Sample records for vacuum fermentation

  1. Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations

    E-print Network

    Griffith, Gareth

    Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations H.E. Johnson1 , R.J. Merry-scale silage studies. Methods and Results: Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations settings (initial packing densities of 0Ã?397, 0Ã?435, 0Ã?492 and 0Ã?534 g cm)3 ) on the silage fermentation

  2. Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

  3. Fermentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

  4. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  5. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  7. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  8. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Mairoella; Harvey W. Blanch; Charles R. Wilke

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in

  9. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is organized into several sections. The first has information on the history of vegetable fermentation research in the US, dating back to the late 1880s. A overview of commercial cucumber and sauerkraut fermentation practices follows, focusing on the US market, although there is some me...

  10. Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2006-05-30

    Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

  11. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  13. By-product inhibition effects of ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents, may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde, glycerol, formic, lactic, and acetic acids, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3- butanediol to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed. (Refs. 15).

  14. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-08-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde; glycerol; formic, lactic and acetic acids; 1-propanol; 2-methyl-l-butanol; and 2,3,-butanediol; to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  15. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mairoella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents, may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde, glycerol, formic, lactic, and acetic acids, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanediol to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  16. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  17. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor.

    PubMed

    Yu, S; Wayman, M; Parekh, S K

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose: xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. PMID:18576569

  18. Fermentation and food

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploratorium

    2004-01-01

    This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  19. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  20. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  1. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  2. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  3. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  4. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  5. Vacuum Energy

    E-print Network

    Mark D. Roberts

    2001-07-22

    There appears to be three, perhaps related, ways of approaching the nature of vacuum energy . The first is to say that it is just the lowest energy state of a given, usually quantum, system. The second is to equate vacuum energy with the Casimir energy. The third is to note that an energy difference from a complete vacuum might have some long range effect, typically this energy difference is interpreted as the cosmological constant. All three approaches are reviewed, with an emphasis on recent work. It is hoped that this review is comprehensive in scope. There is a discussion on whether there is a relation between vacuum energy and inertia. The solution suggested here to the nature of the vacuum is that Casimir energy can produce short range effects because of boundary conditions, but that at long range there is no overall effect of vacuum energy, unless one considers lagrangians of higher order than Einstein's as vacuum induced. No original calculations are presented in support of this position. This is not a review of the cosmological constant {\\it per se}, but rather vacuum energy in general, my approach to the cosmological constant is not standard.

  6. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  7. Optimization of batch alcoholic fermentation of glucose syrup substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.L.

    1981-08-01

    The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, yeast concentration, and nutrient supplementation on ethanol content, fermentation time, and ethanol productivity were investigated in a Box-Wilson central composite design experiment, consisting of five levels of each variable. High substrate concentration, up to 30 degrees Brix, resulted in higher ethanol content (i.e., up to 15.7% w/v or 19.6% v/v) but longer fermentation time and hence lower ethanol productivity. Increasing yeast concentration, on the other hand, resulted in shorter fermentation time and higher ethanol productivity. Higher levels of nutrient supplementation generally led to shorter fermentation time and higher productivity. The highest ethanol productivity of about 21 g ethanol h was obtained at low substrate concentration (i.e., 12 degrees Brix), low alcohol content (i.e., 6% by weight), high yeast concentration (i.e., 4.4%), and high supplementation of yeast extract (i.e., 2.8%). Productivity of this magnitude is substantially higher than that of the traditional batch fermentation or fed-batch fermentation. It is comparable to the results of continuous fermentation but lower than those of vacuum fermentation. Optimal conditions for maximal ethanol productivity can be established by a multiple regression analysis technique and by plotting the contours of constant response to conform to the constraints of individual operations. (Refs. 12).

  8. Kinetics of multiproduct fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, J.C.; Ollis, D.F.

    1981-07-01

    A simple model for biomass, product, and substrate evolution proposed previously for batch polysaccharide fermentations is extended to multiproduct fermentations. The examples involve Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405) fermentations of glucose to four products (ethanol, acetic, formic, and lactic acid), of fructose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid), and of cellobiose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid). In all cases, parameter evaluation was carried out in a serial deterministic procedure.

  9. Breadfruit fermentation in micronesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Atchley; Paul Alan Cox

    1985-01-01

    Throughout Oceania, pit fermentation of starchy crops was used as means of ensuring a predictable food supply despite the\\u000a vagaries of drought, cyclonic storms, and warfare. During a 6-mo period, fermentation techniques for breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) were studied in Micronesia in the islands comprising Majuro, Guam, Belau, Yap, and Ponape. Fermentation techniques were\\u000a found to vary throughout Micronensia but as

  10. Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss flow regimes of gas. The PDF includes 14 instructional slides demonstrating related concepts in vacuum technology. Keywords: Reynolds' number, Knudsen's number

  11. Probiotics in fermented sausages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc De Vuyst; Gwen Falony; Frédéric Leroy

    2008-01-01

    Probiotic foods receive market interest as health-promoting, functional foods. They have been introduced in a wide range of food industries. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. There are both advantages and disadvantages connected to fermented meat matrices. They are adequate for the carriage of probiotic bacteria since they are usually not or only

  12. Modeling Wine Fermentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Humans have been producing wines for thousands of years. How did wine making get started? How has it changed? The Wine Mini-Model simulation enables us to explore the basic fermentation process as well as model enhancements such as the higher alcohol tolerance of cultivated yeasts used in modern wine making. * model the fermentation process in early and modern wines

  13. Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ingrid Waldron

    Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

  14. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  15. Vacuum Gauges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

  16. Vacuum Waves

    E-print Network

    Paul S. Wesson

    2012-12-11

    As an example of the unification of gravitation and particle physics, an exact solution of the five-dimensional field equations is studied which describes waves in the classical Einstein vacuum. While the solution is essentially 5D in nature, the waves exist in ordinary 3D space, and may provide a way to test for an extra dimension.

  17. Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

  18. Kimchee Fermentation Chamber

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Universitiy of Wisconsin-Madison

    2007-01-01

    Learners make kimchee or sauerkraut, which is really just fermented cabbage, in a 2-liter plastic bottle. The fermentation process takes from 3 days to 2 weeks to complete, and learners measure the progress by taking a daily pH (acid level) test. This activity can be used to teach about anaerobic bacteria, acidity, osmosis, concentration, and density. It comes from a printed book that is also available in Spanish, though the Spanish version is not available online.

  19. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  20. Control of fermenters - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yamuna Rani; V. S. Ramachandra Rao

    1999-01-01

    Fermenter control has been an active area of research and has attracted more attention in recent years. This is due to the new developments in other related areas which can be exploited to overcome the inherent difficulties in fermenter control. Beginning with conventional regulatory control of operating variables such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, research in fermenter control

  1. Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation pattern

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation fermentation patterns are unclear. Streptococcus bovis is a major ruminal bacteria, produces acetate, lactate

  2. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  3. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

  4. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Weigert; C. Klein; M. Rizzi; C. Lauterbach; H. Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Summary Furfural as a product from thermic wood hydrolysis processes may be inhibitory to growth and fermentation of yeast cells. In order to determine the influence on the aerobic growth of the yeastPichiastipitis, expermiments were conducted in stirred reactors with the addition of furfural.

  5. Pentose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-L. Suihko; M. Dra?i?

    1983-01-01

    66 different yeast strains were screened for glucose, xylose and xylulose fermentation in shake flask cultures. None of the tested yeasts was able to grow or produce significant amounts of ethanol on xylose anaerobically. The best ethanol yields from xylulose were obtained with a wine yeast, two distillery yeasts, and a strain of Saccharomyces uvarum. The best conversion of xylulose

  6. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  7. Fermentation in a Bag

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    This is a hands-on inquiry activity using zip-lock plastic bags that allows students to observe the process of fermentation and the challenge of producing ethanol from cellulosic sources. Students are asked to predict outcomes and check their observations with their predictions. Teachers can easily adapt to materials and specific classroom issues.

  8. FERMENTATION PROCESS FOR MANNITOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We selected Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B...

  9. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

  10. THE VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant process was developed. The process was developed for chicken, hot dogs, fruits and vegetables, and catfish. Optimum process conditions were determined as nominally, 138 C saturated steam, vacuum and steam times of 0.1 s except that the final...

  11. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  12. The Feasibility of Producing Vacuum-Packed Fermented Vegetable Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoni Llovera

    2008-01-01

    The average intake of vegetables in Ireland falls below the recommendations of Bord Glas and FSAI. Carrots are the third most consumed vegetable in Ireland and they are an excellent source of vitamins A and B as well as phytochemicals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known in food for their benefits such as improvement of the nutritional value of food

  13. Fermentation of cellodextrins to ethanol using mixed-culture fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, S.N.; Wing, R.E.

    1985-07-01

    The potential for enhancing ethanol production from cellodextrins by employing mixed-culture (Candida wickerhamii-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentations was investigated. Initially, ethanol production was monitored in fermentation medium containing 50 g/l glucose plus 45 g/l cellobiose. Inoculum levels and times of inoculum addition were varied. Of the conditions tested, the most rapid rates of ethanol formation occurred in fermentations in which either C. wickerhamii and S. cerevisiae were coinoculated at a ratio of 57 : 1 cell/ml or in fermentations in which a 10-fold-greater S. cerevisiae inoculum was added to a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation after one day incubation. These conditions were used to attempt to enhance fermentations in which cellodextrins produced by trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of cellulose served as the sole carbon source. Cellodextrins that were not further purified after cellulose hydrolysis contained compounds that were slightly inhibitory to C. wickerhamii. In this case the mixed-culture fermentations produced 12-45% more ethanol than a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation. However, if the substrate was treated with Darco G-60 charcoal, the toxic materials were apparently removed and the pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentations performed as well as the mixed-culture fermentations.

  14. Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU)

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kai

    Vacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & PumpsVacuum Basics & Pumps Ref: CLC notes (JHU) Some graphs courtesy of KJLesker, Edwards, Veeco #12;I. VacuumI. Vacuum 1 atm= 760 torr = 1.0132 bar = 1.013x105 Pa = 14.7 psi Rough Vacuum (RV) 1 torr ­ 760 torrg ( ) Medium Vacuum (MV) 10-5 torr

  15. Xylose fermentation by yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Rizzi; Petra Erlemann; Ngoc-Anh Bui-Thanh; Hanswerner Dellweg

    1988-01-01

    Xylose reductase from the xylose-fermenting yeastPichia stipitis was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity via ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. At physiological pH values the thermodynamic equilibrium constant was determined to be 0.575x1010 (l·mol-1). Product inhibiton studies are reported which clearly show that the kinetic mechanism of the xylose reductase is ordered-bi-bi with isomerisation of a stable enzyme form.

  16. Solid-state fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Pandey

    2003-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

  17. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  18. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  19. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  20. Lactic acid fermentation of onions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Roberts; D. R. Kidd

    2005-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation was conducted on sweet, white, and yellow storage onions to produce souronion. The onions were sliced to 0.3cm thick, salt was added at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5g\\/100g without or with sugar at 1.0 and 2.0g\\/100g, and the fermentation temperature was 18°C. Since onions do not have the necessary lactic acid bacteria for the anaerobic fermentation, onions were

  1. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Littleton, CO); Deanda, Kristine A. (Lakewood, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  2. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  3. Modeling the Dynamics of Fermentation and Respiratory

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, University of

    Modeling the Dynamics of Fermentation and Respiratory Processes in a Groundwater Plume of Phenolic Halle, Germany A biodegradation model with consecutive fermentation and respiration processes, developed the rates and parameter values for fermentation processes and individual respiratory terminal electron

  4. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  5. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Deanda, Kristine A. (Conifer, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  6. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  7. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Deanda, Kristine A. (Conifer, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglenn, CO); Newman, Mildred M. (Littleton, CO); McMillan, James D. (Boulder, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  8. Fermentation behaviour and metabolic interactions of multistarter wine yeast fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Ciani; Luca Beco; Francesca Comitini

    2006-01-01

    Multistarter fermentations of Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Kluyveromyces thermotolerans together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. In grape musts with a high sugar content, mixed trials showed a fermentation behaviour and analytical profiles of wines comparable to or better than those exhibited by a pure culture of S. cerevisiae. Sequential trials of T. delbrueckii and K. thermotolerans revealed a sluggish

  9. Behavioral study on hydrogen fermentation reactor installed with silicone rubber membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teh-Ming Liang; Sheng-Shung Cheng; Kung-Long Wu

    2002-01-01

    This investigation examines the effectiveness of a silicone rubber membrane to separate biogas from the liquid medium in the hydrogen fermentation reactor. When the culture liquid circulates through the shell side of the hollow fibers, the biogas diffuses into the lumen of the hollow fibers and is removed by a vacuum pump. When the cross flow velocity along the module

  10. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

  11. Lactic acid fermented vegetable juices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. KAROVI?OVÁ; Z. KOHAJDOVÁ

    Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose en- zymes, particularly amylases, proteases and lipases, hy- drolyse polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to non-toxic products with flavours, aromas and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer (STEINKRAUS 1997). The lactic acid fermentation of vegetable products, applied as a preservation method for the production of

  12. Original article Ruminal fermentative parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of acute lactic acidosis. acidosis / rumen fermentation / protozoa / blood / acid-base status 513 Anim. ResOriginal article Ruminal fermentative parameters and blood acido-basic balance changes during used to study the long-term effects of an acidotic diet on ruminal parameters and blood acid

  13. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  14. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  15. Educational Vacuum Trainers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hansen, Steve

    Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

  16. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  17. Cosmology of Vacuum

    E-print Network

    V. Burdyuzha; G. Vereshkov

    2007-12-29

    Shortly the vacuum component of the Universe from the geometry point of view and from the point of view of the standard model of physics of elementary particles is discussed. Some arguments are given to the calculated value of the cosmological constant (Zeldovich approximation). A new component of space vacuum (the gravitational vacuum condensate) is involved the production of which has fixed time in our Universe. Also the phenomenon of vacuum selforganization must be included in physical consideration of the Universe evolution.

  18. Vacuum String Field Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

    2001-01-01

    This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

  19. Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling

    E-print Network

    FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones #12;13 July 2002 Snowmass Review: FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling 2 Presentation Outline · Vacuum Vessel - Design requirements - Design concept and features - Analysis to date - Status and summary

  20. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  1. Fermentation of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits for betalains concentration.

    PubMed

    Castellar, M R; Obón, J M; Alacid, M; Fernández-López, J A

    2008-06-11

    Fermentation of juice and homogenized fruits of Opuntia stricta fruits has been developed and optimized. The aim was to obtain the red food colorant betanin from prickly pear, at high concentration and low viscosity. Among three strains assayed, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus AWRI 796 has been the optimum for this process. The optimum temperature value was found to be 35 degrees C for both sugar consumption and pigment preservation. After fermentation, biomass and residual vegetal tissue were discarded by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated under vacuum. Therefore, liquid concentrated betanin was obtained, with low viscosity and being sugar free. Besides, bioethanol was obtained as byproduct. Characteristics of the final product obtained were pH 3.41, 5.2 degrees Brix, 9.65 g/L betanin, color strength of 10.8, and viscosity of 52.5 cP. These values are better than obtained by other procedures. PMID:18473472

  2. Bacteriophage Ecology in Commercial Sauerkraut Fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lu; F. Breidt; V. Plengvidhya; H. P. Fleming

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteriophage ecology in vegetable fermentations is essential for developing phage control strategies for consistent and high quality of fermented vegetable products. The ecology of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total

  3. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  4. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical processes-completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion. (Refs. 21).

  5. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  6. Fermented broth in tyrosinase- and melanogenesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chin-Feng; Huang, Ching-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed. PMID:25255749

  7. Performance improvement of lactic acid fermentation by multistage extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaiming Ye; Sha Jin; Kazuyuki Shimizu

    1996-01-01

    For the efficient fermentation of lactic acid, an integrated fermentation system in which a cell recycle process with cross-flow filtration and extraction were combined, was developed. Forty percent Alamine 336 was used as an extractant (dissolved in a solvent of oleyl alcohol) for selectively extracting lactic acid from cell-free broth. Considering the trade-off between the growth rate of the microorganism

  8. Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ammon

    1934-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

  9. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  10. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  11. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  12. Ultrahigh vacuum equipment described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhi; Jing, Shiqun; Peng, Xianhui

    1985-10-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum equipment for filming with a blockade value and a substrate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The equipment has the following characteristics: (1) the vacuum chamber is exposed to the atmosphere, the lockade valve can maintain a vacuum of 1 to 10 to the -9 power torr for a long period of time; (2) it greatly reduces the working cycle compared to before the blockade valve was installed; and (3) the temperature of the sample substrate in the vacuum chamber can be adjusted continuously between 77 K and room temperature. The ultrahigh vacuum filming equipment China now produces does not have an ultrahigh vacuum valve, when inserting and removing samples, the pump casing is exposed to the atmosphere so that even after the pump has operated for a time, its limited vacuum is 10 to the -8 power torr. A bakeable metallic blockade valve is installed between the vacuum pump intake and the vacuum chamber to form a fliming device. The device is simple, the vacuum is increased several levels, and it can make samples at different substrate temperatures.

  13. Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

  14. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  15. Physical Vacuum in Superconductors

    E-print Network

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2009-08-31

    Although experiments carried out by Jain et al. showed that the Cooper pairs obey the strong equivalence principle, The measurement of the Cooper pairs inertial mass by Tate et al. revealed an anomalous excess of mass. In the present paper we interpret these experimental results in the framework of an electromagnetic model of dark energy for the superconductors' vacuum. We argue that this physical vacuum is associated with a preferred frame. Ultimately from the conservation of energy for Cooper pairs we derive a model for a variable vacuum speed of light in the superconductors physical vacuum in relation with a possible breaking of the weak equivalence principle for Cooper pairs.

  16. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  17. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  18. Vacuuming radioactive sludge

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-16

    Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

  19. Vacuum Energy Decay

    E-print Network

    Enrique Álvarez; Roberto Vidal

    2011-11-09

    The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude ${\\mathcal A}(z, z')$. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior is discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\l$.

  20. Modeling Vacuum Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Norem; Z. Insepov; Th. Proslier; D. Huang; S. Mahalingam; S. Veitzer

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a model of vacuum arcs to describe vacuum breakdown in 805 MHz systems, however the basic mechanisms at work should apply to other applications. The model assumes: 1) that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, 2) this is followed by ionization of fragments by field emitted currents and

  1. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  2. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  3. Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)

    1991-12-31

    In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

  4. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  5. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  6. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  7. Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2014-09-01

    This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30 °C for 14 days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30 °C for 3 days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation , A. Mouddenb

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process D. Izbaima , B. Faiza , A. Mouddenb , M is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should

  9. Clarification of lactic acid fermentation broths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Milcent; Hélène Carrère

    2001-01-01

    This work is focused on the clarification of fermentation broths in order to optimise a batch downstream process for the recovery and purification of lactic acid produced by fermentation. Lactic acid was produced in a 75-l fermentor and the clarification was achieved using a 0.15 m2 filtration unit. Beet molasses was used as carbon source for fermentation and was inoculated

  10. Hydrodynamics of the Vacuum

    E-print Network

    P. M. Stevenson

    2005-07-30

    Hydrodynamics is the appropriate "effective theory" for describing any fluid medium at sufficiently long length scales. This paper treats the vacuum as such a medium and derives the corresponding hydrodynamic equations. Unlike a normal medium the vacuum has no linear sound-wave regime; disturbances always "propagate" nonlinearly. For an "empty vacuum" the hydrodynamic equations are familiar ones (shallow water-wave equations) and they describe an experimentally observed phenomenon -- the spreading of a clump of zero-temperature atoms into empty space. The "Higgs vacuum" case is much stranger; pressure and energy density, and hence time and space, exchange roles. The speed of sound is formally infinite, rather than zero as in the empty vacuum. Higher-derivative corrections to the vacuum hydrodynamic equations are also considered. In the empty-vacuum case the corrections are of quantum origin and the post-hydrodynamic description corresponds to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. I conjecture the form of the post-hydrodynamic corrections in the Higgs case. In the 1+1-dimensional case the equations possess remarkable `soliton' solutions and appear to constitute a new exactly integrable system.

  11. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K Mugula; S. A. M Nnko; J. A Narvhus; T Sørhaug

    2003-01-01

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize–sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis,

  12. Evading death by vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

    2013-03-15

    In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

  13. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  14. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  15. On Entanglement with Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Marcin Pawlowski; Marek Czachor

    2005-07-16

    The so-called entanglement with vacuum is not a property of the Fock space, but of some rather pathological representations of CCR/CAR algebras. In some other Fock space representations the notion simply does not exist. We have checked all the main Gedanken experiments where the notion of entanglement with vacuum was used, and found that all the calculations could be performed at a representation-independent level. In particular any such experiment can be formulated in a Fock-space representation where the notion of entanglement with vacuum is meaningless. So, for the moment there is no single experiment where the notion is needed, and probably it is simply unphysical.

  16. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 25137 (China)

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  17. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  18. Cosmology of gravitational vacuum

    E-print Network

    Burdyuzha, V; Pacheco, J

    2008-01-01

    Production of gravitational vacuum defects and their contribution to the energy density of our Universe are discussed. These topological microstructures (defects) could be produced in the result of creation of the Universe from "nothing" when a gravitational vacuum condensate has appeared. They must be isotropically distributed over the isotropic expanding Universe. After Universe inflation these microdefects are smoothed, stretched and broken up. A part of them could survive and now they are perceived as the structures of Lambda-term and an unclustered dark matter. It is shown that the parametrization noninvariance of the Wheeler-De Witt equation can be used to describe phenomenologically vacuum topological defects of different dimensions (worm-holes, micromembranes, microstrings and monopoles). The mathematical illustration of these processes may be the spontaneous breaking of the local Lorentz-invariance of the quasi-classical equations of gravity. Probably the gravitational vacuum condensate has fixed tim...

  19. Cosmology of gravitational vacuum

    E-print Network

    V. Burdyuzha; G. Vereshkov; J. Pacheco

    2007-12-29

    Production of gravitational vacuum defects and their contribution to the energy density of our Universe are discussed. These topological microstructures (defects) could be produced in the result of creation of the Universe from "nothing" when a gravitational vacuum condensate has appeared. They must be isotropically distributed over the isotropic expanding Universe. After Universe inflation these microdefects are smoothed, stretched and broken up. A part of them could survive and now they are perceived as the structures of Lambda-term and an unclustered dark matter. It is shown that the parametrization noninvariance of the Wheeler-De Witt equation can be used to describe phenomenologically vacuum topological defects of different dimensions (worm-holes, micromembranes, microstrings and monopoles). The mathematical illustration of these processes may be the spontaneous breaking of the local Lorentz-invariance of the quasi-classical equations of gravity. Probably the gravitational vacuum condensate has fixed time in our Universe. Besides, 3-dimensional topological defects renormalize Lambda-term.

  20. Pumpdown and Vacuum Pumps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rack, Philip D.

    This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss vacuum pumpdown. Graphics are included which depict pumpdown procedure, venting procedure, pressure curves and system pumpdown. Keywords: Outgassing, pressure range, rotary vane, rotary piston, roots blower

  1. Chemicals from biomass by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinman, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    The status of fermentation processing is reviewed in terms of the various types of products-antibiotics, commodity chemicals, and genetically engineered proteins. The contribution of biomass to the manufacture of these products is addressed in terms of technical requirements, cost, and environmental considerations.

  2. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol or sugar alcohol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industries. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. A number of lactic acid bacter...

  3. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  4. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  5. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that exhibit high degrees of conformance to the international standards of regulatory and good manufacturing practice. PMID:12930092

  6. Optimization of batch alcoholic fermentation of glucose syrup substrate. [Box-Wilson central composite design

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.L.

    1981-08-01

    The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, yeast concentration, and nutrient supplementation on ethanol content, fermentation time, and ethanol productivity were investigated in a Box-Wilson central composite design experiment, consisting of five levels of each variable. The highest ethanol productivity of about 21 g EtOH/liter hr was obtained at low substrate concentration (i.e., 12/degree/Brix), low alcohol content (i.e., 6% by weight), high yeast concentration (i.e., 4.4%), and high supplementation of yeast extract (i.e., 6% by weight), high yeast concentration (i.e., 4.4%), and high supplementation of yeast extract (i.e., 2.8%). Productivity of this magnitude is substantially higher than that of the traditional batch fermentation or fed-batch fermentation. It is comparable to the results of continuous fermentation but lower than those of vacuum fermentation. Optimal conditions for maximal ethanol productivity can be established by a multiple regression analysis technique and by plotting the contours of constant response to conform to the constraints of individual operations. 12 refs.

  7. VACUUM SYSTEMS PHYSICS 359E

    E-print Network

    Landstreet, John D.

    VACUUM SYSTEMS PHYSICS 359E September 28, 2004 INTRODUCTION In this laboratory, you will familiarize yourself with the principles of simple vacuum systems and their use. You will measure the pumping.) VACUUM SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS In one way or another vacuum techniques appear in most fields of modern

  8. Vacuum Techniques Lecture Notes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most modern day experimental research in physical chemistry is performed with the use of some sort of vacuum system. Organic and inorganic chemists are also finding it is essential to conduct synthetic and kinetic work under controlled or reduced pressures. The term "vacuum system" is applied rather broadly, from instrumentation that operates at very low pressures (i.e., below 10-8 torr) to systems that are only pumped down once to remove air and then used to handle gases at moderate pressures (up to and sometimes over one atmosphere). Vacuum systems vary widely in their size and complexity (and expense) depending on the requirements of pumping speed and attainable vacuum. This experiment is designed to illustrate the purpose and use of the basic components found on typical vacuum apparati. The volumes of the isolatable sections of the system will be measured. Also, some of the variables, such as pumping speed, which should be considered in designing such a system, will be investigated.

  9. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

    2003-02-15

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

  10. Excretion of fermentation products in dark and anaerobically incubated cyanobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Heyer; Wolfgang E. Krumbein

    1991-01-01

    An arbitrarily chosen selection of 37 cyanobacterial strains of the Oldenburg culture collection were tested for their ability of fermentation and secretion of fermentation products. In all examined strains at least one fermentation product could be detected. For the most part fermentation products were only shed in traces. Thus, for a large part of the investigated strains fermentation does not

  11. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to build and test a pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system will be procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system will then be used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in continuous stirred tank reactor and immobilized cell reactors. The minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors. Retention times of a few seconds are expected to result from these experiments. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi , ethnic fermented vegetable products of the Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Buddhiman Tamang; Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2010-01-01

    Gundruk is a fermented leafy vegetable and khalpi is a fermented cucumber product, prepared and consumed in the Himalayas. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi was studied. Significant increase in population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was found during first few days of gundruk and khlapi fermentation, respectively. Gundruk fermentation was initiated by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus

  13. Vacuum driven accelerated expansion

    E-print Network

    Bogus?aw Broda; Piotr Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

    2008-12-29

    It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

  14. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  15. Promising ethanologens for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Franden, M.A.; Newman, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An economical biomass-to-ethanol process depends on the efficient conversion of both its cellulose and hemicellulose components. On a dry weight basis, the typical feedstock contains approx 25-50% (w/w) glucose, 10-30% (w/w) xylose, 15-30% (w/w) lignin, and 1-5% (w/w) of other minor pentose and hexose sugars. Although many microorganisms can ferment the glucose component in cellulose to ethanol, conversion of pentose sugars in the hemicellulose fraction, particularly xylose, has been hindered by the lack of a suitable biocatalyst. Despite the development of recombinant strains with improved fermentation performance, increased ethanol yields and concentrations and shorter fermentation times are key targets that have yet to be achieved from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. Our objective is to develop biocatalysts for the rapid and efficient conversion of xylose by engineering key metabolic pathways in selected organisms. To identify promising biocatalysts for these efforts, we have surveyed several industrial microorganisms according to several primary traits considered to be essential, as well as a number of secondary traits considered to be desirable, in a commercial biomass-to-ethanol process.

  16. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

  17. Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

  18. Pilot-Scale Fermentation and Laboratory Nutrient Studies on Mixed-Acid Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Smith, Aaron Douglas

    2011-08-08

    PILOT-SCALE FERMENTATION AND LABORATORY NUTRIENT STUDIES ON MIXED-ACID FERMENTATION A Dissertation by AARON DOUGLAS SMITH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PILOT-SCALE FERMENTATION AND LABORATORY NUTRIENT STUDIES ON MIXED-ACID FERMENTATION A Dissertation by AARON DOUGLAS SMITH...

  19. Identification and succession of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of 'urutan', a Balinese indigenous fermented sausage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. S. Antara; I. N. Sujaya; A. Yokota; K. Asano; W. R. Aryanta; F. Tomita

    2002-01-01

    'Urutan' is a Balinese traditional fermented sausage, which is made of lean pork and fat mixed with spices, sugar, and salt. The mixture is stuffed into cleaned pig intestine and fermented under uncontrolled condition during sun drying for 5 days. The investigation showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominating bacteria during 'urutan' fermentation. Among the 71 isolates obtained,

  20. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter P. Hammes

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

  1. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  2. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  3. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  4. Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest and limits, France) Introduction During in vivo colonic fermentation studies of in- digestible polysaccharides fermented organic matter (TFOM) was calculated from total SCFA production according to Van Nevel and De

  5. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  6. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  7. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  8. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  9. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  10. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

  11. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

  12. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  13. Fermentation Challenge: Making Ethanol from Cellulose

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This high school or beginning undergraduate level lab demonstration and inquiry activity will introduce students to the process of fermenting cellulosic biomass into cellulosic ethanol, along with the challenges researchers face in this area. The demonstration uses a Vernier probe or balloons to measure fermentation rates of different feedstocks to begin the discussion of why some carbohydrates are easily fermented by yeast while others are not. Students can design and carry out their own labs to try to improve fermentation rates of various feedstocks. The downloadable package of materials includes 1) Teacher Instructions and Answer Key 2) Student Activities and Worksheets 3) Supplementary Materials

  14. Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production

    E-print Network

    Easley, C. E.

    with water. cooking it. and converting the starch into a suitable form for fermentation. In fermentation, yeast is used to produce ethanol and by-product carbon dioxide. The beer from fermentation is then distilled to produce 95% ethanol which is further... mashing is to convert the starch components of the grain into sugars 460 ESL-IE-87-09-73 Proceedings from the Ninth Annual Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, September 16-18, 1987 I suitable for yeast fermentation into ethanol...

  15. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  16. The vacuum conservation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-03-01

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  17. Vacuum System at IUAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, A.

    2012-11-01

    Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

  18. Triggered vacuum gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Lafferty

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics of a sealed vacuum gap are described and the difficulties encountered in applying this gap as an overvoltage protection device are discussed. It is shown how these difficulties can be ameliorated by the use of gas-free electrode materials and by triggering the gap when breakdown is required. Several methods of triggering are discussed and some practical triggering devices are

  19. Vacuum configurations for superstrings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

    1985-01-01

    We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 × E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

  20. Type D Vacuum Metrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Kinnersley

    1969-01-01

    Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, the vacuum field equations are solved for Petrov type D. An exhaustive set of ten metrics is obtained, including among them a new rotating solution closely related to the Ehlers-Kundt ``C'' metric. They all possess at least two Killing vectors and depend only on a small number of arbitrary constants.

  1. Vacuum arc recovery phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

    1964-01-01

    The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

  2. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  3. (Reverse) engineering vacuum alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford Cheung; Jesse Thaler

    2006-01-01

    In the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking, the alignment of the vacuum with respect to the gauge group is often controlled by quadratically divergent operators in the low energy non-linear sigma model. In principle the magnitudes and signs of these operators can be changed by making different assumptions about the ultraviolet physics, but in practice all known ways of regulating

  4. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  5. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  6. Dielectric Theory of the Vacuum

    E-print Network

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2006-12-11

    The vacuum is proposed to be a dielectric medium constituted of neutral but polarizable vacuuons based on overall experimental observations in separate publications. In the present paper I formally develop the dielectric theory for this dielectric vacuum.

  7. Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

    2007-12-01

    There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production. PMID:17765349

  8. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  9. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  10. Vacuum Energy:. Myths and Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: "unbearable lightness of space-time" the dominating contribution of zero-point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

  11. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    E-print Network

    G. E. Volovik

    2006-07-10

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the observed dark energy. That is why the vacuum energy is the plausible candidate for the dark energy.

  12. Vacuum Electronics: Status and Trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Levush; D. K. Abe; J. P. Calame; B. G. Danly; K. T. Nguyen; E. J. Dutkowski; R. H. Abrams; R. K. Parker

    2007-01-01

    The vast preponderance of U.S. radar transmitters today use vacuum electronic amplifiers, spanning the spectrum from UHF to EHF. Enhancements to performance, reliability, and cost of ownership are being applied continuously to these systems; routine in-service life extensions mandate continuing vacuum electronics research and development to support system needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, exciting advances in vacuum electronics

  13. Vacuum Electronics: Status and Trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baruch Levush; David K. Abe; Jeffrey P. Calame; Bruce G. Danly; Khanh T. Nguyen; E. Joseph Dutkowski; R. H. Abrams; Robert Parker

    2007-01-01

    The vast preponderance of US radar transmitters today use vacuum electronic amplifiers, spanning the spectrum from UHF to EHF. Enhancements to performance, reliability, and cost of ownership are being applied continuously to these systems: routine in-service life extensions mandate continuing vacuum electronics research and development to support system needs for the foreseeable future. In addition, exciting advances in vacuum electronics

  14. Xylose fermentation with Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, the fermentation of xylose to ethanol with a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, was examined. The focus of this investigation was on the physiological parameters which most strongly affect the economic feasibility of using this bacterium for industrial ethanol production. In rich medium (containing economically impractical concentrations of yeast extract) yields as high as 0.43 gm ethanol/gm xylose and growth rates of 0.4 to 0.5 hr/sup -1/ were observed. The predominant by-products of the fermentation were acetate and lactate. Nutritional studies indicated that the cost of the growth medium could be dramatically reduced by replacing most of the yeast extract used with nicotinic acid and vitamin B/sup 12/. Ethanol was found to be very inhibitory to growth and ethanol formation. To overcome the problem of inhibition, cells were gradually adapted to high concentrations (up to 4.2%) of ethanol. However, the ethanol yield of adapted cells was typically 30 to 40% less than the yield of non-adapted cells. Environmental parameters such as pH and by-product concentrations had only a slight effect on the ethanol yield produced by tolerant cells. A mutant, selected from an adapted strain, was found to produce 60% less lactate than its parent. This low-lactate producing mutant had a slightly improved ethanol yield. The results obtained with the tolerant, low-lactate producing mutant were used in the design of an industrial-scale fermentation process. An economic evaluation of the process indicates that ethanol production with this bacterium is currently uneconomical.

  15. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. PMID:24506010

  16. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. T. Luong; J. H. T

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharo-myces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific

  17. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

    1986-01-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

  18. On the controllability of continuous fermentation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Kuhlmann; D. Bogle; Z. Chalabi

    1997-01-01

    Different reactor configuration for continuous fermenters are examined in terms of their controllability properties. This is done by examining the control input required for perfect disturbance rejection. It is shown that using an additional inlet stream (which does not contain any growth limiting substrate) as a control input leads to superior control performance than a single stream fermenter. Recycles can

  19. Sugar utilization by yeast during fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony D'Amore; Inge Russell; Graham G. Stewart

    1989-01-01

    Summary When glucose and fructose are fermented separately, the uptake profiles indicate that both sugars are utilized at similar rates. However, when fermentations are conducted in media containing an equal concentration of glucose and fructose, glucose is utilized at approximately twice the rate of fructose. The preferential uptake of glucose also occurred when sucrose, which was first rapidly hydrolyzed into

  20. Growth of yeasts during wine fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Fleet

    1990-01-01

    This article emphasises the importance of making quantitative measurements of the growth of yeast species during wine fermentations. Although such studies confirm Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the principal wine yeast, they show that indigenous species of Kloeckera and Candida make a more significant contribution to the fermentation than previously thought. Inoculation of grape juice with S. cerevisiae does not necessarily suppress

  1. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  2. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  3. Coupled lactic acid fermentation and adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chen; L.-K. Ju

    2002-01-01

    Polyvinylpyridine (PVP) and activated carbon were evaluated for coupled lactic acid fermentation and adsorption, to prevent the product concentration from reaching inhibitory levels. The lactic acid production doubled as a result of periodical circulation of the fermentation broth through a PVP adsorption column. The adsorbent was then regenerated and the adsorbed lactate harvested, by passing 0.1 N NaOH through the

  4. Exploring Microbial Fermentation with Korean Kimchee

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John M. Greenler (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    To get a closer look at metabolism and succession, consider the fermentation process for making traditional Kimchee. This non-pathogenic system provides opportunities for real time data acquisition and analysis. Experimental data is provided for variables such as pH and O2 levels. * measure key metabolic indicators and observe succession in a fermentation culture for making Kimchee

  5. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Sefa-Dedeh; Beatrice Cornelius; Wisdom Amoa-Awua; Esther Sakyi-Dawson; Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

    2004-01-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn

  6. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  7. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  8. Fermentation Rates of Grape Juice

    PubMed Central

    Ough, C. S.; Kunkee, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Microbiological analysis showed that juices from white grapes had less biotin than juices from red grapes. The biotin content of the juices of some varieties was significantly different from that of other varieties. We did not note any regional effects on the biotin content of the juices. Biotin content of the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes increased significantly with maturity, whereas the biotin content of a white variety did not. The biotin content, with the total nitrogen, can be used to estimate indirectly the yeast growth potential and hence to predict the fermentation rate of the juice. About 84% of the rate variation can be accounted for by the calculated regression equations. PMID:16349801

  9. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  10. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  11. Rotating vacuum wormhole

    E-print Network

    V. M. Khatsymovsky

    1998-03-06

    We investigate whether self-maintained vacuum traversible wormhole can exist described by stationary but nonstatic metric. We consider metric being the sum of static spherically symmetric one and a small nondiagonal component which describes rotation sufficiently slow to be taken into account in the linear approximation. We study semiclassical Einstein equations for this metric with vacuum expectation value of stress-energy of physical fields as the source. In suggestion that the static traversible wormhole solution exists we reveal possible azimuthal angle dependence of angular velocity of the rotation (angular velocity of the local inertial frame) that solves semiclassical Einstein equations. We find that in the macroscopic (in the Plank scale) wormhole case a rotational solution exists but only such that, first, angular velocity depends on radial coordinate only and, second, the wormhole connects the two asymptotically flat spacetimes rotating with angular velocities different in asymptotic regions.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Vacuum Structure and Potential

    E-print Network

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2007-04-02

    Based on overall experimental observations, especially the pair processes, I developed a model structure of the vacuum along with a basic-particle formation scheme begun in 2000 (with collaborator P-I Johansson). The model consists in that the vacuum is, briefly, filled of neutral but polarizable vacuuons, consisting each of a p-vaculeon and n- vaculeon of charges $+e$ and $-e$ of zero rest masses but with spin motions, assumed interacting each other with a Coulomb force. The model has been introduced in full in a book (Nova Sci, 2005) and referred to in a number of journal/E-print papers. I outline in this easier accessible paper the detailed derivation of the model and a corresponding quantitative determination of the vacuuon size.

  15. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  16. Dry vacuum pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  17. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  18. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  19. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vaughn, G.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Bridgman, C. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  20. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  1. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  2. Is vacuum dispersive?

    E-print Network

    Yves Pomeau

    2014-09-02

    The question we ask is: does the speed of light {\\it{in vacuo}} depend on its frequency? While the answer is NO in the frame of classical physics, we point out that the opposite could be true if one takes into account the polarization of Dirac sea. We estimate the dependence of the index of refraction of vacuum + Dirac sea versus the wavelength of an incoming beam, and suggest a way to test this effect.

  3. The vacuum energy crisis

    E-print Network

    Alexander Vilenkin

    2006-05-09

    The smallness of the vacuum energy density and its near coincidence with the average matter density of the universe are naturally explained by anthropic selection. An alternative explanation, based on the cyclic model of Steinhardt and Turok, does not address the coincidence problem and is therefore less convincing. This article appeared in ``Science'' (4 May 2006) as a ``perspective'' for Steinhardt and Turok's paper in the same issue (astro-ph/0605173).

  4. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  5. Low investment approach to alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bungay, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper suggests attitudes for designing a low investment fuel alcohol plant instead of providing a specific blueprint, noting that the criteria for an agro-industrial complex can be applied rather than those of a modern chemical plant. In the case of fermenter design, for example, alternative approaches suggested are, the use of open-vat fermenters, tower fermentation maintaining high concentrations of organisms, combined fermentation and storage and use of 12 ft diameter plastic sewer pipe buried in the ground for an inexpensive and well-insulated fermenter. Instead of 3 or more distillation columns, the proposed plant would have only one, producing 85% alcohol, plus a tank or column for a drying agent to remove the remaining water. A direct fired still using biomass residues or coal could be designed to avoid the major expense of a large power plant to generate process steam.

  6. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

  7. Vacuum Energy: Myths and Reality

    E-print Network

    Volovik, G E

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the main myths related to the vacuum energy and cosmological constant, such as: ``unbearable lightness of space-time''; the dominating contribution of zero point energy of quantum fields to the vacuum energy; non-zero vacuum energy of the false vacuum; dependence of the vacuum energy on the overall shift of energy; the absolute value of energy only has significance for gravity; the vacuum energy depends on the vacuum content; cosmological constant changes after the phase transition; zero-point energy of the vacuum between the plates in Casimir effect must gravitate, that is why the zero-point energy in the vacuum outside the plates must also gravitate; etc. All these and some other conjectures appear to be wrong when one considers the thermodynamics of the ground state of the quantum many-body system, which mimics macroscopic thermodynamics of quantum vacuum. In particular, in spite of the ultraviolet divergence of the zero-point energy, the natural value of the vacuum energy is comparable with the...

  8. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  9. Understand vacuum-system fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

  10. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology. PMID:25027723

  11. CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation

    E-print Network

    CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation Process Used to Produce Biofuel TRANSPORTATION (not reliant on light and photosynthesis) algal fermentation to process sustainable, nonfood derived fermentable sugars to test process on actual commercially available products. · Fermented

  12. The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials G. PIVA, F. MASOERO, O. CURTO, isovaleric and valeric acids) showed a stimulating effect on ruminal microflora fermentations, particularly) on the in vitro fermentative activity of rumen microorganisms. Material and methods. Six fermentations were

  13. CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    CBR Fermenter Suite Frequently asked questions: Updated Jun 2011 What kind of fermentation Yes Yes Yes No No No No Bacterial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Pichia Yes Yes Yes Yes No No NoFermentations Insect/Animal Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes For Number of fermenters 3-L Rushton impeller x 3 Bacterial

  14. VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation W. Fred Ramirez1,3 and Jan Maciejowski2 beer fermentation problems. Using a mathematical model of beer fermentation, the direct dynamic profiles. Key words: Dynamic optimization, fermentation, mathematical modeling, optimal flavor

  15. Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

    1999-01-01

    Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

  16. 250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Page, John

    . During fermentation, the production of CO2, due to yeast's metabolic activities, causes the bubbles250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY NOTE Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation by Different of fermentation conditions on the rheology of dough. The internal pressure of fermenting dough has been mea- sured

  17. Nutritional and medicinal improvement of black tea by yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chand Pasha; Gopal Reddy

    2005-01-01

    Black tea fermentation with Dabaryomyces hansenii for 10 days resulted in accumulation of major vitamins, such as A, B1, B2, B12 and C in sufficient quantities to fulfil the recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Fermentation of tea by yeast resulted in reduction of caffeine and excess tannins in significant amounts. After fermentation, the amount of theophylline was increased to make fermented

  18. Concentration control in alcoholic fermentation processes from ultrasonic velocity measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Resa; Luis Elvira; Francisco Montero de Espinosa

    2004-01-01

    A study of the alcoholic fermentation of several carbohydrate aqueous solutions, using an ultrasonic velocity measurement technique, is presented in this paper. It is shown that the changes occurring during the course of an alcoholic fermentation can be monitored on-line by measuring the velocity of an elastic wave propagating through the fermenting medium. During the alcoholic fermentation, carbohydrates are transformed

  19. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  20. Liquid sourdough fermentation: industrial application perspectives.

    PubMed

    Carnevali, P; Ciati, R; Leporati, A; Paese, M

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentation is considered to play a key role to get improved flavour, texture, nutritional and shelf-life properties of bakery products. Since few years Barilla R&D has been focusing on liquid sourdough fermentation which may deserve several advantages with respect to traditional processes. The results showed that the micro-biota of sourdough markedly influences flavour and texture of bakery products. Particular attention has been paid to lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Selected lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were tested in sourdough liquid fermentation as single strain or in association. The parameters of fermentations were optimized and standardized to set up a laboratory plant liquid fermentation. Only a few strains of lactic acid bacteria were found to be suitable for liquid fermentation alone or in association with yeasts. Fermentations were carried out at pilot plant and an industrial technology was developed. This work describes the results found for the organoleptic profile of an industrial bread started with liquid sourdough with respect to bakers' yeast bread without sourdough addition. PMID:17008158

  1. Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

  2. Clostridial fermentation of high-energy sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of biomass has been shown to increase the efficiency of microbial conversion of lignocellulose to energy or chemicals. Most chemical and physical pretreatments, however, are too expensive for practical application. Biological pretreatment during ensilage storage offers the potential for a low cost pretreatment process for herbaceous biomass. A number of cellulolytic microorganisms occurring naturally in silages or inoculated into the biomass during ensiling could result in significant hydrolysis of lignocellulose during storage prior to conversion to the final end products. The overall objective of this research was to induce clostridial fermentation in sorghum during ensiling through either manipulation of environmental conditions or inoculation with clostridium bacteria. The first objective was to determine whether environmental conditions can influence the natural microorganisms population distribution during ensiling, thus leading to clostridial fermentation. The second objective was to determine whether cellulolytic clostridia can compete with lactic acid bacteria in the ensiling process, resulting in a clostridial fermentation. Two studies were conducted to investigate these two objectives. Three levels of water soluble sugars ranging from 180g/kg D.M. to 15g/Kg D.M. and five levels of moisture contents ranging from 58% to 81% were used in the first part of this investigation. The fermentation types were generally heterolactic acid fermentation though sporadic clostridial fermentations were observed. The major products from the fermentations were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Although the effects of water soluble sugar and moisture content were highly significant for the amount of lactic acid and total products in the fermentations, the two factors were not enough to induce cellulolytic clostridial fermentation.

  3. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Pérez-Díaz, I M; Hayes, J S; Breidt, F

    2012-12-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  4. Bacteriophage Ecology in a Commercial Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Hayes, J. S.; Breidt, F.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  5. Polymers in a vacuum

    E-print Network

    J. M. Deutsch

    2007-06-13

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. The time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a characteristic time proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory time correlations.

  6. What is vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Peter Rowlands

    2008-10-01

    Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

  7. Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment complementary technologies: specialised DNA oligonucleotide synthesis, large scale fermentation and gene cloning 3032) for fermentation and cloning and Dr Scott Cockroft (scott.cockroft@ed.ac.uk 50 4758

  8. B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

  9. Recovering chemical products from dilute fermentation broths

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Resurgence of interest in the fermentation of renewable biomass to produce oxychemical feedstocks and specialty chemicals has suggested the corollary need for new energy-efficient processes to recover products from dilute aqueous broths. Of the commercially demonstrated processes, distillation appears most suitable for low boilers, while solvent extraction appears to be the method of choice for high boilers. A number of new approaches such as supercritical extraction, molecular sieve adsorption, and membrane separation hold promise for further development. In any event, the concomitant development of both new fermentation systems and recovery processes appears critical to the growth of a revitalized fermentation industry. 47 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  10. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  11. Fermentation of sorghum dough by genus Lactobacillus

    E-print Network

    Clark, Susie Hong Nguyen

    1980-01-01

    produced a lower acidity and higher pH as compared with the pH and acidity of dough fermented by a combination of yeast and Lactobacillus. Yeast did affect the amount of acidity produced in early stages of fermentation with isolated Lactobacillus. Five... 13 14 16 36 39 42 45 48 63 65 LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Results of carbohydrate fermentation tests of 6 chosen strains of lactobacilli Page 15 2 Split Plot Analysis of Variance of factors affecting pH and titratable acidity...

  12. Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wisdom Kofi A. Amoa-Awua; Francis E. Appoh; Mogens Jakobsen

    1996-01-01

    The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31–0.38 to 0.78–0.91% (ww) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high

  13. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  14. Fermentation with immobilized cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Werner, R G; Merk, W; Walz, F

    1988-02-01

    For the production of monoclonal antibodies and complex recombinant human proteins or glycoproteins a number of immobilized cell culture systems have been developed. The advantages of such cell culture systems are that cells can be kept in small volumes of cell culture fluid and media can be changed continuously if necessary for induction of product synthesis or removal and harvest of metabolic products. Whereas the hollow fiber and the opticell culture systems can be limited in scaling up the microcarrier system, the fluidized bed bioreactor and the solid bed bioreactor are suitable for scaling up. In contrast to the other systems, the solid bed bioreactor requires no special manipulation for anchoring the cells to the wire springs. In situ cleaning is possible and the beads are reusable. With this cell culture fermentation system, production processes for interferon beta, monoclonal antibodies for interferon alfa and recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator were developed. PMID:3285839

  15. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  16. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  17. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  18. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  19. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  20. 21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

  1. Vacuum annealing of titanium alloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Borisova; I. I. Shashenkova; A. I. Krivko; T. V. Barasheva

    1975-01-01

    1.The optimal temperature range for hydrogen removal in vacuum annealing is 550–650°C. The holding time depends on the hydrogen concentration, the thickness of the section, and the hydrogen concentration desired.2.The presence of oxide films formed during annealing in air at temperatures up to 500°C has no effect on the properties of titanium alloys after subsequent vacuum annealing.3.During vacuum annealing of

  2. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  3. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    E-print Network

    Burda, Philipp; Moss, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  4. Towards industrial pentose-fermenting yeast strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Kaisa Karhumaa; César Fonseca; Isabel Spencer-Martins; Marie F. Gorwa-Grauslund

    2007-01-01

    Production of bioethanol from forest and agricultural products requires a fermenting organism that converts all types of sugars\\u000a in the raw material to ethanol in high yield and with a high rate. This review summarizes recent research aiming at developing\\u000a industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the ability to ferment all lignocellulose-derived sugars. The properties required from the industrial yeast

  5. Feeding Fermented Cottonseed Meal to Hogs.

    E-print Network

    Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1905-01-01

    BULLETIN 78 Animal Husbandry Section, October, 1905 FEEDING FERMENTED COTTONSEED MEAL TO HOGS BY F. R. MARSHALL Selected as Fountlation Ior a rolantl-China ~erci at the A. and M. College. POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS... .......................................... VI . Summary 20 FEEDING FERMENTED COTTONSEED MEAL TO HOGS. F. R. MARSHALL. The growing interest in production of pork in Texas has re-opened the old question of feeding cottonseed meal to swine. Many localities of the State produce crops well...

  6. Lactic acid fermentation and adsorption on PVP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhou Zheng; Xinhua Ding; Peilin Cen; Chein-Wen Yang; George T. Tsao

    1996-01-01

    Lactic acid was produced by immobilizedLactobacillus delbreückii cells in a fixedbed reactor and then separated by a column packed with poly(4-vinylpyridine) as an adsorbent. Satisfactory\\u000a simulation results were obtained by describing the fermentation process using a fermentation kinetics model with axial dispersion\\u000a and the column adsorption process using a linear-driving-force model.

  7. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Samuel; Y. Y. Lee; W. B. Anthony

    1980-01-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w\\/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to

  8. Whey Alcohol Fermentation with Mixed Yeast Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Jianming; Guo Linhai; Zhao Guoren

    2009-01-01

    This paper study the process of whey alcohol fermentation with mixed yeasts cultures. After the experiments of strains combination, the yeast strains of Saccharomyces uvarum TY-3, Saccharomyces uvarum TY-1 and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis AY-5 were selected and mixed at the ratio of 5.0:2.5:2.5. The optimized fermenting condition was obtained through orthogonal experiments with the result as follows: the initial pH value

  9. The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.

    PubMed

    Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-10-01

    Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product. PMID:15358510

  10. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  11. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  12. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  13. Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

  14. Modeling Vacuum Arcs

    E-print Network

    Insepov, Z; Proslier, T; Huang, D; Mahalingam, S; Veitzer, S

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a model of vacuum arcs. This model assumes that arcs develop as a result of mechanical failure of the surface due to Coulomb explosions, followed by ionization of fragments by field emission and the development of a small, dense plasma that interacts with the surface primarily through self sputtering and terminates as a unipolar arc capable of producing breakdown sites with high enhancement factors. We have attempted to produce a self consistent picture of triggering, arc evolution and surface damage. We are modeling these mechanisms using Molecular Dynamics (mechanical failure, Coulomb explosions, self sputtering), Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes (plasma evolution), mesoscale surface thermodynamics (surface evolution), and finite element electrostatic modeling (field enhancements). We can present a variety of numerical results. We identify where our model differs from other descriptions of this phenomenon.

  15. Detecting leaks in vacuum bags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlstrom, E. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  16. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  17. Sonoluminescence as Quantum Vacuum Radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Eberlein

    1996-01-01

    Sonoluminescence is explained in terms of quantum vacuum radiation by moving interfaces between media of different polarizability. It can be considered as a dynamic Casimir effect, in the sense that it is a consequence of the imbalance of the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field during the noninertial motion of a boundary. The transition amplitude from the vacuum into a

  18. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  19. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  20. Statistical mechanics of the vacuum

    E-print Network

    Christian Beck

    2012-03-01

    The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

  1. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  2. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  3. APPLICATION OF ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT RECOVERY TECHNIQUES TO ACETONE BUTANOL (AB) FERMENTATION: IMPROVING FERMENTATION PARAMETERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a typical batch acetone butanol (AB) fermentation, sugar utilization of the order of 60 g/L is achieved due to severe product inhibition resulting in low AB concentration in broth and low productivity. Simultaneous recovery of AB is an approach that reduces inhibition and improves fermentation p...

  4. Alcoholic fermentation of beet molasses: effects of lactic acid on yeast fermentation parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Essia Ngang; F. Letourneau; P. Villa

    1989-01-01

    Industrial beet molasses worts for alcoholic fermentation are also good substrates for the growth of some bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria. Among microbial metabolites, lactic acid is a major component. This inhibitor of alcoholic fermentation affects the specific growth rate of yeast and the specific rate of alcohol production in different ways depending on the osmotic pressure of the worts;

  5. The Influence of Process Parameters on Lactic Acid Fermentation in Laboratory Scale Fermenter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maizirwan Mel; Mohd Ismail Abdul Karim; Parveen Jamal; Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed Salleh; Ruzi Aini Zakaria

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the influence of process parameters on the Lactic Acid Fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus in laboratory scale fermenter. The experiment was designed by Taguchi Method using STATISTICA software. Three parameters have been chosen as the main parameters that affect significantly to the growth of L. rhamnosus; the agitation speed of the impeller, dissolve

  6. Modification of the acetaldehyde concentration during alcoholic fermentation and effects on fermentation kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Louis Roustan; Jean-Marie Sablayrolles

    2002-01-01

    We studied the kinetic effects of increasing the residual acetaldehyde concentration during alcoholic fermentation, especially during the stationary phase. We added this compound via pulse or continuous injections. The yeast response depended on the amount of acetaldehyde added: high concentrations inhibited fermentation while low concentrations led to stimulation. When regular small additions were made, up to 100 mM acetaldehyde could

  7. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  9. Microbial community dynamics during fermentation of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-08-18

    Bacterial and fungal community dynamics, along with viable plate counts and water content, were investigated in the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean, during its fermentation process. Measurement of viable cells showed that the meju molding equipment might be an important source of bacterial cells (mostly Bacillus) during doenjang-meju fermentation, whereas fungi might be mostly derived from the fermentation environment including incubation shelves, air, and rice straws. Community analysis using rRNA-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that Bacillus among bacteria and Mucor among fungi were predominant in both the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju during the early fermentation period. Bacteria such as Ignatzschineria, Myroides, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Clostridium and fungi such as Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Monascus, Fusarium, and eventually Aspergillus were mainly detected as the fermentation progressed. Bacillus, an aerobic bacterial group, was predominant in the exterior regions during the entire fermentation period, while anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and microaerobic bacteria including Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Myroides, and Ignatzschineria were much more abundant in the interior regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the bacterial communities in the exterior and interior regions were clearly differentiated, suggesting that aeration might be an important factor in determining the bacterial communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. However, PCA showed that fungal communities were not separated in the exterior and interior regions and Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the major fungal taxa had significantly positive (Mucor and Geotrichum) or negative (Aspergillus) correlations with the water content during doenjang-meju fermentation, indicating that water content might be a significant factor in determining the fungal communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. PMID:24960292

  10. The electrical resistance of vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringuier, E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the physics of electrical conduction in vacuum between two parallel conducting planes (planar vacuum diode). After reviewing known features of conduction in the high-voltage range, we turn to the low-voltage range. An ohmic current-voltage characteristic is calculated in the case of identical cathodic and anodic electrodes, whence an electrical resistance of the vacuum gap can be defined. The inverse resistance involves the elemental conductance 2e 2/h and the number of conductance channels between the two electrodes. The channels are thermally populated from the electrodes and the population is analytically calculable from the Poisson equation of electrostatics and the Boltzmann law of thermal equilibrium. The observed resistance of a real vacuum diode (Mullard's EB 91) is accounted for without adjusting parameters. The paper also examines the link-up between Joule's law, involving dissipation, and Ohm's law, with vacuum being contrasted with a material conducting medium; the origin of dissipation in vacuum is understood. Quantum and statistical physics are kept at the undergraduate level. Finally, the results obtained for the vacuum diode shed light upon the quantized conductance of nanoscale semiconductor wires, a topic usually handled only in graduate courses.

  11. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  13. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  14. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive, pure culture fermentor which was suitable for gamma radiation, resistant to salt and acid, and which permitted repeated aseptic sampling of the fermenting brine, is illustrated and the specifications are given. PMID:16349651

  15. Vacuum-state estimation of vacuum circuit breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damstra, Geert C.; Smeets, Rene P.; Poulussen, H. B. F.

    1994-05-01

    The vacuum state of vacuum switching elements after production is checked normally by Penning- or Magnetron methods (combined electrical and magnetic field). Vacuum in the range of 10-1 - 10-4 Pa can be measured in this way. After assembly into circuit breakers however, these methods are not applicable. HF interruption performance during making operation has been proposed earlier as a possible alternative. Further investigations show that differences in the number of HF prestrike current loops can be found in the pressure range of 10-1 - 105 Pa. Current chopping of DC arcs between 5 and 30 A during opening operation, may be another option for determination of the pressure range by measuring the lifetime of the arc, but the resolution in the vacuum range below 10-1 Pa is too poor.

  16. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  17. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  18. Fermentation of 6-Deoxyhexoses by Bacillus macerans†

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.

    1984-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions Bacillus macerans ATCC 7068 fermented 6-deoxyhexoses (l-rhamnose, l-fucose, and d-fucose) to a mixture of 1,2-propanediol (PD), acetone, H2, CO2, and ethanol. The final PD concentration was proportional to the amount of l-rhamnose fermented (?0.9 mol of PD per mol of rhamnose). PD was not produced from hexoses (e.g., d-glucose or l-mannose), despite active fermentation of these substrates. Relative to the fermentation of d-glucose, the fermentation of l-rhamnose was accompanied by a twofold reduction in yield of H2, CO2, and cell mass. Exposure of cell extracts to l-rhamnose resulted in the transient appearance of an aldehyde intermediate. Cell extracts contained a pyridine nucleotide-linked lactaldehyde reductase activity which converted synthetic d- or l-lactaldehyde to PD. The data suggest an Embden-Meyerhof pathway for 6-deoxyhexose catabolism, with the formation of lactaldehyde by a conventional aldolase cleavage reaction and subsequent reduction to PD. PMID:16346466

  19. Vacuum Function Operation and Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

  20. Photoelectron backscattering in vacuum phototubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Vasiliev, R. V.; Vyatchin, Y. E.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.

    2006-11-01

    In this article we describe results of studies of a photoelectron backscattering effect in vacuum phototubes: classical photomultipliers (PMT) and hybrid phototubes (PH). Late pulses occurring in PMTs are attributed to the photoelectron backscattering and distinguished from pulses due to an anode glow effect. The late pulses are measured in a number of PMTs and HPs with various photocathode sizes covering 1 50 cm range and different types of the first dynode materials and construction designs. It is shown that the late pulses are a generic feature of all vacuum photodetectors—PMTs and PHs—and they do not deteriorate dramatically amplitude and timing responses of vacuum phototubes.

  1. Fume incinerator with vacuum baffle

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, R.

    1994-01-04

    A single unit, shell and tube fume incinerator utilizes a vacuum baffle structure proximate a combustion zone to control the flow of combustion exhaust gas. The vacuum baffle is located slightly above the hot ends of a plurality of heat exchange tubes to deflect the hot exhaust gases from the combustion zone away from the ends of the tubes, and back to the outside of the tubes, thereby controlling the time at temperature'' for contaminants in the impure gas feed. A vacuum effect is created just below the baffle to draw cleansed exhaust below the baffle back up into the combustion zone to prevent the escape of impure gas. 3 figs.

  2. Three step fermented soybean paste and its allergenicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Son; C. Ryu; K. Ahn; S. Lee

    2004-01-01

    RationaleSoybean paste is one of Asian traditional soy fermented food and consumed abundant in Korea. Soybean paste is prepared by three step fermentation in our lab and compared its allergenicity with commercial soybean paste available in Korea.

  3. Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp strains isolated from Italian dairy products, Enterococcus faecalis TH563 or Lactobacillus delbrueckii of these strains for determining bioactive properties in dairy products. fermented milk / Enterococcus faecalis

  4. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is produced by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation of whey with the addition of ammonia. (b) Specifications. The product contains 35 to 55 percent crude protein...

  5. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  6. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

  7. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

  8. 27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

  9. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

  10. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that ?gpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  11. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that ?gpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  12. Pollution potential reduction of cheese whey through yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Ghaly; R. K. Singh

    1989-01-01

    Batch and continuous pilot-scale aerobic fermenters of 4.8 L operating volume were designed and constructed from plexiglass\\u000a materials. The fermenters were used to study the kinetics of cheese whey fermentation using the yeastK. fragillis for pollution potential reduction and single cell protein production. Four retention times (6,12,18, and 24 h) were used\\u000a in this study. The fermentation process was successful

  13. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  14. The fermentation of trahanas: a milk-wheat flour combination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos S. Lazos; George Aggelousis; Michael Bratakos

    1993-01-01

    The fermented food, trahanas (a milk-wheat flour combination prepared in Greece), was studied to determine the microbiological and chemical changes that occur during fermentation. It is a lactic acid bacterial fermentation in whichStreptococcus lactis, Streptococcus diacetylactis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus andLactobacillus acidophilus play the major acid- and aroma-producing role. The whole fermentation lasts about 50 hours.

  15. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Kleerebezem, M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. PMID:24580073

  16. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  17. Water reuse in the l-lysine fermentation process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Y. Hsiao; C. E. Glatz

    1996-01-01

    L-Lysine is produced commercially by fermentation. As is typical for fermentation processes, a large amount of liquid waste is generated. To minimize the waste, which is mostly the broth effluent from the cation exchange column used for l-lysine recovery, the authors investigated a strategy of recycling a large fraction of this broth effluent to the subsequent fermentation. This was done

  18. Identification of new genes involved in disaccharide fermentation in yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. K. Zimmermann; N. A. Khan; N. R. Eaton

    1973-01-01

    Maltose non-fermenting mutants were obtained from strains carrying a MAL4 allele which permits constitutive synthesis of maltase. Cells carrying this allele are able to utilize sucrose in the absence of the “classical” sucrose genes. All maltose non-fermenting mutants were also sucrose non-fermenters. Eight mutants had become maltase negative; 19 mutants could still form maltase constitutively.

  19. Selforganizing modelling of biotechnological batch and fedbatch fermentations

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Self­organizing modelling of biotechnological batch and fed­batch fermentations K.D. Bettenhausen and the cultivation of the organisms in batch or fed­batch fermentations. Thus the control of biotechnological batch and fed­batch fermentations re­ quires a long term prediction of the expected process behaviour for each

  20. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  1. CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Bacterial Fermentation of

    E-print Network

    CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX Bacterial Fermentation of California Agricultural Waste into Advanced Biofuel The Issue Ethanol and other biofuels from the fermentation and distillation of nonfood cellulosic biomass aerobic fermentation processes that rely on natural bacterial photosynthesis would significantly reduce

  2. Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of mountain the chemical characteristics and the evolution of fermentation processes in pre-wilted silages: 500 L capacity-wilting. Fermentation characteris- tics were significantly modified by wilting with an increase in pH (from 3.82 to 4

  3. Fermentative metabolism of a transga-lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fermentative metabolism of a transga- lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig hindgut microflora. Scarcely absorbed from the intestinal tract, this product is available for fermentation by hindgut microflora. The aim of this work was to study the fermentative metabo- lism in a continuous culture system

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Gel formation and rheological properties of fermented

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Gel formation and rheological properties of fermented milk with in situ acid bacteria can be used as natural stabilizers in fermented milk. The ability of EPS to modulate viscosity, elastic modulus, syneresis) of fermented milk. Three Streptococcus thermophilus--HC15 (control

  5. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  6. Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Kocuria atrinae sp. nov., isolated from traditional Korean fermented seafood Eun-Jin Park, Min fermented seafood. Cells were aerobic, Gram-positive, non-motile and coccoid. Optimal growth occurred at 30 of narrow- leaved cattail, a cold desert soil of the Indian Himalayas and fermented seafood (Stackebrandt et

  7. Boundary Analysis for H2 Production by Fermentation

    E-print Network

    Boundary Analysis for H2 Production by Fermentation Submitted To: National Renewable Energy design and order-of-magnitude economic analysis for the production of hydrogen by fermentation with no capital required for OSBL expansions Utilities: Purchased from host facility Fermentation Yield, moles H2

  8. Cell wall composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Cell wall composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of maize HJP Marvin, CF Krechting to optimize ruminant utilization of nutrients from their feed, rate of digestion and fermentation profile [VFA the genetic control of biochemical factors that determine the fermentation characteristics of the stalk

  9. Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food salt-fermented seafood. Shrimp jeotgal is made by mixing fresh tiny shrimps with rock salt, followed

  10. Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation T Kondo, T Ohshita lignin undergoes in the digestive tract. Rumen fermentation has been reported to cause decomposition), but no further evidence is presented showing structural degradation of forage lignin by rumen fermentation

  11. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    2000-01-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

  12. Ph.D. Engineers (Entry Level) Fermentation Engineers Description

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Ph.D. Engineers (Entry Level) ­ Fermentation Engineers Description: DuPont Central Research and Development has an immediate opening for Biochemical Engineers with a strong background in fermentation based or more areas including metabolic engineering, systems biology, bioreactor design, fermentation

  13. Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed keratin, albumin, cooked casein transfer and fermentation in the caecum. The caecal digestion of casein (cooked or not), ker- atin (hydrolysed or not) and bovine serum albumin (oxidized or not) was measured in rats. Protein fermentation

  14. Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

  15. CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011 Please note that fees can be changed-Mill For yeast cells (volume > 1-L) 30 min 37.50$ BeadBeater For yeast cells (volume : Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use of CBR centrifuge 7-L Fermenters

  16. Reconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the biology of wine yeast fermentation through functional genomics, and contribute to our understanding worldwide losses from stuck or sluggish fermentations are estimated at 7 billion AC annually. Yeast starterReconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics Rodrigo Assar1, Felipe A

  17. Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    -organisms including mould, yeast and bacteria. These components execute fermentation of rice and make an alcoholicCorynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter Na-Ri Shin, Mi , was isolated from a Korean alcohol fermentation starter. Optimal growth occurred at 37 6C, at pH 8 and in 1

  18. Fermentation metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece PCC 7822

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. van der Oost; B. A. Bulthuis; S. Feitz; K. Krab; R. Kraayenhof

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production exhibited by the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece 7822 during anoxic incubation in the dark is a result of the fermentative degradation of carbon reserves. Simultaneously with hydrogen production, evolution of carbon dioxide was detected, and excretion of ethanol, lactate, formate and acetate was demonstrated. The fermentation balance indicates that carbohydrates are fermented via a branched pathway, in

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cheese (Lucey and Singh 1997). During bacterial fermentation, the lactic acid produced by the starterORIGINAL PAPER Post-processing of concentrated fermented milk: influence of temperature and holding of particle clusters in concentrated, fermented milk (protein content 8.2% (w/w)) during post

  20. Agromyces atrinae sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Agromyces atrinae sp. nov., isolated from fermented seafood Eun-Jin Park,1 Min-Soo Kim,1,2 Mi, designated P27T , was isolated from a traditional fermented seafood. The isolate grew optimally with 0 a traditional fermented seafood that is generally made with plenty of salt. Strain P27T was isolated using

  1. Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Leucobacter celer sp. nov., isolated from Korean fermented seafood Na-Ri Shin, Min-Soo Kim, Mi, designated NAL101T , was isolated from gajami-sikhae, a traditional Korean fermented seafood made of flatfish ). Sikhae, a kind of traditional Korean food, also known as jeotgal, consists of fermented fish without

  2. Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood

    E-print Network

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Brachybacterium squillarum sp. nov., isolated from salt-fermented seafood Seong-Kyu Park, Min salt-fermented seafood in Korea. The organism grew in 0­10 % (w/v) NaCl and at 25­37 6C, with optimal et al., 2007). While carrying out a study examining the microbial diversity in salt-fermented food

  3. Penicillin fermentation biomass growth model using cellular automata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naigong Yu; Xiaogang Ruan

    2004-01-01

    To simulate penicillin fermentation biomass growth process, a penicillin batch fermentation biomass growth model using cellular automata is established. The model uses three-dimensional cellular automata as its growth space, and uses Morre type neighborhood as its cell neighborhood. The transition rules of the model are made based on the mechanism and dynamic differential equation model of a penicillin batch fermentation

  4. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  5. Vacuum microelectronic devices [and prolog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IVOR BRODIE; PAUL RICHARD SCHWOEBEL

    1994-01-01

    In this review\\/tutorial paper, we cover the history, physics, and current status of vacuum microelectronic devices. First we overview the performance requirements of vacuum microelectronic devices necessary for them to replace, or fill voids left by, solid state devices. Next we discuss the physical characteristics of micro-field-emission sources important to device applications. These characteristics include fundamental features, such as current-voltage

  6. Vacuum frying of potato chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagoba Garayo; Rosana Moreira

    2002-01-01

    Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of

  7. Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Justin

    2007-07-14

    VACUUM ENERGY IN QUANTUM GRAPHS A Senior Honors Thesis by JUSTIN HOWARD WILSON Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE... RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2007 Majors: Physics and Mathematics ii ABSTRACT Vacuum Energy in Quantum Graphs. (April 2007) Justin Howard Wilson Department of Physics and Mathematics Texas A&M University Fellows Co-Advisor: Dr. Stephen A. Fulling Department...

  8. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J. (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  9. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  10. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cullulose (untreated BW-200 Solka Floc) to ethanol utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae QM 8226, has resulted in increased rates and longer times of hydrolysis when compared to simple saccharifications. Additionally, two schemes for ethanol removal during hydrolysis, nitrogen sparging and vacuum operation, have also shown increased rates and longer times of saccharification of cellulose when compared to the simple SSF. Both early and delayed yeast additions, different lengths of SSF operations, and different sparging techniques were investigated. The beta-glucosidase fraction of the T. ressei Rut C-30 cellulase enzyme system was able to convert cellobiose to glucose in the presence of ethyl alcohol eliminating the strong inhibition of celloboise on cellulase while the yeast converted glucose to ethanol by glucolysis eliminating the inhibition of glucose on beta-glucosidase. The hydrolysis curves did not fit either simple or competitive product inhibition Michaelis-Menten type kinetic analysis. An enzyme deactivation-inhibition model seems necessary to fit the data. The yield parameter for ethanol/substrate (Yp/s) varied from .42g/g to .47g/g (theoretical .51g/g) with the majority of glucose being converted to ethanol in less than 15 hours.

  11. Genome shuffling to improve fermentation properties of top-fermenting yeast by the improvement of stress tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiyong Wang; Lihua Hou

    2010-01-01

    Fermentation properties of top-fermenting yeast are under the control of multiple genes difficult to manipulate directly by\\u000a classical breeding, metabolic engineering, or other genetic methods with specific genes or pathways as target. Here, genome\\u000a shuffling is introduced to improve fermentation performance (such as the viability of the yeast, flavor of beer, and the fermentation\\u000a time) by improving wort and ethanol

  12. Vacuum Fluctuations Cannot Mimic a Cosmological Constant

    E-print Network

    Robert D. Klauber

    2007-11-05

    When the vacuum fluctuation pressure is calculated directly from fundamental principles of quantum field theory, in the same manner as vacuum fluctuation energy density is commonly calculated, one finds it is not equal to the negative of the vacuum fluctuation energy density. Thus, vacuum fluctuations cannot manifest as a cosmological constant of any order.

  13. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Ga Yeon

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  14. Fermentation of xylulose to ethanol using xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a survey of 35 organisms, predominantly yeasts, about 40% were capable of fermenting xylulose to ethanol. Two species, Candida tropicalis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, did so at good rates and without an initial lag. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that fermented glucose rapidly fermented xylulose at a slower rate. Ten yeasts and three strains of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were weak or negative for xylulose, even though they fermented glucose under the conditions employed. C. tropicalis was able to form 1.0 M ethanol from 1.0 M xylose if the fermentation broth was recycled over immobilized xylose isomerase.

  15. Fermentation Dynamics During Production of Bhaati Jaanr, a Traditional Fermented Rice Beverage of the Eastern Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Saroj Thapa

    2006-01-01

    Bhaati jaanr is an inexpensive high calorie mild-alcoholic beverage prepared from steamed glutinous rice, consumed as a staple food beverage in the Eastern Himalayan regions of Nepal, India and Bhutan. In this paper, fermentation dynamics including growth kinetics and physico-chemical changes during fermentation of bhaati jaanr were studied. The population of filamentous moulds declined significantly (P < 0.05) each day and finally

  16. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512)

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1991-01-16

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  17. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  18. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  19. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for ethanol production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisbeth Olsson; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on

  20. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  1. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WASTE BY ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Batch and continuous anaerobic fermentation experiments were performed to study the hydrogen production from cheese whey permeate under mesophilic conditions (35-38 oC). The batch experiments resulted in H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g COD fed at food to microorganisms ratios (F/M) of 1.0 and 1.5, respe...

  2. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  3. Nanofiltration of a clarified fermentation broth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana I. Cavaco Morão; Ana M. Brites Alves; Manuel C. Costa; Joaquim P. Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Membrane technology has a growing role in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals showing greater performances than the traditional processes. Concerning the use of membrane technology for the isolation of clavulanic acid from fermentation broths, the major drawback is the severe flux decline observed during concentration by nanofiltration (NF) of the clarified broth. This work addresses the study of the NF, aiming

  4. Application of affinity adsorption in thienamycin fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Y. Wang; Srinivas Palanki; Gregory S. Hyatt

    1989-01-01

    Many antibiotic fermentations are sensitive to high concentrations of their own product possibly due to product regulation and toxicity mechanisms. In this paper we discuss the feasibility of using affinity adsorption with biospecific ligands for in situ product removal to alleviate this problem. The concept of using whole cells containing the biospecific ligands is demonstrated in the case of thienamycin

  5. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  6. Mechanism of Diacetyl Formation in Yeast Fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heikki Suomalainen; Pentti Ronkainen

    1968-01-01

    DIACETYL is an important component in the flavour of food and it is known to be the chief component of the aroma of butter. We have shown that it is also found in distilled alcoholic beverages, such as whisky and cognac. The formation of diacetyl in yeast fermentation has long been known1 and extensive studies have been made of its

  7. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation — A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gopal Reddy; B. J. Naveena; M. Venkateshwar; E. Vijay Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using

  8. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António César Silva; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

    2014-07-16

    This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale. PMID:24976138

  9. Fermentative production of gellan using Sphingomonas paucimobilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Madhavan Nampoothiri; Reeta Rani Singhania; C Sabarinath; Ashok Pandey

    2003-01-01

    The biopolymer gellan belongs to the family of microbial polysaccharides having a wide range of industrial applications. Attempts were made to produce gellan gum in submerged fermentation (SmF) using Sphingomonas paucimobilis ATCC 31461. Studies on the nutritional requirements for optimal exopolysaccharide production in a salt based synthetic medium revealed soluble starch (20 g\\/l) as the best carbon source and tryptone

  10. Microbial Cellulose: Fermentative Production and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant R. Chawla; Ishwar B. Bajaj; Shrikant A. Survase; Rekha S. Singhal

    2009-01-01

    Summary Bacterial cellulose, an exopolysaccharide produced by some bacteria, has unique struc- tural and mechanical properties and is highly pure as compared to plant cellulose. This ar- ticle presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Information on the bio- synthetic pathway of bacterial cellulose, enzymes and

  11. Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lachance, M A

    1995-08-01

    Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

  12. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  13. Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

  14. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  15. Effect of Vacuum-Microwave Predrying on Quality of Vacuum-Fried Potato Chips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-ju Song; Min Zhang; Arun S. Mujumdar

    2007-01-01

    The effects of vacuum microwave predrying on the quality of vacuum-fried potato chips were studied. The results showed that vacuum microwave predrying had a significant effect on moisture and oil contents, as well as color parameters and structure of potato chips. Vacuum microwave predrying significantly decreased the oil and moisture contents of vacuum-fried potato chips. The rates of both mass

  16. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, T.; Panchal, C.J.; Stewart, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures.

  17. Inactivation of feline calicivirus and murine norovirus during Dongchimi fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hwa; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Changsun

    2012-09-01

    Among the traditional fermented vegetables in Korea, Dongchimi is a type of kimchi with a large water base. We aimed to investigate the survival of norovirus surrogates during Dongchimi fermentation. Dongchimi spiked with feline calicivirus (FCV) or murine norovirus (MNV) was prepared following a traditional recipe. Dongchimi was initially fermented at room temperature overnight and then kept at 4 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria, pH, acidity, and virus titer were measured 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 days after fermentation. During the fermentation process, lactic acid bacteria and acidity increased. At the end of the fermentation, population of FCV and MNV decreased about 4.12 and 1.47 log units, respectively. Based on the significant reduction of norovirus surrogate during Dongchimi fermentation, we conclude that the risk of norovirus in Dongchimi may be low. PMID:22608225

  18. Finite Time Vacuum Survival Amplitude and Vacuum Energy Decay

    E-print Network

    Enrique Álvarez; Roberto Vidal

    2011-07-15

    The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied for both signs of the cosmological constant, through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude, defined in terms of the {\\em conformal time}, $z$, by ${\\mathcal A}(z,z^\\prime)\\equiv $. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior (directly related to the putative decay width of the state) as well as the transients are discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\lambda$.

  19. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  20. Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Hu, Lanfang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

    2011-03-01

    The use of sludge fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as an additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has drawn much attention recently as it can reuse sludge organics, reduce waste activated sludge production, and improve BNR performance. Our previous laboratory study had shown that the SCFA production was significantly enhanced by controlling sludge fermentation at pH 10 with NaOH. This paper focused on a pilot-scale study of alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge, separation of the fermentation liquid from the alkaline fermentation system, and application of the fermentation liquid to improve municipal biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) were used respectively to adjust the alkaline fermentation pH, and their effects on sludge fermentation and fermentation liquid separation were compared. The results showed that the use of Ca(OH)(2) had almost the same effect on SCFA production improvement and sludge volatile suspended solids reduction as that of NaOH, but it exhibited better sludge dewatering, lower chemical costs, and higher fermentation liquid recovery efficiency. When the fermentation liquids, adjusted with Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH respectively, were added continuously to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic municipal wastewater BNR system, both the nitrogen and phosphorus removals, compared with the control, were improved to the same levels. This was attributed to the increase of not only influent COD but also denitrifying phosphorus removal capability. It seems that the use of Ca(OH)(2) to control sludge fermentation at pH 10 for efficiently producing a carbon source for BNR is feasible. PMID:21280571

  1. Vacuum as a hyperbolic metamaterial

    E-print Network

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2011-08-10

    As demonstrated by Chernodub, vacuum in a strong magnetic field behaves as a periodic Abrikosov vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor. We investigate electromagnetic behavior of vacuum in this state. Since superconductivity is realized along the axis of magnetic field only, strong anisotropy of the vacuum dielectric tensor is observed. The diagonal components of the tensor are positive in the x and y directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and negative in the z direction along the field. As a result, vacuum behaves as a hyperbolic metamaterial medium. If the magnetic field is constant, low frequency extraordinary photons experience this medium as a (3+1) Minkowski spacetime in which the role of time is played by the spatial z coordinate. Spatial variations of the magnetic field curve this effective spacetime, and may lead to formation of "event horizons", which are analogous to electromagnetic black holes in hyperbolic metamaterials. We also note that hyperbolic metamaterials behave as diffractionless "perfect lenses". Since large enough magnetic fields probably had arisen in the course of evolution of early Universe, the demonstrated hyperbolic behavior of early vacuum may have imprints in the large scale structure of the present-day Universe.

  2. Heavy ion microbeam vacuum requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadi?, T.; Jakši?, M.

    2009-06-01

    Transport of heavy ions through an ion microbeam focusing system can be affected by insufficient vacuum within the beam transport tube. Due to interactions of heavy ions with atoms of residual gas in the vacuum tube of a microbeam facility, the angular, lateral and energy spreading of an ion beam increases prior to focusing, creating a beam halo. This beam halo can produce undesirable effects in some applications of ion microbeam techniques. In order to model this effect, the ion beam angular spread in residual gas has been approximated by Sigmund's theoretical predictions for small-angle ion multiple scattering (MS), while ion energy loss straggling distributions have been applied for studying the energy spread. The extent of the beam halo has been estimated by combining the results of these calculations with ion optics calculations. Recommendations concerning microbeam focusing due to the vacuum conditions are given for different heavy ions in the MeV energy range.

  3. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  4. Accurate vacuum-polarization calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Hans; Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Sunnergren, Per

    1993-10-01

    A numerical scheme for evaluating the part of the one-photon vacuum-polarization effect not accounted for by the Uehling potential (the Wichmann-Kroll effect) is presented. The method can be used with an arbitary atomic model potential describing the bound electrons. Benchmark results for this effect are presented for hydrogenlike levels using a uniform nuclear-charge distribution. The effect of direct and exchange electron screening on the vacuum polarization are discussed in connection with the accurately measured 2p1/2-2s1/2 transition in lithiumlike uranium.

  5. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  6. QED vacuum loops and Inflation

    E-print Network

    H. M. Fried; Y. Gabellini

    2014-11-19

    A QED-based model of a new version of Vacuum Energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of Dark Energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both Dark Energy and Inflation in the same framework of Vacuum Energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between Inflation and the Big Bang, to the automatic inclusion of Dark Matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a Universe.

  7. QED vacuum loops and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Gabellini, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A QED-based model of a new version of vacuum energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of dark energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both dark energy and inflation in the same framework of vacuum energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between inflation and the big bang, to the automatic inclusion of dark matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a universe.

  8. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  9. High vacuum mercury retort recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.M. [Bethlehem Apparatus Co., Inc., Hellertown, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Bethlehem Apparatus Company is a worldwide supplier of extremely high purity quadruple distilled mercury. For 40 years, the process of continuous feed vacuum distillation of mercury has been used to achieve the highest levels of purity. In the early 1970`s Bethlehem developed a mercury retort process for the recovery of mercury from manufactured articles. This process is continuously updated with new innovations and is currently a relatively high vacuum system that is capable of handling a wide variety of mercury bearing waste materials.

  10. Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production. PMID:20677017

  11. Microbial characterization of fermented meat products on some selected markets in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Zakpaa; C. M. Imbeah; E. E. Mak-Mensah

    Fermented meat products are defined as meat that is inoculated with a microbial starter culture during processing under controlled condition, or meat allowed to ferment by natural fermentation meat microbial flora to give desirable characteristics. Fermentation of meat is mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Their biochemical characteristics project them as sugar fermentative, catalase and nitration reduction negative bacteria. This

  12. Comparative assessment of fermentation techniques useful in the processing of ogi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. D. Teniola; W. H. Holzapfel; S. A. Odunfa

    2005-01-01

    Ogiis processed traditionally by the use of ‘uncontrolled’ spontaneous fermentation of maize, sorghum and millet. In this study, traditionally applied spontaneous fermentation was compared with accelerated batch fermentation (or back-slopping) and the use of starter cultures to initiate fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria populations comprised =95 of the total viable bacteria and remained prominent throughout the fermentations, while number of moulds

  13. Photon Propagation in the Casimir Vacuum

    E-print Network

    Javier Pardo Vega; Hugo Pérez Rojas

    2011-10-20

    A transformation that relates the Minkowskian space of the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) vacuum between parallel conducting plates and the QED vacuum at finite temperature is obtained. From this formal analogy,the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the photon self-energy for the QED vacuum between parallel conducting plates (Casimir vacuum) are found in an approximation independent form. It leads to two different physical eigenvalues and three eigenmodes. We also apply the transformation to derive the low energy photons phase velocity in the Casimir vacuum from its expression in the QED vacuum at finite temperature.

  14. Chapter 13. The Vacuum System

    E-print Network

    Brookhaven National Laboratory - Experiment 821

    chamber sectors, the bellows adapters (2 degrees) between sectors, and the support frames which. The kicker will also require a special design, but it will not be installed at the time the experiment The vacuum chamber sectors are a welded fabrication of aluminum alloy 6061 plate. The standard chambers have

  15. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  16. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  17. Vacuum mounting for piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiede, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Special housing couples piezoelectric transducers to nonporous surfaces for ultrasonic or acoustic-emission testing. Device, while providing sound isolation on flat or nonflat surfaces, can be attached and detached quickly. Vacuum sealing mechanism eliminates need for permanent or semipermanent bonds, viscous coupling liquids, weights, magnets, tape, or springs ordinarily used.

  18. Vacuum pumping system for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    St. Onge, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

  19. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  20. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  1. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  2. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  3. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  4. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  5. Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-11-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  7. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  8. Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation).

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, J K; Meyer, C L; Papoutsakis, E T

    1985-08-01

    A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of a phosphoric acid contactor, a slider-type injection valve, and a heater to address the difficulties (ghosting) encountered in the analysis of carboxylic acids. The fermentation headspace gas was also analyzed by on-line GC for nitrogen and carbon dioxide, while hydrogen was measured by difference. Raw chromatographic data were analyzed by a chromatography data system. Both raw and processed data were transmitted to a VAX 11/750 computer for further processing (using the fermentation equation) and archiving. The fermentation equation, which has recently been derived and tested on completed fermentation data, was also found to be valid during transient fermentations and thus useful as a gateway sensor for calculating various fermentation parameters on-line. Such parameters include glucose concentration and gas composition, as well as a number of unobservable parameters (such as Y(ATP), excess ATP, and NAD reduced by FdH(2)), which characterize the state of the fermentation. PMID:18553808

  9. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  10. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  11. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  12. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  13. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  14. Screening for l -arabinose fermenting yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce S. Dien; Cletus P. Kurtzman; Badal C. Saha; Rodney J. Bothast

    1996-01-01

    Utilization of pentose sugars (d-xylose andl-arabinose) derived from hemi-cellulose is essential for the economic conversion of biomass to ethanol. Xylose-fermenting\\u000a yeasts were discovered in the 1980s, but to date, no yeasts have been found that fermentl-arabinose to ethanol in significant quantities. We have screened 116 different yeasts for the ability to fermentl-arabinose and have found the following species able to

  15. Mixed fermentation for natural product drug discovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin K. Pettit

    2009-01-01

    Natural products continue to play a major role in drug discovery and development. However, chemical redundancy is an ongoing\\u000a problem. Genomic studies indicate that certain groups of bacteria and fungi have dozens of secondary metabolite pathways that\\u000a are not expressed under standard laboratory growth conditions. One approach to more fully access the metabolic potential of\\u000a cultivatable microbes is mixed fermentation,

  16. Dehydrogenase activity measurement in yeast fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Ghaly; R. M. Ben-Hassan

    1993-01-01

    The dehydrogenase activity was used as a measure of active biomass in preference to other biochemical parameters because of\\u000a the simple, but accurate nature of the dehydrogenase test. After a consierable amount of experimental work on the dehydrogenase\\u000a activity measurement technique and the consideration of utilization of the technique as a measure of the active biomass in\\u000a yeast fermentation systems,

  17. Enzyme conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O. (comp.)

    1983-01-01

    Saccharification studies indicated the suitability of Trichoderma viride 253 crude enzyme preparation as a promising agent for saccharifying sugarcane baggase hemicellulose, treated ..cap alpha..-cellulose, and alkali-treated bagasse. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for the fermentative production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and single cell protein (SCP) by T. viride 253 can be outlined as follows: (a) Production of extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases in a forced aeration-stirred tank fermentor using crude bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium. (b) Treatment of the remaining biodegraded bagasse with NaOH. (c) Refermentation in static culture of bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium for production of SCP material. The yeast, Pachysolen tannophilus, is capable of converting xylose and glucose to ethanol. Fermentation of the crude hydrolyzate from straw revealed low efficiencies of 40 to 60%. As anticipated, interfering substances are present in these crude substrates. Further procedures for optimization of both processing of hydrolyzates and fermentation are being investigated. Endoglucanase and cellobiase are inhibited by glucose, and cellobiose inhibits exoglucanase. A yeast (Candida wickerhamii) was isolated which ferments water soluble oligosaccharides. Because oligosaccharides (cellulodxtrins) are easier to prepare than glucose from cellulose, attention has been directed toward substrate preparation and organism characterization. While the literature contains several methods for preparing cellulodextrins, all the methods involve several steps or involve the removal or neutralization of strong acids. A simple method has been developed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-water for the hydrolysis. Analysis by TLC and HPLC shows a series of cellulodextrins (DP1-6) which are completely converted to ethanol by Candida wickerhamii in 4 to 5 days.

  18. Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

    2006-02-01

    Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration. PMID:16484726

  19. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35[degrees]C to about 40[degrees]C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  20. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35{degrees}C to about 40{degrees}C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  1. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  2. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  3. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  4. Simultaneous saccharification: fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, D.J.; Emert, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, an ethanol production process has been developed which utilizes Trichoderma reesei cellulase and Candida brassicae IFO 1664 in the simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol. The direct production of ethanol from cellulose in an SSF process alleviates the problem of end production inhibition. Glucose does not accumulate in this system, but rather is fermented to ethanol immediately following saccharification. The result is an increase in yield of 25% or greater as compared with separate processes of saccharification and fermentation. An alternative organisms which might be used in place of yeasts in ethanol production processes is Zymomonas mobilis. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulases is 50/sup 0/C. Since this hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the SSF process, it is advantageous to utilize the most temperature tolerant ethanol producer available. Candida brassicae is currently the organism of choice due to its ability to produce ethanol efficiently at 40/sup 0/C. This investigation reports on the screening of Zymomonas strains and evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the most temperature tolerant strain in place of C. brassicae in SSF.

  5. Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

  6. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  7. Citrate Fermentation by Lactococcus and Leuconostoc spp

    PubMed Central

    Starrenburg, Marjo J. C.; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    1991-01-01

    Citrate and lactose fermentation are subject to the same metabolic regulation. In both processes, pyruvate is the key intermediate. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis homofermentatively converted pyruvate to lactate at high dilution (growth) rates, low pH, and high lactose concentrations. Mixed-acid fermentation with formate, ethanol, and acetate as products was observed under conditions of lactose limitation in continuous culture at pH values above 6.0. An acetoin/butanediol fermentation with ?-acetolactate as an intermediate was found upon mild aeration in continuous culture and under conditions of excess pyruvate production from citrate. Leuconostoc spp. showed a limited metabolic flexibility. A typical heterofermentative conversion of lactose was observed under all conditions in both continuous and batch cultures. The pyruvate produced from either lactose or citrate was converted to d-lactate. Citrate utilization was pH dependent in both L. lactis and Leuconostoc spp., with maximum rates observed between pH 5.5 and 6.0. The maximum specific growth rate was slightly stimulated by citrate, in L. lactis and greatly stimulated by citrate in Leuconostoc spp., and the conversion of citrate resulted in increased growth yields on lactose for both L. lactis and Leuconostoc spp. This indicates that energy is conserved during the metabolism of citrate. PMID:16348602

  8. Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackerlotzky, O. H.

    1979-01-01

    Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

  9. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  10. Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation par Rhizopus oligosporus sp-T3 nutritionnelle et les propriétés fonctionnelles du lupin blanc doux (LBD), un procédé de fermentation à l'aide de fermentation a été faite à partir de 3 produits : les graines de lupin non traitées (LBDnt), le lupin chauffé à

  11. Solidphase fermentation and juice expression systems for sweet sorghum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Bryan; G. E. Monroe; P. M. Caussariel

    1985-01-01

    Two systems to recover fermented juice from variety M 81E sweet sorghum stalks that contained about 11% fermentable sugar were compared. (a) Stalks with leaves and tops removed were chopped and inoculated with 0.2% yeast in a forage harvester, stored under anaerobic conditions for 75 hours in insulated fermentors and pressed in a screw press to recover fermented juice (5-6%

  12. Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherl-Ho Lee

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented foods and discusses the beneficial effects of lactic acid fermentation of food by focusing on two examples taken from Korean cuisine, kimchi and sikhae.Sikhae is the generic name for a class of Korean lactic acid fermented fish products that contain 6–8% salt and generally are at pH 4–5. Koreans

  13. Fermentation of pomegranate juice by probiotic lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. E. Mousavi; S. M. Mousavi; S. H. Razavi; Z. Emam-Djomeh; H. Kiani

    2011-01-01

    In this research, production of probiotic pomegranate juice through its fermentation by four strains of lactic acid bacteria:\\u000a Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbruekii, L. paracasei, L. acidophilus was examined. Fermentation was carried out at 30°C for 72 h under microaerophilic conditions. Microbial population, pH, titrable\\u000a acidity, sugar and organic acid metabolism were measured during the fermentation period and the viability of all

  14. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  15. Fermentation of Wood-dust by Cellulose Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artturi I. Virtanen

    1946-01-01

    IN this laboratory, fermentation of birch, aspen and pine-dusts has been investigated by enrichment cultures of thermophilic1, and recently also of mesophilic2, cellulose bacteria. he Tfiner the wood was ground, the more of the cellulose was fermented. In the best cases, a fermentation of about 70 per cent of cellulose in wood was obtained with the leaf-tree dust at 60°

  16. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  17. SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER

    E-print Network

    Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

  18. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  19. Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by

    E-print Network

    Gu, Tingyue

    Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

  1. INCLUSION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL IN RAINBOW TROUT DIETS MICHAEL E. BARNES

    E-print Network

    INCLUSION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL IN RAINBOW TROUT DIETS BY MICHAEL E. BARNES A dissertation..................................................................................................................... xvi CHAPTER 1. DIRECT SUBSTITUTION OF FISH MEAL WITH FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL ..................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 2. AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION OF FERMENTED SOYBEAN MEAL DIETS

  2. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  3. Pilot-scale fermentation of office paper and chicken manure to carboxylic acids

    E-print Network

    Moody, Andrew Garret

    2006-08-16

    This project focused on scaling up the laboratory fermentation of biomass to carboxylic acids. Four 1050-gallon tanks were used to simulate four-stage countercurrent fermentation. Most laboratory fermentations have been performed with 1-L fermentors...

  4. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry on Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls Information-Fermentation-Derived...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...Manufacturing, and Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances...to support the CMC information for fermentation-derived intermediates, drug...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1685 - Rennet (animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). 184.1685 Section...animal-derived) and chymosin preparation (fermentation-derived). (a)(1...4.23.4). It is derived, via fermentation, from a nonpathogenic and...

  7. Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, S. P.; Parfentiev, N. A.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Melenevsky, U. A.; Gutschwager, B.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10-3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility at the PTB in the field of reduced background radiation thermometry under vacuum. This facility is intended for performing radiometric and radiation thermometric measurements under vacuum conditions in the temperature range from -173 °C to 430 °C and spectral emissivity measurements in the temperature range from 0 °C to 600 °C without atmospheric interferences. It is difficult to realize a precision blackbody with high emissivity for temperatures above 400 °C. Cavities of such blackbodies are normally made of copper and coated by a paint with high emissivity. But any paint put on copper does not survive several cycles of heating to temperatures up to 450 °C. As a result of investigations at PTB, a special procedure of coating the surface of the cavity by paint with high emissivity has been developed. The cavity surface is coated by chemical nickel plating before covering it by a paint with high emissivity. The general concept and the design of the VMTBB are given. For realization of good temperature uniformity along the complete radiating cavity, a three module design is used consisting of a heat exchanger and two stages of temperature control of the cavity, based on two precision PID controllers. The temperature of the cavity is determined by 15 precision Pt resistance thermometers. Six of them are used for the VMTBB cavity and heat exchanger temperature control, and the others are used for the cavity temperature measurement and correction. A description of the temperature control and measurement system of the VMTBB is presented. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is not worse than 0.9994. Tests of the VMTBB were carried out at the PTB facility, and the radiation of the VMTBB was measured in comparison to the vacuum variable low-temperature blackbody (VLTBB) in the temperature range from 150 °C to 170 °C with the vacuum infrared standard radiation thermometer (VIRST). The temperature uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than ±100 mK in the whole temperature range. The stability of the temperature of the blackbody is within 50 mK in the whole temperature range.

  8. Methanol bioconversion by butyribacterium methylotrophicum - batch fermentation yield and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Ogeltree, J.

    1983-04-01

    Butyribacterium methylotrophicum is an anaerobic bacterium that can convert methanol to butyrate. This ability to produce longer- chain carbon compounds from C1 substrates could be of commercial significance. The fermentation rates and product formation depend on the methanol/bicarbonate ratios during fermentation. The kinetics of batch fermentation fit the Luedeking-Piret model with growth and maintenance associated product formation. Butyrate yield of 0.256 mol/mol methanol (ca. 85% of theoretical yield) has been obtained in batch fermentation. (Refs. 9).

  9. Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5?5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

  10. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Wheat Ridge, CO); Picataggio, Stephen K. (Landenberg, PA); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  11. Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-12-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

  12. Effect of superficial air velocity on solid state fermentation of palm kernel cake in a lab scale fermenter using locally isolated fungal strain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Foong; J. Janaun; K. Krishnaiah; A. Prabhakar

    2009-01-01

    Solid state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as an attractive alternative to submerged fermentation despite the engineering problems such as removal of metabolic heat, transport of oxygen and moisture into the particles and the heterogeneity of the substrate. In the present work, a lab scale fermenter which can be operated as fluidized bed and packed bed was fabricated. Solid state fermentation

  13. BioethanolBioethanol Fermentation withFermentation with MucorMucor indicusindicus onon a White Clover/Rye grass Substratea White Clover/Rye grass Substrate

    E-print Network

    microorganisms will be needed than Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that can ferment only glucose derivedBioethanolBioethanol Fermentation withFermentation with MucorMucor indicusindicus onon a White-limited fermentation of a glucose enriched clover-grass pre-hydrolysate by the M. indicus strain at 30ºC and pH 6

  14. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  19. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154...Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed...this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  3. Vacuum Fluctuations and the Cosmological Constant

    E-print Network

    Shi Qi

    2006-04-29

    The hypothesis is proposed that under the approximation that the quantum equations of motion reduce to the classical ones, the quantum vacuum also reduces to the classical vacuum--the empty space. The vacuum energy of QED is studied under this hypothesis. A possible solution to the cosmological constant problem is provided and a kind of parameterization of the cosmological "constant" is derived.

  4. FIRE Vacuum Vessel Design and Analysis

    E-print Network

    FIRE Vacuum Vessel Design and Analysis B. Nelson, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones, C. Kessel, D. Driemeyer, M. Ulrickson FIRE Design Review June 6, 2001 PPPL #12;6 June 2001 FIRE Review: Vacuum Vessel Design 2 Presentation outline · Scope of vacuum vessel task area · Design requirements · Design concept

  5. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154...Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed...this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery...

  8. Ion pump provides increased vacuum pumping speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Multiple-cell ion pumps with increased vacuum pumping speed are used for producing ultrahigh vacuums in vacuum tubes and mass spectrometers. The pump has eight cathode-anode magnetron cells arranged in a cylinder which increase the surface area of the cathode.

  9. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

  10. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

  11. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

  12. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

  13. Organic Acids and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced During Traditional and Starter Culture Fermentation of Bushera, a Ugandan Fermented Cereal Beverage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. B. K. Muyanja; J. A. Narvhus; T. Langsrud

    2012-01-01

    Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum MINF99, Weissella confusa MINF8, Lactobacillus plantarum MINF277, Lactobacillus brevis MINF226, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei MINF98) were used to ferment Bushera during fermentation (96 h). Organic acids and volatile compounds produced during starter and natural fermentation were investigated. Microbial counts, pH, and sugars were also determined. LAB counts increased from 5.87 ±

  14. Fructose1,6-diphosphatase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from fermenting and non fermenting yeasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juana M. Gancedo; Carlos Gancedo

    1971-01-01

    1.Levels of phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activities have been compared in different yeasts belonging to glucose fermenting and non-fermenting groups grown in different conditions.2.Phosphofructokinase was present in all the fermentative species tested. On the contrary its level was not measurable in any of the aerobic yeasts tested with the exception of Pichia species.3.No significant variations were observed in the

  15. Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line-state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph K. McLaughlin; Charles L. Meyer; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    1985-01-01

    A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of

  16. Effects of Fermentation Parameters and Cell Wall Properties on Yeast Flocculation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Alex Speers; Yong-Quan Wan; Yu-Lai Jin; Robert J. Stewart

    J. Inst. Brew. 112(3), 246-254, 2006 Industrial wort was fermented with a NewFlo phenotype ale yeast in lab-scale cylindrical fermenters. The effects of various fermentation parameters and yeast cell wall properties on yeast flocculation were studied during 120 h fermentation. The evaluation of the cell volume during the fermentation revealed a non-normal distribution (p < 0.05) at most fermentation times.

  17. Anti-allergic effect of Petasites japonicus fermented with lactic acid bacteria in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Ah Bae; Hien-Trung Trinh; Yun-Ah Jang; Hyung-Kwon Yun; Seong-Sig Hong; Dong-Hyun Kim

    2009-01-01

    Petasites japonicus (PJ, family Asteraceae) was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Bifidobacterium breve (BB) or Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), and its allergic effect was investigated. LAB-fermented PJs more potently inhibited IgE–antigen-stimulated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells than non-fermented PJ, with BB-fermented PJ more potent than LA-fermented PJ. Fermented PJ more potently inhibited TNF-? and IL-4 cytokine expression and transcription factor NF-?B

  18. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  19. Curved Space or Curved Vacuum?

    E-print Network

    Eric V. Linder

    2005-10-11

    While the simple picture of a spatially flat, matter plus cosmological constant universe fits current observation of the accelerated expansion, strong consideration has also been given to models with dynamical vacuum energy. We examine the tradeoff of ``curving'' the vacuum but retaining spatial flatness, vs. curving space but retaining the cosmological constant. These different breakdowns in the simple picture could readily be distinguished by combined high accuracy supernovae and cosmic microwave background distance measurements. If we allow the uneasy situation of both breakdowns, the curvature can still be measured to 1%, but at the price of degrading estimation of the equation of state time variation by 60% or more, unless additional information (such as weak lensing data or a tight matter density prior) is included.

  20. Higgs inflation and vacuum stability

    E-print Network

    Rubio, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Inflation is nowadays a well-established paradigm consistent with all the observations. The precise nature of the inflaton is however unknown and its role could be played by any candidate able to imitate a scalar condensate in the slow-roll regime. The discovery of a fundamental scalar in the LHC provides the less speculative candidate. Could the Higgs field itself be responsible for inflation? Do we really need to advocate new physics to explain the properties of the Universe at large scales? Which is the relation between the Standard Model parameters and the inflationary observables? What happens if our vacuum becomes unstable below the scale of inflation? We present an overview of Higgs inflation trying to provide answers to the previous questions with special emphasis on the vacuum stability issue.

  1. Quantum vacuum and dark matter

    E-print Network

    Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

    2011-11-21

    Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

  2. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  3. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{? ? ? ? }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  4. Vacuum Alignment with more Flavors

    E-print Network

    Thomas A. Ryttov

    2014-05-30

    We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with $N_f$ Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the $N_f=2,3$ and $4$ case. For $N_f=2$ and $N_f=3$ we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For $N_f=4$ we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here it is shown that at the point where $N_f-1$ flavors are degenerate with positive mass $m>0$ and the mass of the $N_f$'th flavor becomes negative and equal to $-m$ CP breaks spontaneously.

  5. Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Frederick

    2004-10-01

    Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

  6. The Statistics of Vacuum Geometry

    E-print Network

    Melissa Duncan; Wei Gu; Yang-Hui He; Da Zhou

    2014-06-22

    We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.

  7. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  9. Increased Flavonoid Compounds from Fermented Houttuynia cordata using Isolated Six of Bacillus from Traditionally Fermented Houttuynia cordata

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ryun Hee

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids, which form a major component in Houttuynia cordata Thunb., display a wide range of pharmacological activities. The expression of plant flavonoids is partly regulated by fermentation. Therefore, we studied the effects of fermentation on H. cordata in order to identify the strains present during the fermentation process, and to determine whether fermented H. cordata could be used as a probiotic. Our results showed that all 6 of the bacterial strains isolated from fermented H. cordata (FHC) belonged to the genus Bacillus. As expected, fermenting H cordata also increased the flavonoid content as increases were observed in the levels of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. To test the effects of fermentation, we treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with non-fermented H. cordata extracts (HCE) or FHC extracts (FHCE). Compared to the HCE-treated cells, the FHCE-treated cells showed increased viability. No cytotoxic effects were detected in the FHCE-treated groups in the 2 cell lines used in the study, namely, RAW264.7 and RBL-2H3. FHCE-treated HepG2 cells showed decreased growth, compared to HCE-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the fermented H. cordata predominantly contained Bacillus strains. Furthermore, FHCE are able to prevent LPS-induced inflammatory effects and inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells. PMID:24278599

  10. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  11. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  12. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z? 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8?/3)?V]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ?V is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  13. Vacuum electronics applications at CERN

    E-print Network

    Jensen, E

    2009-01-01

    CERN operates a large number of vacuum electronics based RF power amplifiers covering a wide frequency range – over 300 sockets with 24 different grid tubes and klystrons are in use and require constant care to insure reliable operation of the accelerators. This is in particular true for the LHC and its injector chain, for which a program of improvement and stepwise upgrade has started. These include IOT’s for the SPS and klystrons and modulators for Linac4 and SPL. The CLIC study and the CTF3 facility are relevant to vacuum electronics in many ways: The CLIC primary RF power, to be provided at 1 GHz, requires highest possible efficiency and phase stability, MBK’s are likely candidates. The CLIC RF power source and CTF3 are themselves large vacuum electronics applications, consequently there are areas of common interest and concern, including fabrication techniques, pulse compression techniques, breakdown and multipactor theory and simulation, material fatigue, numerical analysis of slow-wave structures...

  14. Radiocarbon evidence for the importance of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis in contrasting types

    E-print Network

    Burdige, David

    Radiocarbon evidence for the importance of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis of surface vegetation on fermentation and methanogenesis in contrasting types of boreal peatlands, Global

  15. UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 36 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do GFW (mg/ml) Activity 100x (%) Activity 1000x (%) O2 valve N2: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: ProductionProfile Fermentation (Hrs) Activity (100x dilution) Activity

  16. Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  17. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Wendy; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; McFeeters, Roger F

    2012-02-01

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (E(h), Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

  18. Accelerator vacuum systems at DESY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapfe, K.

    2008-05-01

    The research center DESY in Germany is one of the leading accelerator centers worldwide. At the facilities located in Hamburg more than 3000 scientists from all over the world do research with photons and in the field of particle physics. Since 1992 the 6-km-long HERA storage ring was used for high energy collisions of electrons/positrons and protons. It consists of two rings. The one for the 27.5 GeV electrons/positrons uses normal conducting magnets. The other one bends the up to 920 GeV protons with superconducting magnets. Data taking at HERA has been terminated only recently. Synchrotron light for 36 experimental stations is generated by the 4.5 GeV storage ring DORIS. The 2.3 km long storage ring PETRA is presently rebuilt into PETRA III, one of the most brilliant X-ray sources worldwide, to start user operation in 2009. Therefore the vacuum system is completely replaced. The construction of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser XFEL, a new international research facility, just has started next to DESY. Its extremely intense X-ray laser flashes with tunable wavelengths down to 0.1 nm will open up completely new experimental possibilities for nearly all fields of natural sciences. The basic process adopted to generate the X-ray pulses is SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission). Therefore electron bunches are brought to high energy of about 20 GeV through a superconducting linear accelerator, and conveyed to up to 250 m long undulators where the X-rays are generated. The beam vacuum system of this 3.4 km long straight facility contains sections operated at room temperature as well as at 2 K in the areas of the superconducting accelerating structures. In addition to standard UHV requirements the vacuum system needs to preserve the particle cleanliness of the superconducting cavity surfaces. Further challenges are the undulator vacuum chambers filling more than 750 m with extreme requirements to the surface quality. Unique research opportunities worldwide are offered already now by the 250 m long free-electron laser FLASH, the prototype for the XFEL, which is under operation since several years as a user facility. The vacuum systems of the various DESY accelerator facilities will be discussed in this paper in more detail.

  19. On physical vacuum as an unobservable system

    E-print Network

    Rozgacheva, I K

    2015-01-01

    Modern astronomical observations in cosmology provide increasingly strong evidence that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. Explanations of the cosmic acceleration within the framework of general relativity use the hypothesis about a dark energy field (physical vacuum) with unrealistic fine-tuned unnatural properties to the properties of the observable matter. The main difficulty of the speculative models is that the gravitational properties of the vacuum are unknown. In this work the geometric properties of the physical vacuum which are the consequence of its general property to be unobservable (vacuum does not affect the motions of any real bodies) are considered. It is shown that the effective homogeneous and isotropic space-time of the physical vacuum has four closed dimensions. The vacuum fluctuations create interactions of the real particles. It is shown if we assume the cause principle and there are not any arbitrary real particles births then the lengths of waves of vacuum fluctuations make...

  20. Vacuum structure around identity based solutions

    E-print Network

    Isao Kishimoto; Tomohiko Takahashi

    2009-10-16

    We explore vacuum structure in bosonic open string field theory expanded around an identity based solution parameterized by $a$ (>= -1/2). Analyzing the expanded theory by using level truncation approximation up to level 14, we find that the theory has a stable vacuum solution for $a$>-1/2. The vacuum energy and the gauge invariant overlap numerically approach those of the tachyon vacuum solution with increasing truncation level. Also we find that, at $a$=-1/2, there exists an unstable vacuum solution in the expanded theory and it rapidly becomes the trivial zero configuration just above $a$=-1/2. The numerical behavior of the two gauge invariants suggests that the unstable solution corresponds to the perturbative open string vacuum. These results reasonably support the expectation that the identity based solution is a trivial pure gauge configuration for $a$>-1/2, but it can be regarded as the tachyon vacuum solution at $a$=-1/2.

  1. FERMENTATION RESIDUES FROM RUMINOCOCCUS CELLULOSE FERMENTATIONS AS COMPONENTS OF WOOD ADHESIVE FORMULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives f...

  2. The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize (kenkey) and their interactions during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, A; Halm, M; Jakobsen, M

    1995-11-01

    A total of 241 lactic acid bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus fermentum/reuteri and Lactobacillus brevis from various processing stages of maize dough fermentation were investigated. Results indicated that each processing stage has its own microenvironment with strong antimicrobial activity. About half of the Lact. plantarum and practically all of the Lact. fermentum/reuteri investigated were shown to inhibit other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, explaining the elimination of these organisms during the initial processing stages. Further, widespread microbial interactions amounting to 85% to 18% of all combinations tested were demonstrated amongst lactic acid bacteria within the various processing stages, i.e. raw material, steeping, 0 h and 48 h of fermentation, explaining the microbial succession taking place amongst lactic acid bacteria during fermentation. The antimicrobial effect was explained by the combined effect of acids, compounds sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and other compounds with antimicrobial activity with the acid production being the most important factor. The pattern of antimicrobial factors was not species-specific and the safety and storage stability of fermented maize seem to depend on a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria with different types of antimicrobial characteristics. This means that introduction of pure cultures as starters may impose a risk to the product. PMID:8567490

  3. Fermentative and aerobic metabolism in Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed Central

    Encarnación, S; Dunn, M; Willms, K; Mora, J

    1995-01-01

    Strains of Rhizobium etli, Rhizobium meliloti, and Rhizobium tropici decreased their capacity to grow after successive subcultures in minimal medium, with a pattern characteristic for each species. During the growth of R. etli CE 3 in minimal medium (MM), a fermentation-like response was apparent: the O2 content was reduced and, simultaneously, organic acids and amino acids were excreted and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was accumulated. Some of the organic acids excreted into the medium were tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and, concomitantly, the activities of several TCA cycle and auxiliary enzymes decreased substantially or became undetectable. Optimal and sustained growth and a low PHB content were found in R. etli CE 3 when it was grown in MM inoculated at a low cell density with O2 maintained at 20% or with the addition of supplements that have an effect on the supply of substrates for the TCA cycle. In the presence of supplements such as biotin or thiamine, no amino acids were excreted and the organic acids already excreted into the medium were later reutilized. Levels of enzyme activities in cells from supplemented cultures indicated that carbon flux through the TCA cycle was maintained, which did not happen in MM. It is proposed that the fermentative state in Rhizobium species is triggered by a cell density signal that results in the regulation of some of the enzymes responsible for the flux of carbon through the TCA cycle and that this in turn determines how much carbon is available for the synthesis and accumulation of PHB. The fermentative state of free-living Rhizobium species may be closely related to the metabolism that these bacteria express during symbiosis. PMID:7768801

  4. Effect of forage species on ruminal fermentation in continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intake and digestion of pasture herbage can be influenced by canopy structure. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system was used to investigate the effect of forage species on digestion and ruminal fermentation. Four grass species [reed canarygrass (RCG), Phalaris arundinacea L; quackgrass (Q...

  5. FERMENTATION PROCESS MONITORING THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fermentation involves many complex biological processes some of which are sometimes difficult to monitor. n this study, aerosol measurement was explored as an additional technique for monitoring a batch aerobic fermentation process using Escherichia coli strain W3110. sing this t...

  6. How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurkiewicz, William J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation. (RT)

  7. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  8. Equilibrium and hydrodynamic studies of water extraction from fermentation broth

    E-print Network

    Adorno-Gomez, Wilberto

    1999-01-01

    of an extraction system to concentrate fermentation broth from a mixed culture of acid-forming microorganisms. To design the extraction system, equilibrium data from amine and actual fermentation broth systems were obtained. These data are similar to the data found...

  9. Fermented Milks and Milk Products as Functional Foods - A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V K SHIBY; H N MISHRA

    2011-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L.acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number

  10. Reducing fermentable sugar losses in stored sweet sorgum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Bryan, W.L.; Clayton, J.E.

    1983-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide at 3000 ppm was shown to preserve chopped sweet sorgum in ambient storage for 2 months. Juice from the preserved sorgum was treated with lime, the precipitate removed, and fermented to ethanol without a reduction in fermentation rate or yield. Sulfur dioxide at 4000 ppm preserved the chopped sorgum for over 4 months.

  11. Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Handan Kaplan; Robert W. Hutkins

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS.

  12. Original article Biochemical characteristics of fermented milk produced

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Biochemical characteristics of fermented milk produced by mixed-cultures of lactic acid bacteria. The survival or growth of bifidobacteria during production of fermented milk. infantis and B. longum), some other lactic acid bacteria (lactococci, leuconostocs, enterococci) and non-lactic

  13. Kimchi: The famous fermented vegetable product in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young C. Lee

    1991-01-01

    Literature on kimchi was reviewed with emphasis on preparation of kimchi, microorganisms involved in the fermentation, changes in the composition during ripening, methods to extend shelflife, and commercial production of kimchi. Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented vegetable product with a historical background of over 1000 years. The variety of kimchi changes according to the main raw materials and minor

  14. Folates in fermented vegetables—a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Jägerstad; J Jastrebova; U Svensson

    2004-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate whether lactic acid fermentation can increase folate concentrations in vegetables making these foods superior to similar foods produced by the more common preservation techniques. The concentrations of folates present in raw vegetables, usually root vegetables, were followed during pre-treatment and fermentation with the purpose to improve the folate retention. Commercial starter cultures aimed for

  15. Competitive exclusion of Campylobacter jejuni by kefir fermented milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. ZACCONI; G. SCOLARI; M. VESCOVO; P. G. SARRA

    Competitive exclusion of Campylobacter jejuni by kefir fermented milk was checked in experimental chicks. Fresh and frozen kefir fermented milk were employed as competitive treatments. Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 43501 strain was used as infective treatment. Data from the various trials allowed to determine Infection Factor (IF) and Pro- tection Factor (PF) values and to evidentiate that kefir administration is an

  16. Parakari, an indigenous fermented beverage using amylolytic Rhizopus in Guyana.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Terry W

    2005-01-01

    The alcoholic beverage parakari is a product of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) fermentation by Amerindians of Guyana. While fermented beverage production is nearly universal among indigenous Amazonians, parakari is unique among New World beverages because it involves the use of an amylolytic mold (Rhizopus sp., Mucoraceae, Zygomycota) followed by a solid substratum ethanol fermentation. The mycological significance of this dual fermentation process previously was unrecognized. A detailed study of parakari fermentation was made in the Wapisiana Amerindian village of Aishalton, South Rupununi, Guyana. Thirty steps were involved in parakari manufacture, and these exhibited a high degree of sophistication, including the use of specific cassava varieties, control of culture temperature and boosting of Rhizopus inoculum potential with purified starch additives. During the fermentation process, changes in glucose content, pH, flavor, odor and culture characteristics were concomitant with a desirable finished product. Parakari is the only known example of an indigenous New World fermentation that uses an amylolytic mold, likely resulting from domestication of a wild Rhizopus species in the distant past. Parakari production is remarkably similar to dual fermentations of Asia, yet it was independently derived. PMID:16389951

  17. Occurrence and effect of propanedial on top-fermenting yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antônio F. M. Vaz; Marthyna P. Souza; Romero M. P. B. Costa; Levy S. Guedes

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids caused by free radicals compromise the integrity of biological membranes. Propanedial is identified as the main product formed via the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. Propanedial has been inferred to have mutagenic and cytotoxic roles. Top-fermenting yeast is responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol. In the present paper we evaluate the relationship of lipid

  18. Continuous alcohol fermentation in an immobilized cell rotating disk reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Del Borghi; A. Converti; F. Parisi; G. Ferraiolo

    1985-01-01

    The increasing interest in alcohol fermentation over these last years because of the energy crisis has been demonstrated by an increase in scientific research. After a brief analysis of the main results of the literature in the field of alcohol fermentation reactors, the use of a new type of immobilized cell reactor (the rotating biological surface (RBS) reactor) was studied.

  19. Kinetics of alcohol fermentation at high yeast levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Del Rosario; Kye Joon Lee; P. L. Rogers

    1979-01-01

    The fermentation of alcohol from renewable substrates is attracting attention as a promising energy resource. Brazil has started to develop its fermentation industries for producing fuel ethanol from crops such as sugar-cane and cassava. However, before alcohol production costs become competitive, significant improvements in technology will have to be made. This paper evaluates one of the most promising of yeasts

  20. Sardinian fermented sheep sausage: Microbial biodiversity resource for quality improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Mangia; M. A. Murgia; G. Garau; R. Merella; P. Deiana

    SUMMARY - With the aim of improving the quality and the value of the Sardinian sheep sausage, the microflora involved in fermentation and ripening processes of this traditional foodstuff has been studied and characterized. During the fermentation phase a prominent presence of micrococci and staphylococci has been observed. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were showing a slow growth rate