Sample records for vacuum fermentation

  1. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Gareth

    Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations H.E. Johnson1 , R.J. Merry-scale silage studies. Methods and Results: Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations settings (initial packing densities of 0Æ397, 0Æ435, 0Æ492 and 0Æ534 g cm)3 ) on the silage fermentation

  2. Fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

    1982-11-16

    An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  3. Improved fermentative alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  4. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  5. Fermentation efficiency of thermally dried kefir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harris Papapostolou; Loulouda A. Bosnea; Athanasios A. Koutinas; Maria Kanellaki

    2008-01-01

    Three thermal drying methods (conventional, vacuum and convective) were used for drying of kefir biomass and their effect on cell viability, fermentation rate and other kinetic parameters of lactose and whey fermentation were studied. Convective drying rate was higher than conventional and even higher than vacuum at each studied temperature (28, 33 and 38°C). After that, fermentations were performed by

  6. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  7. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  8. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  9. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mairoella; Harvey W. Blanch; Charles R. Wilke

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in

  10. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  11. Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2006-05-30

    Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

  12. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  13. Fermentation, fermented foods and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    2002-12-01

    Lactose (milk sugar) is a fermentable substrate. It can be fermented outside of the body to produce cheeses, yoghurts and acidified milks. It can be fermented within the large intestine in those people who have insufficient expression of lactase enzyme on the intestinal mucosa to ferment this disaccharide to its absorbable, simple hexose sugars: glucose and galactose. In this way, the issues of lactose intolerance and of fermented foods are joined. It is only at the extremes of life, in infancy and old age, in which severe and life-threatening consequences from lactose maldigestion may occur. Fermentation as part of food processing can be used for preservation, for liberation of pre-digested nutrients, or to create ethanolic beverages. Almost all cultures and ethnic groups have developed some typical forms of fermented foods. Lessons from fermentation of non-dairy items may be applicable to fermentation of milk, and vice versa. PMID:12556948

  14. Fermentation and food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2004-01-01

    This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  15. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  16. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  17. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  18. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  19. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  20. Breadfruit fermentation in micronesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Atchley; Paul Alan Cox

    1985-01-01

    Throughout Oceania, pit fermentation of starchy crops was used as means of ensuring a predictable food supply despite the\\u000a vagaries of drought, cyclonic storms, and warfare. During a 6-mo period, fermentation techniques for breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) were studied in Micronesia in the islands comprising Majuro, Guam, Belau, Yap, and Ponape. Fermentation techniques were\\u000a found to vary throughout Micronensia but as

  1. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  2. Modeling Wine Fermentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

  3. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  4. Kimchee Fermentation Chamber

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Universitiy of Wisconsin-Madison

    2007-01-01

    Learners make kimchee or sauerkraut, which is really just fermented cabbage, in a 2-liter plastic bottle. The fermentation process takes from 3 days to 2 weeks to complete, and learners measure the progress by taking a daily pH (acid level) test. This activity can be used to teach about anaerobic bacteria, acidity, osmosis, concentration, and density. It comes from a printed book that is also available in Spanish, though the Spanish version is not available online.

  5. Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

  6. Control of fermenters - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamuna Rani; V. S. Ramachandra Rao

    1999-01-01

    Fermenter control has been an active area of research and has attracted more attention in recent years. This is due to the new developments in other related areas which can be exploited to overcome the inherent difficulties in fermenter control. Beginning with conventional regulatory control of operating variables such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, research in fermenter control

  7. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  8. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  9. Fermentation in a Bag

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    This is a hands-on inquiry activity using zip-lock plastic bags that allows students to observe the process of fermentation and the challenge of producing ethanol from cellulosic sources. Students are asked to predict outcomes and check their observations with their predictions. Teachers can easily adapt to materials and specific classroom issues.

  10. Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation pattern

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation fermentation patterns are unclear. Streptococcus bovis is a major ruminal bacteria, produces acetate, lactate condition would affect the fermentation pattern by S. bovis. Carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP

  11. The Feasibility of Producing Vacuum-Packed Fermented Vegetable Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoni Llovera

    2008-01-01

    The average intake of vegetables in Ireland falls below the recommendations of Bord Glas and FSAI. Carrots are the third most consumed vegetable in Ireland and they are an excellent source of vitamins A and B as well as phytochemicals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known in food for their benefits such as improvement of the nutritional value of food

  12. Solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

  13. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  14. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  15. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  16. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Littleton, CO); Deanda, Kristine A. (Lakewood, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  17. Modeling the Dynamics of Fermentation and Respiratory

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, University of

    Modeling the Dynamics of Fermentation and Respiratory Processes in a Groundwater Plume of Phenolic Halle, Germany A biodegradation model with consecutive fermentation and respiration processes, developed the rates and parameter values for fermentation processes and individual respiratory terminal electron

  18. Fermentation of philippine vegetable blends.

    PubMed

    Orillo, C A; Sison, E C; Luis, M; Pederson, C S

    1969-01-01

    Seven blends of Philipphine vegetables, two of which contained soybeans and one mongo bean sprouts, were prepared for fermentation and study of microbiological and chemical changes. The fermentations were typical lactic acid bacterial fermentations, initiated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and continued by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and L. plantarum. The combination of high acidity and low pH resembled other vegetable fermentations, such as sauerkraut. The procedure offers a method of preserving surplus vegetables, and, in addition, a method for incorporating and preserving the high-protein-containing soybeans. PMID:16349831

  19. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  20. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Deanda, Kristine A. (Conifer, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  1. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Deanda, Kristine A. (Conifer, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglenn, CO); Newman, Mildred M. (Littleton, CO); McMillan, James D. (Boulder, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  2. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  3. glycerol fermentation and a reversal of the

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    glycerol fermentation and a reversal of the -oxidation cycle as efficient biological platforms's discovery that Escherichia coli can anaerobically ferment glycerol, laid the foundation for the development

  4. Inhomogeneous vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wands, David; De-Santiago, Josue; Wang, Yuting

    2012-07-01

    Vacuum energy remains the simplest model of dark energy which could drive the accelerated expansion of the Universe without necessarily introducing any new degrees of freedom. Inhomogeneous vacuum energy is necessarily interacting in general relativity. Although the 4-velocity of vacuum energy is undefined, an interacting vacuum has an energy transfer and the vacuum energy defines a particular foliation of spacetime. In particular we will discuss cosmological solutions where the background vacuum energy is spatially homogeneous. It is possible to give a consistent description of vacuum dynamics and in particular the relativistic equations of motion for spatially inhomogeneous perturbations given a covariant prescription for the vacuum energy, or equivalently the energy transfer 4-vector, and we construct gauge-invariant vacuum perturbations. We show that any dark energy cosmology can be decomposed into an interacting vacuum+matter cosmology whose inhomogeneous perturbations obey simple first-order equations.

  5. Fermented Products with Probiotic Qualities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Kalantzopoulos

    1997-01-01

    For several centuries, fermented products derived from plant or animal materials have been an aceptable and essential part of the diet in most parts of the world. Health benefits have also often been associated with them. Probiotics can be defined as fermented food containing specific live microorganisms or a live microbial food or feed supplement, which benefically effects the human

  6. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris A. M. Missotten; Joris Michiels; Anneke Ovyn; Stefaan De Smet; Noël A. Dierick

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed

  7. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  8. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai Leng Teoh; Gillian Heard; Julian Cox

    2004-01-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and

  9. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  10. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  11. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  12. Educational Vacuum Trainers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hansen, Steve

    Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

  13. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  14. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  15. Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ammon

    1934-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

  16. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Roa Engel; Adrie J. J. Straathof; Tiemen W. Zijlmans; Walter M. van Gulik; Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric\\u000a acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical\\u000a process yields 112% w\\/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w\\/w from glucose, the latter raw

  17. Heating steels in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Marmer, E.N.

    1983-03-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

  18. CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation

    E-print Network

    CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation Process Used to Produce Biofuel TRANSPORTATION (not reliant on light and photosynthesis) algal fermentation to process sustainable, nonfood derived fermentable sugars to test process on actual commercially available products. · Fermented

  19. Comparative Detoxification of Vacuum Evaporation\\/Steam Stripping Combined with Overliming on Corn Stover Prehydrolyzate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-jun Zhu; Qiang Yong; Yong Xu; Shi-yuan Yu

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of physical methods, vacuum evaporation and steam stripping, combined with overliming (calcium hydroxide) were applied to remove inhibitors which were produced simultaneously during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Corn stover was steam exploded; the filtrate was hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. The acid hydrolyzate was then detoxified and fermented by yeast. Physical methods could remove volatile compounds from

  20. Fermented liquid feed and fermented grain to piglets effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Canibe; B. B. Jensen

    2007-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grain, and fermented liquid compound feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance of piglets. Three dietary treatments were designed: dry feed (DRY); fermented liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLF was

  1. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species. PMID:15282124

  2. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  4. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  5. Heating steels in vacuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marmer

    1983-01-01

    It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires

  6. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  7. Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Halise Gül Ak?ll?oglu; Burçe Ataç Mogol; Vural Gökmen

    2011-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order

  8. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. biofuel carbohydrate ethanol fermentation ionic liquid, diluted with water, and heated was trans- formed into a fermentable sugar (17, 18). The concentrated acid

  9. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation , A. Mouddenb

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process D. Izbaima , B. Faiza , A. Mouddenb , M is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should

  10. Chapter 13. The Vacuum System

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    to the exact radius for a 28 degree arc. A short aluminum bellows adapter is placed between each vacuum chamberChapter 13. The Vacuum System Revised February 1994 13.1. The Vacuum Chambers A plan view of the assembled vacuum chamber ring is shown in Fig. 13.1.1. The vacuum chamber ring includes twelve 28 degree

  11. Photon acceleration in vacuum

    E-print Network

    J. T. Mendonca; M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; G. Brodin

    2006-08-16

    A new process associated with the nonlinear optical properties of the electromagnetic vacuum, as predicted by quantum electrodynamics, is described. This can be called photon acceleration in vacuum, and corresponds to the frequency shift that takes place when a given test photon interacts with an intense beam of background radiation.

  12. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1983-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews anode phenomena in vacuum arcs, specially experimental work. It discusses, in succession, arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurements, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomena. The two most common anode modes in a vacuum arc are a low current mode where

  13. Bimutation breeding of Aspergillus niger strain for enhancing ?-mannanase production by solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minchen Wu; Cunduo Tang; Jianfang Li; Huimin Zhang; Jing Guo

    2011-01-01

    A parent strain Aspergillus niger LW-1 was mutated by the compound mutagenesis of vacuum microwave (VMW) and ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). A mutant strain, designated as A. niger E-30, with high- and stable-yield ?-mannanase was obtained through a series of screening. The ?-mannanase activity of the mutant strain E-30, cultivated on the basic fermentation medium at 32°C for 96h, reached

  14. Original article Ruminal fermentative parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ruminal fermentative parameters and blood acido-basic balance changes during (Received 18 April 2003; accepted 10 September 2003) Abstract -- Four ruminal cannulated Texel wethers were used to study the long-term effects of an acidotic diet on ruminal parameters and blood acid

  15. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

  16. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  17. Chemicals from biomass by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The status of fermentation processing is reviewed in terms of the various types of products-antibiotics, commodity chemicals, and genetically engineered proteins. The contribution of biomass to the manufacture of these products is addressed in terms of technical requirements, cost, and environmental considerations.

  18. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol or sugar alcohol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industries. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. A number of lactic acid bacter...

  19. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that exhibit high degrees of conformance to the international standards of regulatory and good manufacturing practice. PMID:12930092

  20. The quantum vacuum

    E-print Network

    G. S. Paraoanu

    2014-12-12

    The vacuum is the lowest energy state of a field in a certain region of space. This definition implies that no particles can be present in the vacuum state. In classical physics, the only features of vacuum are those of its geometry. For example, in the general theory of relativity the geometry is a dynamical structure that guides the motion of matter, and, in turn, it is bent and curved by the presence of matter. Other than this, the classical vacuum is a structure void of any physical properties, since classically properties are strictly associated with physical objects such as particles and finite-amplitude fields. The situation is very different in quantum physics. As I will show in this paper, the difference stems from the fact that in quantum physics the properties are not strictly tied to objects. We know for example that physical properties come into existence - as values of observables - only when the object is measured. Thus, quantum physics allows us to detach properties from objects. This has consequences: one does not need pre-existing real objects to create actual properties, and indeed under certain perturbations the quantum vacuum produces observable effects such as energy shifts and creation of particles. An open question is if by necessity the vacuum comes with an embedded geometry, and if it is possible to construct viable physical theories in which geometry is detached from the vacuum.

  1. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  2. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  3. Evading death by vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

    2013-03-15

    In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

  4. Vacuum mechatronics first international workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Belinski, S.E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G. (eds.) (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: proposed epitaxial thin film growth in the ultra-vacuum of space; particle monitoring and control in vacuum processing equipment; electrostatic dust collector for use in vacuum systems; materials evaluation of an electrically noisy vacuum slip ring assembly; an overview of lubrication and associated materials for vacuum service; the usage of lubricants in a vacuum environment; guidelines and practical applications for lubrication in vacuum; recent development in leak detector and calibrator designs; the durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum; vacuum-compatible robot for self-contained manufacturing systems; the design, fabrication, and assembly of an advanced vacuum robotics system for space payload calibration; design criteria for mechanisms used in space; and concepts and requirements for semiconductor multiprocess integration in vacuum. These papers are indexed separately elsewhere.

  5. Supermite vacuum interface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, W. B.; Stinnett, R. W.; McDaniel, D. H.

    A new water plastic vacuum interface has been designed for Sandia Laboratory's Supermite (2.8 MV, 2.2 ohm) accelerator. This design was based on the PBFA I vacuum interface. Electrostatic field plots show that in positive polarity the water feed to the PBFA I interface will fail at 2 MV on Supermite. This is confirmed by positive polarity experiments and field plots using the PBFA I style vacuum interface at the Naval Research Labs. Modifications to the water section geometry to increase the water breakdown strength in positive polarity result in equivalent electric field grading at the plastic vacuum interface but allow positive polarity operation at voltages up to 3.1 MV. This is accomplished by incorporating a dielectric field shaper which significantly improves the electric field grading across the insulator.

  6. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  7. III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Gas transfer

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kai

    : Oil Diffusion PumpB. High Vacuum: Oil Diffusion Pump (Wet, Gas Transfer)(Wet, Gas Transfer, Screw High vacuum Oil diffusion, Turbomolecular, Cryo, Ion Auxiliary Titanium Sublimation, LN2 Liu, UCDIII. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Mechanism Gas transfer Gas capture FunctionFunction Roughing

  8. Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation 

    E-print Network

    Smith, Aaron Douglas

    2011-08-08

    Via mixed-culture fermentation, the MixAlcoTM produces carboxylic acids, which are chemically converted into industrial chemicals and hydrocarbon fuels. Using pilot fermentation data, The Continuum Particle Distribution ...

  9. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-01-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw. Images PMID:565187

  10. Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Smith, Aaron Douglas

    2011-08-08

    PILOT-SCALE FERMENTATION AND LABORATORY NUTRIENT STUDIES ON MIXED-ACID FERMENTATION A Dissertation by AARON DOUGLAS SMITH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PILOT-SCALE FERMENTATION AND LABORATORY NUTRIENT STUDIES ON MIXED-ACID FERMENTATION A Dissertation by AARON DOUGLAS SMITH...

  11. Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

  12. Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus

    E-print Network

    Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

    1980-01-01

    FERMENTATION OF SORGHUM DOUGH BY THE GENUS LACTOBACILLUS A Thesis by SUSIE HONG NGUYEN CLARK Approved as to style and content by: Member Member Ilember ead of Dep tment December 1980 ABSTRACT Fermentation of Sorghum Dough by the Genus... Lactobacillus. (December 1980) Susie Hong Nguyen Clark, B. S. , Purdue University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. L. Richter Sorghum flour was fermented by naturally occurring microorganisms. These microorganisms were isolated by plating on special...

  13. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  14. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  15. Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp the ACE-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities were analysed in milks fermented by two bacterial of peptide fractions (fermented milks. Concanavalin A (conA), a known

  16. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  17. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  18. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  19. Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest and limits, France) Introduction During in vivo colonic fermentation studies of in- digestible polysaccharides fermented organic matter (TFOM) was calculated from total SCFA production according to Van Nevel and De

  20. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  1. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Glassner, David A. (4454 Satinwood Rd., Okemos, MI 48864); Jain, Mahendra K. (3950 Jonquil La., Okemos, MI 48864); Datta, Rathin (442 W. Melrose Ave., #3, Chicago, IL 60657)

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  2. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  3. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  4. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  5. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  6. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  7. Fermented co-products and fermented compound diets for pigs: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. J. Scholten; C. M. C. van der Peet-Schwering; M. W. A. Verstegen; L. A. den Hartog; J. W. Schrama; P. C. Vesseur

    1999-01-01

    This review deals with the properties of fermented diets and their effects on growth performance and gastrointestinal environment of pigs. In addition, some possible modes of action are hypothesized. Starch and sugar rich liquid co-products have a high potential for fermenting during storage. Soaking compound feed with water is another means of achieving a fermented diet. These diets are characterized

  8. Fermentation of Philippine Vegetable Blends1

    PubMed Central

    Orillo, C. A.; Sison, E. C.; Luis, M.; Pederson, C. S.

    1969-01-01

    Seven blends of Philipphine vegetables, two of which contained soybeans and one mongo bean sprouts, were prepared for fermentation and study of microbiological and chemical changes. The fermentations were typical lactic acid bacterial fermentations, initiated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and continued by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and L. plantarum. The combination of high acidity and low pH resembled other vegetable fermentations, such as sauerkraut. The procedure offers a method of preserving surplus vegetables, and, in addition, a method for incorporating and preserving the high-protein-containing soybeans. PMID:16349831

  9. Bacteriophage Ecology in Commercial Sauerkraut Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z.; Breidt, F.; Plengvidhya, V.; Fleming, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 phage isolates, including at least 26 distinct phages, were obtained. In addition, 28 distinct host strains were isolated and identified as LAB by restriction analysis of the intergenic transcribed spacer region and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. These host strains included Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species. It was found that there were two phage-host systems in the fermentations corresponding to the population shift from heterofermentative to homofermentative LAB between 3 and 7 days after the start of the fermentations. The data suggested that phages may play an important role in the microbial ecology and succession of LAB species in vegetable fermentations. Eight phage isolates, which were independently obtained two or more times, were further characterized. They belonged to the family Myoviridae or Siphoviridae and showed distinct host ranges and DNA fingerprints. Two of the phage isolates were found to be capable of infecting two Lactobacillus species. The results from this study demonstrated for the first time the complex phage ecology present in commercial sauerkraut fermentations, providing new insights into the bioprocess of vegetable fermentations. PMID:12788716

  10. Fermentation Challenge: Making Ethanol from Cellulose

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This high school or beginning undergraduate level lab demonstration and inquiry activity will introduce students to the process of fermenting cellulosic biomass into cellulosic ethanol, along with the challenges researchers face in this area. The demonstration uses a Vernier probe or balloons to measure fermentation rates of different feedstocks to begin the discussion of why some carbohydrates are easily fermented by yeast while others are not. Students can design and carry out their own labs to try to improve fermentation rates of various feedstocks. The downloadable package of materials includes 1) Teacher Instructions and Answer Key 2) Student Activities and Worksheets 3) Supplementary Materials

  11. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Breidt, F; Plengvidhya, V; Fleming, H P

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 phage isolates, including at least 26 distinct phages, were obtained. In addition, 28 distinct host strains were isolated and identified as LAB by restriction analysis of the intergenic transcribed spacer region and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. These host strains included Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Lactobacillus species. It was found that there were two phage-host systems in the fermentations corresponding to the population shift from heterofermentative to homofermentative LAB between 3 and 7 days after the start of the fermentations. The data suggested that phages may play an important role in the microbial ecology and succession of LAB species in vegetable fermentations. Eight phage isolates, which were independently obtained two or more times, were further characterized. They belonged to the family Myoviridae or Siphoviridae and showed distinct host ranges and DNA fingerprints. Two of the phage isolates were found to be capable of infecting two Lactobacillus species. The results from this study demonstrated for the first time the complex phage ecology present in commercial sauerkraut fermentations, providing new insights into the bioprocess of vegetable fermentations. PMID:12788716

  12. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological\\u000aconstant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating\\u000acontribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy;\\u000anon-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on\\u000athe overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance\\u000afor

  13. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation. PMID:10099222

  14. Stellarator helical vacuum vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Yavornik, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

  15. Vacuum Techniques Lecture Notes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most modern day experimental research in physical chemistry is performed with the use of some sort of vacuum system. Organic and inorganic chemists are also finding it is essential to conduct synthetic and kinetic work under controlled or reduced pressures. The term "vacuum system" is applied rather broadly, from instrumentation that operates at very low pressures (i.e., below 10-8 torr) to systems that are only pumped down once to remove air and then used to handle gases at moderate pressures (up to and sometimes over one atmosphere). Vacuum systems vary widely in their size and complexity (and expense) depending on the requirements of pumping speed and attainable vacuum. This experiment is designed to illustrate the purpose and use of the basic components found on typical vacuum apparati. The volumes of the isolatable sections of the system will be measured. Also, some of the variables, such as pumping speed, which should be considered in designing such a system, will be investigated.

  16. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  17. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    E-print Network

    Brown, I

    2013-01-01

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  18. Spacecraft thermal vacuum testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, B. F.; Lancaster, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    An approach for developing a general thermal vacuum test program philosophy is discussed. Guidelines are established that will assist the project engineer in relating the risk associated with flying any spacecraft to its test program. Computerized techniques can be used to help ascertain these guidelines, which relate the risk to the level of test (component, subsystem, etc), as well as to the type of test (development, qualification, etc). The interrelationship between the test program and the analytical effort is also discussed. The Skylab Apollo telescope mount general thermal vacuum test program, including test schedules, instrumentation, and test results is also discussed.

  19. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  20. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-08-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  1. The vacuum interpretation of quantum mechanics and the vacuum universe

    E-print Network

    Ding-Yu Chung

    2001-10-27

    Quantum mechanics is interpreted by the adjacent vacuum that behaves as a virtual particle to be absorbed and emitted by its matter. As described in the vacuum universe model, the adjacent vacuum is derived from the pre-inflationary universe in which the pre-adjacent vacuum is absorbed by the pre-matter. This absorbed pre-adjacent vacuum is emitted to become the added space for the inflation in the inflationary universe whose space-time is separated from the pre-inflationary universe. This added space is the adjacent vacuum. The absorption of the adjacent vacuum as the added space results in the adjacent zero space (no space), Quantum mechanics is the interaction between matter and the three different types of vacuum: the adjacent vacuum, the adjacent zero space, and the empty space. The absorption of the adjacent vacuum results in the empty space superimposed with the adjacent zero space, confining the matter in the form of particle. When the absorbed vacuum is emitted, the adjacent vacuum can be anywhere instantly in the empty space superimposed with the adjacent zero space where any point can be the starting point (zero point) of space-time. Consequently, the matter that expands into the adjacent vacuum has the probability to be anywhere instantly in the form of wavefunction. In the vacuum universe model, the universe not only gains its existence from the vacuum but also fattens itself with the vacuum. During the inflation, the adjacent vacuum also generates the periodic table of elementary particles to account for all elementary particles and their masses in a good agreement with the observed values.

  2. Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Paul Ross; S Morgan; C Hill

    2002-01-01

    Preservation of food and beverages resulting from fermentation has been an effective form of extending the shelf-life of foods for millennia. Traditionally, foods were preserved through naturally occurring fermentations, however, modern large scale production generally now exploits the use of defined strain starter systems to ensure consistency and quality in the final product. This review will mainly focus on the

  3. Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Soergel

    1994-01-01

    Colonic SCFA formation from fermentable carbohydrate is important for the maintenance of morphologic and functional integrity of the colonic epithelium. Carbohydrate-induced diarrhea occurs when the amount of carbohydrate entering the colon exceeds its fermentation capacity. Deficient availability or utilization of SCFA, mainly of n-butyrate, is the cause of diversion colitis and may play important roles in colonic carcinogenesis, in starvation

  4. Solid state fermentation of banana wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Baldensperger; J. Le Mer; L. Hannibal; P. J. Quinto

    1985-01-01

    Summary Using a strain ofAspergillus niger, the protein content of banana wastes was raised from 6 to 18 % by solid state fermentation. A meal of green bananas was obtained by solar drying, and fermentation was conducted in a 15 kg (dry weight) capacity stirred reactor. As the substrate consumption was 24 % of initial weight after 43 h. of

  5. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  6. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. T. Luong; J. H. T

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharo-myces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific

  7. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

  8. Exploring Microbial Fermentation with Korean Kimchee

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John M. Greenler (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    To get a closer look at metabolism and succession, consider the fermentation process for making traditional Kimchee. This non-pathogenic system provides opportunities for real time data acquisition and analysis. Experimental data is provided for variables such as pH and O2 levels. * measure key metabolic indicators and observe succession in a fermentation culture for making Kimchee

  9. Emerging fermentation technologies: Development of novel sourdoughs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lacaze; M. Wick; S. Cappelle

    2007-01-01

    The increasing knowledge of sourdough fermentation generates new opportunities for its use in the bakery field. New fermentation technologies emerged through in depth sourdough research. Dextrans are extracellular bacterial polysaccharides produced mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These bacteria convert sucrose thanks to an inducible enzyme called dextransucrase into dextran and fructose. The structure of dextran depends on the producing

  10. Plant-derived biomolecules in fermented cabbage.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Marja; Taipale, Marianne; Viander, Britta; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Korhonen, Hannu; Ryhänen, Eeva-Liisa

    2002-11-01

    The formation of plant-derived biomolecules during sauerkraut fermentation was studied. Cabbage was fermented with a starter culture, and the results were compared to the results of spontaneous fermentation. The concentration of flavonoids and glucosinolates was analyzed by HPLC, and that of the glucosinolate breakdown products, by GC-MS. Of the 20 different flavonoids tested, only kaempferol was found (0.9 mg/ kg FW, fresh weight). The content of kaempferol remained constant in the cabbage fiber matrix over the fermentation process. The nitrite concentration was below the detection limit in both fermentations. The total glucosinolate content in the raw material was 3.71 micro mol/g DW, dry weight. Glucosinolates were totally decomposed in both fermentations during two weeks, and different types of breakdown products were formed. Isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, goitrin, allyl cyanide, and nitriles were determined in the fermented cabbage. Isothiocyanates and allyl cyanide were the predominant breakdown products in both fermentations. Sulforaphane nitrile and goitrin were found only in small quantities in the end products. PMID:12405778

  11. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 independent phage isolates, including ...

  12. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  13. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  14. Solid residues from Ruminococcus cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Conner, A H; Lorenz, L F

    2003-11-01

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives for plywood fabrication. The residues contained differing amounts of protein (0.4-4.2% of dry weight), but the ratios of monosaccharides recovered following two-stage treatment of the residue with detergent (pH 7) and TFA were similar for all three strains (0.71 glucose:0.18 xylose:0.08 mannose:0.02 galactose), suggesting similarities in exopolysaccharide composition. Three-ply aspen panels prepared with fermentation residues (FR) displayed better shear strength and wood failure under dry conditions than following a vacuum/pressure/soak/dry treatment, but adhesive properties were inferior to those prepared with conventional phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives. However, panels prepared by incorporating the R. albus 7 FR into PF formulation, at 73% by weight of the total adhesive, exhibited shear strength and wood failure similar to that obtained with PF adhesive alone. Use of residues from fermentations by these bacteria as components of adhesives may add value to biomass fermentations aimed primarily at producing ethanol and other chemical products. PMID:12819957

  15. The vacuum conservation theorem

    E-print Network

    E. Minguzzi

    2015-02-28

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  16. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  17. Vacuum insulator coating development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

  18. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  19. Safety of Minkowski Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Gia Dvali

    2011-07-05

    We give a simple argument suggesting that in a consistent quantum field theory tunneling from Minkowski to a lower energy vacuum must be impossible. Theories that allow for such a tunneling also allow for localized states of negative mass, and therefore, should be inconsistent.

  20. What is vacuum?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Rowlands

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the

  1. Vacuum Arc Anode Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs. It discusses in succession the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during, and after formation of an anode spot; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the

  2. Vacuum arc recovery phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

    1964-01-01

    The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

  3. Vacuum arcs and switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Farrall

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a review of vacuum-arc phenomena which are related to switching devices. Despite the device overtones, the approach adopted for this paper is fundamental. Topics discussed include the drawn arc, the triggered arc, the power input to the cathode spot, cathode-spot division, arc stability, substructure of the cathode spot, dielectric recovery processes, and breakdown between electrodes subjected to

  4. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  5. Nonlinear Oscillators Vacuum Squeezing

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    dz mtF dt dz mzzk =++ =+ --- Classical Physics: The Driven Damped Harmonic Oscillator - a modelNonlinear Oscillators and Vacuum Squeezing David Haviland Nanosturcture Physics, Dept. Applied #12;Splitting of Cavity Resonance Now consider damping: excitation is ½ photon, ½ atom decay rate: 2

  6. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ford

    1995-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which

  7. Light-front vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marc; Polyzou, W. N.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the relation between the trivial vacuum in light-front field theory and the nontrivial vacuum in canonical representations of quantum field theory and the role of zero-modes in this relation. The role of the underlying field algebra in the definition of the vacuum is exploited to understand these relations. The trivial vacuum defined by an annihilation operator defines a linear functional on the algebra of fields restricted to a light front. This is extended to a linear functional on the algebra of local fields. The extension defines a unitary mapping between the physical representation of the local algebra and a sub-algebra of the light-front Fock algebra. The dynamics appears in the mapping and the structure of the sub-algebra. This correspondence provides a formulation of locality and Poincaré invariance on the light-front Fock space. Zero modes do not appear in the final mapping, but may be needed in the construction of the mapping using a local Lagrangian.

  8. The vacuum conservation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-03-01

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  9. The quantum vacuum

    E-print Network

    Paraoanu, G S

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum is the lowest energy state of a field in a certain region of space. This definition implies that no particles can be present in the vacuum state. In classical physics, the only features of vacuum are those of its geometry. For example, in the general theory of relativity the geometry is a dynamical structure that guides the motion of matter, and, in turn, it is bent and curved by the presence of matter. Other than this, the classical vacuum is a structure void of any physical properties, since classically properties are strictly associated with physical objects such as particles and finite-amplitude fields. The situation is very different in quantum physics. As I will show in this paper, the difference stems form the fact that in quantum physics the properties are not strictly tied to objects. We know for example that physical properties come into existence - as values of observables - only when the object is measured. Thus, quantum physics allows us to detach properties from objects. This has cons...

  10. Vacuum configurations for superstrings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

    1985-01-01

    We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 × E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

  11. A general model for vacuum condensates and vacuum diffusive coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RI Shishkov; EM Lisichkova

    1995-01-01

    The paper suggests a general model for the classification of metal coatings obtained in vacuum. The model gives the thickness, the bond character and the bond to the coated substrate, depending on : temperature, forming time and condensation rate. The coatings have been classified in two basic groups : vacuum condensates and vacuum diffusive coatings, separated by a layer zone

  12. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  13. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  14. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  15. The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials G. PIVA, F. MASOERO, O. CURTO, isovaleric and valeric acids) showed a stimulating effect on ruminal microflora fermentations, particularly) on the in vitro fermentative activity of rumen microorganisms. Material and methods. Six fermentations were

  16. 250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Page, John

    250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY NOTE Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation by Different. During fermentation, the production of CO2, due to yeast's metabolic activities, causes the bubbles of fermentation conditions on the rheology of dough. The internal pressure of fermenting dough has been mea- sured

  17. VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation W. Fred Ramirez1,3 and Jan Maciejowski2 beer fermentation problems. Using a mathematical model of beer fermentation, the direct dynamic profiles. Key words: Dynamic optimization, fermentation, mathematical modeling, optimal flavor

  18. CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011 Please note that fees can be changed: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use of CBR centrifuge 7-L Fermenters (Working volume: 5.0 - 5.5 L) Harvest: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use

  19. CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011 What kind of fermentation Yes Yes Yes No No No No Bacterial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pichia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No NoFermentations Insect/Animal Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes For Number of fermenters 3-L Rushton impeller x 3 Bacterial

  20. Difficult to process? Vacuum it!

    SciTech Connect

    Eckles, A.J. [Atlanta Technology Group, GA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Recent improvements in vacuum processing have broadened the technology`s use in the chemical process industries, running the gamut from vacuum distillation and evaporation, degassing, freeze drying, vapor deposition and etching, to vacuum filtrations. The paper discusses process improvements, attaining liquid distribution, medium-vacuum processing, falling-film evaporators, wiped-film evaporators, short-path evaporators, evaporation and crystallization, filtration, drying, refrigeration, freeze drying, degassing, semiconductor processing, pumps and their selection, and leak testing.

  1. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  2. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    E-print Network

    G. E. Volovik

    2006-07-10

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

  3. Bacteriophage Ecology in a Commercial Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Hayes, J. S.; Breidt, F.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  4. B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

  5. Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment complementary technologies: specialised DNA oligonucleotide synthesis, large scale fermentation and gene cloning 3032) for fermentation and cloning and Dr Scott Cockroft (scott.cockroft@ed.ac.uk 50 4758

  6. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  7. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  8. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  9. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  10. African traditional fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Anukam, Kingsley C; Reid, Gregor

    2009-12-01

    African traditional fermented foods remain the main source of nutrition for many rural communities in Africa. Although lactic acid bacteria are integral to many of these foods, little is known about the specific health benefits they confer or the properties of their strains. This mini-review explores the history of some African fermented foods and their microbial content and properties within the context of probiotic characteristics. Given the recent upsurge in probiotic research, recommendations are made on studies that could be performed with African fermented foods and their strains, with a view to improving the health of people in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20041769

  11. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Ford

    1994-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the\\u000aquantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are\\u000achanged by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon\\u000atwo-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference\\u000apattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which

  12. Decoherence and Vacuum Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    L. H. Ford

    1994-08-30

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which the electrons are excluded. Thus this effect combines aspects of both the Casimir and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. The coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field tends to decrease the amplitude of the interference oscillations, and hence is a form of decoherence. The contributions due to photon emission and to vacuum fluctuations may be separately identified. It is to be expected that photon emission leads to decoherence, as it can reveal which path an electron takes. It is less obvious that vacuum fluctuations also can cause decoherence. What is directly observable is a shift in the fluctuations due, for example, to the presence of a conducting plate. In the case of electrons moving parallel to conducting boundaries, the dominant decohering influence is that of the vacuum fluctuations. The shift in the interference amplitudes can be of the order of a few percent, so experimental verification of this effect may be possible. The possibility of using this effect to probe the interior of matter, e.g., to determine the electrical conductivity of a rod by means of electrons encircling it is discussed. (Presented at the Conference on Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, June 18-22, 1994.)

  13. Vacuum Ultraviolet Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chun-Lin; Tomita, Kazuhiro; Jimbo, Takashi; Umeno, Masayoshi; Hattori, Shuzo

    1985-02-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet detector has been fabricated. A sample was made using a crystalline quartz plate on the surface of which a metal electrode was deposited. It has been experimentally established that the sample is sensitive to VUV radiation, and the external quantum efficiency is estimated to be higher than several percent. The new photodetector also has very good stability and should be a practicable new VUV photodetector.

  14. Decoherence and vacuum fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Ford, L H

    1994-01-01

    The interference pattern of coherent electrons is effected by coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field. The amplitudes of the interference maxima are changed by a factor which depends upon a double line integral of the photon two-point function around the closed path of the electrons. The interference pattern is sensitive to shifts in the vacuum fluctuations in regions from which the electrons are excluded. Thus this effect combines aspects of both the Casimir and the Aharonov-Bohm effects. The coupling to the quantized electromagnetic field tends to decrease the amplitude of the interference oscillations, and hence is a form of decoherence. The contributions due to photon emission and to vacuum fluctuations may be separately identified. It is to be expected that photon emission leads to decoherence, as it can reveal which path an electron takes. It is less obvious that vacuum fluctuations also can cause decoherence. What is directly observable is a shift in the fluctuations due, for example, to the pr...

  15. VOLATILE PROFILE OF NON-FERMENTED MILK AND MILK FERMENTED BY BIFIDOBACTERIUM ANIMALIS SUBSP. LACTIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Zareba; Malgorzata Ziarno; Mieczyslaw Obiedzinski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine low-molecular volatile compounds in milk supplemented with the strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 with or without fermentation process, stored at 6 ºC for 4 weeks. The chromatographic analysis of probiotic-supplemented non-fermented milk and milk fermented by strain Bb-12 revealed the presence of volatile compounds such as ketones, organic acid, and alcohols.

  16. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  17. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  18. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  19. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  20. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  1. Proteolysis in model sourdough fermentations.

    PubMed

    Zotta, Teresa; Piraino, Paolo; Ricciardi, Annamaria; McSweeney, Paul L H; Parente, Eugenio

    2006-04-01

    Model wheat doughs started with six different lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with or without a commercial baker's yeast culture, were used to study proteolysis in sourdough fermentations. Cell counts, pH, and free amino acid concentration were measured. Sequential extraction of dough samples was performed to separate wheat proteins. The salt-soluble protein fraction (albumins and globulins) was analyzed by RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE, whereas propanol-soluble (gliadins) and insoluble (glutenins) protein fractions were analyzed by SDS-PAGE only. Multivariate statistical methods were used for the analysis of results. The presence of yeasts and LAB affected RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE patterns of the salt-soluble fraction in a complex way. The only changes in the gluten proteins that could be related to the presence of LAB were the appearance of new protein fragments (20 and 27 kDa) from gliadins and the degradation of high molecular weight glutenin subunits. PMID:16569045

  2. Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Soergel, K H

    1994-10-01

    Colonic SCFA formation from fermentable carbohydrate is important for the maintenance of morphologic and functional integrity of the colonic epithelium. Carbohydrate-induced diarrhea occurs when the amount of carbohydrate entering the colon exceeds its fermentation capacity. Deficient availability or utilization of SCFA, mainly of n-butyrate, is the cause of diversion colitis and may play important roles in colonic carcinogenesis, in starvation and enterotoxigenic diarrhea, and in idiopathic UC. PMID:7865976

  3. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-print Network

    Easley, C. E.

    ENERGY UTILIZATION IN FERMENTATION ETHANOL PRODUCTION CHARLES E. EASLEY Vice President Raphael Katzen Associates International, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio ABSTRACT The fuel ethanol industry has put into practice several techniques for min...Imizing energy requirements for ethanol manufacture. Thermal energy usage in fermentation grain ethanol plants has been reduced from the prior practice of 80.900 Btu per gallon ethanol to current demonstrated practice of 49,700 Btu per gallon. Future. state...

  4. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production 

    E-print Network

    Easley, C. E.

    1987-01-01

    molecules accessible for subsequent conversion to sugar and making the slurry more fluid; and saccharification, in which the starch is enzymatically converted into sugars suitable for the yeast fermentation. A simplified schematic of this process... suitable for the saccharif~ing enzyme which is added as the mash is pumpef. to fermentation. These measures together repuce the energy requirement for mashing from 2t900 to about 12,500 Btu per gallon ethanol. Future additional reductions in mas ing...

  5. Antioxidant activity of fermented soybean extract.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chih-Chieh; Hsiao, Ching-Huang; Huang, Sin-Yi; Fu, Sheng-Hwa; Lai, Chih-Chia; Hong, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Lu, Fung-Jou

    2004-09-01

    Free radicals are considered to be important causative factors in the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This relationship has led to interest in evaluating the antioxidant capacities of many dietary supplements. Fermented soybean extract is produced by symbiotic fermentation of organic soybean with 20 types of Lactobacillus and yeast. In vitro and in vivo models are used in this study to evaluate the antioxidant effect of fermented soybean extract. Several in vitro models are used to detect the antioxidant capacity of the fermented soybean extract, which is compared to vitamin C and Trolox. The results demonstrate that the fermented soybean extract has strong antioxidant activity against unsaturated fatty acid peroxidation compared to vitamin C and Trolox. By the means of the test system developed by Y. Toshiki et al., it is shown that the fermented soybean extract can function both as an antioxidant and as a free radical acceptor that can convert free radicals into harmless substances through an energy-decreasing procedure. An in vivo study examines the effects of fermented soybean extract on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes (AOE) including total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) are measured in liver, kidney, and brain from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The activities of CAT, SOD, and GPX are increased in the liver. However, the SOD activity is decreased in the kidney. SOD and GPX activities are decreased in the brain. These results lead to the conclusion that fermented soybean extract not only has antioxidant activity but also has an effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver. PMID:15373417

  6. Lactic acid fermentation and adsorption on PVP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zheng; Xinhua Ding; Peilin Cen; Chein-Wen Yang; George T. Tsao

    1996-01-01

    Lactic acid was produced by immobilizedLactobacillus delbreückii cells in a fixedbed reactor and then separated by a column packed with poly(4-vinylpyridine) as an adsorbent. Satisfactory\\u000a simulation results were obtained by describing the fermentation process using a fermentation kinetics model with axial dispersion\\u000a and the column adsorption process using a linear-driving-force model.

  7. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  8. A fermentor for study of sauerkraut fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fleming, H P; McFeeters, R F; Humphries, E G

    1988-02-20

    A fermentor was designed and constructed for study of the physical, microbiological, and chemical changes that occur during the sauerkraut fermentation. The fermentor has some essential features that include restriction in volume of the sauerkraut bed, construction of clear plastic to permit visual determination of liquid-level changes as a result of gas entrapment within the sauerkraut bed, and a gas-lift device for use in nitrogen purging of the fermenting brine. Fermentations exhibited two distinct stages, the first one gaseous and the second non-gaseous. The gaseous stage was characterized by rapid CO(2) and acid production due to growth by hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with resultant gas entrapment within the sauerkraut bed and a rise in liquid level. Also, rapid disappearance of fructose and rapid appearance of mannitol occurred during this stage. The nongaseous stage was characterized by growth of homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with little or no CO(2) production and a gradual increase in lactic acid until all fermentable sugars were metabolized. Nitrogen purging appeared to offer several potential advantages, including a means for brine circulation, removal of CO(2) from the brine, and anaerobiosis to ensure retention of ascorbic acid, desirable color, and other oxygen-sensitive traits in sauerkraut. PMID:18584591

  9. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. PMID:25952856

  10. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation. PMID:25971198

  11. What is vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Rowlands, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

  12. What is vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Peter Rowlands

    2008-10-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

  13. Avoiding Death by Vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. Ivanov; R. Santos; Joao P. Silva

    2013-05-08

    The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

  14. Polymers in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, J. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

  15. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  16. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  17. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  18. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vacuum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10/sup 9/ to 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10/sup -6/ tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorption pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described.

  19. Motor actuated vacuum door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanagud, A. V.

    1986-10-01

    Doors that allow scientific instruments to record and retrieve the observed data are often required to be designed and installed as a part of sounding rocket hardware. The motor-actuated vacuum door was designed to maintain a medium vacuum of the order of 0.0001 torr or better while closed, and to provide an opening 15 inches long x 8.5 inches wide while open for cameras to image Halley's comet. When the electric motor receives the instruction to open the door through the payload battery, timer, and relay circuit, the first operation is to unlock the door. After unlatching, the torque transmitted by the motor to the main shaft through the links opens the door. A microswitch actuator, which rides on the linear motion conversion mechanism, is adjusted to trip the limit switch at the end of the travel. The process is repeated in the reverse order to close the door. 'O' rings are designed to maintain the seal. Door mechanisms similar to the one described have flown on Aerobee 17.018 and Black Brant 27.047 payloads.

  20. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  1. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  2. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive, pure culture fermentor which was suitable for gamma radiation, resistant to salt and acid, and which permitted repeated aseptic sampling of the fermenting brine, is illustrated and the specifications are given. PMID:16349651

  3. Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

  4. Modeling Vacuum Arcs

    E-print Network

    Insepov, Z; Proslier, T; Huang, D; Mahalingam, S; Veitzer, S

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a model of vacuum arcs. This model assumes that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, followed by ionization of fragments by field emission and the development of a small, dense plasma that interacts with the surface primarily through self sputtering and terminates as a unipolar arc capable of producing breakdown sites with high enhancement factors. We have attempted to produce a self consistent picture of triggering, arc evolution and surface damage. We are modeling these mechanisms using Molecular Dynamics (mechanical failure, Coulomb explosions, self sputtering), Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes (plasma evolution), mesoscale surface thermodynamics (surface evolution), and finite element electrostatic modeling (field enhancements). We can present a variety of numerical results. We identify where our model differs from other descriptions of this phenomenon.

  5. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  6. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing “stuck” fermentations, which i...

  7. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is produced by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation of whey with the addition of ammonia. (b) Specifications. The product contains 35 to 55 percent crude protein...

  8. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  9. Cartridge getter for vacuum jacketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebbers, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Inexpensively-manufactured getter cartridge save users time in vacuum system maintenance and allows almost anyone to carry out replacement procedure that formerly required skilled welder. Cartridge screws into port in outer wall of vacuum jacket. Getter is replaced by simply unscrewing cartridge rather than cutting and rewelding.

  10. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaw

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10 to 10¹¹ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place

  11. Anode modes in vacuum arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Craig Miller

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the five different anode discharge modes which can occur in a vacuum arc. These modes are diffuse arc (low current, with or without anode sputtering), footpoint (intermediate current), and anode spot or intense arc (high current). Descriptions of the various modes are presented, based primarily on experimental results. The hot anode vacuum arc mode, which occurs only

  12. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  13. Optimization of exopolysaccharide yields in sourdoughs fermented by lactobacilli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Kaditzky; Rudi F. Vogel

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the yields of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced in situ during sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 synthesizing glucan from sucrose were investigated under variation of the fermentation parameters dough yield (DY),\\u000a pH, sucrose content and fermentation substrate. The obtained amounts of EPS after 1 day of fermentation were higher in softer\\u000a (DY 500) than in firmer (DY 220)

  14. Vacuum energy as dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albareti, F. D.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the vacuum energy of massive quantum fields in an expanding universe. We define a conserved renormalized energy-momentum tensor by means of a comoving cutoff regularization. Using exact solutions for de Sitter space-time, we show that in a certain range of mass and renormalization scales there is a contribution to the vacuum energy density that scales as nonrelativistic matter and that such a contribution becomes dominant at late times. By means of the WKB approximation, we find that these results can be extended to arbitrary Robertson-Walker geometries. We study the range of parameters in which the vacuum energy density would be compatible with current limits on dark matter abundance. Finally, by calculating the vacuum energy in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background, we obtain the speed of sound of density perturbations and show that the vacuum energy density contrast can grow on sub-Hubble scales as in standard cold dark matter scenarios.

  15. Spacetime structure and vacuum entanglement

    E-print Network

    Eduardo Martin-Martinez; Alexander R. H. Smith; Daniel R. Terno

    2015-07-09

    We study the role that both vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement of a scalar field play in identifying the spacetime topology, which is not prescribed from first principles---neither in general relativity or quantum gravity. We analyze how the entanglement and observable correlations acquired between two particle detectors are sensitive to the spatial topology of spacetime. We examine the detector's time evolution to all orders in perturbation theory and then study the phenomenon of vacuum entanglement harvesting in Minkowski spacetime and two flat topologically distinct spacetimes constructed from identifications of the Minkowski space. We show that, for instance, if the spatial topology induces a preferred direction, this direction may be inferred from the dependence of correlations between the two detectors on their orientation. We therefore show that vacuum fluctuations and vacuum entanglement harvesting makes it, in principle, possible to distinguish spacetimes with identical local geometry that differ only in their topology.

  16. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  17. Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, S; Suihko, M L; Eerola, S; Petäjä, E; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    2001-02-28

    The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7 log10 to 8-9 log10 cfu/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry sausages fermented by L. rhamnosus LC-705 were inferior to the control sausages. The presence of inoculated experimental strains as predominant organisms in the dry sausages was recognised on the basis of their genetic fingerprints by ribotyping. The concentrations of biogenic amines remained low during the ripening process. These results indicated that the studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, especially strains GG and E-97800, are suitable for use as probiotic starter cultures in fermenting dry sausage. PMID:11252505

  18. Effect of sludge type on the fermentation products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Yuan; M. Baranowski; J. A. Oleszkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Primary sludge (PS), waste activated sludge (WAS) and a mixture of WAS and PS were fermented at 21°C. The sludge was collected from two plants: the biological nutrient removal (BNR) West End Water Pollution Control Center (WEWPCC) and carbon-removal only South End WPCC (SEWPCC). The PS fermentation predictably generated a significantly higher amount of soluble COD than WAS. WAS fermentation

  19. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of food waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve hydrogen fermentation of food waste in a leaching-bed reactor by heat-shocked anaerobic sludge, and also to investigate the effect of dilution rate (D) on the production of hydrogen and metabolites in hydrogen fermentation. Among various reaction constraints affecting the fermentation of food waste, a key factor is the adjustment of environmental conditions during the

  20. Flavouring composition prepared by fermentation with Bacillus spp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Beaumont

    2002-01-01

    Fermented foodstuffs and condiments remain a key constituents of diets throughout many parts of Asia and Africa. In cases where the process of fermentation evolved for the development of taste or aroma, it often resulted in enhanced nutrition, stabilisation of the original raw materials, and detoxification of anti-nutrient factors. Several fermented products rely on the participation of various Bacillus species,

  1. Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Kocuria salsicia sp. nov., isolated from salt- fermented seafood Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 salt-fermented seafood in Korea. It was a Gram- positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium sediment (Kim et al., 2004), saline desert soil (Li et al., 2006), fermented food (Park et al., 2010a, b

  2. Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood Na-Ri Shin, Min-Soo Kim, Mi, designated NAL101T , was isolated from gajami-sikhae, a traditional Korean fermented seafood made of flatfish ). Sikhae, a kind of traditional Korean food, also known as jeotgal, consists of fermented fish without

  3. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  4. Ph.D. Engineers (Entry Level) Fermentation Engineers Description

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Ph.D. Engineers (Entry Level) ­ Fermentation Engineers Description: DuPont Central Research and Development has an immediate opening for Biochemical Engineers with a strong background in fermentation based or more areas including metabolic engineering, systems biology, bioreactor design, fermentation

  5. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  6. Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed keratin, albumin, cooked casein transfer and fermentation in the caecum. The caecal digestion of casein (cooked or not), ker- atin (hydrolysed or not) and bovine serum albumin (oxidized or not) was measured in rats. Protein fermentation

  7. Lactobacillus kimchiensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented food

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Lactobacillus kimchiensis sp. nov., isolated from a fermented food Jandi Kim,3 Joon Yong Kim,3 Min bacterium was isolated from a traditional fermented food, kimchi. The morphology, physiology, biochemical ). Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food made of various vegetables and spices (red pepper, garlic

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Gel formation and rheological properties of fermented

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Gel formation and rheological properties of fermented milk with in situ acid bacteria can be used as natural stabilizers in fermented milk. The ability of EPS to modulate viscosity, elastic modulus, syneresis) of fermented milk. Three Streptococcus thermophilus--HC15 (control

  9. Boundary Analysis for H2 Production by Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Boundary Analysis for H2 Production by Fermentation Submitted To: National Renewable Energy design and order-of-magnitude economic analysis for the production of hydrogen by fermentation with no capital required for OSBL expansions Utilities: Purchased from host facility Fermentation Yield, moles H2

  10. Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation T Kondo, T Ohshita lignin undergoes in the digestive tract. Rumen fermentation has been reported to cause decomposition), but no further evidence is presented showing structural degradation of forage lignin by rumen fermentation

  11. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  12. Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of mountain the chemical characteristics and the evolution of fermentation processes in pre-wilted silages: 500 L capacity-wilting. Fermentation characteris- tics were significantly modified by wilting with an increase in pH (from 3.82 to 4

  13. Cell wall composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cell wall composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize HJP Marvin, CF Krechting to optimize ruminant utilization of nutrients from their feed, rate of digestion and fermentation profile [VFA the genetic control of biochemical factors that determine the fermentation characteristics of the stalk

  14. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  15. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food salt-fermented seafood. Shrimp jeotgal is made by mixing fresh tiny shrimps with rock salt, followed

  16. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  17. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  18. CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Bacterial Fermentation of

    E-print Network

    CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Bacterial Fermentation of California Agricultural Waste into Advanced Biofuel The Issue Ethanol and other biofuels from the fermentation and distillation of nonfood cellulosic biomass aerobic fermentation processes that rely on natural bacterial photosynthesis would significantly reduce

  19. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-01-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

  20. Reconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics Rodrigo Assar1, Felipe A.sherman@labri.fr Abstract Mathematical models of wine fermentation kinetics promise early diagnosis of stuck or sluggish the biology of wine yeast fermentation through functional genomics, and contribute to our understanding

  1. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  2. Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter Na-Ri Shin, Mi , was isolated from a Korean alcohol fermentation starter. Optimal growth occurred at 37 6C, at pH 8 and in 1 was isolated from nuruk, which is an alcohol fermentation starter used as an amylolytic substance

  3. Fermentative metabolism of a transga-lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fermentative metabolism of a transga- lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig hindgut microflora. Scarcely absorbed from the intestinal tract, this product is available for fermentation by hindgut microflora. The aim of this work was to study the fermentative metabo- lism in a continuous culture system

  4. Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation par Rhizopus oligosporus sp-T3 nutritionnelle et les propriétés fonctionnelles du lupin blanc doux (LBD), un procédé de fermentation à l'aide de fermentation a été faite à partir de 3 produits : les graines de lupin non traitées (LBDnt), le lupin chauffé à

  5. Selforganizing modelling of biotechnological batch and fedbatch fermentations

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Self­organizing modelling of biotechnological batch and fed­batch fermentations K.D. Bettenhausen and the cultivation of the organisms in batch or fed­batch fermentations. Thus the control of biotechnological batch and fed­batch fermentations re­ quires a long term prediction of the expected process behaviour for each

  6. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

  7. Antioxidant phenolic compounds loss during the fermentation of Chétoui olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada Ben Othman; Dominique Roblain; Nadia Chammen; Philippe Thonart; Moktar Hamdi

    2009-01-01

    Evolution of phenolic compounds was studied during spontaneous and controlled fermentations of “Chétoui” cultivar olives at three degree of ripeness. Both spontaneous and controlled fermentations led to an important loss of total phenolic compounds with a reduction rate of 32–58%. Consequently, the antioxidant activity decreased by 50–72%. After fermentations, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid concentrations increased, whilst protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid

  8. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  9. SUCROSE CONCENTRATION ALTERS FERMENTATION KINETICS, PRODUCTS AND CARBON FATES IN IN VITRO FERMENTATIONS WITH MIXED RUMINAL MICROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three concentrations of sucrose (Suc) and one of isolated neutral detergent fiber from bermudagrass were fermented together in vitro with rumen inoculum to evaluate the effects of Suc concentration on fermentation products and on fermentation kinetics as assessed by gas production. In gas production...

  10. Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solà, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant ? should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature R as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect ??˜R˜H2. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the ?CDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

  11. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  12. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  13. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  14. Changing MFTF vacuum environment

    SciTech Connect

    Margolies, D.; Valby, L.

    1982-08-19

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) vaccum vessel will be about 60m long and 10m in diameter at the widest point. The allowable operating densities range from 2 x 10/sup 9/ to 5 x 10/sup 10/ particles per cc. The maximum leak rate of 10/sup -6/ tl/sec is dominated during operation by the deliberately injected cold gas of 250 tl/sec. This gas is pumped by over 1000 square meters of cryopanels, external sorbtion pumps and getters. The design and requirements have changed radically over the past several years, and they are still not in final form. The vacuum system design has also changed, but more slowly and less radically. This paper discusses the engineering effort necessary to meet these stringent and changing requirements. Much of the analysis of the internal systems has been carried out using a 3-D Monte Carlo computer code, which can estimate time dependent operational pressures. This code and its use will also be described.

  15. Vacuum Function Operation and Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  18. Probiotics Bacteria in Fermented Dairy Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omer Turki Mamdoh Ershidat; Ayman Suliman Mazahreh

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional value of diary based product that contains probiotic bacteria on the gastrointestinal health and functions have been investigated in this study. Both probiotic Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus species, contribute to the formation of yogurt as a result of anaerobi c fermentation of lactic acid in the milk. The benefits of yogurt consumption on the gastrointestinal function mediated

  19. Comportement alimentaire, rumination, fermentations rticulo-ruminales

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comportement alimentaire, rumination, fermentations réticulo-ruminales et acides gras volatils-la-Neuve, Belgique. Summary. Effect of diet on eating behaviour and rumination and on rumen and blood VFA = 3) were compared as to eating behaviour, rumination and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in rumen

  20. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António César Silva; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

    2014-07-16

    This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale. PMID:24976138

  1. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ. PMID:24751382

  2. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  3. FERMENTED BEVERAGES OF PRE- AND PROTOHISTORIC CHINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery from the early Neolithic village of Jlahu in Henon province have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as the seventh millennium BC. This drink paved the way for unique grain beverag...

  4. Fermentation process for production of xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  5. Fermentation process for production of Xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  6. CULTURE MEDIA DESIGN FOR FERMENTATION BIOPROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target products for fermentation processes vary from whole cells to extracellular secondary metabolites. For all these processes, appropriate nutritional environments must be created and maintained to ensure optimized yields and product quality. Culture media optimization is a critical step in fer...

  7. Integrating Fermentation and Transesterification Industrial Scale Processes

    E-print Network

    Pike, Ralph W.

    industry in the chemicalPropose a biomass based chemical industry in the chemical production complexIntegrating Fermentation and Transesterification Industrial Scale Processes in the Lower in Design for Sustainability (T9004) Paper No. 225b, Abstract # 107411 American Institute of Chemical

  8. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  9. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  10. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

  11. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batch and continuous anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed to study the hydrogen production from cheese whey permeate under mesophilic conditions (35-38 oC). The batch experiments resulted in H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed at food to microorganisms ratios (F/M) of 1.0 and 1.5, respe...

  12. Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

    Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

  13. Feeding Fermented Cottonseed Meal to Hogs. 

    E-print Network

    Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1905-01-01

    BULLETIN 78 Animal Husbandry Section, October, 1905 FEEDING FERMENTED COTTONSEED MEAL TO HOGS BY F. R. MARSHALL Selected as Fountlation Ior a rolantl-China ~erci at the A. and M. College. POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS.... ............................. .Dean and Director. M. FRANCES, D. V. M .............................. .Veterinarian. F. S. JOHNSTON. .................................. .Agriculturist. E. J. KYLE, M. S. ................................. .Horticulturist. F. R. MARSHALL...

  14. Inhibition of malolactic fermentation by a peptide produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Osborne, James P; Edwards, Charles G

    2007-08-15

    The ability of Saccharomyces to inhibit Oenococcus oeni during the alcoholic fermentation by mechanisms other than SO(2) production was investigated. During fermentation in synthetic grape juice, S. cerevisiae strain RUBY.ferm inhibited the malolactic fermentation by O. oeni while strain EC1118 did not despite both strains producing similar amounts of SO(2). The bacterial inhibition exerted by RUBY.ferm was diminished when the wine was treated with proteases but not through the addition of nutrients. Wine fermented by RUBY.ferm was fractionated based on molecular weight and each fraction tested for the ability to inhibit the growth of O. oeni. The fraction containing compounds larger than 3 kDa was the sole inhibitory fraction. The inhibitory fraction was analyzed by SDS PAGE and showed a 5.9 kDa protein band present in wine fermented by RUBY.ferm that was not present in wine fermented by a non-antagonistic yeast, S. cerevisiae strain Saint Georges S101. The ability of the peptide to inhibit O. oeni seemed to be dependent on the presence of SO(2). PMID:17610976

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  16. Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Hu, Lanfang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

    2011-03-01

    The use of sludge fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as an additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has drawn much attention recently as it can reuse sludge organics, reduce waste activated sludge production, and improve BNR performance. Our previous laboratory study had shown that the SCFA production was significantly enhanced by controlling sludge fermentation at pH 10 with NaOH. This paper focused on a pilot-scale study of alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge, separation of the fermentation liquid from the alkaline fermentation system, and application of the fermentation liquid to improve municipal biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) were used respectively to adjust the alkaline fermentation pH, and their effects on sludge fermentation and fermentation liquid separation were compared. The results showed that the use of Ca(OH)(2) had almost the same effect on SCFA production improvement and sludge volatile suspended solids reduction as that of NaOH, but it exhibited better sludge dewatering, lower chemical costs, and higher fermentation liquid recovery efficiency. When the fermentation liquids, adjusted with Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH respectively, were added continuously to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic municipal wastewater BNR system, both the nitrogen and phosphorus removals, compared with the control, were improved to the same levels. This was attributed to the increase of not only influent COD but also denitrifying phosphorus removal capability. It seems that the use of Ca(OH)(2) to control sludge fermentation at pH 10 for efficiently producing a carbon source for BNR is feasible. PMID:21280571

  17. Pollution prevention in vacuum processes

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, K.L.; Dyer, J.A. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1999-05-01

    The gaseous emissions from vacuum systems often contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--one or more of which may be regulated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Typically, regulated emission sources will require greater than 98% control of using an end-of-pipe abatement or recovery technology. VOCs from vacuum generation are expensive to control and increase the investment and operating cost of the vacuum system. When noncondensibles or inerts are present, the amount of VOCs emitted to the environment will increase dramatically. This article discusses approaches which process and project engineers can apply to reduce or eliminate vacuum system emissions. Actual case histories are included which reflect the range of solutions that are being applied.

  18. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  19. Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Justin

    2007-07-14

    energy density. Both methods are done heuristically for star graphs then rigorously for general graphs. We also discuss some properties of the vacuum energy in quantum graphs including: repulsive Casimir forces, convergence and continuity in bond lengths....

  20. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the hygienization for the food manufacture industry. PMID:16793107

  1. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  2. Teaching vacuum technology using spreadsheet calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Pearson; G. M. Atkinson

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum technology is an important part of nano-fabrication. Automated control systems for vacuum equipment have made operation easy and safe but have also isolated the user from the need to understand the physics of vacuum systems. In spite of this, many equipment and process decisions revolve around choices made concerning the vacuum components of a processing tool. Students can use

  3. Leak rate measurements for large vacuum chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HE Nuss; I Streuff

    1995-01-01

    For large vacuum chambers of volume between 50 and 500 m3, which are required for space simulation and thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft systems and subsystems, a specific method for the determination of the vacuum chamber leak rate is described. The main characteristics of the facility including irradiation, thermal shroud, motion and vacuum subsystem are presented. The outgassing and desorption

  4. Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.

    PubMed

    Medina, K; Boido, E; Fariña, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

    2013-12-01

    Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the relative accumulation of 23 compounds to significantly different concentrations for the three fermentation strategies is discussed in relation to aroma compound composition. PMID:23870989

  5. Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

    2003-01-01

    Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118

  6. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry. PMID:20863273

  7. Changes in antioxidant phytochemicals and volatile composition of Camellia sinensis by oxidation during tea fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youngmok Kim; Kevin L. Goodner; Jong-Dae Park; Jeong Choi; Stephen T. Talcott

    2011-01-01

    Monomeric flavonoids (flavan 3-ols or tea catechins) present in Camellia sinensis leaf are transformed to polymeric theaflavin and thearubigin by oxidation occurring during tea fermentation. The distinctive colour, decreased bitterness and astringency, and characteristic flavour are derived from the fermentation process giving fermented teas a marked distinction from non-fermented green tea. Even though teas are available in many different fermentation

  8. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    E-print Network

    G. Duplancic; D. Glavan; H. Stefancic

    2010-11-26

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  9. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  10. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  12. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

  13. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  14. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  15. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION OF BRINE FROM CUCUMBER FERMENTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. O. Fasina; H. P. Fleming; E. G. Humphries; R. L. Thompson; L. R. Reina

    Due to environmental concerns, pickle companies are considering ways of reclaiming the brine obtained from cucumber fermentation. The removal of microbial cells is crucial in use of the brine in finished pickle products. The effects of transmembrane pressure (41 to 166 kPa), feed flow rate (7.8 to 15.5 L\\/min), pore size (500,000 NWCO and 0.2 m), and cell concentration (optical

  16. Enzyme conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O. (comp.)

    1983-01-01

    Saccharification studies indicated the suitability of Trichoderma viride 253 crude enzyme preparation as a promising agent for saccharifying sugarcane baggase hemicellulose, treated ..cap alpha..-cellulose, and alkali-treated bagasse. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for the fermentative production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and single cell protein (SCP) by T. viride 253 can be outlined as follows: (a) Production of extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases in a forced aeration-stirred tank fermentor using crude bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium. (b) Treatment of the remaining biodegraded bagasse with NaOH. (c) Refermentation in static culture of bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium for production of SCP material. The yeast, Pachysolen tannophilus, is capable of converting xylose and glucose to ethanol. Fermentation of the crude hydrolyzate from straw revealed low efficiencies of 40 to 60%. As anticipated, interfering substances are present in these crude substrates. Further procedures for optimization of both processing of hydrolyzates and fermentation are being investigated. Endoglucanase and cellobiase are inhibited by glucose, and cellobiose inhibits exoglucanase. A yeast (Candida wickerhamii) was isolated which ferments water soluble oligosaccharides. Because oligosaccharides (cellulodxtrins) are easier to prepare than glucose from cellulose, attention has been directed toward substrate preparation and organism characterization. While the literature contains several methods for preparing cellulodextrins, all the methods involve several steps or involve the removal or neutralization of strong acids. A simple method has been developed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-water for the hydrolysis. Analysis by TLC and HPLC shows a series of cellulodextrins (DP1-6) which are completely converted to ethanol by Candida wickerhamii in 4 to 5 days.

  17. Fermentative degradation of resorcinol and resorcylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Tschech; Bernhard Schink

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentative degradation of resorcinol and resorcylates was studied in enrichment cultures inoculated with marine or freshwater sediments or digested sludge. a-Resorcylate (3,5-dihydroxybenzoate) was degraded very rapidly to acetate and methane by enrichment cultures inoculated with freshwater sediment or sewage sludge, but degradation was slow in enrichments from marine habitats. The freshwater cultures did not degrade any other related phenolic

  18. Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus 

    E-print Network

    Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

    1980-01-01

    LITERATURE REVIEW OBJECTIVES MATERIALS AND METHODS Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli pH and Titr atable Acidity Determination Duality Evaluation by Taste Panel Page V11 V111 lx 8 10 Statistical Analyses of Acidity, pH, and Taste Panel... Results 12 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Isolation and Identification of Lactobacillus Carbohydrate Fermentation . Statistical Analyses of pH and Acidity pH hleasurements Percent Acidity . Taste Panel Results CONCLUSIONS APPENDIX . REFERENCES VITA 13...

  19. Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Erkkilä; Maija-Liisa Suihko; Susanna Eerola; Esko Petäjä; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm

    2001-01-01

    The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7log10 to 8–9log10 cfu\\/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9–5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry

  20. Comparison of Bifidogenic Growth Stimulation Activities of Fermented Whey Prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Gi-Seong

    2013-01-01

    Fermented whey solution presenting bifidogenic growth stimulation (BGS) activity was processed as prototypes such as sterilized fermented whey (SFW), spray-dried fermented whey (SDFW), and freeze-dried fermented whey (FDFW) and their BGS activities were compared. In optical density (OD600) test, the BGS activity of three prototypes, which showed similar activities, were significantly different with non-fermented whey solution adjusted to pH 4.5 as a control (P<0.05). In viable cell count test, SDFW had the most positive influence than other prototypes on the BGS activity even though the difference was not significant. However, the activities of all prototypes were significantly different than the negative control (no addition). These results indicate that the processed prototypes of fermented whey solution show BGS activities and might be commercialized, with further evidences, in animal or human studies. PMID:24551833

  1. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  2. Mathematical theory of physical vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnitskii, N. A.

    2011-06-01

    This article sets out mathematical basics of unifying fundamental physical theory, with a single postulate of nonvoid physical vacuum. It will be shown that all basic equations of classical electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and gravitation theory could be derived from two nonlinear equations, which define dynamics of physical vacuum in three-dimensional Euclidean space and, in turn, are derived from equations of Newtonian mechanics. Through the characteristics of physical vacuum, namely its density and propagation velocity of various density's perturbations, such principal physical conceptions as matter and antimatter, electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, velocity of light, electron, photon and other elementary particles, internal energy, mass, charge, spin, quantum properties, Planck constant and fine structure constant will have clear and sane definitions.

  3. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  4. Preservation and fermentation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ross, R Paul; Morgan, S; Hill, C

    2002-11-15

    Preservation of food and beverages resulting from fermentation has been an effective form of extending the shelf-life of foods for millennia. Traditionally, foods were preserved through naturally occurring fermentations, however, modern large scale production generally now exploits the use of defined strain starter systems to ensure consistency and quality in the final product. This review will mainly focus on the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for food improvement, given their extensive application in a wide range of fermented foods. These microorganisms can produce a wide variety of antagonistic primary and secondary metabolites including organic acids, diacetyl, CO2 and even antibiotics such as reuterocyclin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri. In addition, members of the group can also produce a wide range of bacteriocins, some of which have activity against food pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum. Indeed, the bacteriocin nisin has been used as an effective biopreservative in some dairy products for decades, while a number of more recently discovered bacteriocins, such as lacticin 3147, demonstrate increasing potential in a number of food applications. Both of these lactococcal bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotic family of posttranslationally modified bacteriocins that contain lanthionine, beta-methyllanthionine and dehydrated amino acids. The exploitation of such naturally produced antagonists holds tremendous potential for extension of shelf-life and improvement of safety of a variety of foods. PMID:12382680

  5. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

  6. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha. PMID:10888589

  7. Emerging fermentation technologies: development of novel sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, G; Wick, M; Cappelle, S

    2007-04-01

    The increasing knowledge of sourdough fermentation generates new opportunities for its use in the bakery field. New fermentation technologies emerged through in depth sourdough research. Dextrans are extracellular bacterial polysaccharides produced mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These bacteria convert sucrose thanks to an inducible enzyme called dextransucrase into dextran and fructose. The structure of dextran depends on the producing micro-organism and on culture conditions. Depending on its structure, dextran has specific properties which lead to several industrial applications in different domains. The use of dextran is not widely spread in the bakery field even if its impact on bread volume and texture was shown. A new process has been developed to obtain a sourdough rich in dextran using a specific LAB strain able to produce a sufficient amount of HMW dextran assuring a significant impact on bread volume. The sourdough obtained permits to improve freshness, crumb structure, mouthfeel and softness of all kinds of baked good from wheat rich dough products to rye sourdough breads. From fundamental research on dextran technology, a new fermentation process has been developed to produce an innovative functional ingredient for bakery industry. PMID:17008159

  8. New phenolic compounds from Camellia sinensis L. fermented leaves.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Arisa; Nakayama, Hideyuki; Nakazono, Yoko; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishimaru, Kanji

    2013-07-01

    Two new phenolic compounds (1 and 2, named as teasperol and teasperin, respectively) were isolated from fermented tea (Camellia sinensis L.) products, together with known phenolic compounds. Teasperol (1) was isolated from Chinese traditional post-fermented tea leaves (Liu-pao tea) and teasperin (2) was from a Japanese tea product which was selectively fermented with Aspergillus sp. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on the analyses of their spectroscopic data. PMID:22972630

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages from Fermenting Sauerkraut†

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, S. S.; Barrangou-Poueys, R.; Breidt, F.; Klaenhammer, T. R.; Fleming, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the first report of bacteriophage isolated from commercial vegetable fermentations. Nine phages were isolated from two 90-ton commercial sauerkraut fermentations. These phages were active against fermentation isolates and selected Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains, including a starter culture. Phages were characterized as members of the Siphoviridae and Myoviridae families. All Leuconostoc phages reported previously, primarily of dairy origin, belonged to the Siphoviridae family. PMID:11823247

  10. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages from fermenting sauerkraut.

    PubMed

    Yoon, S S; Barrangou-Poueys, R; Breidt, F; Klaenhammer, T R; Fleming, H P

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents the first report of bacteriophage isolated from commercial vegetable fermentations. Nine phages were isolated from two 90-ton commercial sauerkraut fermentations. These phages were active against fermentation isolates and selected Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus plantarum strains, including a starter culture. Phages were characterized as members of the Siphoviridae and Myoviridae families. All Leuconostoc phages reported previously, primarily of dairy origin, belonged to the Siphoviridae family. PMID:11823247

  11. Fermentation of Wood-dust by Cellulose Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artturi I. Virtanen

    1946-01-01

    IN this laboratory, fermentation of birch, aspen and pine-dusts has been investigated by enrichment cultures of thermophilic1, and recently also of mesophilic2, cellulose bacteria. he Tfiner the wood was ground, the more of the cellulose was fermented. In the best cases, a fermentation of about 70 per cent of cellulose in wood was obtained with the leaf-tree dust at 60°

  12. Separation of gamma-aminobutyric acid from fermented broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixing Li; Ting Qiu; Yan Chen; Yusheng Cao

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinaceous amino acid that is widely distributed in nature and acts as the major\\u000a inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. This study aimed to find a separation method for getting high-purity GABA\\u000a from a fermented broth. Firstly, a fermented broth with a high content of GABA (reaching 997 ± 51 mM) was prepared by fermentation\\u000a with Lactobacillus brevis

  13. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Calabrò, V; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

    2011-08-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22g L(-1) were found from whey containing ca. 44g L(-1) lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h. The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes. PMID:21632239

  14. QED vacuum loops and Inflation

    E-print Network

    H. M. Fried; Y. Gabellini

    2014-11-19

    A QED-based model of a new version of Vacuum Energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of Dark Energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both Dark Energy and Inflation in the same framework of Vacuum Energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between Inflation and the Big Bang, to the automatic inclusion of Dark Matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a Universe.

  15. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  16. Pilot-scale fermentation of office paper and chicken manure to carboxylic acids

    E-print Network

    Moody, Andrew Garret

    2006-08-16

    This project focused on scaling up the laboratory fermentation of biomass to carboxylic acids. Four 1050-gallon tanks were used to simulate four-stage countercurrent fermentation. Most laboratory fermentations have been performed with 1-L fermentors...

  17. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  18. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  20. Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer, Charles E. Wyman *

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Review: Continuous hydrolysis and fermentation for cellulosic ethanol production Simone Brethauer Available online 14 December 2009 Keywords: Continuous fermentation Enzymatic hydrolysis Fuel ethanol Lignocellulosic biomass Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) a b s t r a c t Ethanol made

  1. SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

  2. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

  4. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  5. INCLUSION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL IN RAINBOW TROUT DIETS MICHAEL E. BARNES

    E-print Network

    INCLUSION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL IN RAINBOW TROUT DIETS BY MICHAEL E. BARNES A dissertation..................................................................................................................... xvi CHAPTER 1. DIRECT SUBSTITUTION OF FISH MEAL WITH FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL ..................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 2. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL DIETS

  6. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  7. 76 FR 13629 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...Manufacturing, and Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...to support the CMC information for fermentation-derived intermediates, drug...

  8. Comparative Sugar Recovery and Fermentation Data Following Pretreatment of Poplar Wood by Leading Technologies

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    Comparative Sugar Recovery and Fermentation Data Following Pretreatment of Poplar Wood by Leading conditions gave good yields from sulfur dioxide and lime, and a recombinant yeast strain fermented the mixed, pretreatment, sulfur dioxide pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hydrolyzates Introduction

  9. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...Manufacturing, and Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...to support the CMC information for fermentation-derived intermediates, drug...

  10. BioethanolBioethanol Fermentation withFermentation with MucorMucor indicusindicus onon a White Clover/Rye grass Substratea White Clover/Rye grass Substrate

    E-print Network

    BioethanolBioethanol Fermentation withFermentation with MucorMucor indicusindicus onon a White-limited fermentation of a glucose enriched clover-grass pre-hydrolysate by the M. indicus strain at 30ºC and pH 6. Figure 2 Ethanol formation and free sugar consumption during aerobic fermentation of a glucose enriched

  11. Effect of sludge type on the fermentation products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Baranowski, M; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2010-06-01

    Primary sludge (PS), waste activated sludge (WAS) and a mixture of WAS and PS were fermented at 21 degrees C. The sludge was collected from two plants: the biological nutrient removal (BNR) West End Water Pollution Control Center (WEWPCC) and carbon-removal only South End WPCC (SEWPCC). The PS fermentation predictably generated a significantly higher amount of soluble COD than WAS. WAS fermentation released considerable amounts of phosphate and ammonium. Co-fermentation of WAS with PS enhanced soluble COD production and increased the release of phosphate and ammonium. The semi-continuous flow fermenters showed that regardless of the sludge source, with a similar total COD load, there was no significant difference in soluble COD production observed during co-fermentation between the two plants. Volatile fatty acids were the primary components of the soluble COD generated during fermentation. 20-22% volatile solids destruction was achieved due to sludge fermentation. The WEWPCC sludge released a higher concentration of phosphate than the SEWPCC sludge - the latter originating from a non-BNR process. Fermentation of combined PS and WAS sludge generated a concentration of phosphate high enough to allow phosphorus recovery as struvite at both plants. PMID:20444490

  12. Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5?5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

  13. Antihepatocarcinoma activity of lactic acid bacteria fermented Panax notoginseng.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Wei; Mou, Yu-Chen; Su, Chen-Chiang; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2010-08-11

    Panax notoginseng was used as the medium for lactic acid bacteria fermentation to manufacture product with antihepatocarcinoma activity. The fermentation broth prepared in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask was found to possess antiproliferation activity against hepatoma Hep3B cells. At the dosage of 500 microg/mL, the viability of hepatoma Hep3B cells was approximately 2.2%. When the fermentation was scaled up to a 6.6 L fermenter, it was found that the fermentation broth produced at 37 degrees C for 2 days showed the highest antihepatoma activity. Animal study revealed that when Hep3B implanted SCID mice were treated with 1000 mg/kg BW/day of the fermentation broth, tumor volume and tumor weight were reduced approximately 60% as compared to the negative control group. HPLC analyses showed that saponins in P. notoginseng including notoginsenoside R(1) and ginsenosides Rg(1), Rb(1), Rd, and Rh(4) decreased, but ginsenosides Rh(1) and Rg(3) increased during fermentation. LC-MS/MS revealed that the minor saponins ginsenoside F(1), protopanaxatriol, and notoginseng R(2) also exist in the fermentation product. It appears that ginsenoside Rg(3), ginsenoside Rh(1), and protopanaxatriol are possibly responsible for the enhanced antihepatocarcinoma activity of the P. notoginseng fermentation broth. PMID:20681639

  14. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Wheat Ridge, CO); Picataggio, Stephen K. (Landenberg, PA); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  15. Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-12-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

  16. Changes in biochemical and nutritional qualities of aerobic and vacuum-packaged Thua Nao during shelf-life storage.

    PubMed

    Dajantaa, Katekan; Apishartsarangku, Arune; Chukeatirote, Ekachai

    2013-06-01

    Thai traditionally fermented soybean (Thua Nao) has been suggested as a good source of available amino acids and aglycone isoflavones. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes of biochemical and nutritional qualities in aerobic- and vacuum-packed thua Nao during the storage at 4 and 40 degrees C for 60 days. Three Thua Nao samples including Bacillus subtilis TN51-fermented Thua Nao (TNB51), spontaneously fermented Thua Nao (TNMX) and commercial product (MH) were used in this study. It was found that the storage of packed Thua Nao at 4 degrees C could prolong the product shelf-life up to 40 days. The moisture contents, pH values and colour L a* b* of these products were not different in both aerobic and vacuum-packaged products and remained stable throughout the experiment. The Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values of all storage Thua Nao were increased during storage; this is in particular for the aerobic packages of the TNMX and TNB51 products, indicating high oxidation of lipids. There was a slight decrease in DPPH radical scavenging effect (18%) and phenolic compounds (6%) of the vacuum-packaged product when stored at 4 degrees C. In contrast, the great losses in total phenolic content (44%), inhibitory activity of DPPH radicals (83%) and total antioxidant (41%) were observed when the products were stored aerobically at 40 degrees C. A reduction in total free amino acids was also found with the highest decrease of Arg in both aerobic- (69%) and vacuum-packages (68%). PMID:24498818

  17. Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line-state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph K. McLaughlin; Charles L. Meyer; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    1985-01-01

    A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of

  18. Evaluation of energy-conversion efficiencies in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) utilizing fermentable and non-fermentable substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Sool Lee; Prathap Parameswaran; Andrew Kato-Marcus; César I. Torres; Bruce E. Rittmann

    2008-01-01

    We established the first complete electron-equivalent balances in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) fed with non-fermentable (acetate) and fermentable (glucose) electron donors by experimentally quantifying current, biomass, residual organic compounds, H2, and CH4 gas. The comparison of the two donors allowed us to objectively evaluate the diversion of electron flow to non-electricity sinks for fermentable donors, leading to different behaviors in

  19. Volatile Profile of Non-Fermented Milk and Milk Fermented by BifidoBacterium animalis subsp. lactis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorota Zareba; Malgorzata Ziarno; Mieczyslaw Obiedzinski

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine low-molecular volatile compounds in milk supplemented with the strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 with or without fermentation process, stored at 6°C for 4 weeks. The chromatographic analysis of probiotic-supplemented non-fermented milk and milk fermented by strain Bb-12 revealed the presence of volatile compounds, such as ketones, organic acid, and alcohols. The

  20. Fructose1,6-diphosphatase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from fermenting and non fermenting yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juana M. Gancedo; Carlos Gancedo

    1971-01-01

    1.Levels of phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activities have been compared in different yeasts belonging to glucose fermenting and non-fermenting groups grown in different conditions.2.Phosphofructokinase was present in all the fermentative species tested. On the contrary its level was not measurable in any of the aerobic yeasts tested with the exception of Pichia species.3.No significant variations were observed in the

  1. Evaluation of energy-conversion efficiencies in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) utilizing fermentable and non-fermentable substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyung-Sool Lee; Prathap Parameswaran; Andrew Kato-Marcus; Cesar I. Torres; Bruce E. Rittmann

    2007-01-01

    We established the first complete electron-equivalent balances in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) fed with non-fermentable (acetate) and fermentable (glucose) electron donors by experimentally quantifying current, biomass, residual organic compounds, H2, and CH4 gas. The comparison of the two donors allowed us to objectively evaluate the diversion of electron flow to non-electricity sinks for fermentable donors, leading to different behaviors in

  2. Vacuum-injection-molding processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

  3. Recent advances in Vacuum Electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Levush

    2008-01-01

    Vacuum Electronics (VE) technology has been and will continue to be the enabling technology for entire classes of high-power high-frequency amplifiers with the most demanding specifications for use in both military and commercial systems. Here in this paper, TWT design and its application has been described. Among the wide variety of applications requiring high power, communication, radar, EW, and broadcasting

  4. Fluctuation Noise in Vacuum Tubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Pearson

    1934-01-01

    The fluctuation noises originating in vacuum tubes are treated theoretically under the following headings: (1) thermal agitation in the internal plate resistance of the tube, (2) shot effect and flicker effect from space current in the presence of space charge, (3) shot effect from electrons produced by collision ionization and secondary emission, and (4) space charge fluctuations due to positive

  5. Vacuum coating of plastic optics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Schulz; Norbert Kaiser

    2006-01-01

    Vacuum technologies for the deposition of optical interference coatings on polymer substrates, based on long-term experience in glass coating, have been under development for about 20 years. A growing market for precision optical elements and consumer optics moulded from thermoplastic polymers requires antireflective properties and hard coatings. Owing to the manifold chemical and physical properties of optical polymers, special efforts

  6. Peoperties of vacuum brass coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. L. Roikh; L. K. Glukhova; E. V. Efimovich; S. R. Pustotina; N. A. Litovchenko; V. P. Kirichenko

    1975-01-01

    This communication deals with the structure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of coatings of the system Cu-Zn, deposited by simultaneous condensation of Cu and Zn in a vacuum of 1 ?9 10 -4 torr from various evaporants at deposition rates of 3 ~\\/min and 5 p\\/min, respectively. The thickness of the coatings investigated was less than 20 tt. Depending on

  7. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  8. DCI wiggler magnet vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Souchet, R.; Marx, J.P.

    1988-09-30

    With the end of the high energy experiments in DCI, developments could take place at LURE and a five pole wiggler magnet program was launched in 1983 to exclusively dedicate DCI as a synchrotron radiation source. Design and performance measurements of the wiggler magnet vacuum system at DCI is presented. (AIP)

  9. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  10. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  11. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  12. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  13. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  14. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  15. VACUUM SYSTEMS PHYSICS 359E

    E-print Network

    Landstreet, John D.

    experiments in high vacuum is to permit atoms or ions to move with- out colliding with air molecules. The mean at room temperature corresponds to a particle density of 3.5 × 1016 particles cm-3. Pressures in the range, metal gaskets, and a selection of ion pumps, cryopumps, molecular turbopumps, and titanium sublimation

  16. Radiocarbon evidence for the importance of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis in contrasting types

    E-print Network

    Burdige, David

    Radiocarbon evidence for the importance of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis in contrasting types of boreal peatlands, Global

  17. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  18. UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 36 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do GFW (mg/ml) Activity 100x (%) Activity 1000x (%) O2 valve N2: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: ProductionProfile Fermentation (Hrs) Activity (100x dilution) Activity

  19. Regulating vacuum pump speed with feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Ludington, D.C.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Pellerin, R.; Guo, F.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable energy is wasted by the vacuum pump/motor on dairy farms. The output capacity (m{sup 3}/min or cfm) of the vacuum pump always exceeds the capacity needed to milk cows and wash pipelines. Vacuum pumps run at full speed and load regardless of actual need for air. Excess air is admitted through a controller. Energy can be saved from electrical demand reduced by regulating vacuum pump speed according to air based on air usage. An adjustable speed drive (ASD) on the motor and controlled based upon air usage, can reduce the energy used by the vacuum pump. However, the ASD unit tested could not maintain vacuum levels within generally accepted guidelines when air usage changed. Adding a high vacuum reserve and a dual vacuum controller between the vacuum pump and the milking pipeline brought vacuum stability within guidelines. The ASD/dual vacuum system can reduce energy consumption and demand by at least 50 percent during milking and provide better vacuum stability than conventional systems. Tests were not run during washing cycles. Using 1990 costs and only the energy saved during milking, the simple payback on investment in new equipment for a 5 hp motor, speed controller and vacuum regulator would be about 5 years.

  20. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  1. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Wendy; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-02-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (E(h), Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  2. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  3. A Class of Stationary Electromagnetic Vacuum Fields

    E-print Network

    Israel, Werner; Wilson, Gordon A.

    1972-01-10

    It is shown how a new class of stationary electromagnetic vacuum fields can be generated from solutions of Laplace's equation. These fields are a stationary generalization of the static electromagnetic vacuum fields of Weyl, Majumdar, and Papapetrou...

  4. Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.

    PubMed

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2015-04-15

    Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and ?-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products. PMID:25466133

  5. Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

  6. Glucose Fermentation Pathway of Thermoanaerobium brockii

    PubMed Central

    Lamed, R.; Zeikus, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Thermoanaerobium brockii was shown to catabolize glucose via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway into ethanol, acetic acid, H2-CO2, and lactic acid. Radioactive tracer studies, employing specifically labeled [14C]glucose, demonstrated significant fermentation of 14CO2 from C-3 and C-4 of the substrate exclusively. All extracts contained sufficient levels of activity (expressed in micromoles per minute per milligram of protein at 40°C) to assign a catabolic role for the following enzymes: glucokinase, 0.40; fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase, 0.23; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 1.73; pyruvate kinase, 0.36; lactate dehydrogenase (fructose-1,6-diphosphate activated), 0.55; pyruvate dehydrogenase (coenzyme A acetylating), 0.53; hydrogenase, 3.3; phosphotransacetylase, 0.55; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (coenzyme A acetylating), 0.15; ethanol dehydrogenase, 1.57; and acetate kinase, 1.50. All pyridine nucleotide-linked oxidoreductases examined were specific for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, except ethanol dehydrogenase which displayed both nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-linked activities. Fermentation product balances and cell growth yields supported the glucose catabolic pathway described. Representative balanced end product yields (in moles per mole of glucose fermented) were: ethanol, 0.94; l-lactate, 0.84; acetate, 0.20; CO2, 1.31; and H2, 0.50. Growth yields of 16.4 g of cells per mole of glucose were demonstrated. Both growth and end product yields varied significantly in accordance with the specific medium composition and incubation time. PMID:6767705

  7. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for 'fufu' production.

    PubMed

    Oyewole, O B; Odunfa, S A

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for 'fufu' production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period. PMID:24425340

  8. Extracellular enzyme activities during cassava fermentation for ‘fufu’ production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. B. Oyewole; S. A. Odunfa

    1992-01-01

    Amylase and pectin methyl esterase activities increased rapidly during the early period of the fermentation of cassava for ‘fufu’ production, attaining their peak activities after 12 and 24h, respectively. Cellulase activity was lower and approximately constant for most of the fermentation period.

  9. Lactic fermented foods in Africa and their benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olusola B. Oyewole

    1997-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is an important food processing technology in Africa. This technology is indigenous and is adaptable to the culture of the people. This paper reviews the different raw materials and microorganisms which are used in producing lactic fermented food products in Africa. The beneficial aspects of this technology for improving food safety in Africa as a low-cost method

  10. Ruminal fermentation and forestomach digestion of peas by dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ruminal fermentation and forestomach digestion of peas by dairy cows GR Khorasani E Okine R Corbett as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of dairy cows on ruminal digestion and metabolites and nutrient flow, bacterial N and bacterial N as percent of duodenal non-ammonia N. On the basis of ruminal fermentation data

  11. EFFECTS OF YEAST, FERMENTATION TIME, AND PRESERVATION METHODS ON TARHANA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozan Gurbuz; Duygu Gocmen; Nese Ozmen; Fatih Dagdelen

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of tarhana soup produced with different dough treatments, fermentation times, and preservation methods were examined. Tarhana doughs were prepared with yogurt (control) or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermented for 3 days. Samples were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hr. Samples were then preserved via one of four methods: sun dried, dried in the shade, vacumn dried,

  12. Using banana to generate lactic acid through batch process fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Chan-Blanco; A. R. Bonilla-Leiva; A. C. Velázquez

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of waste banana for generating lactic acid through batch fermentation, using Lactobacillus casei under three treatments. Two treatments consisted of substrates of diluted banana purée, one of which was enriched with salts and amino acids. The control treatment comprised a substrate suitable for L. casei growth. When fermentation was evaluated over time, significant differences ( P-1

  13. Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micaela Pescuma; Elvira María Hébert; Fernanda Mozzi

    2010-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented

  14. Cycloheximide resistance as marker for monitoring yeasts in wine fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Pérez; J. A Regodón; M. E Valdés; C De Miguel; M Ram??rez

    2000-01-01

    When selected yeast strains are used in wine-making, it is necessary to ensure that the fermentation process is really conducted by the inoculated yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae spontaneous mutants resistant to cycloheximide (cyhr) were isolated from industrial strains. The mutations did not affect the fermentation kinetics, the quality of the wines, or the viability of active dry yeast made with the

  15. Monitoring xanthan quality during fermentation by size exclusion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Herbst; H.-U. Peters; I.-S. Suh; A. Schumpe; W.-D. Deckwer

    1988-01-01

    Summary Xanthan concentration and molecular weight distribution are determined by size exclusion chromatography in the fermentation medium after dilution and cell removal by centrifugation. The analysis is rapid enough for process control. During a batch fermentation, the average molecular weight is found to be in the range of 7.2–9.3·106 g\\/mole and to run through a maximum.

  16. Yogurt Fermentation in the Presence of Starch-Lipid Composite

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effect of Starch-lipid composites (SLC) on the fermentation of set-style yogurt was investigated by incorporating 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of SLC into the yogurt mix. The fermentation was performed at 40 deg C and its process was monitored with an optical microscope. It was found that SLC acce...

  17. Characterisation of the dominant microbiota of Sudanese fermented milk Rob

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warda S Abdelgadir; Siddig H Hamad; Peter L Møller; Mogens Jakobsen

    2001-01-01

    The predominant microorganisms in the Sudanese traditional fermented dairy product Rob from cows’ milk were isolated and identified by using morphological, physiological and molecular typing techniques. From seven production sites in Khartoum, samples of Rob used as inocula for fermentation were analysed by the determination of the cfumL?1 on MRS, M17, potato dextrose agar and plate count agar. Samples of

  18. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Panagiotopoulos; R. R. Bakker; M. A. W. Budde; T. de Vrije; P. A. M. Claassen; E. G. Koukios

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet extract (SB) were comparatively evaluated for fermentative hydrogen production. Pretreatments and\\/or enzymatic hydrolysis led to

  19. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  20. Equilibrium and hydrodynamic studies of water extraction from fermentation broth

    E-print Network

    Adorno-Gomez, Wilberto

    1999-01-01

    of an extraction system to concentrate fermentation broth from a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms. To design the extraction system, equilibrium data from amine and actual fermentation broth systems were obtained. These data are similar to the data found...

  1. FERMENTATION PROCESS MONITORING THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fermentation involves many complex biological processes some of which are sometimes difficult to monitor. n this study, aerosol measurement was explored as an additional technique for monitoring a batch aerobic fermentation process using Escherichia coli strain W3110. sing this t...

  2. How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkiewicz, William J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation. (RT)

  3. FERMENTATION INHIBITION BY 2,6-DICHLORO-4-NITROANILINE (DCNA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of DCNA (2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline) on the fermentation rate of peach wine produced in Georgia was determined. DCNA was identified by GC-MS and quantitated (1.2 mg/l) by GLC in peach concentrates that fermented more slowly than normal. The effect of the DCNA on the g...

  4. Malolactic activity of lactic acid bacteria during sauerkraut fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The frequency of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in sauerkraut fermentation with (MDC+) or without (MDC-) the ability to decarboxylate malic acid was determined. The MDC+ phenotype was found in >99% of homofermentative LAB isolated from commercial fermentations. In contrast, heterofermentative...

  5. Genomic diversity of citrate fermentation in Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Tsong Chen; Tsai-Lien Liao; Keh-Ming Wu; Tsai-Ling Lauderdale; Jing-Jou Yan; I-Wen Huang; Min-Chi Lu; Yi-Chyi Lai; Yen-Ming Liu; Hung-Yu Shu; Jin-Town Wang; Ih-Jen Su; Shih-Feng Tsai

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has long been recognized that Klebsiella pneumoniae can grow anaerobically on citrate. Genes responsible for citrate fermentation of K. pneumoniae were known to be located in a 13-kb gene cluster on the chromosome. By whole genome comparison of the available K. pneumoniae sequences (MGH 78578, 342, and NTUH-K2044), however, we discovered that the fermentation gene cluster was present

  6. Ion pump provides increased vacuum pumping speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Multiple-cell ion pumps with increased vacuum pumping speed are used for producing ultrahigh vacuums in vacuum tubes and mass spectrometers. The pump has eight cathode-anode magnetron cells arranged in a cylinder which increase the surface area of the cathode.

  7. The APS beamline front end vacuum system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nielsen

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the design of the vacuum system for the advanced photon source beamline front ends. Included in this report are discussions on: vacuum calculations, the differential pump; front end vacuum set points; cleaning methods and agents; and continuing and completed research and development.

  8. RHIC vacuum instrumentation and control system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Lee; D. Pate; L. A. Smart; D. Weiss; D. Zigrosser

    1999-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) Project is a nuclear physics research accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with beam circulation scheduled for May 1999. To achieve the necessary beam lifetime, the vacuum in the two concentric rings must be constantly monitored to isolate problem vacuum regions. One function of the RHIC vacuum instrumentation and control (I&C) system is to

  9. In Situ Monitoring of Vacuum Carburizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bruncko; A. C. Kneissl; I. Anzel

    2009-01-01

    The present article describes development and testing of a new measurement method that enables nondestructive and in situ monitoring of a vacuum carburizing process. The principle of the method is based on monitoring the carbon diffusion during vacuum carburizing by the in-situ measurement of electrical resistance changes in the carburizing sample. Using this method the electrical resistance changes during vacuum

  10. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Rucinski; K. D. Dixon; R. Krasa; K. J. Krempetz; G. T. Mulholland; G. R. Trotter; J. B. Urbin

    1993-01-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation

  11. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations.

    PubMed

    Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics. PMID:17921264

  12. DNA Fingerprinting of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Sauerkraut Fermentations? † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics. PMID:17921264

  13. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-02-09

    A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

  14. Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, C.E.

    1999-02-09

    A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

  15. Product and redox potential analysis of sauerkraut fermentation.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, C; Ebbenhorst-Selles, T; Ruisch, H; Stolle-Smits, T; Schijvens, E; van Deelen, W; Boeriu, C

    2000-02-01

    The relationships between the redox potential of the brine, during fermentation of white cabbage into sauerkraut of two early and two late fermentation processes, and the changes in the amount of sugars, organic acids, the redox potential of the brine and of the ascorbic acid redox couple, and pH are described. The trend in the change of the redox potential of the brine is the same for all four fermentation processes studied. In the first phase a sharp decrease in redox potential is followed by an increase in redox potential. In the second phase the redox potential is rather constant. This second phase is followed by another decrease in redox potential, which stabilizes at a minimum value, the third phase. It was observed that sugar fermentation and acid production mainly took place during the first and third phases, probably representing, respectively, the heterogeneous and homogeneous fermentation processes. PMID:10691605

  16. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  17. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  18. Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Keita Seto

    2014-11-02

    From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

  19. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{? ? ? ? }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  20. Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.

    PubMed

    Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

    1996-08-01

    The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum. PMID:8880299

  1. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimple K. Kundiyana; Raymond L. Huhnke; Prasanth Maddipati; Hasan K. Atiyeh; Mark R. Wilkins

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was

  2. Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Canibe; O. Højberg; J. H. Badsberg; B. B. Jensen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the microbial and nutri- tional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal

  3. Fermentation of the endosperm cell walls of monocotyledon and dicotyledon plant species: The relationship between cell wall characteristics and fermentability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laar van H; S. Tamminga; B. A. Williams; M. W. A. Verstegen

    2000-01-01

    Cell walls from the endosperm of four monocotyledons (maize, wheat, rye, and rice) and four dicotyledons (soya bean, lupin, faba bean, and pea) seeds were studied to relate cell wall composition and structure with fermentation characteristics. Cell wall material was isolated from the endosperm of the mono- and dicotyledons. The fermentation characteristics of isolated cell walls from mono- and dicotyledons

  4. Inflation in a Symmetric Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Kevin Cahill

    2007-05-23

    If in a finite universe, the tree-level vacuum is a symmetric superposition of coherent states, in each of which the inflaton field assumes a different, energy-minimizing mean value (vev), then the resulting energy is positive and decreases exponentially as the volume of the universe increases. This effect can drive inflation when that volume is small and explain part of dark energy when it is big, but the effect is exceedingly tiny except at very early times.

  5. Vacuum Ultraviolet Photochemistry of Cyclobutanone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred A. Scala; Daniel G. Ballan

    1972-01-01

    The photodecomposition of cyclobutanone in the vacuum ultraviolet is characterized by ? C2H4 + CH2 + CO,? CO+C3H6. At 147.0 nm and high pressure the quantum yields of Reactions (1) and (2) are approximately 0.7 and 0.25 respectively. At 123.6 and 106.7–4.8 nm the ratio of the quantum yield of Reaction (2) relative to Reaction (1) is 0.28. The quantum

  6. Accurate vacuum-polarization calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Persson; Ingvar Lindgren; Sten Salomonson; Per Sunnergren

    1993-01-01

    A numerical scheme for evaluating the part of the one-photon vacuum-polarization effect not accounted for by the Uehling potential (the Wichmann-Kroll effect) is presented. The method can be used with an arbitary atomic model potential describing the bound electrons. Benchmark results for this effect are presented for hydrogenlike levels using a uniform nuclear-charge distribution. The effect of direct and exchange

  7. The Statistics of Vacuum Geometry

    E-print Network

    Melissa Duncan; Wei Gu; Yang-Hui He; Da Zhou

    2014-06-22

    We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  9. Vacuum Systems CTI-Cryogenics

    E-print Network

    Gellman, Andrew J.

    compressor supports all pumps up to eight inches in size and is designed for flexibility, allowing you with all Four-inch, Six-inch and Eight-inch On-Board or Cryo-Torr Cryopumps and On-Board Waterpumps Three-Board® Vacuum Systems Dimensions 16.65" h x 19.50"w x 19.59"d (423mm h x 495.3mm w x 498mm d) Weight 140 lbs

  10. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  11. Vacuum Stability of Standard Model^{++}

    E-print Network

    Luis A. Anchordoqui; Ignatios Antoniadis; Haim Goldberg; Xing Huang; Dieter Lust; Tomasz R. Taylor; Brian Vlcek

    2013-01-23

    The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there is no mixing in the scalar sector, the top Yukawa coupling drives the quartic Higgs coupling to negative values in the ultraviolet and, as for the SM, the effective potential develops an instability below the Planck scale. However, for a mixing angle -0.35 \\alt \\alpha \\alt -0.02 or 0.01 \\alt \\alpha \\alt 0.35, with the new scalar mass in the range 500 GeV \\alt m_{h"} \\alt 8 TeV, the SM^{++} ground state can be absolutely stable up to the Planck scale. These results are largely independent of TeV-scale free parameters in the model: the mass of the non-anomalous U(1) gauge boson and its branching fractions.

  12. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  13. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  14. Vacuum propagation of a shaped laser beam and direct vacuum acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Liu, C. P.; Wang, C.; Shen, B. F.

    2015-07-01

    The vacuum propagation of a laser beam is strictly solved on the basis of (1) the wave equation, (2) Gauss's law, (3) finite power, and (4) a group velocity equal to c. The direct vacuum acceleration of the classic charge is then studied based on the strictly solved vacuum laser field. Different vacuum states of the laser beam are chosen by the physical nature of the interface between the vacuum and the solid optical material.

  15. Kefir: a multifaceted fermented dairy product.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara; Gürakan, G Candan; Unlü, Gülhan

    2014-12-01

    Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage produced by the actions of the microflora encased in the "kefir grain" on the carbohydrates in the milk. Containing many bacterial species already known for their probiotic properties, it has long been popular in Eastern Europe for its purported health benefits, where it is routinely administered to patients in hospitals and recommended for infants and the infirm. It is beginning to gain a foothold in the USA as a healthy probiotic beverage, mostly as an artisanal beverage, home fermented from shared grains, but also recently as a commercial product commanding shelf space in retail establishments. This is similar to the status of yogurts in the 1970s when yogurt was the new healthy product. Scientific studies into these reported benefits are being conducted into these health benefits, many with promising results, though not all of the studies have been conclusive. Our review provides an overview of kefir's structure, microbial profile, production, and probiotic properties. Our review also discusses alternative uses of kefir, kefir grains, and kefiran (the soluble polysaccharide produced by the organisms in kefir grains). Their utility in wound therapy, food additives, leavening agents, and other non-beverage uses is being studied with promising results. PMID:25261107

  16. Pressure pulsation in solid-phase fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Huang, Tom; Tsao, George T

    2002-01-01

    Inadequate dissipation of heat generated by biologic activities has prevented the use of solid-phase fermentation in large-scale applications. This study deals with the cooling effects of pressure pulsation on solid, porous beds. Pressure pulsation also enhances evaporation of medium moisture, which is also described. Computer software has been developed for on-line control of heat accumulation and moisture loss involving automatic variation in pressure pulsation frequency and airflow direction as well as replenishment of water. Aspergillus niger NRRL3 was cultivated on a moist, solid medium made of wheat bran and ground corncobs to produce cellobiase. During 100 h of fermentation, the maximum temperature inside the solid bed was kept under 40 degrees C, and the medium water content was successfully maintained between 61 and 65%, which was optimal for cell growth. Cells grew heavily on the solid-phase substrate and distributed uniformly. With good on-line control of temperature and moisture, the 12-L fermentor provided a better environment for enzyme production than 250 mL flasks did. PMID:12018286

  17. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  18. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1 1/2 inches inner pipe size, 3 inches vacuum jacket, and 4 inches inner pipe size, 6 inches vacuum jacket. The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 inch and 6 inch pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  19. High throughput vacuum chemical epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Malocsay, E.; Sundaram, V.; Baird, R. W.; Mao, B. Y.; Lee, G. Y.

    1990-10-01

    We have developed a vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) reactor which avoids the use of arsine and allows multiple wafers to be coated at one time. Our vacuum chemical epitaxy reactor closely resembles a molecular beam epitaxy system in that wafers are loaded into a stainless steel vacuum chamber through a load chamber. Also as in MBE, arsenic vapors are supplied as reactant by heating solid arsenic sources thereby avoiding the use of arsine. However, in our VCE reactor, a large number of wafers are coated at one time in a vacuum system by the substitution of Group III alkyl sources for the elemental metal sources traditionally used in MBE. Higher wafer throughput results because in VCE, the metal-alkyl sources for Ga, Al, and dopants can be mixed at room temperature and distributed uniformly though a large area injector to multiple substrates as a homogeneous array of mixed element molecular beams. The VCE reactor that we have built and that we shall describe here uniformly deposits films on 7 inch diameter substrate platters. Each platter contains seven two inch or three 3 inch diameter wafers. The load chamber contains up to nine platters. The vacuum chamber is equipped with two VCE growth zones and two arsenic ovens, one per growth zone. Finally, each oven has a 1 kg arsenic capacity. As of this writing, mirror smooth GaAs films have been grown at up to 4 ?m/h growth rate on multiple wafers with good thickness uniformity. The background doping is p-type with a typical hole concentration and mobility of 1 × 10 16/cm 3 and 350 cm 2/V·s. This background doping level is low enough for the fabrication of MESFETs, solar cells, and photocathodes as well as other types of devices. We have fabricated MESFET devices using VCE-grown epi wafers with peak extrinsic transconductance as high as 210 mS/mm for a threshold voltage of - 3 V and a 0.6 ?m gate length. We have also recently grown AlGaAs epi layers with up to 80% aluminum using TEAl as the aluminum alkyl source. The AlGaAs layer thickness and aluminum content uniformity appear excellent.

  20. [Fermentation of pyruvate by 7 species of phototrophic purple bacteria].

    PubMed

    Gürgün, V; Kirchner, G; Pfennig, N

    1976-01-01

    The dark, anaerobic fermentation of pyruvate under growth conditions was examined with the following species of phototrophic purple bacteria: Rhodospirillum rubrum strains Ha and S1, Rhodopseudomonas gelatinosa strain 2150, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila strain 7050, Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain ATCC 17001, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata strains Kb1 and 6950, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides strain ATCC 17023, and Chromatium vinosum strain D. Fermentation balances were established for all experiments. Under fermentative conditions cell protein and dry weight increased only slightly, if at all. The species differed considerably in their fermentative activity; R. rubrum and R. gelatinosa exhibited the highest rates (2-8 mumoles pyruvate/mg protein-h). R. acidophila and R. capsulata showed an intermediate fermentation rate (0.4--2.0 mumoles pyruvate/mg protein-h), while the other strains tested fermented at quite low rates (0.2-0.4 mumoles pyruvate/mg protein-h). The extremes of fermentation times were from 30-380 hours. Based on the products of fermentation which were formed in addition to acetate, formate, and CO2, the species can be grouped as follows: a) R. rubrum, R. gelatinosa, and R. sphaeroides additionally form propionate. b) R. gelatinosa, R. palustris, R. capsulata, R. sphaeroides, and C. vinosum additionally form lactate. R. palustris also produces butyrate. c) R. acidophila and R. capsulata additionally form much 2,3-butanediol, acetoin, and diacetyl. Small amounts of acetoin were formed by the rest of the strains. A comparison of the fermentation of pyruvate by normal and starved cells (4 days in the light without a carbon source) of R. rubrum and R. gelatinosa shows that the latter ferment more slowly and produce less acetate and formate, but more propionate or lactate. The fermentation of pyruvate by R. rubrum was also studied in cultures in which the pH fell (7.2--6.6). Compared with the fermentation at neutral pH (7.3, 7.4), the following differences were found: a slower fermentation rate, an increased production of dry weight, an increased formation of propionate, but a reduced formation of acetate and a very low production of formate. PMID:12621

  1. Investigation of archaeal and bacterial diversity in fermented seafood using barcoded pyrosequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Woon Roh; Kyoung-Ho Kim; Young-Do Nam; Ho-Won Chang; Eun-Jin Park; Jin-Woo Bae; J-W Bae

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the archaeal diversity of fermented seafood; most of the earlier studies of fermented food have focused on lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the fermentation process. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial diversity in seven kinds of fermented seafood were culture-independently examined using barcoded pyrosequencing and PCR–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The multiplex barcoded pyrosequencing

  2. Development of preservation prediction chart for long term storage of fermented cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-flavors and odors in fermented cucumbers result from the growth of undesirable microorganisms during the secondary fermentation. Under laboratory conditions using a sterile fermented cucumber slurry medium, the spoilage fermentations were reproduced. Using this system the salt and pH conditions ...

  3. Microbiological and biochemical characterization of fermented liquid feed samples from 40 Danish farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Canibe; Anni Øyan Pedersen; Bent Borg Jensen; Lene Jespersen

    2010-01-01

    When feed and a liquid are mixed fermentation will spontaneously start. The microbial species dominating in the fermented mixture may vary depending on the environment and\\/or the ingredients being fermented. However, there is scarce knowledge on this subject. A study was carried out to investigate the biochemical and microbial variations in fermented liquid feed (FLF) samples obtained from 40 Danish

  4. A Novel Technique that Enables Efficient Conduct of Simultaneous Isomerization and Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Relue, Patricia

    A Novel Technique that Enables Efficient Conduct of Simultaneous Isomerization and Fermentation of the hemicellulosic portion is not fermentable by the same species of yeasts. Xylose fermentation by native yeasts can isomerase (XI) occurs optimally at a pH of 7­8, whereas subsequent fermentation of xylulose to ethanol

  5. Article original Essai sur l'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Essai sur l'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale au monensin L Mbanzamihigo CJ; accepté le 5 avril 1995) Résumé ― L'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale au monensin a été'adaptation de la fermentation rumi- nale au monensin. fermentation ruminale 1 mouton 1 monensin 1 adaptation

  6. Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp) and metabolism of its sulphate). The purpose of this study was to assess the fermentation characteristics and sulphate metabolism of Ulva and ulvan by human faecal bacteria fermentation system using a semi-continu- ous fermenter. Ulva and ulvan

  7. 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours)

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours) rpm Do Wet cell weight (g/L) Feed Rate (ml/L) Expon. (Wet cell weight (g/L)) Figure 2. Fermentation profile of a Fed-Batch conducted in the CBR Fermentation smaller than the critical specific growth rate ( fermentation started with a simple batch

  8. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    E-print Network

    Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation Electrolysis cell Fermentation Lignocellulose a b s t r a c t A two-stage dark-fermentation/ L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted

  9. Milk Fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii Induces Apoptosis of HGT-1 Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    E-print Network

    Brest, Université de

    Milk Fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii Induces Apoptosis of HGT-1 Human Gastric Cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings: A fermented milk, exclusively fermented by P. freudenreichii, was recently designed. In this work, the pro-apoptotic potential of this new fermented milk was demonstrated on HGT-1

  10. Yield and chemical composition of fractions from fermented shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Bhaskar; Velappan, Suresh Puthanveetil; Zituji, Sakhare Patiram; Manjabhatta, Sachindra Nakkerike; Gowda, Lalitha Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Chemical composition of chitinous residue and fermentation liquor fractions, obtained from fermented shrimp biowaste, was evaluated in order to explore their potential for further utilization. Lyophilization of the liquor fraction obtained after fermentation resulted in a powder rich in both protein (30%) and carotenoids (217.18 +/- 2.89 microg/g). The yield of chitinous residue was 44% (w/w) whereas the yield of lyophilized powder was >25% (w/v). About 69% of total carotenoids were recovered by fermentation. Fermentation resulted in the removal of both protein as well as ash content from the shrimp biowaste, as indicated by approximately 92% deproteination and >76% demineralization, respectively. Post fermentation, the residue had a chitin content of >90%. The lyophilized liquor fraction had all the essential amino acids (except threonine) in quantities comparable to Food & Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization reference protein. The composition of fermentation liquor is indicative of its potential for application as an amino acid supplement in aquaculture feed formulations. PMID:19723823

  11. Determining the impacts of fermentative bacteria on wollastonite dissolution kinetics.

    PubMed

    Salek, S S; Kleerebezem, R; Jonkers, H M; Voncken, J H L; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-03-01

    Silicate minerals can be a source of calcium and alkalinity, enabling CO2 sequestration in the form of carbonates. For this to occur, the mineral needs to be first dissolved in an acidifying process such as the biological process of anaerobic fermentation. In the present study, the main factors which govern the dissolution process of an alkaline silicate mineral (wollastonite, CaSiO3) in an anaerobic fermentation process were determined. Wollastonite dissolution kinetics was measured in a series of chemical batch experiments in order to be able to estimate the required amount of alkaline silicate that can neutralize the acidifying fermentation process. An anaerobic fermentation of glucose with wollastonite as the neutralizing agent was consequently performed in a fed-batch reactor. Results of this experiment were compared with an abiotic (control) fed-batch reactor in which the fermentation products (i.e. organic acids and alcohols) were externally supplied to the system at comparable rates and proportions, in order to provide chemical conditions similar to those during the biotic (fermentation) experiment. This procedure enabled us to determine whether dissolution of wollastonite was solely enhanced by production of organic acids or whether there were other impacts that fermentative bacteria could have on the mineral dissolution rate. The established pH profiles, which were the direct indicator of the dissolution rate, were comparable in both experiments suggesting that the mineral dissolution rate was mostly influenced by the quantity of the organic acids produced. PMID:23188461

  12. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25998000

  13. Fermented pig liquid feed: nutritional, safety and regulatory aspects.

    PubMed

    Plumed-Ferrer, C; von Wright, A

    2009-02-01

    Fermented liquid feed has been lately much investigated in order to compensate the use of antibiotics in pig production. The fermentation process has been claimed to be the reason of the benefits associated with this type of feeding. However, contradictory results have been obtained in feeding trials due to the variable conditions in each experiment. This review focuses on the different factors that would ensure a proper fermentation with all its beneficial effects. In particular, while fermenting a liquid diet with lactic acid bacteria has been shown to improve the quality of feed and to be beneficial to the health of the animals, spontaneously fermented liquid feed appears to be unsafe for the pigs and eventually affects the consumers' safety. Consequently, the use of specific starters or inoculants to ensure the proper fermentation could be a practical solution. The regulatory status of fermented liquid feed in the EU is still unclear, but the use of specific inoculants could be considered as a special case of microbial feed additives. PMID:19016978

  14. Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, A.L.; Tengerdy, R.P.; Murphy, V.G.

    1985-01-01

    Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at 0.12 L/h/g; substrate thickness of 1 to 2 cm; and duration of three days. Technical parameters for this optimized fermentation were: degree of substance utilization, 27.2%; protein yield/substrate, 0.09 g; biomass yield/bioconverted substrate, 0.40 g; degree of bioconversion of total available sugars in the substrate, 60.5%; specific efficiency of bioconversion, 70.8%; and overall efficiency of biomass production from substrate, 42.7%. Mixed culturing of Candida utilis further increased biomass production by 20%. The best mode of fermentation was a semicontinuous fed-batch fermentation where one-half of the fermented material was removed at three-day intervals and replaced by fresh substrate. In this mode, protein production was 20% higher than in batch mode, protein productivity was maintained over 12 days, and sporulation was prevented. 10 references.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Communities in Fermented Foods? †

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Abell, Guy C. J.; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Viruses are recognized as the most abundant biological components on Earth, and they regulate the structure of microbial communities in many environments. In soil and marine environments, microorganism-infecting phages are the most common type of virus. Although several types of bacteriophage have been isolated from fermented foods, little is known about the overall viral assemblages (viromes) of these environments. In this study, metagenomic analyses were performed on the uncultivated viral communities from three fermented foods, fermented shrimp, kimchi, and sauerkraut. Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique, a total of 81,831, 70,591 and 69,464 viral sequences were obtained from fermented shrimp, kimchi and sauerkraut, respectively. Moreover, 37 to 50% of these sequences showed no significant hit against sequences in public databases. There were some discrepancies between the prediction of bacteriophages hosts via homology comparison and bacterial distribution, as determined from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These discrepancies likely reflect the fact that the viral genomes of fermented foods are poorly represented in public databases. Double-stranded DNA viral communities were amplified from fermented foods by using a linker-amplified shotgun library. These communities were dominated by bacteriophages belonging to the viral order Caudovirales (i.e., Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae). This study indicates that fermented foods contain less complex viral communities than many other environmental habitats, such as seawater, human feces, marine sediment, and soil. PMID:21183634

  16. Metagenomic analysis of the viral communities in fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Abell, Guy C J; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2011-02-01

    Viruses are recognized as the most abundant biological components on Earth, and they regulate the structure of microbial communities in many environments. In soil and marine environments, microorganism-infecting phages are the most common type of virus. Although several types of bacteriophage have been isolated from fermented foods, little is known about the overall viral assemblages (viromes) of these environments. In this study, metagenomic analyses were performed on the uncultivated viral communities from three fermented foods, fermented shrimp, kimchi, and sauerkraut. Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique, a total of 81,831, 70,591 and 69,464 viral sequences were obtained from fermented shrimp, kimchi and sauerkraut, respectively. Moreover, 37 to 50% of these sequences showed no significant hit against sequences in public databases. There were some discrepancies between the prediction of bacteriophages hosts via homology comparison and bacterial distribution, as determined from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These discrepancies likely reflect the fact that the viral genomes of fermented foods are poorly represented in public databases. Double-stranded DNA viral communities were amplified from fermented foods by using a linker-amplified shotgun library. These communities were dominated by bacteriophages belonging to the viral order Caudovirales (i.e., Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae). This study indicates that fermented foods contain less complex viral communities than many other environmental habitats, such as seawater, human feces, marine sediment, and soil. PMID:21183634

  17. Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

    2012-12-15

    A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

  18. Cosmological and Astrophysical Probes of Vacuum Energy

    E-print Network

    Brando Bellazzini; Csaba Csaki; Jay Hubisz; Javi Serra; John Terning

    2015-02-16

    Vacuum energy changes during cosmological phase transitions and becomes relatively important at epochs just before phase transitions. For a viable cosmology the vacuum energy just after a phase transition must be set by the critical temperature of the next phase transition, which exposes the cosmological constant problem from a different angle. Here we propose to experimentally test the properties of vacuum energy under circumstances different from our current vacuum. One promising avenue is to consider the effect of high density phases of QCD in neutron stars. Such phases have different vacuum expectation values and a different vacuum energy from the normal phase, which can contribute an order one fraction to the mass of neutron stars. Precise observations of the mass of neutron stars can potentially yield information about the gravitational properties of vacuum energy, which can significantly affect their mass-radius relation. A more direct test of cosmic evolution of vacuum energy could be inferred from a precise observation of the primordial gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies corresponding to phase transitions. While traditional cosmology predicts steps in the spectrum determined by the number of degrees of freedom both for the QCD and electroweak phase transitions, an adjustment mechanism for vacuum energy could significantly change this. In addition, there might be other phase transitions where the effect of vacuum energy could show up as a peak in the spectrum.

  19. Inorganic types of fermentation and anaerobic respirations in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujio Egami

    1974-01-01

    We proposed long ago the following sequence as one of the main pathways in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism: fermentation?nitrate fermentation?nitrate respiration?oxygen respiration. In the present report our concept is presented in a more general form: (1) fermentation? ?(2) fermentation with H2 release?(3) inorganic types of fermentation?(4) anaerobic respirations ?(5) oxygen respiration, based upon recent biological and physical information. The

  20. Monascus-Fermented Dioscorea Enhances Oxidative Stress Resistance via DAF-16\\/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeu-Ching Shi; Chan-Wei Yu; Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao; Tzu-Ming Pan

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundMonascus-fermented products are mentioned in an ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia of medicinal food and herbs. Monascus-fermented products offer valuable therapeutic benefits and have been extensively used in East Asia for several centuries. Several biological activities of Monascus-fermented products were recently described, and the extract of Monascus-fermented products showed strong antioxidant activity of scavenging DPPH radicals. To evaluate whether Monascus-fermented dioscorea products

  1. Metabolically engineered bacteria for producing hydrogen via fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Vardar?Schara, Gönül; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hydrogen, the most abundant and lightest element in the universe, has much potential as a future energy source. Hydrogenases catalyse one of the simplest chemical reactions, 2H+?+?2e????H2, yet their structure is very complex. Biologically, hydrogen can be produced via photosynthetic or fermentative routes. This review provides an overview of microbial production of hydrogen by fermentation (currently the more favourable route) and focuses on biochemical pathways, theoretical hydrogen yields and hydrogenase structure. In addition, several examples of metabolic engineering to enhance fermentative hydrogen production are presented along with some examples of expression of heterologous hydrogenases for enhanced hydrogen production. PMID:21261829

  2. Lactic Acid Bacterial Fermentation of Burong Dalag1

    PubMed Central

    Orillo, C. A.; Pederson, C. S.

    1968-01-01

    The fermented food, burong dalag, prepared in many Filipino homes, was studied to determine the nature of the microbiological and chemical changes that occur during fermentation. This is a lactic acid bacterial fermentation in which the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus plantarum played the major acid-producing role. The pH was lowered to below 4.0, and about 0.9% acid as lactic acid was attained in 1 week. It was essential to keep the product covered well to exclude air and subsequent growth of yeasts and mold. PMID:5726145

  3. [Application of process engineering to remove lignocellulose fermentation inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Xia, Menglei; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation inhibitors are toxic to cells, which is one of the bottlenecks for lignocellulose bio-refinery process. How to remove those inhibitors serves a key role in the bioconversion of lignocellulose. This article reviews the sources and the types of the inhibitors, especially the updated removal strategies including physical methods, chemical methods, biological methods and inhibitor-tolerant strain construction strategies. Based on these, we introduce a new bio-refinery model named "fractional conversion", which reduces the production of inhibitors at pretreatment stage, and a novel in situ detoxification method named "fermentation promoter exploitation technology". This review could provide new research ideas on the removal of fermentation inhibitors. PMID:25118395

  4. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-01

    At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  5. Analysis of fermentation selectivity of purified galacto-oligosaccharides by in vitro human faecal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Colinas, Barbara; Kolida, Sofia; Baran, Magdalena; Ballesteros, Antonio O; Rastall, Robert A; Plou, Francisco J

    2013-07-01

    The in vitro fermentation of several purified galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), specifically the trisaccharides 4'-galactosyl-lactose and 6'-galactosyl-lactose and a mixture of the disaccharides 6-galactobiose and allolactose, was carried out. The bifidogenic effect of GOS at 1% (w/v) was studied in a pH-controlled batch culture fermentation system inoculated with healthy adult human faeces. Results were compared with those obtained with a commercial GOS mixture (Bimuno-GOS). Changes in bacterial populations measured through fluorescence in situ hybridization and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production were determined. Bifidobacteria increased after 10-h fermentation for all the GOS substrates, but the changes were only statistically significant (P<0.05) for the mixture of disaccharides and Bimuno-GOS. Acetic acid, whose formation is consistent with bifidobacteria metabolism, was the major SCFA synthesized. The acetate concentration at 10 h was similar with all the substrates (45-50 mM) and significantly higher than the observed for formic, propionic and butyric acids. All the purified GOS could be considered bifidogenic under the assayed conditions, displaying a selectivity index in the range 2.1-3.0, which was slightly lower than the determined for the commercial mixture Bimuno-GOS. PMID:23624658

  6. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  7. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  8. Vacuum energy and relativistic invariance

    E-print Network

    E. Kh. Akhmedov

    2002-06-04

    It is argued that the zero-point energies of free quantum fields diverge at most quadratically and not quartically, as is generally believed. This is a consequence of the relativistic invariance which requires that the energy density of the vacuum $\\rho$ and its pressure $p$ satisfy $\\rho=-p$. The usually obtained quartic divergence is an artifact of the use of a noninvariant regularization which violates this relation. One consequence of our results is that the zero-point energies of free massless fields vanish. Implications for the cosmological constant problem are briefly discussed.

  9. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, R.

    1981-08-11

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  10. Separation of biopolymer from fermentation broths

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Westmoreland, C.G.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Application of recent developments in filtration separations have been applied to separation of biopolymers from fermentation broths. More economical production of biopolymers near the site of use would be especially attractive for use in micellar flood programs for enhanced oil recovery. Solutions of the organisms Sclerotium rolfsii producing scleroglucans were used for the tests because the organisms are genetically more stable than the organisms that produce xanthan gums and because their more acid broths are less apt to become contaminated. Three types of filtration, axial filtration, pleated ultrafiltration module, and microscreens were tested on the broth. Filtration results are reported for broths with various preparation histories. An economic comparison is presented for processing of a ton of biopolymer per day, and the microscreening process is shown to be the most efficient, but a polishing step would have to be added. (BLM)

  11. Einfluss von Lignin und Ferulasäure auf die Fermentation von Maiszellwänden (Influence of lignin and ferulic acid on the fermentation of maize cell walls)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ballaststoffe unterliegen im Dickdarm einer teilweisen oder vollständigen mikrobiellen Fermentation. Das Ausmaß der Fermentation beeinflusst eine Vielzahl physikochemischer und daraus resultierender physiologischer Eigenschaften der Ballaststoffe (z.B. Wasserbindungs- und Bulkvermögen, Transitzeit, ...

  12. Study of the effect of different fermenting microorganisms on the Se, Cu, Cr, and Mn contents in fermented goat and cow milks.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Aida Verónica; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the Se, Cu, Cr, and Mn concentrations of different types of goat- and cow-milk fermented products and evaluate the influence of fermenting bacteria (classical fermenting starters and a probiotic strain) on these concentrations. Atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation was used to measure Se and electrothermal atomization to measure Cu, Cr and Mn. Analytical parameters determined in the fermented milks demonstrated that the procedures used were adequate for Se, Cu, Cr, and Mn analyses. Se levels were significantly lower in fermented goat milk products than in fermented cow milk products (p<0.05). Se, Cu, Cr, and Mn levels did not differ as a function of the fermenting bacteria used in commercial fermented goat or cow milks or in the lab-produced goat yoghurt. Given the Se, and Cr intakes for healthy adults, goat and cow yogurts may be important dietary sources. PMID:26041187

  13. Physical vacuum and cosmic coincidence problem

    E-print Network

    Arthur D. Chernin

    2001-07-04

    A framework is suggested in which the energy integrals of the Friedmann cosmology are identified as genuine time-independent physical characteristics for both vacuum and non-vacuum forms of cosmic energy. The integrals are found to be numerically coincident within two orders of magnitude. It is assumed that this coincidence reveals a symmetry that relates vacuum to non-vacuum forms of cosmic energy at fundamental level. The symmetry shows the well-known cosmic coincidence problem and the naturalness problem as two inter-related aspects of a more general problem: Why are the energy integrals numerically coincident and equal to $ \\sim 10^{60} M_{Pl}^{-1}$? A simple kinetics model of cosmological freeze out is used to examine how -- at least, in principle -- the electroweak scale physics might explain the nature of the symmetry between vacuum and non-vacuum cosmic energies and determine the value of the energy integrals in terms of the fundamental energy scales.

  14. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, K A; Loeffelholz, J M; Ford, J P; Doyle, M P

    1992-01-01

    The influence of pH adjusted with lactic acid or HCl or sodium chloride concentration on survival or growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) was determined. Studies also determined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 during the production and storage of fermented, dry sausage. The organism grew in TSB containing less than or equal to 6.5% NaCl or at a pH of 4.5 to 9.0, adjusted with HCl. When TSB was acidified with lactic acid, the organism grew at pH 4.6 but not at pH 4.5. A commercial sausage batter inoculated with 4.8 x 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 per g was fermented to pH 4.8 and dried until the moisture/protein ratio was less than or equal to 1.9:1. The sausage chubs were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months. The organism survived but did not grow during fermentation, drying, or subsequent storage at 4 degrees C and decreased by about 2 log10 CFU/g by the end of storage. These studies reveal the importance of using beef containing low populations or no E. coli O157:H7 in sausage batter, because when initially present at 10(4) CFU/g, this organism can survive fermentation, drying, and storage of fermented sausage regardless of whether an added starter culture was used. PMID:1514799

  15. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  16. Vacuum chamber thermal protection for the APS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Kramer; E. A. Crosbie; S. Kim; R. Wehrle; M. Yoon

    1989-01-01

    The authors summarize the results of a task group that studied the vacuum-chamber thermal protection problem for the Advanced Photon Source (APS). It is pointed out that the high-power-density photon beams in the proposed next generation of synchrotron light sources introduce new risks to the integrity of the ring vacuum chambers. In these machines, power densities are such that vacuum

  17. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  18. Screening and identification of functional Lactobacillus specific for vegetable fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tao; Song, Suhua; Huang, Xuhui; Feng, Chao; Liu, Guangquan; Huang, Jinqing; Xie, Mingyong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, functional lactic acid bacteria (LAB) specific for vegetable fermentation were screened from Chinese sauerkraut brine by designing purpose media. The selected LAB strains showed excellent tolerance to high concentrations of bile salt and acids. They can also survive passage through the simulated gastric fluid and may be able to reach to the intestine. Through the performance measurements of vegetable fermentation, one of these strains, NCU116 was found to have the best fermentation ability, and further subjected to a series of analyses including identification of physiological and biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA and pheS sequencing. Taken together, the strain NCU116 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum. These results laid a good foundation for the fermentation research in the future. PMID:23278440

  19. Glycosylated Benzoxazinoids Are Degraded during Fermentation of Wheat Bran.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Otto; Pekkinen, Jenna; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, Kati

    2015-07-01

    Benzoxazinoids are plant secondary metabolites found in whole grain cereal foods including bread. They are bioavailable and metabolized in humans, and therefore their potential bioactivity is of interest. However, effects of food processing on their content and structure are not yet studied. This study reports effects of bioprocessing on wheat bran benzoxazinoid content. Benzoxazinoid glycosides were completely degraded during fermentation, whereas metabolites of benzoxazinoid aglycones were formed. Fermentation conditions did not affect the conversion process, as both yeast and yeast/lactic acid bacteria mediated fermentations had generally similar impacts. Likewise, enzymatic treatment of the bioprocess samples did not affect the conversion, suggesting that these compounds most likely are freely bioavailable from the grain matrix and not linked to the cell wall polymers. Additionally, the results show that benzoxazinoids undergo structural conversion during the fermentation process, resulting in several unknown compounds that contribute to the phytochemical intake and necessitate further analysis. PMID:26040909

  20. [Determination of the 14C content of fermentation alcohols].

    PubMed

    Martinière, P; Séverac, J

    1976-02-23

    The measuring activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits one to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture. PMID:817844

  1. Probiotic fermented sausage: viability of probiotic microorganisms and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, M; Sohrabvandi, S; Mortazavian, A M

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are from functional foods that bring health benefits for humans. Nowadays, a major development in functional foods is related to food containing probiotic cultures, mainly lactic acid bacteria or bifidobacteria. Probiotics must be alive and ingested in sufficient amounts to exert the positive effects on the health and the well-being of the host. Therefore, viability of probiotic products (the minimum viable probiotic cells in each gram or milliliter of product till the time of consumption) is their most important characteristic. However, these organisms often show poor viability in fermented products due to their detrimental conditions. Today, the variety of fermented meat products available around the world is nearly equal to that of cheese. With meat products, raw fermented sausages could constitute an appropriate vehicle for such microorganisms into the human gastrointestinal tract. In present article, the viability of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausage, the main factors affect their viability, and the sensorial characteristics of final product are discussed. PMID:23320906

  2. Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Meysing, Daniel

    2012-02-14

    To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime...

  3. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  4. Persistence of fermentative process to phenolic toxicity in groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.X.; Lerner, D.N.; Banwart, S.A.; Thornton, S.E.; Pickup, R.W. [Lancaster Environmental Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The fermentation process is an important component in the biodegradation of organic compounds in natural and contaminated systems. Comparing with terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), however, research on fermentation processes has to some extent been ignored in the past decades, particularly on the persistence of fermentation process in the presence of toxic organic pollutants. Both field and laboratory studies, presented here, showed that microbial processes in a groundwater-based system exhibited a differential inhibitory response to toxicity of phenolic compounds from coal tar distillation, thus resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen. This indicated that fermentation processes could be more resistant to phenol toxicity than the subsequent TEAPs such as methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, thus providing us with more options for enhancing bioremediation processes.

  5. REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

  6. Storage and Retrieval of a Squeezed Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Kazuhito Honda; Daisuke Akamatsu; Manabu Arikawa; Yoshihiko Yokoi; Keiichirou Akiba; Satoshi Nagatsuka; Takahito Tanimura; Akira Furusawa; Mikio Kozuma

    2008-01-27

    Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum was successfully demonstrated using electromagnetically induced transparency. 930ns of the squeezed vacuum pulse was incident on the laser cooled 87Rb atoms with an intense control light in a coherent state. When the squeezed vacuum pulse was slowed and spatially compressed in the cold atoms, the control light was switched off. After 3us of storage, the control light was switched on again and the squeezed vacuum was retrieved, as was confirmed using the time-domain homodyne method.

  7. The Vacuum in Light Front Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marc; Polyzou, Wayne

    2015-04-01

    In the light-front formulation of quantum field theory, one finds that the interacting vacuum and the free-field vacuum are both the same trivial Fock vacuum. This stands in contrast to the more usual equal time formulation, where the interacting vacuum and the free vacuum have a complicated relationship. To examine this apparent inconsistency, we first focus on free-fields with two distinct masses. The characterization of the vacuum by annihilation operators is incomplete, and leads to an apparent contradiction concerning the creation and annihilation operators of the two theories. Alternatively, the vacuum can be considered as a positive linear functional on an operator algebra generated by the field. In this characterization, the definition of the vacuum depends on the choice of algebra. The physically relevant algebra should be Poincare invariant and contain local observables. Extending the light-front algebra to this local algebra provides a resolution to the apparent inconsistency, but allows one to still use the Fock vacuum. These results can then be applied to interacting theories. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-86ER40286

  8. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  9. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  10. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    E-print Network

    Daniel Green; Eva Silverstein; David Starr

    2006-05-04

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  11. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779491

  12. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  13. Immobilization of kluyvera sp: effect of support material upon fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, G.E.; Hayes, T.D.; Bose, A.; Allen, B.R.; Garrett, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    Kluyvera can, when a special medium is employed, produce organic acids in conventional batch reactors. Both inorganic and organic polymeric support materials were evaluated to determine the potential of immobilized cells to improve fermentation rates. Sized Sephadex beads (DEAE-Sephadex A-50) proved far superior to activated alumina in time needed to achieve immobilization and in normalized alpha-ketoglutarate fermentation rate (per gram support per day).

  14. Adding value to carbon dioxide from ethanol fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yixiang Xu; Loren Isom; Milford A. Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) from ethanol production facilities is increasing as more ethanol is produced for alternative transportation fuels. CO2 produced from ethanol fermentation processes is of high purity and is nearly a saturated gas. Such highly-concentrated source of CO2 is a potential candidate for capture and utilization by the CO2 industry. Quantity, quality and capture of CO2 from ethanol fermentations

  15. Characterization and fermentation of dilute-acid hydrolyzates from wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh; C. Niklasson; G. Liden; R. Eklund; L. Gustafsson

    1997-01-01

    Dilute-acid hydrolyzates from alder, aspen, birch, willow, pine, and spruce were fermented without prior detoxification. The hydrolyzates were prepared by a one-stage hydrolysis process using sulfuric acid (5 g\\/L) at temperatures between 188 and 234 C and with a holding time of 7 min. The fermentations were carried out anaerobically by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10 g of d.w.\\/L) at a temperature

  16. Simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomi, A. (Promon Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, Brazil); Aboutboul, H.; Schmidell, W.

    1981-01-01

    The simulation of the continuous fermentation of manioc hydrolysate utilizing a yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from the commercial pressed yeast largely employed in Brazilian distilleries is described. The model used in the simulation is derived from batch experimental runs. In order to assess the economical competitiveness of the continuous fermentation, some additional concepts, such as cell recycle, and two fermentors connected in series with and without feed division of fresh substrate, are analyzed and compared.

  17. Ion Exchange for Product Recovery in Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shailesh M. Dave; Sachin S. Patil; A. K. Suresh

    1997-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a product-inhibited fermentation, and product recovery costs in downstream processing are considerable. In this paper the feasibility of ion exchange as a technique for product separation is investigated. In initial experiments an indigenously manufactured weak-base resin was found to show promise, and detailed equilibrium and kinetic data required for design and scale-up of the separation process

  18. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Ling-Ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhan, Ji-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China's stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  19. Copper Tolerance and Biosorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling-ling; Jia, Bo; Zhao, Fang; Huang, Wei-dong; Zhan, Ji-cheng

    2015-01-01

    At high levels, copper in grape mash can inhibit yeast activity and cause stuck fermentations. Wine yeast has limited tolerance of copper and can reduce copper levels in wine during fermentation. This study aimed to understand copper tolerance of wine yeast and establish the mechanism by which yeast decreases copper in the must during fermentation. Three strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (lab selected strain BH8 and industrial strains AWRI R2 and Freddo) and a simple model fermentation system containing 0 to 1.50 mM Cu2+ were used. ICP-AES determined Cu ion concentration in the must decreasing differently by strains and initial copper levels during fermentation. Fermentation performance was heavily inhibited under copper stress, paralleled a decrease in viable cell numbers. Strain BH8 showed higher copper-tolerance than strain AWRI R2 and higher adsorption than Freddo. Yeast cell surface depression and intracellular structure deformation after copper treatment were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy; electronic differential system detected higher surface Cu and no intracellular Cu on 1.50 mM copper treated yeast cells. It is most probably that surface adsorption dominated the biosorption process of Cu2+ for strain BH8, with saturation being accomplished in 24 h. This study demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BH8 has good tolerance and adsorption of Cu, and reduces Cu2+ concentrations during fermentation in simple model system mainly through surface adsorption. The results indicate that the strain selected from China’s stress-tolerant wine grape is copper tolerant and can reduce copper in must when fermenting in a copper rich simple model system, and provided information for studies on mechanisms of heavy metal stress. PMID:26030864

  20. Methane fermentation process for utilization of organic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fr?c, M.; Ziemi?ski, K.

    2012-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable and sustainable energy carrier generated via anaerobic digestion of biomass. This fuel is derived from various biomass resources and depending on its origin it contains methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. The aim of this paper is to present the current knowledge and prospects of using the methane fermentation process to dispose of various types of organic wastes as well as conditions and factors affecting the methane fermentation process.

  1. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  2. Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Lin; Shuzo Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the conversion of biomass into fuel ethanol, considered the cleanest\\u000a liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Significant advances have been made towards the technology of ethanol fermentation.\\u000a This review provides practical examples and gives a broad overview of the current status of ethanol fermentation including\\u000a biomass resources, microorganisms, and technology. Also,

  3. Alcoholic fermentation: on the inhibitory effect of ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Novak; P. Strehaiano; M. Moreno; G. Goma

    1981-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol was studied during alcoholic fermentation under strictly anaerobic conditions assured by stripping dissolved oxygen with pure nitrogen. It is shown that ehthanol produced during batch fermentation is more inhibitory than added ethanol in the range of 0 to 76 g\\/liter. Thus, the inhibition constant is 105.2 and 3.8 g\\/liter for added and produced ethanol, respectively.

  4. Esters and their biosynthesis in fermented dairy products: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-Q. Liu; R. Holland; V. L. Crow

    2004-01-01

    Esters of short-chain fatty acids are aroma-impact compounds found in fermented dairy products. These esters are responsible for fruity flavours that can be regarded either as a defect or as an attribute by the consumer. An understanding of the mechanisms of ester biosynthesis will enable control of the development of fruity flavours in fermented dairy products. The biosynthesis of flavour-active

  5. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Hedegaard Thomsen

    2005-01-01

    This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which\\u000a can be used for production of bioenergy and\\/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from\\u000a the green crop drying industry, brown juice, is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation,\\u000a is outlined. The resulting all-round

  6. UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do OD CK (mg/50-L) MeOH (ml) dO2 (%)Temp (C) 40 20 60 80 0 100 6 8 4 2 0 10 28

  7. Simple and robust monitoring of ethanol fermentations by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, James D; Sutton, Adam T; Karu, Naama; Phillips, Michael; Markham, Julie; Peiris, Paul; Hilder, Emily F; Castignolles, Patrice

    2015-05-01

    Free-solution capillary electrophoresis (CE), or capillary zone electrophoresis, with direct UV detection was used for the first time for the determination of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and ethanol in fermentation broths. Sample preparation proved to be minimal: no derivatization or specific sample purification was needed. The CE conditions can be adapted to the type of fermentation by simply altering the background electrolyte (BGE). KOH (130 mM) or NaOH (130 mM) as the BGE led to the fastest analysis time when monitoring simple fermentations. A mixture of 65 mM NaOH and 65 mM LiOH led to a 19% improvement in resolution for a complex mixture of carbohydrates. Quantification of a simple carbohydrate fermentation by CE showed values in close agreement with that of high-performance anion exchange chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a cation exchange resin. For complex fermentations, quantification of carbohydrates by HPLC and CE led to similar results, whereas CE requires an injection volume of only 10-20 nL. Analysis of an ethanol fermentation of hydrolyzed plant fiber demonstrated the robustness of the separation and detection of carbohydrates, as well as ethanol. Ethanol determination is achieved by coupling the CE method to pressure mobilization, using the same instrument and the same sample. PMID:25040822

  8. Betaine fermentation and oxidation by marine desulfuromonas strains.

    PubMed

    Heijthuijsen, J H; Hansen, T A

    1989-04-01

    Two bacterial strains were dominant in anaerobic enrichment cultures with betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate and intertidal mud as an inoculum. One was a coccoid bacterium which was a trimethylamine (TMA)-fermenting methanogen similar to Methanococcoides methylutens. The other strain, a rod-shaped, gram-negative, motile bacterium, fermented betaine. On the basis of its ability to oxidize acetate and ethanol to CO(2) with sulfur as an electron acceptor, its inability to reduce sulfate and sulfite, its morphology, the presence of c-type cytochromes, and other characteristics, the isolated strain PM1 was identified as Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Although only malate and fumarate were known as substrates for fermentative growth of this species, the type strain (DSM 684) also fermented betaine. Strain PM1 grew with a doubling time of 9.5 h at 30 degrees C on betaine and produced approximately 1 mol of TMA per mol of betaine, 0.75 mol of acetate, and presumably CO(2) as fermentation products but only in the presence of selenite (100 nM). In this fermentation, betaine is probably reductively cleaved to TMA and acetate, and part of the acetate is then oxidized to CO(2) to provide the reducing equivalents for the initial cleavage reaction. In the presence of sulfur, betaine was converted to TMA and presumably CO(2) with the formation of sulfide; then, only traces of acetate were produced. PMID:16347897

  9. [Biotechnological optimization of nutrient composition of fermented dairy drink].

    PubMed

    Donskaya, G A

    2014-01-01

    The receipt based on the results of carried out studies is substantiated and technology of the new fermented dairy drink containing whole milk and whey with inulin (Jerusalem artichoke extract) and optimizing initial mineral composition of raw material has been developed. The starters ascertaining optimal organoleptic properties of the drink have been selected. It has been established that Jerusalem artichoke and its derivatives in the form of syrups and extracts stimulate fermentative processes of technological microflora, with maximum activity observed with Jerusalem artichoke extract. Physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the drink have been defined during storage. The possibility to optimize the nutrient composition of fermented dairy product by means of introducing of Jerusalem artichoke extract into milk-protein base has been demonstrated. It has been calculated that consumption of 100 g of fermented dairy drink enriched with Jerusalem artichoke extract makes it possible to satisfy the physiological needs (recommended daily allowance--RDA) for babies from 0 to 3 months in vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 25-35% and in minerals P, K, and Ca by 20, 68, 34, 26%. For adults receiving 250 g of fermented beverage meets RDA for vitamins B1, B2 and B6 by 10-19% and in the macronutrients P, K, Ca-by 25-35%. Designed fermented dairy drink supplemented with natural plant ingredient possesses increased antioxidant activity and may be recommended for mass consumption without any limitations. PMID:25929025

  10. Enhanced fermentation systems with continuous removal of inhibitory products

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1994-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. A major limitation of microbial fermentations is the dilute aqueous product streams that result, largely due to inhibition of the microbes by the desired products. If these inhibitory products can be removed during the ongoing fermentation, the overall rates, yields, and net product formation may be increased. Simultaneous fermentation and separation have been tested with different separation techniques, such as adsorption, liquid extraction, pervaporation, membrane separations, distillation, and others. These separations can occur directly in situ within the fermentor or indirectly using a sidestream separator with recycle of the unused substrate. These approaches are briefly reviewed. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have investigated two modified immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) to remove the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the separation by adsorption of tactic acid, and the other uses liquid solvent extraction for the production of butanol. Keywords: extractive fermentation, in situ separation, adsorption, tactic acid, butanol.

  11. Fermentative hydrogen production from pretreated biomass: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulos, I A; Bakker, R R; Budde, M A W; de Vrije, T; Claassen, P A M; Koukios, E G

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potential of employing biomass resources from different origin as feedstocks for fermentative hydrogen production. Mild-acid pretreated and hydrolysed barley straw (BS) and corn stalk (CS), hydrolysed barley grains (BG) and corn grains (CG), and sugar beet extract (SB) were comparatively evaluated for fermentative hydrogen production. Pretreatments and/or enzymatic hydrolysis led to 27, 37, 56, 74 and 45 g soluble sugars/100 g dry BS, CS, BG, CG and SB, respectively. A rapid test was applied to evaluate the fermentability of the hydrolysates and SB extract. The thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus showed high hydrogen production on hydrolysates of mild-acid pretreated BS, hydrolysates of BG and CG, and SB extract. Mild-acid pretreated CS showed limited fermentability, which was partially due to inhibitory products released in the hydrolysates, implying the need for the employment of a milder pretreatment method. The difference in the fermentability of BS and CS is in strong contrast to the similarity of the composition of these two feedstocks. The importance of performing fermentability tests to determine the suitability of a feedstock for hydrogen production was confirmed. PMID:19656677

  12. Interaction between Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio

    2015-08-01

    During wine fermentation, Saccharomyces clearly dominate over non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts, and several factors could be related to this dominance. However, the main factor causing the reduction of cultivable non-Saccharomyces populations has not yet been fully established. In the present study, various single and mixed fermentations were performed to evaluate some of the factors likely responsible for the interaction between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in compartmented experimental set ups with ratios of 1:1 and 1:9 and the cultivable population of both species was followed. The cultivable H. uvarum population decreased sharply at late stages when S. cerevisiae was present in the other compartment, similarly to alcoholic fermentations in non-compartmented vessels. Thus, cell-to-cell contact did not seem to be the main cause for the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum. Other compounds related to fermentation performance (such as sugar and ethanol) and/or certain metabolites secreted by S. cerevisiae could be related to the sharp decrease in H. uvarum cultivability. When these factors were analyzed, it was confirmed that metabolites from S. cerevisiae induced lack of cultivability in H. uvarum, however ethanol and other possible compounds did not seem to induce this effect but played some role during the process. This study contributes to a new understanding of the lack of cultivability of H. uvarum populations during the late stages of wine fermentation. PMID:25956738

  13. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hussain

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends

  14. Optimization of fermentation parameters for production of ethanol from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naresh Sharma; K. L. Kalra; Harinder Singh Oberoi; Sunil Bansal

    2007-01-01

    A study was taken up to evaluate the role of some fermentation parameters like inoculum concentration, temperature, incubation\\u000a period and agitation time on ethanol production from kinnow waste and banana peels by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation\\u000a using cellulase and co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae G and Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077. Steam pretreated kinnow waste and banana peels were used as substrate

  15. Utilization of alkaline potato peel waste by fermentation, amylase production by Aspergillus foetidus NRRL 337, and alcoholic fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bloch; G. E. Brown; D. F. Farkas

    1973-01-01

    Aspergillus foctidus NRRL337 was cultured on hydrochloric acid neutralized waste from the dry caustic potato peeling process. Alpha-amylase yields of\\u000a 26–40 SKB units\\/ml and maltase yields of 6 to 10 units\\/ml were obtained. The fermented mixture filters very easily to yield\\u000a an amylase containing liquor and mycelium. Alcoholic fermentation of additional peel waste using the above for amylolytic\\u000a conversion gave

  16. Gravitational Correction to Vacuum Polarization

    E-print Network

    Jentschura, U D

    2015-01-01

    We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

  17. Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Johann Rafelski; Lance Labun

    2012-04-22

    Little is known about the physics frontier of strong acceleration; both classical and quantum physics need further development in order to be able to address this newly accessible area of physics. In this lecture we discuss what strong acceleration means and possible experiments using electron-laser collisions and, data available from ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We review the foundations of the current understanding of charged particle dynamics in presence of critical forces and discuss the radiation reaction inconsistency in electromagnetic theory and the apparent relation with quantum physics and strong field particle production phenomena. The role of the quantum vacuum as an inertial reference frame is emphasized, as well as the absence of such a `Machian' reference frame in the conventional classical limit of quantum field theory.

  18. Cosmological Vacuum in Unified Theories

    E-print Network

    V. N. Pervushin; V. I Smirichinski

    1997-09-30

    The unification of the Einstein theory of gravity with a conformal invariant version of the standard model for electroweak interaction without the Higgs potential is considered. In this theory, a module of the Higgs field is absorbed by the scale factor component of metric so that the evolution of the Universe and the elementary particle masses have one and the same cosmological origin and the flat space limit corresponds to the $\\sigma$-model version of the standard model. The red shift formula and Hubble law are obtained under the assumption of homogeneous matter distribution. We show that the considered theory leads to a very small vacuum density of the Higgs field $\\rho_\\phi^{Cosmic}=10^{-34}\\rho_{cr}$ in contrast with the theory with the Higgs potential $\\rho_\\phi^{Higgs}=10^{54}\\rho_{cr}$.

  19. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  20. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.