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Sample records for vacuum fermentation

  1. Dynamic lipidomic insights into the adaptive responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the repeated vacuum fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhou, Jian; Tian, Hongchi; Yuan, Yingjin

    2010-10-01

    Vacuum fermentation is utilized in a wide range of life science industries and biomedical R&D. Little is known, however, on the effects of the vacuum on the yeast, and in particular, on the yeast lipidome that plays a central role in maintaining cell membrane and other vital (yeast) cell functions. The present study evaluated the adaptive responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repeated vacuum fermentation by lipidomic analysis. We employed gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS(n)) to quantify a total of 13 intermediate sterols and 139 phospholipid species of yeast cells. Principal components analysis found that the PI (phosphatidylinositol) 26:0, PI 28:0, PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) 32:1, and PE 34:1 were potential biomarkers to distinguish the vacuum fermentation process. Quantitative analysis showed that vacuum fermentation increased the synthesis of PI and the PC (phosphatidylcholine) species with short saturated acyl chains. The synthesis of PC via CDP-choline and turnover of PC were enhanced, instead of formation via methylation of PE. Additionally, increased PI at the expense of PE and PG (phosphatidylglycerol) was associated with enhancement of ethanol productivity. Vacuum fermentation caused eburicol accumulation, suggesting that vacuum can activate the branch of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Eburicol decrease and PI increase contributed to recovery of cellular activities with oxygenating treatment. Ethanol productivity was increased by sixfold in vacuum-treated cells. These observations may allow the development of future mechanistic approaches to optimization of yeast fermentation under vacuum for bioindustry and life science applications. In particular, our findings on changes in lipid molecular species and the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway elucidate the defense responses of yeast cell membranes during the repeated vacuum fermentation, which by extension, provided an important lead insight on how best to protect the cell membranes from the extreme long-term stress conditions. PMID:20955009

  2. Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

  3. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    PubMed

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. PMID:24387851

  4. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  5. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  6. Fermentation efficiency of thermally dried kefir.

    PubMed

    Papapostolou, Harris; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2008-10-01

    Three thermal drying methods (conventional, vacuum and convective) were used for drying of kefir biomass and their effect on cell viability, fermentation rate and other kinetic parameters of lactose and whey fermentation were studied. Convective drying rate was higher than conventional and even higher than vacuum at each studied temperature (28, 33 and 38 degrees C). After that, fermentations were performed by kefir biomass dried by the three drying methods. Ethanol concentration, ethanol productivity and ethanol yield are higher in whey fermentations performed by kefir biomass dried with convective drying method. Regarding lactic acid production, fermentation performed by kefir biomass dried with conventional drying method gave higher concentrations, compared to other drying methods. Storage of kefir biomass convectively dried at 33 degrees C for 4months, without any precaution decreases its fermentability and thus reduces ethanol (31%) and lactic acid productivity (20%), but remains a promising technology, since a significant part of its initial fermentative activity is retained. PMID:18291639

  7. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  8. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  9. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  10. Cacao Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, H. L.; Dittmar, H. F. K.

    1961-01-01

    Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

  11. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  12. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  13. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  14. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this

  15. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  16. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  17. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  19. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  20. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Maiorella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1981-08-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde; glycerol; formic, lactic and acetic acids; 1-propanol; 2-methyl-l-butanol; and 2,3,-butanediol; to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  1. By-product inhibition effects on ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Mairoella, B.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition by secondary fermentation products may limit the ultimate productivity of new glucose to ethanol fermentation processes. New processes are under development whereby ethanol is selectively removed from the fermenting broth to eliminate ethanol inhibition effects. These processes can concentrate minor secondary products to the point where they become toxic to the yeast. Vacuum fermentation selectively concentrates nonvolatile products in the fermentation broth. Membrane fermentation systems may concentrate large molecules which are sterically blocked from membrane transport. Extractive fermentation systems, employing nonpolar solvents, may concentrate small organic acids. By-product production rates and inhibition levels in continuous fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined for acetaldehyde, glycerol, formic, lactic, and acetic acids, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 2,3-butanediol to assess the potential effects of these by-products on new fermentation processes. Mechanisms are proposed for the various inhibition effects observed.

  2. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  3. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  4. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  5. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  6. THE VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant process was developed. The process was developed for chicken, hot dogs, fruits and vegetables, and catfish. Optimum process conditions were determined as nominally, 138 C saturated steam, vacuum and steam times of 0.1 s except that the final...

  7. Optimization of batch alcoholic fermentation of glucose syrup substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.L.

    1981-08-01

    The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, yeast concentration, and nutrient supplementation on ethanol content, fermentation time, and ethanol productivity were investigated in a Box-Wilson central composite design experiment, consisting of five levels of each variable. High substrate concentration, up to 30 degrees Brix, resulted in higher ethanol content (i.e., up to 15.7% w/v or 19.6% v/v) but longer fermentation time and hence lower ethanol productivity. Increasing yeast concentration, on the other hand, resulted in shorter fermentation time and higher ethanol productivity. Higher levels of nutrient supplementation generally led to shorter fermentation time and higher productivity. The highest ethanol productivity of about 21 g ethanol h was obtained at low substrate concentration (i.e., 12 degrees Brix), low alcohol content (i.e., 6% by weight), high yeast concentration (i.e., 4.4%), and high supplementation of yeast extract (i.e., 2.8%). Productivity of this magnitude is substantially higher than that of the traditional batch fermentation or fed-batch fermentation. It is comparable to the results of continuous fermentation but lower than those of vacuum fermentation. Optimal conditions for maximal ethanol productivity can be established by a multiple regression analysis technique and by plotting the contours of constant response to conform to the constraints of individual operations. (Refs. 12).

  8. The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo

    2009-07-10

    We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

  9. Kinetics of multiproduct fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, J.C.; Ollis, D.F.

    1981-07-01

    A simple model for biomass, product, and substrate evolution proposed previously for batch polysaccharide fermentations is extended to multiproduct fermentations. The examples involve Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405) fermentations of glucose to four products (ethanol, acetic, formic, and lactic acid), of fructose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid), and of cellobiose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid). In all cases, parameter evaluation was carried out in a serial deterministic procedure.

  10. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  11. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  12. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  13. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  14. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  15. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  16. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of

  17. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder president, the late Professor D Y Phadke at the University of Mumbai. The prize is given every year to the student ranked top in the MSc (PHY.) examination conducted by the university. The IVS Kolkata Chapter has established the Dr A S Divatia Memorial Trust with the objective of organizing the Dr A S Divatia Memorial Lecture and a seminar once a year and to set up a vacuum testing and calibration facility. IVS has instituted an award in memory of the late Shri C Ambasankaran, its past president and pioneer of vacuum technology in India. This award is given to one of the best papers presented in the national symposium conducted by IVS. One more best paper award `Smt. Shakuntalabai Vyawahare Memorial Prize' is established from a donation given by Shri Mohan R Vyawahare, a life member and a present EC member of the society, in memory of his mother. During the symposia, IVS felicitates two of its members, one from Industry and one from an R & D Institution for their lifetime contribution to vacuum science and technology. Dr A K Gupta, Ex BARC, Ex Generla Manager, IBP, Head, Energy Group, Shapoorji Pallonji & Co Ltd (Industry), and Dr S R Gowariker, Ex BARC, Ex Director, CSIO, Chandigarh, Director, Tolani Education Foundation (R & D) are being honoured this year. T K Saha Geneneral Secretary, IVS

  18. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  19. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  20. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  1. Fermentation behaviour and metabolic interactions of multistarter wine yeast fermentations.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Maurizio; Beco, Luca; Comitini, Francesca

    2006-04-25

    Multistarter fermentations of Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Kluyveromyces thermotolerans together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. In grape musts with a high sugar content, mixed trials showed a fermentation behaviour and analytical profiles of wines comparable to or better than those exhibited by a pure culture of S. cerevisiae. Sequential trials of T. delbrueckii and K. thermotolerans revealed a sluggish fermentation, while those of H. uvarum exhibited an unacceptable increase in ethyl acetate content (175 ml l(-1)). A low fermentation temperature (15 degrees C) of multistarter trials of H. uvarum resulted in a stuck fermentation that was not due to a deficiency of assimilable nitrogenous compounds since lower amounts of these compounds were used. Sequential fermentation carried out by H. uvarum at 15 degrees C confirmed the high production of ethyl acetate. The persistence and level of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during multistarter fermentations under stress conditions (high ethanol content and/or low temperature) can cause stuck fermentations. PMID:16487611

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  3. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)

  4. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  5. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  6. Vacuum tunneling in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Pak, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Topologically non-trivial vacuum structures in gravity models with Cartan variables (vielbein and contortion) are considered. We study the possibility of vacuum spacetime tunneling in Einstein gravity assuming that the vielbein may play a fundamental role in quantum gravitational phenomena. It has been shown that in the case of RP3 space topology, the tunneling between non-trivial topological vacuums can be realized by means of Eguchi-Hanson gravitational instanton. In the Riemann-Cartan geometric approach to quantum gravity, the vacuum tunneling can be provided by means of contortion quantum fluctuations. We define a double self-duality condition for the contortion and give explicit self-dual configurations which can contribute to vacuum tunneling amplitude.

  7. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  8. Zymomonas ethanol fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

  9. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

  10. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  11. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  12. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  13. Vacuum deposition system

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.; Bark, D.

    1990-05-31

    The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

  14. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  15. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  16. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  17. Welding space vacuum technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to assist the EH 42 Division in putting together a vacuum system that could attain the desired pressure and be large enough to accommodate the gas-metal arc (GMA) welding fixture apparatus. A major accomplishment was the design and fabrication of the controller/annunciator for the 4' by 8' system. It contains many safety features such as thermocouple set point relays that will only allow inlet and exit gas and vacuum valves to be operated at pre-selected system pressures, and a fail safe mode for power interruptions and operator mistakes. It is felt that significant progress was made in this research effort to weld in a vacuum environment. With continued efforts to increase the pump speeds for vacuum chambers and further studies on weld fixtures and gas inlet pressures, the NASA program will be successful.

  18. Vacuum self-magnetization?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Rojas, H.; Rodriguez Querts, E.

    2006-06-19

    We study vacuum properties in a strong magnetic field as the zero temperature and zero density limit of quantum statistics. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) the vacuum energy density diverges for B > B{sub c} = m{sub w}{sup 2}/e, leading to vacuum instability. A logarithmic divergence of vacuum magnetization is found for B = Bc, which suggests that if the magnetic field is large enough, it is self-consistently maintained, and this mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the instability of the ground state for B > B{sub c}{sup '} = m{sub n}{sup 2}/q also leads to the vacuum energy density divergence for fields B > B{sub c}{sup '} and to the magnetization divergence for B B{sub c}{sup '}. The possibility of virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in strong magnetic field and the applicability of the neutral bosons model to describe the virtual positronium behavior in a magnetic field are discussed. We conjecture that this could lead to vacuum self-magnetization in QED.

  19. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  20. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose.

    PubMed

    Kisaalita, W S; Pinder, K L; Lo, K V

    1987-07-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO(2) and H(2)) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced, and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5. PMID:18576587

  1. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  2. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  3. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  4. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  5. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  6. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  7. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  8. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  9. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  10. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 × 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  11. A vacuum chamber feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V. D.

    1973-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive microwave feedthrough has been designed which transfers 130 ns, 5kV pulse into vacuum chamber. Feedthrough may be used over wide range and is adaptable to most coaxial cables, since either multistrand or single strand center conductor cable can be used.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

  13. Topics in vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Ali

    2013-12-01

    If a theory has more than one classically stable vacuum, quantum tunneling and thermal jumps make the transition between the vacua possible. The transition happens through a first order phase transition started by nucleation of a bubble of the new vacuum. The outward pressure of the truer vacuum makes the bubble expand and consequently eat away more of the old phase. In the presence of gravity this phenomenon gets more complicated and meanwhile more interesting. It can potentially have important cosmological consequences. Some aspects of this decay are studied in this thesis. Solutions with different symmetry than the generically used O(4) symmetry are studied and their actions calculated. Vacuum decay in a spatial vector field is studied and novel features like kinky domain walls are presented. The question of stability of vacua in a landscape of potentials is studied and the possible instability in large dimension of fields is shown. Finally a compactification of the Einstein-Maxwell theory is studied which can be a good lab to understand the decay rates in compactification models of arbitrary dimensions.

  14. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ⩽ 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  15. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  16. Light-front vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marc; Polyzou, W. N.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the relation between the trivial vacuum in light-front field theory and the nontrivial vacuum in canonical representations of quantum field theory and the role of zero-modes in this relation. The role of the underlying field algebra in the definition of the vacuum is exploited to understand these relations. The trivial vacuum defined by an annihilation operator defines a linear functional on the algebra of fields restricted to a light front. This is extended to a linear functional on the algebra of local fields. The extension defines a unitary mapping between the physical representation of the local algebra and a sub-algebra of the light-front Fock algebra. The dynamics appears in the mapping and the structure of the sub-algebra. This correspondence provides a formulation of locality and Poincaré invariance on the light-front Fock space. Zero modes do not appear in the final mapping, but may be needed in the construction of the mapping using a local Lagrangian.

  17. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  18. Vacuum arc deposition devices

    SciTech Connect

    Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N.

    2006-02-15

    The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

  19. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  20. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  1. Fermentation of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits for betalains concentration.

    PubMed

    Castellar, M R; Obón, J M; Alacid, M; Fernández-López, J A

    2008-06-11

    Fermentation of juice and homogenized fruits of Opuntia stricta fruits has been developed and optimized. The aim was to obtain the red food colorant betanin from prickly pear, at high concentration and low viscosity. Among three strains assayed, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus AWRI 796 has been the optimum for this process. The optimum temperature value was found to be 35 degrees C for both sugar consumption and pigment preservation. After fermentation, biomass and residual vegetal tissue were discarded by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated under vacuum. Therefore, liquid concentrated betanin was obtained, with low viscosity and being sugar free. Besides, bioethanol was obtained as byproduct. Characteristics of the final product obtained were pH 3.41, 5.2 degrees Brix, 9.65 g/L betanin, color strength of 10.8, and viscosity of 52.5 cP. These values are better than obtained by other procedures. PMID:18473472

  2. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  3. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  4. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg

  5. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  6. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  7. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.

    1988-05-01

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

  8. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  9. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  10. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  11. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  12. Can vacuum energy gravitate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Datta, Dhurjati

    1995-03-01

    In this essay we discuss an interesting recent development in semiclassical gravity. Using an improved Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the semiclassical reduction of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation turns out to give important insights into the nature and the level of validity of the semi-classical Einstein equations (SCEE). Back reactions from the quantized matter fields in SCEE are shown to be completely determined by adiabatically induced geometricU(N) gauge potentials. The finite energy from the vacuum polarization, in particular, is found to be intimately related to the ‘magnetic’ type geometric gauge potential. As a result the vacuum energy in a universe emerging from a ‘source-free’ flat simply-connected superspace is gauge equivalent to zero, leading to some dramatic consequences.

  13. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  14. Dry vacuum pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  15. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  16. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  17. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  18. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  19. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  20. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  1. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  2. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  3. Acidogenic fermentation of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    Corn stover was fermentd by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria to produce volatile (C2-C6) organic acids. Mild pretreatment with dilute alkali solutions produced a two-fold increase in fermentability. A mixture of lime and sodium carbonate was found to be a better pretreatment agent than sodium hydroxide. Methane generation was inhibited by low temperature less than or equal to 25 degrees Celcius and high solids greater than or equal to 2.5% (w/v) fermentation. Volatile acid yields of 0.5-0.55 g acetic acid equivalent/g dry ash-free (DAF) stover could be obtained in batch fermentations. Several extractants and extraction solvents for organic acids were found to be nontoxic to acidogenic fermentation. The data show that acidogenic fermentation can produce useful volatile fatty acids in high yields from a complex lignocellulosic feedstock. These fermentation are nonsterile, need no stirring, and are easy to run. Moreover, cellulose, pentosans, and other carbohydrates are directly utilized by acidogenic bacteria. Hence, acidogenic fermentation could be useful in converting biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel.

  4. The LHC Vacuum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröbner, O.

    1997-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9 K and therefore a very good cryo-pump. To reduce the cryogenic power consumption, the heat load from synchrotron radiation and from the image currents in the vacuum chamber will be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K, inserted in the magnet cold bore. The design pressure necessary for operation must provide a lifetime of many days and a stringent requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench. Cryo-pumping of gas on the cold surfaces provides the necessary low gas densities but it must be ensured that the vapour pressure of cryo-sorbed molecules, of which H2 and He would be the most critical species, remains within acceptable limits. The room temperature sections of the LHC, specifically in the experiments, the vacuum must be stable against ion induced desorption and ISR-type 'pressure bumps'.

  5. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  6. Vacuum pumping concepts for ETF

    SciTech Connect

    Homeyer, W.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) poses unique vacuum pumping requirements due to its large size and long burn characteristics. These requirements include torus vacuum pumping initially and between burns and pumping of neutralized gas from divertor collector chambers. It was found that the requirements could be met by compound cryopumps in which molecular sieve 5A is used as the cryosorbent. The pumps, ducts, and vacuum valves required are large but fit with other ETF components and do not require major advances in vacuum pumping technology. Several additional design, analytical, and experimental studies were identified as needed to optimize designs and provide better design definition for the ETF vacuum pumping systems.

  7. Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. )

    1993-10-01

    A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  9. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  10. Optimal design of airlift fermenters

    SciTech Connect

    Moresi, M.

    1981-11-01

    In this article a modeling of a draft-tube airlift fermenter (ALF) based on perfect back-mixing of liquid and plugflow for gas bubbles has been carried out to optimize the design and operation of fermentation units at different working capacities. With reference to a whey fermentation by yeasts the economic optimization has led to a slim ALF with an aspect ratio of about 15. As far as power expended per unit of oxygen transfer is concerned, the responses of the model are highly influenced by kLa. However, a safer use of the model has been suggested in order to assess the feasibility of the fermentation process under study. (Refs. 39).

  11. Polymers in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, J. M.

    2007-12-07

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

  12. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  13. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  14. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  15. Ethanol fermentation and potential.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L

    1975-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol is one of the United States and world's major chemicals. Beverage alcohol in the United States must be prepared from cereal grains or other natural products. The U.S. industrial alcohol market has remained relatively stable for several years at approximately 300 million gallons annually. Most of this has been produced synthetically from petroleum raw material (gas and oil). These raw materials are experiencing major price increases and are in short supply. The production of ethyl alcohol from cereal grains and cellulosic raw materials by fermentation is technically feasible and has been proven. Alcohol produced from all such materials is equal to synthetic alcohol in quality and performance. Competitive economics have controlled the basic raw materials used. The major potential new ethyl alcohol market is as a component of automobile fuels. A 10% alcohol-gasoline blend in the United States would annually require over 10 billion gallons of anhydrous alcohol. Use of alcohol for this purpose is technically feasible. However, alcohol has not been economically competitive to date. PMID:1191746

  16. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  17. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  18. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  19. A fatal case of CO(2) intoxication in a fermentation tank.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Juhnke, Christian; Bux, Roman; Schmidt, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an odorless constituent of air. Higher concentrations can be detected in geothermal and automotive emissions, fermentation, and sublimation of dry ice. An unskilled worker entered a fermentation tank to clean it, which had not been done for about 5months allowing for high concentrations of CO2 to build up. A second worker entered the tank to rescue the first one. Shortly after both were found the first worker was rescued directly whereas the tank had to be rotated to pull the second worker out. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful only for the first worker. Medico-legal autopsy showed bruises, hematoma, myocardial hemorrhage, and edema of the lungs. The right lung was vacuum degassed in an argon atmosphere and quadrupole-mass-spectrometry showed an elevated CO2 content in lung gases. Thus, CO2 intoxication/asphyxia in a vitiated atmosphere due to fermentation of wine mash was established as the cause of death. PMID:23316776

  20. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Fry, W.A.

    1962-05-29

    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  1. LIGO vacuum system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

    1988-01-01

    A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

  2. Pseudoredundant vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

    2008-08-15

    We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

  3. Pseudoredundant vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    We discuss models that can account for today’s dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

  4. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  5. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  6. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  7. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  8. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  9. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  10. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  11. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  12. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  13. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  14. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  15. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.; Gross, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  16. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  17. Diesel fuel by fermentation of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, S.M.; Wayman, M.

    1983-01-11

    An improved diesel fuel which is entirely capable of preparation from renewable resources. The fuel comprises a blend of fermentation produced butanol and fermentation produced glycerides. The substrates useful for the butanol fermentation are conventional industrial waste products, such as cheese whey and low value carbohydrate containing waste materials such as corn cobs, wood chips, etc. Similar substrate materials are used in the fermentation or growth culture of glyceride producing microbes.

  18. Vacuum requirements for LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.

    1984-08-01

    The LAMPF II accelerator will require sufficient vacuum to prevent beam loss or beam blowup within the time the beam is in the accelerator. Because this time is quite short (tau < 0.03 s), the vacuum requirements should be somewhat less strict than for the long-time storage machines, such as the ISR (tau greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ s). In this note, we catalog various vacuum limitations for LAMPF II and outline vacuum-system parameters that meet these limitations. The pressure P less than or equal to 10/sup -7/ T should be adequate for LAMPF II, and a fairly simple vacuum system should obtain P less than or equal to 10/sup -8/ T.

  19. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  1. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  2. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  3. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  4. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  5. Vacuum plasma spray coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

  6. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  7. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  8. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  9. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  10. Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solà, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant Λ should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature R as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect δΛ˜R˜H2. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the ΛCDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

  11. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  12. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  13. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  14. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  15. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  16. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol or sugar alcohol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industries. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. A number of lactic acid bacter...

  17. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

  18. Variable sugar fermentation by clostridia.

    PubMed

    Nakashio, S; Nakamura, S; Nishida, S

    1982-01-01

    Forty-two sugar fermentation characteristics recorded as "d" in the 8th edition of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology were reinvestigated by using eight different peptone media and 205 strains of nine species of pathogenic clostridia. In the absence of sugar, the final pH of 7-day cultures in the basal medium varied widely depending on the peptone employed, the species tested, and even the strain of the species. In the presence of sugar, the final pH of 7-day cultures was markedly influenced by these factors. Since the sugars with reactions recorded as "d" were weakly fermented and, consequently, the fermentation reactions were easily affected by cultural variations resulting in strain instability, we employed the pH difference method (delta pH method) in which the pH difference of 0.5 between cultures with and without sugar was used as the critical level. Thirty-six (86%) of the 42 sugar reactions recorded as "d" were sorted into "+" or "-" by the delta pH method. Six sugars, however, still remained as "d" because of their extremely weak fermentation characters. The use of the delta pH method in any peptone medium not only minimizes incorrect evaluation but also can provide some distinct criteria for identification of clostridia. PMID:7162434

  19. Vacuum applications of metal foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

  20. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  1. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that exhibit high degrees of conformance to the international standards of regulatory and good manufacturing practice. PMID:12930092

  2. Vacuum system pump down analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrdanz, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

  3. Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beuyukian, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

  4. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  5. Thermodynamics of decaying vacuum cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.A.

    1996-08-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of decaying vacuum cosmologies is investigated within a manifestly covariant formulation. Such a process corresponds to a continuous, irreversible energy flow from the vacuum component to the created matter constituents. It is shown that if the specific entropy per particle remains constant during the process, the equilibrium relations are preserved. In particular, if the vacuum decays into photons, the energy density {rho} and average number density of photons {ital n} scale with the temperature as {rho}{approximately}{ital T}{sup 4} and {ital n}{approximately}{ital T}{sup 3}. The temperature law is determined and a generalized Planckian-type form of the spectrum, which is preserved in the course of the evolution, is also proposed. Some consequences of these results for decaying vacuum FRW-type cosmologies as well as for models with {open_quote}{open_quote}adiabatic{close_quote}{close_quote} photon creation are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  8. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  9. Edge conduction in vacuum glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E.; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D.

    1995-03-01

    Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

  10. Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E.

    1998-02-20

    Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

  11. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  12. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  13. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  14. Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

  15. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-01-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw. Images PMID:565187

  16. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  17. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  18. Reduce costs with vacuum excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.

    1983-09-01

    Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

  19. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  20. Fermentation studies of stored cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Abdul Samah, O; Ibrahim, N; Alimon, H; Abdul Karim, M I

    1993-09-01

    Acetic and lactic acid bacteria on fermented cocoa beans were maximally 2.0×10(6) and 1.9×10(6) c.f.u./g wet wt, respectively. Acetic and lactic acids were detected on the second and fourth days of fermentation and were maximally 140 and 45 mg/10 g beans, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the sizes of the relevant microbial populations and the amounts of acids produced during fermentation. PMID:24420212

  1. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48 h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50 g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  2. Butanol toxicity in the butylic fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.R.; Ulmer, D.C.; Linden, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental study has been initiated, attempting to elucidate the mechanism for butanol toxicity in the acetone-butanol fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. The results obtained to date have shown that butanol, when added to the fermentation at concentrations equivalent to those observed in industrial fermentations (0.1 to 0.15M) causes 50% inhibition of both the cell growth and sugar uptake rates. Ethanol was found not to be inhibitory at typical fermentation levels. Preliminary data indicates that energy in the form of ATP is coupled to the transport of sugars across the cell membrane via ATPase.

  3. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    Oxidative fermentations have been well established for a long time, especially in vinegar and in L-sorbose production. Recently, information on the enzyme systems involved in these oxidative fermentations has accumulated and new developments are possible based on these findings. We have recently isolated several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria, which also seem to be useful for new developments in oxidative fermentation. Two different types of membrane-bound enzymes, quinoproteins and flavoproteins, are involved in oxidative fermentation, and sometimes work with the same substrate but produce different oxidation products. Recently, there have been new developments in two different oxidative fermentations, D-gluconate and D-sorbitol oxidations. Flavoproteins, D-gluconate dehydrogenase, and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were isolated almost 2 decades ago, while the enzyme involved in the same oxidation reaction for D-gluconate and D-sorbitol has been recently isolated and shown to be a quinoprotein. Thus, these flavoproteins and a quinoprotein have been re-assessed for the oxidation reaction. Flavoprotein D-gluconate dehydrogenase and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were shown to produce 2-keto- D-gluconate and D-fructose, respectively, whereas the quinoprotein was shown to produce 5-keto- D-gluconate and L-sorbose from D-gluconate and D-sorbitol, respectively. In addition to the quinoproteins described above, a new quinoprotein for quinate oxidation has been recently isolated from Gluconobacter strains. The quinate dehydrogenase is also a membrane-bound quinoprotein that produces 3-dehydroquinate. This enzyme can be useful for the production of shikimate, which is a convenient salvage synthesis system for many antibiotics, herbicides, and aromatic amino acids synthesis. In order to reduce energy costs of oxidative fermentation in industry, several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria that can grow up to 40 degrees C have been isolated. Of such isolated strains, some thermotolerant Acetobacter species were found to be useful for vinegar fermentation at a high temperature such 38-40 degrees C, where mesophilic strains showed no growth. They oxidized higher concentrations of ethanol up to 9% without any appreciable lag time, while alcohol oxidation with mesophilic strains was delayed or became almost impossible under such conditions. Several useful Gluconobacter species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria are also found, especially L-erythrulose-producing strains and cyclic alcohol-oxidizing strains. Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43 is able to rapidly oxidize meso-erythritol at 37 degrees C leading to the accumulation of L-erythrulose, which may replace dihydroxyacetone in cosmetics. G. frateuriiCHM 9 is able to oxidize cyclic alcohols to their corresponding cyclic ketones or aliphatic ketones, which are known to be useful for preparing many different physiologically active compounds such as oxidized steroids or oxidized bicyclic ketones. The enzymes involved in these meso-erythritol and cyclic alcohol oxidations have been purified and shown to be a similar type of membrane-bound quinoproteins, consisting of a high molecular weight single peptide. This is completely different from another quinoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria, which consists of three subunits including hemoproteins. PMID:12664142

  4. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  5. Coupled quintessence and vacuum decay

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, F. E. M.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2008-04-15

    We discuss observational consequences of a class of cosmological models characterized by the dilution of pressureless matter attenuated with respect to the usual a{sup -3} scaling due to the decay of vacuum energy. We carry out a joint statistical analysis of observational data from the new gold sample of 182 SNe Ia, recent estimates of the cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and baryon acoustic oscillations measurements from the SDSS to show that such models favor the decay of vacuum only into the dark matter sector, and that the separately conserved baryons cannot be neglected. In order to explore ways to more fundamentally motivate these models, we also derive a coupled scalar field version for this general class of vacuum decay scenarios.

  6. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  7. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  8. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  9. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  10. Violating Bell's inequalities in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik, Benni; Retzker, Alex; Silman, Jonathan

    2005-04-01

    We employ an approach wherein the ground state entanglement of a relativistic free scalar field is directly probed in a controlled manner. The approach consists of having a pair of initially nonentangled detectors locally interact with the vacuum for a finite duration T, such that the two detectors remain causally disconnected, and then analyzing the resulting detector mixed state. We show that the correlations between arbitrarily far-apart regions of the vacuum cannot be reproduced by a local hidden-variable model, and that as a function of the distance L between the regions, the entanglement decreases at a slower rate than {approx}exp[-(L/cT){sup 3}].

  11. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  12. Vacuum Cleaner Fan Being Improved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technology utilization program at the NASA Lewis Research Center, efforts are underway to transfer aerospace technologies to new areas of practical application. One such effort involves using advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for turbomachinery to analyze the internal fluid dynamics of low-speed fans and blowers. This year, the Kirby Company in Cleveland, Ohio, approached NASA with a request for technologies that could help them improve their vacuum cleaners. Of particular interest to Kirby is the high-frequency blade-passing noise generation of their vacuum cleaner fan at low airflow rates.

  13. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  14. Safety and quality of ready-to-eat dry fermented sausages subjected to E-beam radiation.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, M C; de la Hoz, L; Velasco, R; Cambero, M I; Ordóñez, J A

    2009-10-01

    The inactivation kinetics in the death of Listeriainnocua NTC 11288 (more radioresistant than five different strains of Listeriamonocytogenes) and Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium by E-beam irradiation has been studied in two types of vacuum-packed RTE dry fermented sausages ("salchichon" and "chorizo") in order to optimize the sanitation treatment of these products. A treatment of 1.29kGy was calculated to reach the food safety objective (FSO) according to the "zero tolerance" criterion for the three strains. No irradiation treatment was necessary to meet the 10(2)c.f.u./g microbiological criterion for L. monocytogenes. Dry fermented sausages treated with ⩽2kGy had negligible sensory (appearance, odour and taste) modifications. Therefore, this treatment produces safe dry fermented sausages with similar sensory properties to the non-irradiated product. PMID:20416723

  15. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  16. Solid residues from Ruminococcus cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J; Conner, A H; Lorenz, L F

    2003-11-01

    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives for plywood fabrication. The residues contained differing amounts of protein (0.4-4.2% of dry weight), but the ratios of monosaccharides recovered following two-stage treatment of the residue with detergent (pH 7) and TFA were similar for all three strains (0.71 glucose:0.18 xylose:0.08 mannose:0.02 galactose), suggesting similarities in exopolysaccharide composition. Three-ply aspen panels prepared with fermentation residues (FR) displayed better shear strength and wood failure under dry conditions than following a vacuum/pressure/soak/dry treatment, but adhesive properties were inferior to those prepared with conventional phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives. However, panels prepared by incorporating the R. albus 7 FR into PF formulation, at 73% by weight of the total adhesive, exhibited shear strength and wood failure similar to that obtained with PF adhesive alone. Use of residues from fermentations by these bacteria as components of adhesives may add value to biomass fermentations aimed primarily at producing ethanol and other chemical products. PMID:12819957

  17. Vacuum-injection-molding processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

  18. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  19. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  20. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  1. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P.

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  2. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  3. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  4. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  5. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  6. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  7. Xylose fermentation with Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, A.; Wilke, C.R.; Blanch, H.W.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, the fermentation of xylose to ethanol with a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, was examined. The focus of this investigation was on the physiological parameters which most strongly affect the economic feasibility of using this bacterium for industrial ethanol production. In rich medium (containing economically impractical concentrations of yeast extract) yields as high as 0.43 gm ethanol/gm xylose and growth rates of 0.4 to 0.5 hr/sup -1/ were observed. The predominant by-products of the fermentation were acetate and lactate. Nutritional studies indicated that the cost of the growth medium could be dramatically reduced by replacing most of the yeast extract used with nicotinic acid and vitamin B/sup 12/. Ethanol was found to be very inhibitory to growth and ethanol formation. To overcome the problem of inhibition, cells were gradually adapted to high concentrations (up to 4.2%) of ethanol. However, the ethanol yield of adapted cells was typically 30 to 40% less than the yield of non-adapted cells. Environmental parameters such as pH and by-product concentrations had only a slight effect on the ethanol yield produced by tolerant cells. A mutant, selected from an adapted strain, was found to produce 60% less lactate than its parent. This low-lactate producing mutant had a slightly improved ethanol yield. The results obtained with the tolerant, low-lactate producing mutant were used in the design of an industrial-scale fermentation process. An economic evaluation of the process indicates that ethanol production with this bacterium is currently uneconomical.

  8. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  9. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. PMID:24506010

  10. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  11. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  12. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  13. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  14. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  15. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 independent phage isolates, including ...

  16. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  17. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  18. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  19. Simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation coupled with adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqin; Li, Ming; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Low sugar concentration and the presence of various inhibitors are the major challenges associated with lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as a fermentation broth. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used to concentrate sugars and remove inhibitors (furans) efficiently, but it's not desirable for the removal of less volatile inhibitors such as acetic acid. In this study, a VMD-adsorption process was proposed to improve the removal of acetic acid, achieving simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by one step process. Results showed that sugars were concentrated with high rejections (>98%) and little sugar loss (<2%), with the significant reduction in nearly total furans (99.7%) and acetic acid (83.5%) under optimal operation conditions. Fermentation results showed the ethanol production of hydrolyzates concentrated and detoxified using the VMD-adsorption method were approximately 10-fold greater than from untreated hydrolyzates. PMID:26342339

  20. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

  1. Fermented foods, feeds and beverages.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, K H

    1983-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of books and papers dealing with the indigenous fermented foods/beverages of the world. It is anticipated that these foods/beverages will play an ever-increasingly important role in feeding both the developing and the developed world as population increases from approximately 4.5 billion to 6 billion by the year 2000 and to 8 to 12 billion people in the 21st century. The indigenous fermented foods consist of microbial protein grown on edible substrates. Microbial or single cell protein (SCP) per se continues to receive research and development attention. It is likely to play an important role in feeding animals in the future when it becomes competitive with soy protein. It may play a direct role in feeding humans in the future after its safety for feeding animals has been adequately demonstrated and it has been shown that it can be processed into foods acceptable to humans. At the present time, mushrooms, a form of microbial protein highly acceptable to humans, which can be grown readily on ligno-cellulosic and other agricultural and food processing wastes, offer considerable opportunity for expanding man's food supply. PMID:14544244

  2. Ultrathin gate valve for high vacuum operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ugiansky, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Thin, compact, high-vacuum gate valve used to join two vacuum systems together demonstrates multiple operation reliability. Valve measurements and non-protruding handle make valve usable in confined areas.

  3. Ultra-high molecular sink vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Yager, S. P.

    1970-01-01

    Double-wall vacuum chamber can be separated from the remainder of the system and pumped by ultra-clean techniques. Ultrahigh vacuum is maintained by the cryogenic effect of a cold wall and titanium chemisorption.

  4. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  5. Electron bombardment improves vacuum chamber efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przybyszewski, J.; Swiker, M. A.; Watson, J.

    1965-01-01

    Bombardment of vacuum chamber walls by an electron gun within the chamber achieves greater efficiency with less cost. The ultimate vacuum reached using the gun is greater than the system design level.

  6. Gravitational vacuum polarization. II. Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    Building on techniques developed in the preceding paper, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the Boulware vacuum. I work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. In contradistinction to the case of the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, wherein violations of the energy conditions were confined to the region between the event horizon and the unstable photon orbit, I show that in the Boulware vacuum (1) all standard (pointwise and averaged) energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) outside the event horizon the standard pointwise energy conditions are violated in a maximal manner: They are violated at all points and for all null or timelike vectors. (The region inside the event horizon is considerably messier and of dubious physical relevance. Nevertheless, the standard pointwise energy conditions seem to be violated even inside the event horizon.) I argue that this is highly suggestive evidence, pointing to the fact that general self-consistent solutions of semiclassical quantum gravity might {ital not} satisfy the energy conditions and may in fact for certain quantum fields and certain quantum states violate {ital all} the energy conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

  8. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology. PMID:25027723

  9. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  10. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  11. Ion pump provides increased vacuum pumping speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Multiple-cell ion pumps with increased vacuum pumping speed are used for producing ultrahigh vacuums in vacuum tubes and mass spectrometers. The pump has eight cathode-anode magnetron cells arranged in a cylinder which increase the surface area of the cathode.

  12. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might...

  13. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  15. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems § 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  16. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  17. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  18. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  20. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it

  1. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might...

  2. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{μ ν α β }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  3. High performance portable vacuum suitcase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, G.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2005-02-01

    We have developed and tested a vacuum suitcase which allows to transport samples under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The suitcase is pumped by a new performant pumping system based on a getter pump, and it reaches an ultimate pressure lower than 3×10-11mbar, which is 2 orders of magnitude better than in the existing projects. Furthermore it has no need for a continuos power supply, no electric or magnetic field, low weight, low cost, and compactness. In order to transfer the sample from the suitcase to the main experimental chamber, in a short time (about 1h) and under UHV conditions, we have also developed a turbo pumped buffer chamber equipped with a cold trap.

  4. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  6. QCD Vacuum Topology and Glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Forkel, Hilmar

    2004-12-02

    We outline a comprehensive study of spin-0 glueball properties which, in particular, keeps track of the topological gluon structure. Specifically, we implement (semi-hard) topological instanton physics as well as topological charge screening in the QCD vacuum into the operator product expansion (OPE) of the glueball correlators. A realistic instanton size distribution and the (gauge-invariant) renormalization of the instanton contributions are also implemented. Predictions for 0++ and 0-+ glueball properties are presented.

  7. The statistics of vacuum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Melissa; Gu, Wei; He, Yang-Hui; Zhou, Da

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with = 1 supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.

  8. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  9. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  10. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  11. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  12. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  13. Fermentative Cyclohexane Carboxylate Formation in Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

    PubMed

    Boll, Matthias; Kung, Johannes W; Ermler, Ulrich; Martins, Berta M; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric or lactic acids are typical primary fermentation products in the anaerobic feeding chain. Fifteen years ago, a novel fermentation type was discovered in the obligately anaerobic Deltaproteobacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus. During fermentative growth with crotonate and/or benzoate, acetate is formed in the oxidative branch and cyclohexane carboxylate in the reductive branch. In both cases cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1,5CoA) is a central intermediate that is either formed by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase (fermentation of benzoate) or by reverse reactions of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway (fermentation of crotonate). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the enzymology involved in fermentations yielding cyclohexane carboxylate as an excreted product. The characteristic enzymes involved are two acyl-CoA dehydrogenases specifically acting on Ch1,5CoA and cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA. Both enzymes are also employed during the syntrophic growth of S. aciditrophicus with cyclohexane carboxylate as the carbon source in coculture with a methanogen. An investigation of anabolic pathways in S. aciditrophicus revealed a rather unusual pathway for glutamate synthesis involving a Re-citrate synthase. Future work has to address the unresolved question concerning which components are involved in reoxidation of the NADH formed in the oxidative branch of the unique cyclohexane carboxylate fermentation pathway in S. aciditrophicus. PMID:26959729

  14. Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Verbeke, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that carbohydrate fermentation results in beneficial effects for the host because of the generation of short chain fatty acids, whereas protein fermentation is considered detrimental for the host's health. Protein fermentation mainly occurs in the distal colon, when carbohydrates get depleted and results in the production of potentially toxic metabolites such as ammonia, amines, phenols and sulfides. However, the effectivity of these metabolites has been established mainly in in vitro studies. In addition, some important bowel diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC) and ulcerative colitis appear most often in the distal colon, which is the primary site of protein fermentation. Finally, epidemiological studies revealed that diets rich in meat are associated with the prevalence of CRC, as is the case in Western society. Importantly, meat intake not only increases fermentation of proteins but also induces increased intake of fat, heme and heterocyclic amines, which may also play a role in the development of CRC. Despite these indications, the relationship between gut health and protein fermentation has not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, the existing evidence about the potential toxicity of protein fermentation from in vitro animal and human studies will be summarized. PMID:22121108

  15. Bacteriophage Ecology in a Commercial Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Hayes, J. S.; Breidt, F.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  16. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z; Pérez-Díaz, I M; Hayes, J S; Breidt, F

    2012-12-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  17. Clostridial fermentation of high-energy sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of biomass has been shown to increase the efficiency of microbial conversion of lignocellulose to energy or chemicals. Most chemical and physical pretreatments, however, are too expensive for practical application. Biological pretreatment during ensilage storage offers the potential for a low cost pretreatment process for herbaceous biomass. A number of cellulolytic microorganisms occurring naturally in silages or inoculated into the biomass during ensiling could result in significant hydrolysis of lignocellulose during storage prior to conversion to the final end products. The overall objective of this research was to induce clostridial fermentation in sorghum during ensiling through either manipulation of environmental conditions or inoculation with clostridium bacteria. The first objective was to determine whether environmental conditions can influence the natural microorganisms population distribution during ensiling, thus leading to clostridial fermentation. The second objective was to determine whether cellulolytic clostridia can compete with lactic acid bacteria in the ensiling process, resulting in a clostridial fermentation. Two studies were conducted to investigate these two objectives. Three levels of water soluble sugars ranging from 180g/kg D.M. to 15g/Kg D.M. and five levels of moisture contents ranging from 58% to 81% were used in the first part of this investigation. The fermentation types were generally heterolactic acid fermentation though sporadic clostridial fermentations were observed. The major products from the fermentations were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Although the effects of water soluble sugar and moisture content were highly significant for the amount of lactic acid and total products in the fermentations, the two factors were not enough to induce cellulolytic clostridial fermentation.

  18. Process for enhanced fermentation of xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1987-05-05

    A process is described for producing an enhanced ethanol yield by aerobically fermenting D-xylose in a fermentation medium with Pachysolen tannophilus having deposit accession numbers. The improvement comprises adding glucose to the fermentation medium after the fermentation has commenced and during the carrying forth of the fermentation with the adding being continuously or at intervals during each 24 hours of the carrying forth of the fermentation and being of an amount of the glucose providing a glucose concentration not exceeding one percent by weight of the fermentation medium until substantially all D-xylose is consumed.

  19. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  20. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentation. In electrodialysis fermentation, the amount of produced lactic acid was 82.2 g/liter, which was about 5.5 times greater than that produced in non-pH-controlled fermentation. It was concluded that these good results were obtained on account of alleviating the lactic acid inhibitory effect by electrodialysis fermentation. However, the fouling of anion-exchange membranes by cells was observed in electrodialysis fermentation. PMID:16347129

  1. Compactified Vacuum in Ten Dimensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmser, Daniel

    1987-09-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M ^4 and a "compactified" space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum be annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. Recently, it has been proposed that gravity in more than four dimensions may involve terms of higher order in the curvature as well as the linear terms present in ordinary general relativity. I illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S^6 where S ^6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. I explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The example M^4 times S^6 is still plagued by the semi -classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a test for any theory which predicts a compactified vacuum.

  2. High throughput vacuum chemical epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, L. M.; Malocsay, E.; Sundaram, V.; Baird, R. W.; Mao, B. Y.; Lee, G. Y.

    1990-10-01

    We have developed a vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) reactor which avoids the use of arsine and allows multiple wafers to be coated at one time. Our vacuum chemical epitaxy reactor closely resembles a molecular beam epitaxy system in that wafers are loaded into a stainless steel vacuum chamber through a load chamber. Also as in MBE, arsenic vapors are supplied as reactant by heating solid arsenic sources thereby avoiding the use of arsine. However, in our VCE reactor, a large number of wafers are coated at one time in a vacuum system by the substitution of Group III alkyl sources for the elemental metal sources traditionally used in MBE. Higher wafer throughput results because in VCE, the metal-alkyl sources for Ga, Al, and dopants can be mixed at room temperature and distributed uniformly though a large area injector to multiple substrates as a homogeneous array of mixed element molecular beams. The VCE reactor that we have built and that we shall describe here uniformly deposits films on 7 inch diameter substrate platters. Each platter contains seven two inch or three 3 inch diameter wafers. The load chamber contains up to nine platters. The vacuum chamber is equipped with two VCE growth zones and two arsenic ovens, one per growth zone. Finally, each oven has a 1 kg arsenic capacity. As of this writing, mirror smooth GaAs films have been grown at up to 4 μm/h growth rate on multiple wafers with good thickness uniformity. The background doping is p-type with a typical hole concentration and mobility of 1 × 10 16/cm 3 and 350 cm 2/V·s. This background doping level is low enough for the fabrication of MESFETs, solar cells, and photocathodes as well as other types of devices. We have fabricated MESFET devices using VCE-grown epi wafers with peak extrinsic transconductance as high as 210 mS/mm for a threshold voltage of - 3 V and a 0.6 μm gate length. We have also recently grown AlGaAs epi layers with up to 80% aluminum using TEAl as the aluminum alkyl source. The AlGaAs layer thickness and aluminum content uniformity appear excellent.

  3. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  4. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  5. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  6. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  7. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  8. Software sensors for fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Heléne; Enfors, Sven-Olof

    2008-02-01

    Four software sensors based on standard on-line data from fermentation processes and simple mathematical models were used to monitor a number of state variables in Escherichia coli fed-batch processes: the biomass concentration, the specific growth rate, the oxygen transfer capacity of the bioreactor, and the new R(O/S) sensor which is the ratio between oxygen and energy substrate consumption. The R(O/S) variable grows continuously in a fed-batch culture with constant glucose feed, which reflects the increasing maintenance demand at declining specific growth rate. The R(O/S) sensor also responded to rapid pH shift-downs reflecting the increasing demand for maintenance energy. It is suggested that this sensor may be used to monitor the extent of physiological stress that demands energy for survival. PMID:17726584

  9. Vacuum Technology and Standardization-An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akram, H. M.; Rashid, H.

    2011-06-01

    Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

  10. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  11. Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, S. P.; Parfentiev, N. A.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Melenevsky, U. A.; Gutschwager, B.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10-3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility at the PTB in the field of reduced background radiation thermometry under vacuum. This facility is intended for performing radiometric and radiation thermometric measurements under vacuum conditions in the temperature range from -173 °C to 430 °C and spectral emissivity measurements in the temperature range from 0 °C to 600 °C without atmospheric interferences. It is difficult to realize a precision blackbody with high emissivity for temperatures above 400 °C. Cavities of such blackbodies are normally made of copper and coated by a paint with high emissivity. But any paint put on copper does not survive several cycles of heating to temperatures up to 450 °C. As a result of investigations at PTB, a special procedure of coating the surface of the cavity by paint with high emissivity has been developed. The cavity surface is coated by chemical nickel plating before covering it by a paint with high emissivity. The general concept and the design of the VMTBB are given. For realization of good temperature uniformity along the complete radiating cavity, a three module design is used consisting of a heat exchanger and two stages of temperature control of the cavity, based on two precision PID controllers. The temperature of the cavity is determined by 15 precision Pt resistance thermometers. Six of them are used for the VMTBB cavity and heat exchanger temperature control, and the others are used for the cavity temperature measurement and correction. A description of the temperature control and measurement system of the VMTBB is presented. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is not worse than 0.9994. Tests of the VMTBB were carried out at the PTB facility, and the radiation of the VMTBB was measured in comparison to the vacuum variable low-temperature blackbody (VLTBB) in the temperature range from 150 °C to 170 °C with the vacuum infrared standard radiation thermometer (VIRST). The temperature uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than ±100 mK in the whole temperature range. The stability of the temperature of the blackbody is within 50 mK in the whole temperature range.

  12. Anaerobic fermentations--some new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Morris, J G

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentations start with the major advantage that, unlike aerobic processes, they do not incur the cost penalties associated with the need to sustain high rates of culture aeration, agitation and cooling. Even so, many of the more traditional fermentations that yield high volume, low value products (such as alcohols or fatty acids) are currently only economically viable if they utilize biological wastes and agricultural surpluses as substrates. To achieve maximum conversion efficiency it is necessary to select the appropriate species/strain of micro-organism which will perform best under the intended conditions of operation (which could include elevated temperatures and extremes of pH). Knowledge of the mechanisms whereby the fermentation is physiologically controlled can then suggest means, including genetically engineered strain improvements and/or the establishment of stable co-cultures with other microbes, whereby the yield of a desired product can be optimized. The biology of a fermentation process can thus be rendered sufficiently consistent and predictable for the biochemical engineer to be able to achieve optimal fermenter productivity. Anaerobic processes are particularly well suited to a continuous flow mode of operation (with cell retention) and new techniques for selective product removal and concentration can reduce the energy costs associated with 'downstream processing'. Hitherto, most interest has been centred on those anaerobic fermentations of renewable biomass which yield immediately useful products (fuel alcohols, methane). However, by combining biological and chemical procedures the profitability of even some superficially unpromising fermentations could be substantially enhanced. Collaborative research by microbial physiologists, geneticists and biochemical engineers is a prerequisite for marketable success in new applications of fermentative anaerobes and their enzymes. PMID:6400481

  13. Microbial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations.

    PubMed

    Beckner, M; Ivey, M L; Phister, T G

    2011-10-01

    Microbial contamination is a pervasive problem in any ethanol fermentation system. These infections can at minimum affect the efficiency of the fermentation and at their worse lead to stuck fermentations causing plants to shut down for cleaning before beginning anew. These delays can result in costly loss of time as well as lead to an increased cost of the final product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common bacterial contaminants found in ethanol production facilities and have been linked to decreased ethanol production during fermentation. Lactobacillus sp. generally predominant as these bacteria are well adapted for survival under high ethanol, low pH and low oxygen conditions found during fermentation. It has been generally accepted that lactobacilli cause inhibition of Saccharomyces sp. and limit ethanol production through two basic methods; either production of lactic and acetic acids or through competition for nutrients. However, a number of researchers have demonstrated that these mechanisms may not completely account for the amount of loss observed and have suggested other means by which bacteria can inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. While LAB are the primary contaminates of concern in industrial ethanol fermentations, wild yeast may also affect the productivity of these fermentations. Though many yeast species have the ability to thrive in a fermentation environment, Dekkera bruxellensis has been repeatedly targeted and cited as one of the main contaminant yeasts in ethanol production. Though widely studied for its detrimental effects on wine, the specific species-species interactions between D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae are still poorly understood. PMID:21770989

  14. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  15. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  16. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  17. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  18. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  19. Case study: Vacuuming for VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A.; Mazowiecki, C.R.

    1996-06-01

    The soil-vapor extraction system, which draws VOC-laden vapors from the subsurface, has become a popular remediation tool. The soil-vapor extraction (SVE) system, also know as {open_quotes}venting,{close_quotes} has proven to be a popular and cost-effective choice to remediate sites contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose zone. The SVE system includes airflow in the subsurface by applying a vacuum through extraction wells. The system is described in this article, with a report on performance monitoring included.

  20. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1990-12-18

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

  1. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  2. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  3. Maloalcoholic fermentation by immobilized Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Y; Tsay, S S

    1989-11-01

    Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe TMB 1138, which are capable of metabolizing-malate, was immobilized in calcium alginate gel to carry out maloalcoholic fermentation. Four milliliters of cell suspension containing about 2.0 X 10(7) cells were entrapped in 16 ml of sodium alginate solution in order to prepare 2% Na-alginate (w/v) gel bead. After activation by incubating at 28 degrees C for 24 h in grape juice, 300 beads of immobilized cells were inoculated into the fermentation medium. After fermentation was proceeded at 25 or 28 degrees C for 24 h by shaking, it could metabolize L-malate completely and the total acidity was also reduced. Under the same condition for batch fermentation, it was found that the utilization of L-malic acid was over 97% for the first 7 days in fermentation medium, 85% for the first 4 days in grape juice and 87% for the first 4 days in wine. Furthermore, for the continuous fermentation in wine, the conversion of L-malic acid reached 92% in 24 h and could be maintained at 75% in the following 9 days. PMID:2637104

  4. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  5. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD. PMID:26148916

  6. Changes in biochemical and nutritional qualities of aerobic and vacuum-packaged Thua Nao during shelf-life storage.

    PubMed

    Dajantaa, Katekan; Apishartsarangku, Arune; Chukeatirote, Ekachai

    2013-06-01

    Thai traditionally fermented soybean (Thua Nao) has been suggested as a good source of available amino acids and aglycone isoflavones. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes of biochemical and nutritional qualities in aerobic- and vacuum-packed thua Nao during the storage at 4 and 40 degrees C for 60 days. Three Thua Nao samples including Bacillus subtilis TN51-fermented Thua Nao (TNB51), spontaneously fermented Thua Nao (TNMX) and commercial product (MH) were used in this study. It was found that the storage of packed Thua Nao at 4 degrees C could prolong the product shelf-life up to 40 days. The moisture contents, pH values and colour L a* b* of these products were not different in both aerobic and vacuum-packaged products and remained stable throughout the experiment. The Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values of all storage Thua Nao were increased during storage; this is in particular for the aerobic packages of the TNMX and TNB51 products, indicating high oxidation of lipids. There was a slight decrease in DPPH radical scavenging effect (18%) and phenolic compounds (6%) of the vacuum-packaged product when stored at 4 degrees C. In contrast, the great losses in total phenolic content (44%), inhibitory activity of DPPH radicals (83%) and total antioxidant (41%) were observed when the products were stored aerobically at 40 degrees C. A reduction in total free amino acids was also found with the highest decrease of Arg in both aerobic- (69%) and vacuum-packages (68%). PMID:24498818

  7. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. PMID:25952856

  8. Vacuum drying of oak wood

    SciTech Connect

    Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du

    1995-12-31

    Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

  9. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  10. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation. PMID:25971198

  11. Robot design for a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

    1987-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

  12. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  13. [Rarely occurring complications in vacuum extraction].

    PubMed

    Tarina, F; Lipenský, S; Viciánová, L; Hubinská, M

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on two seldom observed complications of vacuum extraction, infraction or fracture of the parietal bone of newborn. They healed up without sequels in the further psychomotoric development. The authors consider vacuum extraction as a contribution to obstetric operation practise. They recommend smaller cups with a maximum diameter of 40 mm and a suction vacuum only to 0,6 kp/cm2 (0,06 M Pa) to be used. PMID:3993263

  14. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer. PMID:26469215

  15. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  16. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  17. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  19. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  1. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779491

  2. Vacuum mixing increases productivity saves energy

    SciTech Connect

    Haring, B.I.

    1985-11-01

    Rexnord Chemical Products, Inc. produces clear caulking, architectural sealants and other commercial building materials at its 42,000 sq ft plant in Pottstown, PA. Clear caulking is made by mixing together thermoplastic rubber, powdered resins, stabilizers, adhesion promoters and other additives. The materials have a high viscosity, more than 500,000 centipoise. The older manufacturing technology required more than 16 hours of mixing to produce a 150 gallon batch. It took hours of continuous mixing to break down agglomerates formed during the initial mixing cycle. The plant discussed the problem with mixer manufacturers and one suggested processing the batch with a double planetary mixer under vacuum. Mixing materials under vacuum produces a more thorough dispersion, with fewer and smaller agglomerates. Mixing under vacuum can also decrease processing time. The 200-gallon double planetary mixer chosen can mix highly viscous materials because of its stirrer blade design and rotation. Plant personnel developed a successful procedure for processing the caulking under vacuum. The mixer tank is charged with 100 lb of thermoplastic rubber and an equal quantity of resin. After charging, a full vacuum of 29 inches is pulled. The vacuum of valve is closed, the pump shut off and the variable-speed, 40-hp motor set on the slow speed. Rexnord increased production of clear window caulking by approximately 50% by switching from an older manufacturing process to vacuum mixing technology. The vacuum processing sharply decreased the amount of mixing time and produced substantial energy savings. Mixing under vacuum also helped improve product quality.

  3. Film holder for curved vacuum platen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciel, A., Jr.; Hauber, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum apparatus for holding photographic film of various widths against cylindrically curved patens is discussed. Construction details and method of operation are explained. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  4. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  5. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, U.V.; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-06-15

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work on one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of lattice sites as a function of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check [G. Giedke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167904 (2001)] for bound entanglement where appropriate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes and to be favored by strong interactions. Conversely, long-range entanglement is favored by relatively weak interactions. No examples of bound entanglement are found.

  6. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  7. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  8. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  9. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cullulose (untreated BW-200 Solka Floc) to ethanol utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae QM 8226, has resulted in increased rates and longer times of hydrolysis when compared to simple saccharifications. Additionally, two schemes for ethanol removal during hydrolysis, nitrogen sparging and vacuum operation, have also shown increased rates and longer times of saccharification of cellulose when compared to the simple SSF. Both early and delayed yeast additions, different lengths of SSF operations, and different sparging techniques were investigated. The beta-glucosidase fraction of the T. ressei Rut C-30 cellulase enzyme system was able to convert cellobiose to glucose in the presence of ethyl alcohol eliminating the strong inhibition of celloboise on cellulase while the yeast converted glucose to ethanol by glucolysis eliminating the inhibition of glucose on beta-glucosidase. The hydrolysis curves did not fit either simple or competitive product inhibition Michaelis-Menten type kinetic analysis. An enzyme deactivation-inhibition model seems necessary to fit the data. The yield parameter for ethanol/substrate (Yp/s) varied from .42g/g to .47g/g (theoretical .51g/g) with the majority of glucose being converted to ethanol in less than 15 hours.

  10. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  11. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. PMID:26738754

  12. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  13. Swine manure fermentation for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Li, Yecong; Wu, Xiao; Miller, Curtis; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2009-11-01

    Biohydrogen fermentation using liquid swine manure as substrate supplemented with glucose was investigated in this project. Experiments were conducted using a semi-continuously-fed fermenter (8L in total volume and 4 L in working volume) with varying pHs from 4.7 through 5.9 under controlled temperature (35+/-1 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time (HRT) tested include 16, 20, and 24h; however, in two pH conditions (5.0 and 5.3), an additional HRT of 12h was also tried. The experimental design combining HRT and pH provided insight on the fermenter performance in terms of hydrogen generation. The results indicated that both HRT and pH had profound influences on fermentative hydrogen productivity. A rising HRT would lead to greater variation in hydrogen concentration in the offgas and the best HRT was found to be 16 h for the fermenter in this study. The best pH value in correspondence to the highest hydrogen generation was revealed to be 5.0 among all the pHs studied. There was no obvious inhibition on hydrogen production by methanogenesis when methane content in the offgas was lower than 2%. Otherwise, an inverse linear relationship between hydrogen and methane content was observed with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. Therefore, to increase hydrogen content in the offgas, methane production has to be limited to below 2%. PMID:19157863

  14. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  15. Fermentation of 6-Deoxyhexoses by Bacillus macerans†

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Paul J.

    1984-01-01

    Under anaerobic conditions Bacillus macerans ATCC 7068 fermented 6-deoxyhexoses (l-rhamnose, l-fucose, and d-fucose) to a mixture of 1,2-propanediol (PD), acetone, H2, CO2, and ethanol. The final PD concentration was proportional to the amount of l-rhamnose fermented (∼0.9 mol of PD per mol of rhamnose). PD was not produced from hexoses (e.g., d-glucose or l-mannose), despite active fermentation of these substrates. Relative to the fermentation of d-glucose, the fermentation of l-rhamnose was accompanied by a twofold reduction in yield of H2, CO2, and cell mass. Exposure of cell extracts to l-rhamnose resulted in the transient appearance of an aldehyde intermediate. Cell extracts contained a pyridine nucleotide-linked lactaldehyde reductase activity which converted synthetic d- or l-lactaldehyde to PD. The data suggest an Embden-Meyerhof pathway for 6-deoxyhexose catabolism, with the formation of lactaldehyde by a conventional aldolase cleavage reaction and subsequent reduction to PD. PMID:16346466

  16. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. PMID:21215612

  17. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems....

  19. Intelligent control of vacuum aluminum brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, G.; Pai, D.M.; Badgley, S.

    1995-06-01

    Vacuum brazing is a versatile modern day metal joining method. It usually includes vacuum producing, heating and residual gas analyzing systems. When used to join aluminum parts, the quality of the brazed joint is highly dependent on the residual gases in the vacuum, especially the residual oxygen and water vapor in the vacuum chamber which affect the formation of oxides. These vacuum environment brazing contaminants are reduced during the out-gassing processes of degassing and desorption during heating under vacuum. Exceeding the boundary limits of these contaminants causes unacceptable flow of braze filler in the joints during the brazing process. Identification of the quality control boundary for vacuum brazing of aluminum alloy makes computer control of vacuum brazing quality for aluminum alloys possible. The present study utilizes a residual gas analyzer (RGA) to monitor the partial pressures of residual gases during brazing. These data are transported to computer through the RS-232 interface port on the RGA, and used in real time to monitor the brazing quality by an algorithm based on the quality control boundary. If the quality is bad, the computer will send a ``hold`` signal to the heating system via another Rs-232 port until the environment is reestablished within the acceptable boundary.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems....

  1. Glycerol Production by Fermenting Yeast Cells Is Essential for Optimal Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  2. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  3. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

  4. Antimutagenicity of milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Belicov, A; Krajcovic, J; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L

    1999-01-01

    The diethyl ether extracts isolated from unfermented milk and milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), nitrovin (NIT), 5-nitro-2-furylacrylic acid (NFA) and UV-irradiation on the Ames bacterial test (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97 and TA100) and the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. Overall, the fermented milk extract was the most active against UV-irradiation, less active against NIT and MNNG, and the least active against NFA on bacteria. The highest antibleaching effects were observed against MNNG. The differences between antimutagenic effects from fermented and unfermented milk extracts were determined to be statistically significant at the 0.95 CI level. PMID:10997133

  5. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process. PMID:27148235

  6. Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains.

    PubMed

    Erkkilä, S; Suihko, M L; Eerola, S; Petäjä, E; Mattila-Sandholm, T

    2001-02-28

    The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7 log10 to 8-9 log10 cfu/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry sausages fermented by L. rhamnosus LC-705 were inferior to the control sausages. The presence of inoculated experimental strains as predominant organisms in the dry sausages was recognised on the basis of their genetic fingerprints by ribotyping. The concentrations of biogenic amines remained low during the ripening process. These results indicated that the studied Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains, especially strains GG and E-97800, are suitable for use as probiotic starter cultures in fermenting dry sausage. PMID:11252505

  7. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  8. Production of aroma compounds in lactic fermentations.

    PubMed

    Smid, E J; Kleerebezem, M

    2014-01-01

    This review describes recent scientific research on the production of aroma compounds by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented food products. We discuss the various precursor molecules for the formation of aroma compounds in connection with the metabolic pathways involved. The roles of nonmetabolic properties such as cell lysis are also described in relation to aroma formation. Finally, we provide an overview of the literature on methods to steer and control aroma formation by LAB in mixed culture fermentations. We demonstrate that the technological progress made recently in high-throughput analysis methods has been driving the development of new approaches to understand, control, and steer aroma formation in (dairy) fermentation processes. This currently entails proposing new rules for designing stable, high-performance mixed cultures constituting a selection of strains, which in concert and on the basis of their individual predicted gene contents deliver the required functionalities. PMID:24580073

  9. Yeast Interactions in Inoculated Wine Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Maurizio; Capece, Angela; Comitini, Francesca; Canonico, Laura; Siesto, Gabriella; Romano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The use of selected starter culture is widely diffused in winemaking. In pure fermentation, the ability of inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae to suppress the wild microflora is one of the most important feature determining the starter ability to dominate the process. Since the wine is the result of the interaction of several yeast species and strains, many studies are available on the effect of mixed cultures on the final wine quality. In mixed fermentation the interactions between the different yeasts composing the starter culture can led the stability of the final product and the analytical and aromatic profile. In the present review, we will discuss the recent developments regarding yeast interactions in pure and in mixed fermentation, focusing on the influence of interactions on growth and dominance in the process. PMID:27148235

  10. Neutrino masses and Higgs vacuum stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Spencer-Smith, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The Standard Model electroweak vacuum has been found to be metastable, with the true stable vacuum given by a large, phenomenologically unacceptable vacuum expectation value ≈ M P . Moreover, it may be unstable in an inflationary universe. Motivated by the necessity of physics beyond the Standard Model and to accommodate non-zero neutrino masses, we investigate vacuum stability within type-II seesaw and left-right symmetric models. Our analysis is performed by solving the renormalisation group equations, carefully taking into account the relevant threshold corrections. We demonstrate that a phenomenologically viable left-right symmetric model can be constructed by matching it with the SM at one-loop. In both models we demonstrate the existence of a large area of parameter space where the Higgs vacuum is absolutely stable.

  11. In-vacuum target transfer facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, Samit; Avasthi, D. K.

    1995-02-01

    In order to transfer highly oxidizing and hygroscopic targets in-vacuum or in controlled atmosphere and to change the target ladder without affecting the chamber vacuum, an in-vacuum target transfer system has been designed, fabricated and installed. It consists of a transfer body, compatible flanges with gate valves at the bell jar and the chamber. Ca, being a highly oxidizing element, was taken as a test case to stress the utility of the in-vacuum target transfer system. Using the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) technique, we could see that there was only 11.5% of O 2 in the target when it was transferred from the bell jar to the scattering chamber using the in-vacuum target transfer facility. When the target was exposed to air for 35 min the O 2 content rose to 63.5 at.%

  12. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  13. High rate vacuum deposition of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.A.; Dunham, G.C.; Martin, P.M.

    1996-05-01

    Two new, high rate, vacuum processes have been developed for the deposition of polymer electrolyte layers on wide web substrates. One method involves the vacuum extrusion of monomer salt solutions followed by e-beam or ultraviolet (UV) curing. The second method involves the vacuum flash evaporation of the monomer salt solution followed by e-beam or UV curing. Each method is compatible with simultaneous, in-line, deposition by conventional processes like sputtering or evaporation in a wide web system. Optically clear polymer electrolyte layers may be deposited at line speeds in excess of 100 meters per minute with these new techniques. Ionic conductivity measurements will be presented for vacuum deposited, evaporated and extruded, polymer electrolyte layers. Films were deposited with thicknesses ranging from 2 to 50 {mu}m. Application of these methods to ongoing electrochromic and battery work at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory will be discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  14. Spallation Neutron Source ring vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Hseuh, H.C.; Rank, J.; Smart, L.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.

    2006-07-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source ring, which is presently being commissioned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is designed to accumulate high-intensity protons. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10{sup -9} torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-residual gas ionization. To reduce the secondary-electron yield and the associated electron cloud instability, the ring vacuum chambers are coated with titanium nitride (TiN). In order to minimize radiation exposure, quick-disconnect chain clamp flanges are used in some areas where radiation levels are expected to be high. This article describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and vacuum processing of the ring and beam transport vacuum systems, as well as the associated vacuum instrumentation.

  15. Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

    2011-06-15

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of 'white noise' fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the 'ground state' energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

  16. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum

  17. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  18. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  19. Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose - acid yield and conversion of components

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    Corn stover was fermented with a mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms to form simple (C2-C6), volatile organic acids. Alkaline pretreatment allowed a greater fermentation of the pectin and hemicellulose than of the cellulose and lignin, but all components were utilized. The percent fermentation of the soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 79.6, 74.1, 36.9, and 20.9%, respively. The yield of acid (as acetate) with respect to material fermented was 84%.

  20. Protein modification by fermentation: effect of fermentation on the potential allergenicity of pea.

    PubMed

    Barkholt, V; Jørgensen, P B; Sørensen, D; Bahrenscheer, J; Haikara, A; Lemola, E; Laitila, A; Frøkiaer, H

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v 1 were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were not reduced by the microorganisms. PMID:9826013

  1. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-01

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher d-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our data thus indicate that the microbial community structure and dynamics play an important role in the biochemistry of the fermentation of the beverage. We envisage that combined molecular and biochemical analyses like in our study will provide valuable insights for better understanding the role of the microbial community for the beneficial properties of the beverage. PMID:26796581

  2. Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Carere, Carlo R.; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering. PMID:19325807

  3. 27 CFR 25.55 - Formulas for fermented products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for fermented... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.55 Formulas for fermented products. (a) For what fermented products must a formula be filed? You must file a formula...

  4. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  5. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use of fermented ammoniated condensed whey and equivalent crude protein from all other added forms of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. 573.450... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product...

  6. 21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use of fermented ammoniated condensed whey and equivalent crude protein from all other added forms of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. 573.450... ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product...

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  8. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation... for natural wine except that the alcohol content after complete fermentation or complete...

  9. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation... for natural wine except that the alcohol content after complete fermentation or complete...

  10. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before...

  11. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  12. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  13. System for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2016-04-26

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  14. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  15. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  16. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoyong; Xiu, Shixin; Wang, Jimei; Shen, Zhengchao

    2006-11-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters.

  17. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time which demonstrates that the pump used was in fact adequate for this application.

  18. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

  19. Vacuum arc plasma mass separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Lebedev, N. V.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Chernikch, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The propagation of a metal plasma flow in a transport system with a curvilinear magnetic field was studied experimentally. The flow was generated by a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a composite (W+Fe) cathode. The ion energy measurements at the transport system output showed that all ion components were accelerated up to equal energies per charge unit, about 150 eV and 320 eV in the outer and inner areas of the curved plasma flow, respectively. The spatial separation of the atoms of the cathode material was measured at the system output by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ions of the lighter element (Fe) were concentrated in the inner part of the cathodic plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (W) was substantially shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The maximum mass separation efficiency reached 45, the effective value being 7.7. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for the separation of the heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

  20. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  1. Apparatus For Metal/Inert-Gas Welding In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    Metal/inert-gas welding-torch assembly operates in vacuum. Plasma generated in interior chamber and focused onto workpiece in vacuum. Pinch rollers feed wire to weld puddle. Controlled flow of plasma reduces dispersal in vacuum, preventing extinction.

  2. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  3. O.H. Module Vacuum Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    McGivern, Paul; /Fermilab

    1987-12-31

    In order to move the 800 lb. copper plates that make up the O.H. modules a vacuum lifting device has been made that will lift the plates safely. The purpose of this report is to provide documentation for the structural integrity of the system and to make sure that it passes all of the safety requirements that have been established for a system of this nature. The vacuum system is composed of a PIAB model M125 vacuum pump that has the pumping capacity of 27 in. Hg. This pump will produce vacuum for three 8 1/2 in. diameter suction cups or pads. A pressure gauge is fixed on the unit to allow the operator to continually monitor the pressure during all lifts. An additional safety feature is a mechanical vacuum monitoring device that is set to emit a shrill tone if the system vacuum falls below 24 in. Hg. A 'bleed' valve fixed on the unit will be used to let the system go to atmospheric pressure once the lift is complete. A 3 psi. check valve and a vacuum reserve of 384 in. is used to insure that the device will not just drop the object if the pump fails. A schematic for the pumping system is given in Figure 1.

  4. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Ga Yeon

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  5. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ga Yeon; Ha, Bae Jin

    2011-12-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  6. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D.; Grohmann, Karel; Wyman, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  7. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512)

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1991-01-16

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  9. Fermentation of xylulose to ethanol using xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a survey of 35 organisms, predominantly yeasts, about 40% were capable of fermenting xylulose to ethanol. Two species, Candida tropicalis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, did so at good rates and without an initial lag. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that fermented glucose rapidly fermented xylulose at a slower rate. Ten yeasts and three strains of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were weak or negative for xylulose, even though they fermented glucose under the conditions employed. C. tropicalis was able to form 1.0 M ethanol from 1.0 M xylose if the fermentation broth was recycled over immobilized xylose isomerase.

  10. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  11. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  12. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  13. Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows

    SciTech Connect

    Hall Crannell

    2011-02-01

    Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

  14. Behavior of refractory materials in vacuum ladles

    SciTech Connect

    Haile, O.; Lauri, H.

    1998-12-31

    The use of vacuum treatment has strongly increased during the last decade the main purposes being to lower gas contents (H, N), to improve steel cleanliness and to achieve ultra low carbon contents. Tank degasing, DH, RH and RH-OB degassers are the main techniques for modern vacuum treatment. The purpose of this work was to study the behavior of refractory materials in vacuum ladles and vessels. Earlier common materials like silica, shamotte and alumina bricks have been replaced by high alumina and basic refractory materials, doloma and magnesia as well as spinel type refractories. Monolithic lining instead of bricks has become common practice for ladles.

  15. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  16. Transient Molecular Transfer During Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford L.

    2011-01-01

    A common question in contamination budgeting involves the loss of collected volatiles during ambient I&T activity under vacuum and the resultant cross-contamination from outgassing. (1) How much of the material collected under ambient conditions evaporates under vacuum? (2) Why do pristine surfaces sometimes show increased molecular contamination after vacuum bakeout? (3) How much of the collected molecular contamination is transient (i.e. migratory) and how much is permanent? Measuring the transient deposition may be accomplished using a thermally passive QCM

  17. Vacuum control subsystem for the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, J.R.; Chapman, L.J.

    1981-06-01

    The CAMAC 170 module and CIA crate provide a convenient, cost effective method of interfacing any system requiring a large number of simple devices to be multiplexed into the Accelerator Control System. The system is ideal for relatively slowly changing systems where ten bit analog to digital conversions are sufficiently accurate. Together with vacuum interface CIA cards and prom-based software resident in the 170, this system is used to provide intelligent local monitoring and control for the Tevatron vacuum subsystems. Although not implemented in the vacuum interface, digital to analog converters could be included on the plug in modules as well, providing a total digital and analog multiplexing scheme. 2 refs.

  18. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  19. CULTURE MEDIA DESIGN FOR FERMENTATION BIOPROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target products for fermentation processes vary from whole cells to extracellular secondary metabolites. For all these processes, appropriate nutritional environments must be created and maintained to ensure optimized yields and product quality. Culture media optimization is a critical step in fer...

  20. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Plasmid fermentation process for DNA immunization applications.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2014-01-01

    Plasmid DNA for immunization applications must be of the highest purity and quality. The ability of downstream purification to efficiently produce a pure final product is directly influenced by the performance of the upstream fermentation process. While several clinical manufacturing facilities already have validated fermentation processes in place to manufacture plasmid DNA for use in humans, a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale fermentation process can be valuable for in-house production of plasmid DNA for use in animal efficacy studies. This chapter describes a simple fed-batch fermentation process for producing bacterial cell paste enriched with high-quality plasmid DNA. A constant feeding strategy results in a medium cell density culture with continuously increasing plasmid amplification towards the end of the process. Cell banking and seed culture preparation protocols, which can dramatically influence final product yield and quality, are also described. These protocols are suitable for production of research-grade plasmid DNA at the 100 mg-to-1.5 g scale from a typical 10 L laboratory benchtop fermentor. PMID:24715290

  2. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  3. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ. PMID:24751382

  4. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  5. Fermentation process for production of Xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  6. Fermentation process for production of xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  7. New fermentation route cuts energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-08

    Alcon Biotechnology has built a containerized continuous-fermentation demonstration unit and claims a steam consumption of under 20 lb/gallon of alcohol. Crawford and Russell (Stamford, Conn.) is offering this new power-alcohol technology in the U.S. which is designed for a range of feeds including cane and beet sugar juice, molasses and cereal grains.

  8. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  9. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  10. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  11. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  12. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António César Silva; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

    2014-07-16

    This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale. PMID:24976138

  13. RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND GLYCEROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in dec...

  14. Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

  15. FERMENTED BEVERAGES OF PRE- AND PROTOHISTORIC CHINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery from the early Neolithic village of Jlahu in Henon province have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as the seventh millennium BC. This drink paved the way for unique grain beverag...

  16. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. PMID:22784965

  17. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  18. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

  19. Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-08-01

    Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González-Díaz

  20. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  1. Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2011-09-01

    Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-μm size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage requirements.

  2. Dust in Accelerator Vacuum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Darren R. C.

    1997-05-01

    Many accelerators of electron beams are susceptible to persistent beam lifetime disruptions, with correspondingly reduced performance. One distinguishes between three prevailing explanations of these disruptions: trapping of positive atomic ions in the negatively charged beam (2) trapping of small highly positively ionised micro-objects (``dust'') in the negatively charged beam (3) disruptions due to stray magnetic objects trapped in the magnetic field of undulators. The lifetime disruption of storage rings that employ ion-getter pump systems, such as HERA-e, PETRA, DORIS, TRISTAN etc., are attributed by most researchers to explanation (2), the trapped dust hypothesis. Systematic experimental studies of HERA, PETRA and DORIS reinforce the suspicion that specifically this type of pump system is the culprit. In contrast, machines operating with non-evaporative getter pumps -- such as LEP and ESRF -- do not display such lifetime disruptions at comparable beam current and energy. Although the extensive observations of beam lifetime disruptions in a number of accelerators are well described by the trapped dust hypothesis (as briefly summarised in this report), the formation or liberation of dust particles within the complicated environment of the ion-getter pump chamber is poorly understood. Relatively few direct observations of the processes within these pumps systems are available, whereas many observations of pump configurations and operating conditions conducive to the onset of beam lifetime disruptions have been performed, in particular with HERA, PETRA and DORIS. Models of the complicated interactions between electrons, ions, photons, metallic surfaces, magnetic fields, electric fields and arcs that might explain dust formation in ion-getter pump systems or the liberation of dust-like material from the surfaces of such pump systems are reviewed. Mechanisms for the passage of these particles from the pump chamber into the vacuum chamber are also examined.

  3. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Stewart, G G

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decrease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures. PMID:3278685

  4. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the hygienization for the food manufacture industry. PMID:16793107

  5. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  6. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  7. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Cosmic vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, Artur D.

    2001-11-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered.

  8. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, Andy

    2012-10-09

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  9. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  10. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  11. Vacuum structure and the arrow of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2012-12-01

    We find ourselves in an extended era of entropy production. Unlike most other observations, the arrow of time is usually regarded as a constraint on initial conditions. I argue, however, that it primarily constrains the vacuum structure of the theory. I exhibit simple scalar field potentials in which low-entropy initial conditions are not necessary, or not sufficient, for an arrow of time to arise. In particular, in some models an arrow of time obtains even if the initial vacuum has arbitrarily large entropy. In such examples, the dynamical resolution of the arrow of time problem arises from properties of the vacuum structure similar to those that allow the string landscape to solve the cosmological constant problem without producing an empty universe, particularly its high dimensionality and the large difference in vacuum energy between neighboring vacua.

  12. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  13. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  14. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

  15. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  16. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate. Values of efficiency of microbial growth were greater in fermenters compared with sheep for 70:30 diets, but they were lower for 30:70 diets. Differences between fermentation in sheep and fermenters can be mainly attributed to the lack of absorption in fermenters, differences in solid retention time, and compartmentalization in the Rusitec system. In general, the Rusitec system simulated more closely the in vivo fermentation of high-forage diets compared with high-concentrate diets. PMID:20655438

  17. Reliable vacuum system cuts steam requirements 50%

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    In choosing a new high-vacuum system for fractional distillation, Polarome Manufacturing Company, New York, NY and Newark, NJ, a producer of high-quality flavor and fragrance chemicals, considered reliability and performance and steam consumption to be the most important factors. Distillation is carried out under vacuum to minimize thermal degradation. For stable operation, the vacuum system for the distillation column has to be ultra-reliable, and has to be able to go on-line quickly. Fluctuations in vacuum affect operating temperature and fractionation and cause deterioration of the product quality. Polarome's process requires a gas removal rate from the distillation column of 7.5 lg/hr of air plus 7.5 lb/hr of condensible vapors at 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure at 105/sup 0/F. Polarome chose a combination ejector/liquid ring pump system that combines the two distinctly different types of equipment to improve high-vacuum efficiency. The unit requires only 400 lb/hr of motive steam at 125 psig, and the liquid ring pump only draws 5.7 brake hp. Polarome purchased two virtually identical four-stage systems, each composed of two ejector stages, a shell-and-tube condenser, and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The fully packaged systems were delivered skid-mounted, ready to pipe and operate. Polarome found a number of advantages with their combined system. Steam savings are considerable - up to 50% over a conventional ejector system - because the liquid-ring pump is substituted for the less efficient final two ejector stages. In Polarome's vacuum range of 0.5 mm Hg, this was considered the most efficient way of drawing vacuum, with lowest investment and operating costs for the greatest capacity.

  18. Vacuum spacetimes that admit no maximal slice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Donald M.

    1986-09-01

    Every closed three-manifold occurs as a spacelike hypersurface of a vacuum spacetime. For most of these three-manifolds, however, the vacuum spacetimes that contain them have no maximal slice. For asymptotically flat manifolds there are no restrictions on which three-manifolds can occur obeying the local energy conditions ρ>=(JaJa)1/2, and the spacetimes that contain them in most cases have no maximal slice.

  19. Physical vacuum properties and internal space dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, M. V.; Pushkin, A. V.

    2005-10-01

    The paper addresses matrix spaces, whose properties and dynamics are determined by Dirac matrices in Riemannian spaces of different dimension and signature. Among all Dirac matrix systems there are such ones, which nontrivial scalar, vector or other tensors cannot be made up from. These Dirac matrix systems are associated with the vacuum state of the matrix space. The simplest vacuum system realization can be ensured using the orthonormal basis in the internal matrix space. This vacuum system realization, however, is not unique. The case of 7-dimensional Riemannian space of signature 7(-) is considered in detail. In this case two basically different vacuum system realizations are possible: (1) with using the orthonormal basis; (2) with using the oblique-angled basis, whose base vectors coincide with the simple roots of the Lie algebra E 8. Considerations are presented, from which it follows that the least-dimen-si-on space bearing on physics is the Riemannian 11-dimensional space of signature 1(-)& 10(+). The considerations consist in the condition of maximum vacuum energy density and vacuum fluctuation energy density.

  20. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  1. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry. PMID:20863273

  2. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  5. 7 CFR 305.29 - Vacuum heat treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum heat treatment schedule. 305.29 Section 305.29... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.29 Vacuum heat treatment... vacuum at 8 hours. Maintain the vacuum until the end of the treatment. Gradually increase the...

  6. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST... relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must— (1) Open at an external pressure of not......

  7. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  8. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy duty industrial vacuum cleaner. The vacuum cleaner shall be of a type that has a collector...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  10. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum…

  11. Superconducting cyclotron and its vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, A.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    A large superconducting cyclotron is under construction at this Centre and will be used to accelerate heavy ion beams to energy up to 80 MeV/A for light heavy ions and about 10 MeV/A for medium mass heavy ions. The vacuum system for this accelerator has several different aspects. The main acceleration chamber will be evacuated to a level of about 10-7 torr using both turbo molecular pumps and specially designed cryopanels. The surfaces exposed to this 'vacuum' are mostly made of OFE copper. The cryogenic transfer lines, to cool the cryopanels, are of several meters in length and they pass through RF resonators extending below the magnet. The cryostat that will house the superconducting coils has an annular vacuum chamber, which is evacuated to a level of approximately 10-5 torr using a turbo molecular pump. Cryopumping action starts once the coils are cooled to low temperatures. A differential pumping is provided below the RF liner that encloses the pole tip of the main magnet. The space that is pumped in this case contains epoxy-potted trim coils wound around the pole tips. Crucial interlocks are provided between the differential vacuum and the acceleration chamber vacuum to avoid distortion of the RF liner, which is made of thin copper sheets. The other important vacuum system provides thermal insulation for the liquid helium transfer lines. In this paper a brief description of the superconducting cyclotron will be given. Details of various vacuum aspects of the accelerator and the logistics of their operation will be presented. Introduction of some of the improved equipment now available and improved techniques are also discussed.

  12. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schroën, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. PMID:26097113

  13. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk

    PubMed Central

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  14. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-11-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  15. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  16. Production of Mevalonic Acid by Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Gakuzo; Ando, Kunio; Kodama, Kenjiro; Arima, Kei

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to select microorganisms that produce substantial quantities of mevalonic acid and to develop an economic fermentation process. To screen for mevalonic acid-producing microorganisms, it was necessary to improve the method for the quantitative determination of this acid. The biological assay was modified by shortening the incubation time and simplifying the procedure. The principle of the assay is based on the essential mevalonic acid requirement of the organism Lactobacillus heterohiochii for growth. Screening was carried out by selecting high mevalonic acid-producing organisms from various type cultures. Endomycopsis fibuliger was chosen for medium development studies, and 939 μg of mevalonic acid per ml was produced in the culture filtrate after modifications of medium and fermentation conditions. PMID:5664126

  17. Influence of cobalt on fermentative methylation.

    PubMed

    Claridge, C A; Rossomano, V Z; Buono, N S; Gourevitch, A; Lein, J

    1966-03-01

    Streptomyces rishiriensis produces at least five closely related antibiotics. Strain selection yielded a culture producing only the most active component, coumermycin A. Hydrolysis of this antibiotic by barium hydroxide yielded both 5-methyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, which could be separated by paper chromatography. Coumermycin A was thus shown to be two fractions, designated A(1) and A(2) depending upon the nature of the pyrrole carboxylic acid portion. The addition of cobalt to the fermentation medium at a level as low as 0.01 mug/ml shifted the fermentation exclusively to the production of coumermycin A(1). Other ions were ineffective, except nickel, whose activity could be explained by the presence of contaminating cobalt. PMID:5959861

  18. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  19. Enzyme conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    Saccharification studies indicated the suitability of Trichoderma viride 253 crude enzyme preparation as a promising agent for saccharifying sugarcane baggase hemicellulose, treated ..cap alpha..-cellulose, and alkali-treated bagasse. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for the fermentative production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and single cell protein (SCP) by T. viride 253 can be outlined as follows: (a) Production of extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases in a forced aeration-stirred tank fermentor using crude bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium. (b) Treatment of the remaining biodegraded bagasse with NaOH. (c) Refermentation in static culture of bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium for production of SCP material. The yeast, Pachysolen tannophilus, is capable of converting xylose and glucose to ethanol. Fermentation of the crude hydrolyzate from straw revealed low efficiencies of 40 to 60%. As anticipated, interfering substances are present in these crude substrates. Further procedures for optimization of both processing of hydrolyzates and fermentation are being investigated. Endoglucanase and cellobiase are inhibited by glucose, and cellobiose inhibits exoglucanase. A yeast (Candida wickerhamii) was isolated which ferments water soluble oligosaccharides. Because oligosaccharides (cellulodxtrins) are easier to prepare than glucose from cellulose, attention has been directed toward substrate preparation and organism characterization. While the literature contains several methods for preparing cellulodextrins, all the methods involve several steps or involve the removal or neutralization of strong acids. A simple method has been developed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-water for the hydrolysis. Analysis by TLC and HPLC shows a series of cellulodextrins (DP1-6) which are completely converted to ethanol by Candida wickerhamii in 4 to 5 days.

  20. Mathematical model of self-cycling fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Wincure, B.M.; Cooper, D.G.; Rey, A.

    1995-04-20

    This article presents a mathematical model for biomass, limiting substrate, and dissolved oxygen concentrations during stable operation of self-cycling fermentation (SCF). Laboratory experiments using the bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 and ethanol as the limiting substrate were performed to validate the model. A computer simulation developed from the model successfully matched experimental SCF intracycle trends and end-of-cycle results and, most importantly, settled into an unimposed periodicity characteristic of stable SCF operation.

  1. 3-Methylpseudouridine as a fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J B; Arison, B H

    1989-08-01

    3-Methylpseudouridine (beta isomer) has been identified in fermentation broths of Nocardia lactamdurans. It accumulates at quite high levels following the accumulation of extracellular uracil in strains exhibiting increased levels of de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. It is labeled by exogenous uracil, and appears to result from an irreversible modification of one of the components of the elevated pyrimidine pool. Its methyl group is labeled efficiently by [methyl-14C]methionine. PMID:2759907

  2. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation - a review.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gopal; Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Venkateshwar, M; Kumar, E Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus sps. Complex natural starchy raw materials used for production of lactic acid involve pretreatment by gelatinization and liquefaction followed by enzymatic saccharification to glucose and subsequent conversion of glucose to lactic acid by Lactobacillus fermentation. Direct conversion of starchy biomass to lactic acid by bacteria possessing both amylolytic and lactic acid producing character will eliminate the two step process to make it economical. Very few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria with high potential to produce lactic acid at high substrate concentrations are reported till date. In this view, a search has been made for various amylolytic LAB involved in production of lactic acid and utilization of cheaply available renewable agricultural starchy biomass. Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 is an efficient and widely studied amylolytic lactic acid producing bacteria capable of utilizing inexpensive carbon and nitrogen substrates with high lactic acid production efficiency. This is the first review on amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentations till date. PMID:17884326

  3. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

  4. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  5. Development of yeasts for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.; Yang, V.; Marks, J.; Amartey, S.; Kenealy, W.R.; Cho, J.Y.; Dahn, K.; Davis, B.P.

    1993-12-31

    Xylose is an abundant sugar in hardwoods and agricultural residues. Its use is essential for any economical conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. Only a few yeasts ferment xylose effectively. Our results show that the best strains are Candida shehatae ATCC 2984 and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Wild type strains of C. shehatae ATCC 22984 will produce 56 g/L of ethanol from xylose within 48 h in a fed batch fermentation. We have obtained improved mutants of P.stipitis by selecting for growth on L-xylose and L-arabinose. Mutant strains produce up to 55% more ethanol than the parent and exhibit higher specific fermentation rates. We have also developed an effective transformation system that enables the introduction and expression of heterologous DNA on integrating and autonomous vectors. The transformation system for P. stipitis is based on its URA3 gene as a selectable marker and an autonomous replication sequence (ARS) which we isolated from the parent. We are using integrating and ARS vectors to metabolically engineer P. stipitis by altering the regulation and expression of key enzymes. As model systems we are examining the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) that are present in limiting amounts or induced only under non-growth conditions.

  6. Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

  7. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

    2014-06-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

  8. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  9. Simultaneous saccharification: fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, D.J.; Emert, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, an ethanol production process has been developed which utilizes Trichoderma reesei cellulase and Candida brassicae IFO 1664 in the simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol. The direct production of ethanol from cellulose in an SSF process alleviates the problem of end production inhibition. Glucose does not accumulate in this system, but rather is fermented to ethanol immediately following saccharification. The result is an increase in yield of 25% or greater as compared with separate processes of saccharification and fermentation. An alternative organisms which might be used in place of yeasts in ethanol production processes is Zymomonas mobilis. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulases is 50/sup 0/C. Since this hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the SSF process, it is advantageous to utilize the most temperature tolerant ethanol producer available. Candida brassicae is currently the organism of choice due to its ability to produce ethanol efficiently at 40/sup 0/C. This investigation reports on the screening of Zymomonas strains and evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the most temperature tolerant strain in place of C. brassicae in SSF.

  10. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  11. Inactivation of Listeria on Frankfurter Surfaces Using UVC Radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters. Both Ultraviolet (254 nm) radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum (VSV) surface steam pasteurization are FDA approved technologies that can be u...

  12. USE OF VACUUM-STEAM-VACUUM AND IONIZING RADIATION TO ELIMINATE LISTERIA INNOCUA FROM HAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including ham. Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum (VSV) technology has been used successfully to eliminate the L. monocytogenes surrogate L. innocua from hot dogs. Ionizing radiation can eliminate L. monocytogenes fr...

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-09-04

    The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO annulus on high Tempered Water (TW) inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switch status, seismic trip status, and time-under-vacuum trips signals. The SCIC system will isolate the MCO and start an SCHe system purge if any of the following occur. (1) Isolation and purge from one of the SCHe ''isolation'' and ''purge'' buttons is manually initiated (administratively controlled). (2) The first vacuum cycle exceeds 8 hours at vacuum, or any subsequent vacuum cycle exceeds 4 hours at vacuum without re-pressurizing the MCO for a minimum of 4 hours. (This is referred to as the 8/4/4 requirement and provides thermal equilibrium within the MCO.) (3) MCO is below atmospheric pressure and the helium flow is below the minimum required to keep hydrogen less than 4% by volume. (When MCO pressure is below 12 torr there is insufficient hydrogen to exceed the 4% level and therefore no purge is required. A five minute time delay on low flow allows flow to be stopped in order to reach < 12 torr.) (4) The duration for the transition from above atmospheric pressure to vacuum (time to reach pressure below -11.7 psig [{approx}155 torr]) exceeds 5 minutes. (5) The duration for the transition from vacuum (below -11.1 psig [{approx}185 torr]) back to pressure [greater than 0.5 psig] exceeds 5 minutes. (6) MCO reaches a vacuum state (<0.5 psig) without an adequate, verified purge volume. (The MCO must be maintained above atmospheric pressure (approximately 0.5 psig) to prevent oxygen ingress unless a purge of adequate volume has been completed. During bulk water draining, the MCO must remain above atmospheric pressure.) (7) Seismic event of sufficient magnitude is detected. (Trip point is below the Uniform Building Code levels). Setpoint determination is required for trips C through H. Sensor error determination for additional safety-significant sensors used by the HVAC system or the SCHe system are also required.

  14. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups (“phylotypes”) may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  15. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  16. Alcoholic fermentation process control by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Morawski, J.; Dincer, A.K.; Ivie, K.

    1983-02-01

    In large-scale fermentation for energy production high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides an accurate method of monitoring the original oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as their hydrolysis to fermentable monosaccharides. Also measuring the saccharide and alcohol content of the fermentation vat allows overseeing of the process, providing the capability of allowing the fermentation to proceed to the most economical level prior to distillation. Another application for HPLC in a large-scale fermentation for energy is to analyze the stillage for its ethanol content during distillation, in order to observe the efficiency of the still. HPLC can separate and detect very low levels, (i.e., 100 parts per million), of ethanol to yield information concerning the distillation process. These capabilities indicate that HPLC is an extremely useful efficient instrument to the fermentation industries. (Refs. 2).

  17. Combined enzyme mediated fermentation of cellulose and xylose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lastick, S.M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1991-03-21

    A process for producing ethanol from mixed sugar streams from pretreated biomass comprising xylose and cellulose using enzymes to convert these substrates to fermentable sugars; selecting and isolating a yeast having the ability to ferment these sugars as they are being formed to produce ethanol; loading the substrates with the fermentation mix composed of yeast, enzymes and substrates; fermenting the loaded substrates and enzymes under anaerobic conditions at a pH range of between about 5.0 to about 6.0 and at a temperature range of between about 35{degrees}C to about 40{degrees}C until the fermentation is completed, the xylose being isomerized to xylulose, the cellulose being converted to glucose, and these sugars being concurrently converted to ethanol by yeast through means of the anaerobic fermentation; and recovering the ethanol.

  18. Does fermented milk possess antihypertensive effect in humans?

    PubMed

    Usinger, Lotte; Ibsen, Hans; Jensen, Lars T

    2009-06-01

    The putative antihypertensive effect of milk after fermentation by lactic bacteria has attracted attention over the past 20 years. Research on fermented milk and hypertension has mainly focused on the content of peptides with in-vitro angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor effect. However, fermented milk products contain several proteins, peptides and minerals, all with possible different antihypertensive modes of actions. The burden of cardiovascular events in industrialized countries caused by hypertension is considerable. Diet modifications are one way to lower blood pressure, and fermented milk could be a feasible way. In this review, interventional human studies of the possible antihypertensive effect of fermented milk are evaluated. The results are diverging, and the antihypertensive effect is still debatable. Additionally, present knowledge of bioavailability and in-vivo actions of the peptides in fermented milk are discussed. PMID:19387365

  19. Review: Diversity of Microorganisms in Global Fermented Foods and Beverages.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Jyoti P; Watanabe, Koichi; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2016-01-01

    Culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms naturally ferment majority of global fermented foods and beverages. Traditional food fermentation represents an extremely valuable cultural heritage in most regions, and harbors a huge genetic potential of valuable but hitherto undiscovered strains. Holistic approaches for identification and complete profiling of both culturalable and non-culturable microorganisms in global fermented foods are of interest to food microbiologists. The application of culture-independent technique has thrown new light on the diversity of a number of hitherto unknown and non-cultural microorganisms in naturally fermented foods. Functional bacterial groups ("phylotypes") may be reflected by their mRNA expression in a particular substrate and not by mere DNA-level detection. An attempt has been made to review the microbiology of some fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. PMID:27047484

  20. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  1. Treatment of vacuum residues in hydroconversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Mendoza, D. L.; Espinosa, J. O.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the use of a liquid homogeneous catalyst has been studied in reactivity vacuum residues by hydroconversion under different conditions. To cover a wide range of compositions, six (6) vacuum residues were selected from crude mixtures. Hydroconversion test were performed in batch reactor with hydrogen atmosphere at about 2000psi in a temperature range between 430 and 480°C. The results allowed to establish that the reactivity hydroconversion conditions about coke formation is higher in vacuum residues with higher content of resins and asphaltenes. The reaction conditions promote distillate formation, however, with increasing stringency conditions, the distillate yield decreases due to distillate transformation into temperature range 430 and 460°C compared to the tests performed without catalyst demonstrating that the use of homogeneous catalyst is an alternative to treating vacuum residues and results are satisfactory in the conversion processes. Finally, predictive expressions have been developed in the formation of products depending on the conditions of temperature and physicochemical properties of processed vacuum residue.

  2. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  3. Vacuum-assisted delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, R W

    2004-09-01

    In 1992, the number of vacuum deliveries overtook the number of forceps deliveries performed in the USA. Most clinical experiences report that the vacuum is safe for both the fetus and the mother when used properly. Correct cup placement on the fetal head and knowing when to abandon the procedure, appear to be key components to conducting a safe and successful vacuum delivery. However, the focus and training that has been afforded forceps deliveries in the past has not been given to the vacuum, because of its perceived 'ease of use'. This apparent lack of understanding has led to increasing numbers of complications associated with its use. In addition, because forceps are being taught less in training programs, fewer and fewer physicians are being trained in the essential skills of operative vaginal delivery. This review is intended to emphasize the correct techniques and skills of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery in an attempt to increase the success and decrease the complications associated with its use. PMID:15590444

  4. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  5. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  6. Influence of fermentation with Hanseniaspora sp. yeast on the volatile profile of fermented apple.

    PubMed

    de Arruda Moura Pietrowski, Giovana; dos Santos, Caroline Mongruel Eleutério; Sauer, Elenise; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the aromatic profile of fermented apple, obtained by the action of strains of Hanseniaspora uvarum and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii using two methods of analysis: static headspace and solid phase microextraction (SPME). The results obtained confirm that the strains of the Hanseniaspora genus contributed positively to the aroma profile of fermented apple, producing considerable amounts of esters and higher alcohols. In comparing the methods of analysis of aromatic compounds using headspace and SPME, it was verified that by using the headspace method it was possible to capture amounts that were up to 16 times greater than the value of the volatile compounds obtained by SPME. However, when using SPME, 5 times more compounds were obtained than when using headspace. Even so, in the conditions of this study it was noted that headspace was more efficient in the extraction of the aromatics of fermented apple when taking into consideration the cost effectiveness of both methods. PMID:22958203

  7. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Calabrò, V; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

    2011-08-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22g L(-1) were found from whey containing ca. 44g L(-1) lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h. The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes. PMID:21632239

  8. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  9. Mechanical design of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Calderon, M.O.; Thomas, S.R.; Garner, D.R.

    1981-09-24

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) vacuum system uses most of the vacuum system from the original TMX and substantially increases its capabilities. The vacuum system provides the main structure for the experimental apparatus, as well as providing and maintaining the vacuum environment. The vacuum vessel provides the structure supporting all magnets, as they are contained inside the vacuum vessel, all of the neutral-beam injectors, and the various diagnostics. The vessel provides the main vacuum enclosure and the various access ports required by the magnet system, injector system, internal vacuum system, and plasma diagnostics. The vacuum environment is created and maintained by two systems, the external vacuum system and the internal vacuum system. The external system consists of mechanical pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps, and creates a vacuum inside the vessel down to a minimum pressure of 10/sup -6/ Torr. The internal vacuum system further reduces the pressure into the 10/sup -8/ Torr range and provides the fast pumping required to handle the excess gas from the neutral-beam injector system during a plasma shot. The internal vacuum system consists of titanium sublimators and liquid nitrogen (LN) liners that separate the vacuum vessel into various pumping regions.

  10. Shuidouchi (Fermented Soybean) Fermented in Different Vessels Attenuates HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury.

    PubMed

    Suo, Huayi; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Cun; Zhao, Xin; Kan, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Shuidouchi (Natto) is a fermented soy product showing in vivo gastric injury preventive effects. The treatment effects of Shuidouchi fermented in different vessels on HCl/ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury mice through their antioxidant effect was determined. Shuidouchi contained isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), and GVFS (glass vessel fermented Shuidouchi) had the highest isoflavone levels among Shuidouchi samples fermented in different vessels. After treatment with GVFS, the gastric mucosal injury was reduced as compared to the control mice. The gastric secretion volume (0.47 mL) and pH of gastric juice (3.1) of GVFS treated gastric mucosal injury mice were close to those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. Shuidouchi could decrease serum motilin (MTL), gastrin (Gas) level and increase somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) level, and GVFS showed the strongest effects. GVFS showed lower IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokine levels than other vessel fermented Shuidouchi samples, and these levels were higher than those of ranitidine-treated mice and normal mice. GVFS also had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide (NO) and malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in gastric tissues than other Shuidouchi samples. Shuidouchi could raise IκB-α, EGF, EGFR, nNOS, eNOS, Mn-SOD, Gu/Zn-SOD, CAT mRNA expressions and reduce NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS expressions as compared to the control mice. GVFS showed the best treatment effects for gastric mucosal injuries, suggesting that glass vessels could be used for Shuidouchi fermentation in functional food manufacturing. PMID:26540032

  11. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

    2008-08-11

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

  12. In-vacuum Faraday isolation remote tuning.

    PubMed

    Accadia, T; Acernese, F; Antonucci, F; Aoudia, S; Arun, K G; Astone, P; Ballardin, G; Barone, F; Barsuglia, M; Bauer, Th S; Beker, M G; Bigotta, S; Birindelli, S; Bitossi, M; Bizouard, M A; Blom, M; Boccara, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bosi, L; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Brillet, A; Brisson; Budzynski, R; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buskulic, D; Cagnoli, G; Calloni, E; Campagna, E; Canuel, B; Carbognani, F; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cesarini, E; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chincarini, A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Colacino, C N; Colas, J; Colla, A; Colombini, M; Corda, C; Corsi, A; Coulon, J-P; Cuoco, E; D'Antonio, S; Dari, A; Dattilo, V; Davier, M; Day, R; De Rosa, R; del Prete, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Emilio, M Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A; Dietz, A; Drago, M; Fafone, V; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J-D; Franc, J; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Freise, A; Gammaitoni, L; Garufi, F; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Giazotto, A; Gouaty, R; Granata, M; Greverie, C; Guidi, G M; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hild, S; Huet, D; Jaranowski, P; Kowalska, I; Królak, A; La Penna, P; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Li, T G F; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Losurdo, G; Mackowski, J M; Majorana, E; Man, N; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Marque, J; Martelli, F; Masserot, A; Michel, C; Milano, L; Minenkov, Y; Mohan, M; Moreau, J; Morgado, N; Morgia, A; Mosca, S; Moscatelli, V; Mours, B; Neri, I; Nocera, F; Pagliaroli, G; Palladino, L; Palomba, C; Paoletti, F; Pardi, S; Parisi, M; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Persichetti, G; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pietka, M; Pinard, L; Poggiani, R; Prato, M; Prodi, G A; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Rabaste, O; Rabeling, D S; Rapagnani, P; Re, V; Regimbau, T; Ricci, F; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Romano, R; Rosińska, D; Ruggi, P; Sassolas, B; Sentenac, D; Sturani, R; Swinkels, B; Toncelli, A; Tonelli, M; Tournefier, E; Travasso, F; Trummer, J; Vajentei, G; van den Brand, J F J; van der Putten, S; Vavoulidis, M; Vedovato, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinet, J-Y; Vocca, H; Was, M; Yvert, M

    2010-09-01

    In-vacuum Faraday isolators (FIs) are used in gravitational wave interferometers to prevent the disturbance caused by light reflected back to the input port from the interferometer itself. The efficiency of the optical isolation is becoming more critical with the increase of laser input power. An in-vacuum FI, used in a gravitational wave experiment (Virgo), has a 20 mm clear aperture and is illuminated by an almost 20 W incoming beam, having a diameter of about 5 mm. When going in vacuum at 10(-6) mbar, a degradation of the isolation exceeding 10 dB was observed. A remotely controlled system using a motorized lambda=2 waveplate inserted between the first polarizer and the Faraday rotator has proven its capability to restore the optical isolation to a value close to the one set up in air. PMID:20842804

  13. Sequestering the standard model vacuum energy.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    We propose a very simple reformulation of general relativity, which completely sequesters from gravity all of the vacuum energy from a matter sector, including all loop corrections and renders all contributions from phase transitions automatically small. The idea is to make the dimensional parameters in the matter sector functionals of the 4-volume element of the Universe. For them to be nonzero, the Universe should be finite in spacetime. If this matter is the standard model of particle physics, our mechanism prevents any of its vacuum energy, classical or quantum, from sourcing the curvature of the Universe. The mechanism is consistent with the large hierarchy between the Planck scale, electroweak scale, and curvature scale, and early Universe cosmology, including inflation. Consequences of our proposal are that the vacuum curvature of an old and large universe is not zero, but very small, that w(DE) ≃ -1 is a transient, and that the Universe will collapse in the future. PMID:24655240

  14. Topological vacuum bubbles by anyon braiding

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cheolhee; Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H.-S.

    2016-01-01

    According to a basic rule of fermionic and bosonic many-body physics, known as the linked cluster theorem, physical observables are not affected by vacuum bubbles, which represent virtual particles created from vacuum and self-annihilating without interacting with real particles. Here we show that this conventional knowledge must be revised for anyons, quasiparticles that obey fractional exchange statistics intermediate between fermions and bosons. We find that a certain class of vacuum bubbles of Abelian anyons does affect physical observables. They represent virtually excited anyons that wind around real anyonic excitations. These topological bubbles result in a temperature-dependent phase shift of Fabry–Perot interference patterns in the fractional quantum Hall regime accessible in current experiments, thus providing a tool for direct and unambiguous observation of elusive fractional statistics. PMID:27030442

  15. Venturi vacuum systems for hypobaric chamber operations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R; Swaby, G; Sutton, T; Fife, C; Powell, M; Butler, B D

    1997-11-01

    Physiological studies of the effects of high altitude on man often require the use of a hypobaric chamber to simulate the reduced ambient pressures. Typical "altitude" chambers in use today require complex mechanical vacuum systems to evacuate the chamber air, either directly or via reservoir system. Use of these pumps adds to the cost of both chamber procurement and maintenance, and service of these pumps requires trained support personnel and regular upkeep. In this report we describe use of venturi vacuum pumps to perform the function of mechanical vacuum pumps for human and experimental altitude chamber operations. Advantages of the venturi pumps include their relatively low procurement cost, small size and light weight, ease of installation and plumbing, lack of moving parts, and independence from electrical power sources, fossil fuels and lubricants. Conversion of three hyperbaric chambers to combined hyper/hypobaric use is described. PMID:9383507

  16. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  17. Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, Felix; Gies, Holger; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt

    2015-10-01

    Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of nonlinear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generation of FEL/high-field laser facilities.

  18. Gigawatt power microwave devices and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, J.

    2008-05-01

    Low pressure breakdown is a major concern for developing high power microwave (HPM) devices, especially when going to more compact designs and to extreme powers, typically cm-size gaps in the tube and GW level output. In connection with the vacuum quality, we will consider the general aspects which may contribute to limit the operation of a HPM device: high voltage arcing, electrode erosion and degassing, rf breakdown in the cavities, surface breakdown at the windows, repetition rate. Vacuum measurement and electromagnetic compatibility with vacuum equipment will be treated too. As an example, we will consider in details the development of a compact magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) operating successfully at the Gigawatt level in the S-band.

  19. Topological vacuum bubbles by anyon braiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Cheolhee; Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H.-S.

    2016-03-01

    According to a basic rule of fermionic and bosonic many-body physics, known as the linked cluster theorem, physical observables are not affected by vacuum bubbles, which represent virtual particles created from vacuum and self-annihilating without interacting with real particles. Here we show that this conventional knowledge must be revised for anyons, quasiparticles that obey fractional exchange statistics intermediate between fermions and bosons. We find that a certain class of vacuum bubbles of Abelian anyons does affect physical observables. They represent virtually excited anyons that wind around real anyonic excitations. These topological bubbles result in a temperature-dependent phase shift of Fabry-Perot interference patterns in the fractional quantum Hall regime accessible in current experiments, thus providing a tool for direct and unambiguous observation of elusive fractional statistics.

  20. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-07-22

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  1. A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2007-06-20

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1× 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEG’s [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

  2. APT/LEDA RFQ vacuum pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S., LLNL

    1997-07-21

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a vacuum pumping system for the ATP/LEDA (Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac. Resulted from the lost proton beam, gas streaming from the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) and out-gassing from the surfaces of the RFQ cavity and vacuum plumbing, the total gas load will be on the order of 7.2 x 10{sup -4} Torr-liters/sec, consisting mainly of hydrogen. The system is designed to pump on a continual basis with redundancy to ensure that the minimal operating vacuum level of 1 x 10{sup -6} Torr is maintained even under abnormal conditions. Details of the design, performance analysis and the preliminary test results of the cryogenic pumps are presented.

  3. Holographic Ricci dark energy as running vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Paxy; Mathew, Titus K.

    2016-04-01

    Holographic Ricci dark energy (DE) that has been proposed ago has faced problems of future singularity. In the present work, we consider the Ricci DE with an additive constant in its density as running vacuum energy. We have analytically solved the Friedmann equations and also the role played by the general conservation law followed by the cosmic components together. We have shown that the running vacuum energy status of the Ricci DE helps to remove the possible future singularity in the model. The additive constant in the density of the running vacuum played an important role, such that, without that, the model predicts either eternal deceleration or eternal acceleration. But along with the additive constant, equivalent to a cosmological constant, the model predicts a late time acceleration in the expansion of the universe, and in the far future of the evolution it tends to de Sitter universe.

  4. Topological vacuum bubbles by anyon braiding.

    PubMed

    Han, Cheolhee; Park, Jinhong; Gefen, Yuval; Sim, H-S

    2016-01-01

    According to a basic rule of fermionic and bosonic many-body physics, known as the linked cluster theorem, physical observables are not affected by vacuum bubbles, which represent virtual particles created from vacuum and self-annihilating without interacting with real particles. Here we show that this conventional knowledge must be revised for anyons, quasiparticles that obey fractional exchange statistics intermediate between fermions and bosons. We find that a certain class of vacuum bubbles of Abelian anyons does affect physical observables. They represent virtually excited anyons that wind around real anyonic excitations. These topological bubbles result in a temperature-dependent phase shift of Fabry-Perot interference patterns in the fractional quantum Hall regime accessible in current experiments, thus providing a tool for direct and unambiguous observation of elusive fractional statistics. PMID:27030442

  5. Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

  6. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    PubMed

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential. PMID:19565190

  7. Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Mills, David A.; Johannsen, Eric A.; Cocolin, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to examine the yeast diversity present in botrytis-affected (“botrytized”) wine fermentations carried out at high (∼30°C) and ambient (∼20°C) temperatures. Fermentations at both temperatures possessed similar populations of Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida species. However, higher populations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser extent, Kluyveromyces species remaining long after the fermentation was dominated by Saccharomyces. In general, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of yeast ribosomal DNA or rRNA amplified from the fermentation samples correlated well with the plating data. The direct molecular methods also revealed a Hanseniaspora osmophila population not identified in the plating analysis. rRNA analysis also indicated a large population (>106 cells per ml) of a nonculturable Candida strain in the high-temperature fermentation. Monoculture analysis of the Candida isolate indicated an extreme fructophilic phenotype and correlated with an increased glucose/fructose ratio in fermentations containing higher populations of Candida. Analysis of wine fermentation microbial ecology by using both culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals the complexity of yeast interactions enriched during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:12324335

  8. Characterization of the microbial diversity in yacon spontaneous fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Reina, L. D.; Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Breidt, F.; Azcarate-Peril, M. A.; Medina, E.; Butz, N.V.

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) content of yacon makes this root an attractive alternative for the supplementation of a variety of food products. The preservation of yacon by fermentation has been proposed as an alternative to increase the probiotic content of the root concomitantly with its shelf life. Thus the fermented yacon could have significant functional content. The objective of this research was to characterize the biochemistry and microbiology of spontaneous yacon fermentation and define the viability of the proposed process. The biochemical analysis of spontaneous heterolactic fermentation of yacon showed a progressive drop in pH with increased lactic and acetic acids, and the production of mannitol during fermentation. The microbial ecology of yacon fermentation was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacterial cell counts revealed a dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) over yeasts, which were also present during fermentation. Results showed that the heterofermentative LAB were primarily Leuconostoc species, which dominated the fermentation. The fermentation of yacon by Leuconostoc spp. is thus presented as a viable method to achieve long term preservation of this root. PMID:25777679

  9. [Selection and study of potent lactose-fermenting yeasts].

    PubMed

    Golubev, V I; Golubev, N V

    2004-01-01

    Whey-fermenting Kluyveromyces cultures were revealed among 105 yeast strains assimilating lactose. Eighteen most potent strains isolated from milk products fermented galactose, sucrose, and raffinose, in addition to lactose. Many yeast strains fermented inulin. Most strains were resistant to cycloheximide and grew in medium containing glucose, NaCl, and ethanol at concentrations of up to 50, 11-12, and 10-12%, respectively (4 degrees C). Three strains had mycocinogenic activity. After fermentation of whey with selected yeast strains at 30 degrees C for 2-3 days, ethanol concentration was 4-5%. PMID:15283337

  10. Single zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Picataggio, Stephen K.; Finkelstein, Mark

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol.

  11. Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

    1998-12-01

    This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

  12. Thermodynamical aspects of running vacuum models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Basilakos, Spyros; Solà, Joan

    2016-04-01

    The thermal history of a large class of running vacuum models in which the effective cosmological term is described by a truncated power series of the Hubble rate, whose dominant term is Λ (H) ∝ H^{n+2}, is discussed in detail. Specifically, by assuming that the ultrarelativistic particles produced by the vacuum decay emerge into space-time in such a way that its energy density ρ _r ∝ T4, the temperature evolution law and the increasing entropy function are analytically calculated. For the whole class of vacuum models explored here we find that the primeval value of the comoving radiation entropy density (associated to effectively massless particles) starts from zero and evolves extremely fast until reaching a maximum near the end of the vacuum decay phase, where it saturates. The late-time conservation of the radiation entropy during the adiabatic FRW phase also guarantees that the whole class of running vacuum models predicts the same correct value of the present day entropy, S0 ˜ 10^{87}-10^{88} (in natural units), independently of the initial conditions. In addition, by assuming Gibbons-Hawking temperature as an initial condition, we find that the ratio between the late-time and primordial vacuum energy densities is in agreement with naive estimates from quantum field theory, namely, ρ _{Λ 0}/ρ _{Λ I} ˜ 10^{-123}. Such results are independent on the power n and suggests that the observed Universe may evolve smoothly between two extreme, unstable, non-singular de Sitter phases.

  13. Russian vacuum circuit breakers for electrical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Chaly, A.M.; Rakhovsky, V.I.; Chistjakov, S.P.

    1996-12-31

    Development of vacuum interrupters (VI) and vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) was started in the USSR under the guidance of V. Granovsky in the All-Union Electrotechnical Institute and then continued by his colleagues and scholars in different scientific and industrial establishments. They conducted a series of physical investigations of near-electrode vacuum arc areas growth dynamics with high spatial and temporal resolutions in magnetic fields of various configurations; investigations of vacuum break-down initialization mechanisms at constant and pulse voltages and of the electrical strength recovery dynamics for various parameters of the switched circuit; analysis of erosion of different metals, alloys and composite materials, the influence of their mechanical, electro- and thermo-physical properties on the dynamic and temperature stability of contact systems; studies of new features of switching based on synchronous switch-off; as well as developed highly reliable drives. All this resulted in contact systems design optimization and development of Russian VI and VCB for voltages up to 110 kV and switching currents up to 31.5 kA, and unique short-circuiting switches. At present vacuum contactors, compact VCB for switching currents up to 20 kA at 10 kV that weight less than 30 kg, and VCB for switching currents up to 31.5 kA at 6-110 kV widely used in electrical distribution networks are being produced in Russia. The total production output of vacuum contactors for the voltages up to 1200 V is about 1000 pieces per year, VCB for voltages up to 10 kV - about 6000 pieces/year and VCB for 35-110 kV - about 600 pieces/year. VCB are being mostly employed in rural and urban distribution networks, in transport, in the oil-gas, metallurgy and mining industries of Russia.

  14. Laser-surface impulse delivery in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Available experimental measurements of impulse delivery to solid surfaces in vacuum by pulsed laser radiation are presented and compared to predictions of simple theoretical models. The trend of impulse coupling coefficient measurements with increasing laser fluence is explained by three regimes of the laser-material interaction process for vacuum or very low pressure conditions. The results indicate that impulsive coupling measurements can be simply scaled over a wide range of laser wavelengths, pulse lengths and focal spot sizes and coupling coefficients can be predicted with fair accuracy if the effective laser-surface absorption coefficient is known.

  15. Manifestly Local Theory of Vacuum Energy Sequestering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio; Stefanyszyn, David; Zahariade, George

    2016-02-01

    We present a manifestly local, diffeomorphism invariant, and locally Poincaré invariant formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In this theory, quantum vacuum energy generated by matter loops is canceled by auxiliary fields. The auxiliary fields decouple from gravity almost completely. Their only residual effect is an a priori arbitrary, finite contribution to the curvature of the background geometry, which is radiatively stable. Its value is to be determined by a measurement, like the finite part of any radiatively stable UV-sensitive quantity in quantum field theory.

  16. Evaluation of Dry, Rough Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the testing and evaluation of thirteen dry rough vacuum pumps of various designs and from various manufacturers. Several types of rough vacuum pumps were evaluated, including scroll, roots, and diaphragm pumps. Tests included long term testing, speed curve generation, voltage variance, vibrations emissions and susceptibility, electromagnetic interference emissions and susceptibility, static leak rate, exhaust restriction, response/recovery time tests, and a contamination analysis for scroll pumps. Parameters were found for operation with helium, which often is not provided from the manufacturer

  17. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  18. MEANS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A VACUUM

    DOEpatents

    Otavka, M.A.

    1960-08-01

    A new method is given for starting the operation of evapor-ion vacuum pumps. Ordinarily this type of pump is started by inducing an electric field with the vacuum chamber; however, by placing such an electric field in the chamber at the outset, a glow discharge may be initiated which is harmful to the pump. The procedure consists of using a negative electric field during which time only gettering action takes place; subsequently when the field reverses after a sufficient reduction of the number of gaseous particles in the chamber both gettering and ionizing takes place.

  19. Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

    1995-07-01

    Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

  20. Very high-vacuum heat treatment facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1987-01-01

    A vacuum heat treatment facility, with hot zone dimensions of 12 x 19 x 19 cm, has been designed and constructed at a cost substantially below that of a commercial unit. The design incorporates efficient water cooling and a resistive heating element. A vacuum pressure of 1.5 x 10 to the -8th torr at room temperature has been obtained after baking. The temperature limit is approximately 1900 C. This limit results from the choice of niobium as the hot zone material.