder, R.; Krishnan, M.; Ziemer, J. K.; Polk, J. E.; Anders, A.

2002-02-01

476

Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between different flooding mechanisms within the same tower, e.g., liquid and jet flooding.

George E. Dzyacky

2003-05-31

477

Distillation and condensation of LiClKCl eutectic salts for a separation of pure salts from salt wastes from an electrorefining process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt separation and recovery from the salt wastes generated from a pyrochemical process is necessary to minimize the high-level waste volumes and to stabilize a final waste form. In this study, the thermal behavior of the LiClKCl eutectic salts containing rare earth oxychlorides or oxides was investigated during a vacuum distillation and condensation process. LiCl was more easily vaporized than

Hee Chul Eun; Hee Chul Yang; Han Soo Lee; In Tae Kim

2009-01-01

478

Ammonia removal by sweep gas membrane distillation.  

PubMed

Wastewater containing low levels of ammonia (100 mg/L) has been simulated in experiments with sweep gas membrane distillation at pH 11.5. The effects of feed temperature, gas flow rate and feed flow rate on ammonia removal, permeate flux and selectivity were investigated. The feed temperature is a crucial operating factor, with increasing feed temperature increasing the permeate flux significantly, but reducing the selectivity. The best-performing conditions of highest temperature and fastest gas flow rate resulted in 97% removal of the ammonia, to give a treated water containing only 3.3 mg/L of ammonia. PMID:19195677

Xie, Zongli; Duong, Tuan; Hoang, Manh; Nguyen, Cuong; Bolto, Brian

2009-01-18

479

Distillation and the Role of Weak Forces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, by the Concord Consortium's Molecular Literacy project, students will examine how distillation works and the roles of all components involved in the process. The site is filled with thorough diagrams accompanied by solid textual explanations. Aside from diagrams and text, students will engage in simple quizzes testing the concepts they have just learned. The activity itself is a java-based interactive resource built upon the free, open source Molecular Workbench software. In addition, visitors will find an overview of the activity, assessments, and concepts and their correlation to AAAS and NSES standards.

2008-10-17

480

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

SciTech Connect

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15

481

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

2013-06-01

482

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

SciTech Connect

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15

483

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum ...

R. A. Rucinski K. D. Dixon R. Krasa K. J. Krempetz G. T. Mulholland

1993-01-01

484

14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be...discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the...

2013-01-01

485

14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT...Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There...unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and...

2013-01-01

486

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

487

Desalination of Seawater by Thermal Distillation and Electrodialysis Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Freshwater is one of the scarce resources in the world. In many countries, due to freshwater shortages, searching for freshwater\\u000a resources has become extremely important and desalination is known to be an essential available solution for this. In this\\u000a chapter, the thermal distillation of multistage flash distillation, multieffect distillation and vapor compression and electrodialysis\\u000a processes for seawater desalination are presented.

Jiaping Paul Chen; Lawrence K. Wang; Lei Yang; Yu-Ming Zheng

488

Nonlocality Distillation and Postquantum Theories with Trivial Communication Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first present a protocol for deterministically distilling nonlocality, building upon a recent result of Forster et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103\\/PhysRevLett.102.120401]. Our protocol, which is optimal for two-copy distillation, works efficiently for a specific class of postquantum nonlocal boxes, which we term correlated nonlocal boxes. In the asymptotic limit, all correlated nonlocal boxes are distilled to the

Nicolas Brunner; Paul Skrzypczyk

2009-01-01

489

Parametric studies in industrial distillation. Part II. Heuristic optimization. [Industrial distillation trains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The venture cost of operating a single distillation tower is examined as a function of the overhead operating pressure, the feed fractional vaporization, and the vapor to minimum vapor rate ratio. One variable is changed parametrically, while the two remaining are fixed at their optimal values. The percentage increase in cost above the minimum is shown. The relative significance of

D. W. Tedder; D. F. Rudd

1978-01-01

490

A general distillation modeling framework applied to an isotopic distillation column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Being one of the most approached subjects in the field of chemical engineering, a lot of numerical modeling methods for the distillation columns were presented in scientific papers. This means that in order to find a model that would suit a specific process requires a considerable amount of time. This paper will present a general first principle model that aims

Ionut Muntean; Maxim Stuckert; Mihail Abrudean

2011-01-01

491

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

SciTech Connect

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15

492

Bound entangled states with a nonzero distillable key rate  

SciTech Connect

We present sufficient conditions for states to have positive distillable key rate. Exploiting the conditions, we show that the bound entangled states given by Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] have nonzero distillable key rate and finally exhibit new classes of bound entangled states with positive distillable key rate, but with negative Devetak-Winter lower bound of the distillable key rate for the classical-classical-quantum (ccq) states of their privacy squeezed versions, which represent the states after the local measurement performed in the key part without considering the shield part.

Chi, Dong Pyo; Choi, Jeong Woon; Kim, Jeong San; Kim, Taewan [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soojoon [Department of Mathematics and Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-03-15

493

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

SciTech Connect

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01

494

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water.

Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Kurokawa, H.; Sawada, I.; Kashiwagi, H.; Tsuji, T.; Hayashi, S.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

495

Vapor compression distiller and membrane technology for water revitalization.  

PubMed

Water revitalization for a space station can consist of membrane filtration processes and a distillation process. Water recycling equipment using membrane filtration processes was manufactured for ground testing. It was assembled using commercially available components. Two systems for the distillation are studied; one is an absorption type thermopervaporation cell and the other is a vapor compression distiller. Absorption type thermopervaporation able to easily produce condensed water under zero gravity was investigated experimentally and through simulated calculation. The vapor compression distiller was studied experimentally and it offers significant energy savings for evaporation of water. PMID:11537274

Ashida, A; Mitani, K; Ebara, K; Kurokawa, H; Sawada, I; Kashiwagi, H; Tsuji, T; Hayashi, S; Otsubo, K; Nitta, K

1987-01-01

496

The electrical resistance of vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the physics of electrical conduction in vacuum between two parallel conducting planes (planar vacuum diode). After reviewing known features of conduction in the high-voltage range, we turn to the low-voltage range. An ohmic current-voltage characteristic is calculated in the case of identical cathodic and anodic electrodes, whence an electrical resistance of the vacuum gap can be defined. The inverse resistance involves the elemental conductance 2e 2/h and the number of conductance channels between the two electrodes. The channels are thermally populated from the electrodes and the population is analytically calculable from the Poisson equation of electrostatics and the Boltzmann law of thermal equilibrium. The observed resistance of a real vacuum diode (Mullard's EB 91) is accounted for without adjusting parameters. The paper also examines the link-up between Joule's law, involving dissipation, and Ohm's law, with vacuum being contrasted with a material conducting medium; the origin of dissipation in vacuum is understood. Quantum and statistical physics are kept at the undergraduate level. Finally, the results obtained for the vacuum diode shed light upon the quantized conductance of nanoscale semiconductor wires, a topic usually handled only in graduate courses.

Bringuier, E.

2013-07-01

497

Improve distillation-column control design  

SciTech Connect

Steady-state process models have long been used to assist the engineer in designing control strategies for distillation columns. Yet, a large number of industrial columns still operate in manual or with ineffectual controls. So, better control design techniques using steady-state models certainly are needed. In this article, the authors introduced an improved method that already has proven itself on 33 industrial columns. This article deals exclusively with the design of single-point composition controls. The vast majority of columns have one-sided composition specifications. With such specifications, a single-point composition control scheme can keep both top and bottom product compositions at or below limits for a wide range of disturbances. The predominance of one-sided specifications means that the main incentive for dual-point control schemes is achieving energy savings. In most cases, though, the energy savings are small and do not justify the added difficulty of implementing and maintaining dual-point control. Additionally, dual-point schemes often have significantly longer recoveries from upsets due to interactions between the control loops. The design procedure can be best thought of as a general approach rather than a single detailed procedure that covers all cases. The produce must be adapted to each problem because there are many different types of distillation and almost every industrial problem has some unique requirement.

Fruehauf, P.S.; Mahoney, D.P.

1994-03-01

498

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120 vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120 vessel segments are formed by welding two 60 segments together. Each 60 segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

499

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

500

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27