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1

Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

2

Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

H.E. JOHNSON, R.J. MERRY, D.R. DAVIES, D.B. KELL, M.K. THEODOROU AND G.W. GRIFFITH. 2004. Aims: To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene bags as a convenient, flexible and cost-effective alternative to fixed volume glass vessels for lab-scale silage studies. Methods and Results: Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube

H. E. Johnson; R. J. Merry; D. R. Davies; D. B. Kell; M. K. Theodorou; G. W. Griffith

2005-01-01

3

Development of Continuous-Vacuum Fermentation/Fractional Distillation for the Small-Scale Production of High-Proof Ethanol. Annual Report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and eval...

J. L. Robinson J. R. Wright L. C. Chan

1983-01-01

4

Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation\\/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981November 30, 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure,

J. L. Robinson; J. R. Wright; L. C. Chan

1983-01-01

5

Isolation and Characterization of Pediocin NV 5 Producing Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 from Vacuum-Packed Fermented Meat Product.  

PubMed

A potentially novel antimicrobial compound producing Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 was isolated from vacuum-packed fermented meat product. This compound was found active against some species of Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Staphylococcus and Listeria, many of which are associated with food spoilage and food related health hazards. The strain was found to be a paired cocci which can utilize a broad range of carbohydrates and produce acid identical to the P. acidilactici and P. pentoseus. Since the antimicrobial agent was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but quite resistant to heat, it was identified as a bacteriocin and was designated as Pediocin NV 5. The molecular weight of the bacteriocin was 10.3 kDa and the bacterium possessed a 5 kbp plasmid responsible for bacteriocin production and also for vancomycin resistance phenotype. PMID:22282624

Mandal, Vivekananda; Sen, Sukanta Kumar; Mandal, Narayan Chandra

2011-01-26

6

Fermentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

2012-03-06

7

Development of continuous-vacuum fermentation/fractional distillation for the small-scale production of high-proof ethanol. Annual report, September 1, 1981-November 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

Continuous vacuum fermentation and continuous vacuum fractional distillation, COVFAD, is an experimental process that has been proposed for the small scale production of high proof ethanol. A lab-scale version of the COVFAD system was constructed and evaluated with respect to ethanol production and operating stability. Methods of controlling temperature, rate of feedstock addition in continuous operation, maintenance of system pressure, and interfacing the fermenter with the distillation unit are important considerations in the design of a reliable system. Temperature controllers were used to control the temperature of the fermenters (primary and secondary) and the re-boiler pot of the fractional distillation column. The fermenter distillate receiver was interfaced with the vacuum distillation system using an intermediate reservoir and a system of solenoid valves. A microprocessor control system was constructed around a personal computer (Sinclair ZX-81 or Timex 1000) and has been interfaced with the COVFAD System so that it can be operated with modular controllers or under microprocessor control. The operation of the COVFAD System has been evaluated with two feedstocks (glucose and blackstrap molasses) for the production of high proof ethanol (98 to 99%). The rate of ethanol productivity attained by this system was significantly lower than expected. Preliminary energy requirement studies suggest that additional design refinement will be needed to develop a system that economically produces high proof ethanol.

Robinson, J.L.; Wright, J.R.; Chan, L.C.

1983-03-01

8

Combined influence of fermentation and drying conditions on survival and metabolic activity of starter and probiotic cultures after low-temperature vacuum drying.  

PubMed

The influence of low temperature vacuum drying process parameters on the survival, metabolic activity and residual water content of three different bacterial strains (Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Bifidobacterium lactis) was investigated. Shelf temperature and chamber pressure were varied and optimized by response surface methodology with regard to survival and residual water content. It is shown that the survival rate after low temperature vacuum drying is comparable to that of freeze drying. Based on the optimization experiments the combined influence of fermentation pH and drying process parameters was studied for the most detrimental and the best process condition, respectively. The results show that interactions between process and fermentation conditions have to be taken in account and that these influences are highly strain specific. PMID:21723344

Bauer, S A W; Schneider, S; Behr, J; Kulozik, U; Foerst, P

2011-06-23

9

Improved fermentative alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26

10

Fermentative alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.

1982-11-16

11

Fermentative alcohol production  

DOEpatents

An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

1982-01-01

12

Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26

13

Feed component inhibition in ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition by secondary feed components can limit productivity and restrict process options for the production of ethanol by fermentation. New fermentation processes (such as vacuum or extractive fermentation), while selectively removing ethanol, can concentrate nonmetabolized feed components in the remaining broth. Stillage recycle to reduce stillage waste treatment results in buildup of nonmetabolized feed components. Continuous culture experiments are presented

B. L. Maiorella; H. W. Blanch; C. R. Wilke

1984-01-01

14

Fermented Vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

15

VACUUM TRAP  

DOEpatents

An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

Gordon, H.S.

1959-09-15

16

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

17

Sourdough Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentative biota of the majority of different sourdough types consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), most of which\\u000a belong to the genus Lactobacillus, and yeasts. The exploitation of these organisms emerging from a long history in sourdough fermentations forms an emerging\\u000a field for baking applications and design of added-value food. The deliberate use of functional traits within these bacteria

Rudi F. Vogel; Matthias A. Ehrmann

18

Fermentation industry  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews current literature on the fermentation industry. The reuse, recycling and recovery of by-products previously discarded as waste are mentioned, including a Swedish brewery that hopes to reduce discharge of pollutants and the production of single cell protein from a variety of fermentation wastes. The treatment of wastes to produce food substitutes and fertilizers is mentioned together with treatment methods used in distilleries, wineries and in the pharmaceutical industry. (87 References)

Irvine, R.L.

1980-06-01

19

Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2006-05-30

20

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

21

Ethanol production by bacterial fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to develop and optimize the process technology for the production of ethanol using the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. Specifically, the process and operating conditions will be studied to maximize the yield of ethanol. The experimental design is described using both batch and continuous cultures with glucose as the substrate. Separation methods, therefore, will be developed to remove the alcohol from the fermentation media to prevent the inhibitory effects of ethanol on Z. mobilis. Vacuum fermentation and solvent extraction can be used to separate the alcohol from the media. Kinetic data will be obtained from both the batch and continuous fermentors. The kinetic data can be correlated using mathematical models. Mathematical models for Z. mobilis will be developed for the effect of pH, temperature and nutrient composition on the specific growth rate. A model will also be developed to account for the possible product inhibition by ethanol. Dynamic tests will also be conducted on the continuous system to determine how fast the fermentation will respond to environmental changes. The simultaneous hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and fermentation of glucose to ethanol is one of the most exciting possibilities. A literature survey will be made to determine the compatibility of conducting the hydrolysis reaction along with the bacterial fermentation. The final objective will be to make an economic assessment of the process of producing ethanol using Z. mobilis.

King, F.G.

1985-01-01

22

Cellulose fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation of cellulose by microorganisms is accelerated by the presence of a small amount of 2-(chloromethyldithio)acetic acid (I). Bacteroides succinogenes amounted to 43.6% in the presence of 1 ..mu..g I as compared with 38.6% in the case of controls.

Singer, M.S.

1978-08-29

23

Fermentation Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)|

Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

1978-01-01

24

Fermented sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation processing of raw sausages controlled by metabolic activity of added microorganisms (starter cultures) has been known for several decades and is widespread in countries with developed meat industries. Its success is due to several factors, like rapid turnover, pleasant aroma and taste, and good safety record, to name just a few. The basic process is the bacterial breakdown

M. Roca; K. Incze

1990-01-01

25

Ruminal Fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

26

Vacuum Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let me say from the beginning that it was a pleasure to peruse this book and I recommend it to researchers and engineers from the field of Cryogenics, both as an introduction and for use in day-to-day work.There are many areas in pure science in which vacuum conditions are required for conducting an experiment, such as solid state physics at

L N Rozanov

2002-01-01

27

Recovery of 2,3Butanediol by Vacuum Membrane Distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum membrane distillation process using a microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was developed to concentrate 2,3-butanediol from model 2,3-butanediol solutions and fermentation broths. A 0.22-?m PTFE membrane passed water vapor while retaining 2,3-butanediol. Water flux through the membrane was 4 kg\\/m·h at 35°C and 12–14 kg\\/m·h at 55°C. Medium components, especially yeast extract and fermentation broth, reduced flux as compared

N. Qureshi; M. M. Meagher; R. W. Hutkins

1994-01-01

28

The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-10

29

INDUSTRIALLY RELEVANT FERMENTATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter was written on butanol production by fermentation. Butanol is an excellent fuel and has more calorific value than fuel ethanol. Butanol fermentation is an old process and is second in importance to ethanol. During World War I & II, butanol fermentation was commercial. After WWII, pro...

30

Dry anaerobic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of using high total-solids concentrations for anaerobic fermentations of manures and crop residues are discussed. Studies conducted on dry anaerobic fermentation of organic residues to methane are described. Moisture content, NHâ-N concentration, and chloride concentration were tested. Anaerobic fermentations occurred in solids concentrations in excess of 20%. At initial concentrations of 40% or less, the reaction will be

W. J. Wujcik; W. J. Jewell

1980-01-01

31

Fermentation analysis by clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

To supervise, stabilize and optimize antibiotic fermentations in the industrial scale expert systems are presently worked out. For the knowledge acquisition various classifiers are tested using a set of 27 nourseothricin fermentation runs. Two methods are applied: optimal clustering by help of minimum variance criterion and hierarchical clustering by help of dendrograms. The fermentations are classified with respect to the

R. Guthke; R. Roflmann

1991-01-01

32

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOEpatents

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01

33

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cullulose (untreated BW-200 Solka Floc) to ethanol utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae QM 8226, has resulted in increased rates and longer times of hydrolysis when compared to simple saccharifications. Additionally, two schemes for ethanol removal during hydrolysis, nitrogen sparging and vacuum operation, have also

Shea

1981-01-01

34

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

2012-07-31

35

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

36

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

37

Vacuum String Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief review of vacuum string field theory, a new approach to open string field theory based on the stable vacuum of the tachyon. We discuss the sliver state explaining its role as a projector in the space of half-string functionals. We review the construction of D-brane solutions in vacuum string field theory, both in the algebraic approach

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2001-01-01

38

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

39

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

SciTech Connect

The encapulation of germanium detectors has been a long sought after goal. We have begun to develop encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented in the paper.

Madden, N.W.; Malone, D.F.; Phel, R.H.; Cork, C.P.; Luke, P.N.; Landis, D.A.; Pollard, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States))

1991-08-01

40

Fermentation microorganisms and flavor changes in fermented foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food fermentation processes often result in profound changes in flavor relative to the starting ingredients. However, fermenting foods are typically very complex ecosystems with active enzyme systems from the ingredient materials interacting with the metabolic activities of the fermentation organis...

41

Factorial design and simulation for the optimization and determination of control structures for an extractive alcoholic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, optimization and control of an extractive alcoholic fermentation were studied. The fermentation process was coupled to a vacuum flash vessel that extracted part of the ethanol. Response surface analysis was used in combination with modelling and simulation to determine the operational conditions that maximize yield and productivity. The concepts of factorial design were used in the study of

Aline C Costa; Daniel I. P Atala; Francisco Maugeri; Rubens Maciel

2001-01-01

42

Vacuum pump aids ejectors  

SciTech Connect

The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

Nelson, R.E.

1982-12-01

43

?-vacuum and inflationary bispectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the non-Gaussianity originated from the ?-vacuum on the CMB anisotropy. For ?-vacuum, there exist correlation between points in the acausal two patches of de Sitter spactime. Such kind of correlation can lead to large local form non-Gaussianity in ?-vacuum. For the single field slow- roll inflationary scenario, the spacetime is in a quasi-de Sitter phase

Wei Xue

2009-01-01

44

The Feasibility of Producing Vacuum-Packed Fermented Vegetable Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average intake of vegetables in Ireland falls below the recommendations of Bord Glas and FSAI. Carrots are the third most consumed vegetable in Ireland and they are an excellent source of vitamins A and B as well as phytochemicals. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are well-known in food for their benefits such as improvement of the nutritional value of food

Antoni Llovera

2008-01-01

45

Fermentation process kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on fermentation process kinetics is potentially valuable for the improvement of batch pro- cess performance; it is essential for continuous process design. An empirical examination of rate patterns in vari- ous fermentations discloses three basic types: (1) 'growth associated' products arising directly from the en- ergy metabolism of carbohydrates supplied, (2) indirect products of carbohydrate metabolism and (3) products

Elmer L. Gaden

2000-01-01

46

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

ScienceCinema

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

47

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

48

Vacuum technology for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum systems for ITER are characterized by the requirements for tritium compatibility, tolerance of high magnetic and radiation fields and remote maintainability. In addition, although the vacuum levels are relatively modest, high pumping speeds are needed to achieve the high gas throughputs required. The design solutions adopted, the status of the development programme and the issues still to be

D. Murdoch; A. Antipenkov; C. Caldwell-Nichols; C. Day; M. Dremel; H. Haas; V. Hauer; H. Jensen

2008-01-01

49

The ITER vacuum systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the

C. Day; D. Murdoch

2008-01-01

50

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in

B. Broda; P. Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-01-01

51

Investigations of Pulsed Vacuum Gap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Past research and the current status of understanding of electrical breakdown of vacuum is reviewed. This review includes DC, AC and pulsed vacuum gap breakdown. Measurements have been performed to determine the role of microparticles in pulsed vacuum gap...

J. E. Thompson T. S. Sudarshan J. M. Butner

1981-01-01

52

Glycerol production by anaerobic fermentation of molasses on pilot scale  

SciTech Connect

The use of sodium sulphite as a steering agent for enhancing the yield of glycerol during anaerobic ethanol fermentation is well established. Several studies have been reported in the literature using free as well as immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In these studies it was observed that a relatively high concentration of sulphite in the fermentation broth, typically 40-100 g/l, was required to obtain a commercially significant yield of glycerol on sugar fermented. However, the dosing of large quantities of sulphite generally resulted in reduced viability of the microorganisms and slow fermentations. The glycerol concentration in the fermented broth was generally observed to be in the range 20-40 g/l. The low productivity coupled with the high cost of sulfite rendered the process commercially unattractive. In order to reduce the sulphite requirement, whilst at the same time increasing the productivity, a modified vacuum fermentation was developed in the laboratories. The process was successfully estabilished on a pilot scale and typical data obtained on scaleup are reported below. 8 references.

Virkar, P.D.; Panesar, M.S.

1987-04-20

53

Vacuum deposition system  

SciTech Connect

The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

Austin, S.; Bark, D.

1990-05-31

54

Pervaporation of Model Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation Product Solutions Using Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice\\/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested

David L. Vrana; Michael M. Meagher; Robert W. Hutkins; Bruce Duffield

1993-01-01

55

Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 11529 (China); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui, Taiwan 25137 (China)

2011-02-15

56

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

57

Vacuum Erection Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum erection devices (VEDs) are safe, effective treatments for erectile dysfunction with few side effects. Vacuum negative\\u000a pressure more than 100 mmHg causes a combination of arterial and venous blood to fill the corpora cavernosum. The use of an\\u000a elastic band to trap the blood within the penis allows sufficient rigidity for penetration. Devices approved by the Food and\\u000a Drug

Hunter Wessells

58

Fermentations by saccharolytic intestinal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most nonsporing anaerobes of the intestinal tract use the Embden-Meyerhof- Parnas scheme to ferment carbohydrates. Almost all of them oxidize pyruvate, the key fermentation intermediate, to acetyl coenzyme A and CO2 with reduction of a low-potential electron acceptor. H2 is formed from the low potential acceptor or from NADH. Pyruvate is a precursor of lactate, and phosphoenolpyruvate is a precursor

Terry L. Miller; M. J. Wolin

59

Vacuum Technology and Space Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Market: Those involved in vacuum technology and complex vacuum facilities. While specific projects have changed in the 30 years since this book was first published, the need for large complex vacuum facilities has not. And despite new developments in pumping, measurement, and outgassing, this book will remain for many years to come the standard of practical vacuum operation.

D. J. Santeler; D. H. Hokeboer; D. W. Jones; F. Pagano

1993-01-01

60

System Study, Vacuum Sewage Collection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An effectiveness/cost comparison was made between gravity sewer systems and vacuum sewer systems for use in Navy advanced bases. The vacuum systems considered were single pipe system where vacuum toilets are connected directly to a vacuum sewer while the ...

R. Waller C. W. Mallory

1971-01-01

61

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats

M. Mapes; L. Smart; D. Weiss; A. Steszyn; R. Todd

2010-01-01

62

Fermentation behaviour and metabolic interactions of multistarter wine yeast fermentations.  

PubMed

Multistarter fermentations of Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Kluyveromyces thermotolerans together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. In grape musts with a high sugar content, mixed trials showed a fermentation behaviour and analytical profiles of wines comparable to or better than those exhibited by a pure culture of S. cerevisiae. Sequential trials of T. delbrueckii and K. thermotolerans revealed a sluggish fermentation, while those of H. uvarum exhibited an unacceptable increase in ethyl acetate content (175 ml l(-1)). A low fermentation temperature (15 degrees C) of multistarter trials of H. uvarum resulted in a stuck fermentation that was not due to a deficiency of assimilable nitrogenous compounds since lower amounts of these compounds were used. Sequential fermentation carried out by H. uvarum at 15 degrees C confirmed the high production of ethyl acetate. The persistence and level of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during multistarter fermentations under stress conditions (high ethanol content and/or low temperature) can cause stuck fermentations. PMID:16487611

Ciani, Maurizio; Beco, Luca; Comitini, Francesca

2006-02-17

63

Material processing with vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of controlled atmosphere, especially vacuum, is the integral part of much the materials processing effort involving special materials. The underlying reasons that warrant the presence of vacuum along with high temperatures in these processing schemes are rooted in the thermodynamic properties of the materials particularly in relation to their interaction with gases and other interstitials. Apart from this pressure is also a highly usable process parameter that can be tailored to establish the desired heterogeneous equilibrium, in turn determined by the material to be produced or process to be executed. The range and depth of vacuum metallurgy or vacuum materials processing is vast. The present paper covers a selection of materials processing activities that have been carried out in the Materials Group, BARC involving production of materials, their processing and also basic property determination. A range of vacuum and furnace systems have been used and the practice of designing the process from fundamentals and executing through various batch sizes, and the solution of issues involved are all covered.

Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A. K.

2008-05-01

64

ISABELLE vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

Halama, H J

1980-01-01

65

Comparative Detoxification of Vacuum Evaporation\\/Steam Stripping Combined with Overliming on Corn Stover Prehydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of physical methods, vacuum evaporation and steam stripping, combined with overliming (calcium hydroxide) were applied to remove inhibitors which were produced simultaneously during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Corn stover was steam exploded; the filtrate was hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. The acid hydrolyzate was then detoxified and fermented by yeast. Physical methods could remove volatile compounds from

Jun-jun Zhu; Qiang Yong; Yong Xu; Shi-yuan Yu

2009-01-01

66

Fermentation Microorganisms and Flavor Changes in Fermented Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food fermentation processes often result in profound changes in flavor relative to the starting ingredients. However, fermenting foods are typically very complex ecosystems with active enzyme systems from the ingredient materials interacting with the metabolic activities of the fermentation organisms. Factors such as added salt, particle sizes, temperature, and oxygen levels will also have important effects on the chemistry that

R. F. MCFEETERS

2004-01-01

67

Vacuum-assisted delivery.  

PubMed

The literature seems to allow certain general conclusions regarding the choice of instrument for assisted vaginal delivery. Both forceps and vacuum extraction offer certain advantages and drawbacks. Forceps are more difficult to apply, more prone to potentially significant facial injuries, require generally better maternal analgesia, and are associated with increased maternal soft tissue trauma. Vacuum extractors in general are easier to apply, are more likely to result in scalp trauma, and may be associated with increased rates of intracranial trauma. It seems likely that factors particular to each patient may play a significant role in the genesis of delivery associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity. Because of the ease of application, vacuum extractors may be used potentially in circumstances in which forceps assistance would not be attempted, allowing an operator of average experience to perform rotational deliveries. The use of vacuum extraction does appear to decrease the incidence of cesarean section in delivery populations. Given the apparent association between difficult assisted deliveries and increased neonatal morbidity, it is incumbent on the operator to attempt delivery only when vaginal delivery seems to be a safe option. Furthermore, the operator in such circumstances must be willing to reassess the attempt if initial attempts are not met with success. The minimal rates of significant intracranial injury associated with vacuum extraction in randomized studies of the method demonstrate the relative safety of the vacuum extraction when used judiciously. The ultimate choice of the route of delivery and method of assisted delivery should reflect a consideration of the fetal station, presentation, and maternal and fetal circumstances. It is hoped that further investigations in this area may clarify some of the issues discussed in this article. PMID:8665766

Williams, M C

1995-12-01

68

Vacuum pseudoscalar susceptibility  

SciTech Connect

We derive a novel model-independent result for the pion susceptibility in QCD via the isovector-pseudoscalar vacuum polarization. In the neighbourhood of the chiral limit, the pion susceptibility can be expressed as a sum of two independent terms. The first expresses the pion-pole contribution. The second is identical to the vacuum chiral susceptibility, which describes the response of QCD's ground state to a fluctuation in the current-quark mass. In this result one finds a straightforward explanation of a mismatch between extant estimates of the pion susceptibility.

Chang Lei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Liu Yuxin [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Roberts, Craig D. [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Shi Yuanmei [Department of Physics, Nanjing Xiaozhuang College, Nanjing 211171 (China); Sun Weimin; Zong Hongshi [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Joint Center for Particle, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-03-15

69

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Broda, B.; Bronowski, P.; Ostrowski, M.; Szanecki, M.

2008-11-01

70

Control of fermenters - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermenter control has been an active area of research and has attracted more attention in recent years. This is due to the new developments in other related areas which can be exploited to overcome the inherent difficulties in fermenter control. Beginning with conventional regulatory control of operating variables such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, research in fermenter control

K. Yamuna Rani; V. S. Ramachandra Rao

1999-01-01

71

Quantum Vacuum Pathway Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is theorized that the quantum vacuum is a random electromagnetic field that permeates the universe. It will be shown that acceleration between a quark and a random electromagnetic energy field is an analog of the reaction between a charge moving at constant velocity with respect to an organized electromagnetic field. The difference is that with a quark any natural

Eric John Habegger

2005-01-01

72

Vacuum Kundt waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,…) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

2013-03-01

73

Electrospray deposition in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the established technique of electrospray in developing a portable vacuum electrospray system which can deposit, in vacuo, dissolved molecules onto a sample which may then be analysed by UHV techniques. As an initial test of the system we have analysed silicon samples with an electrosprayed layer of poly(ethylene) oxide (PEO) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The polymer

Janine C. Swarbrick; J. Ben Taylor; James N. O'Shea

2006-01-01

74

Vacuum System at IUAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

Mandal, A.

2012-11-01

75

Ultra high vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short introduction for some basic facts and equations. Subsquently, discussion about: Building blocks of an ultrahigh vacuum system - Various types of pumps required to reach uhv and methods to reduce these effects - Outgassing phenomena induced by the presence of a particle beam and the most common methods to reduce these effects It will be given some practical

Oswald Gröbner

2001-01-01

76

Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that, in the "jelly" model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

Veklenko, B. A.

2012-06-01

77

Vacuum configurations for superstrings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study candidate vacuum configurations in ten-dimensional O(32) and E8 × E8 supergravity and superstring theory that have unbroken N = 1 supersymmetry in four dimensions. This condition permits only a few possibilities, all of which have vanishing cosmological constant. In the E8 × E8 case, one of these possibilities leads to a model that in four dimensions has an

P. Candelas; Gary T. Horowitz; Andrew Strominger; Edward Witten

1985-01-01

78

Large Rotary Vacuum Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seal is described which permits rotation of large circular sections or ; ports in the walls of a vacuum chamber. The seal is an unlubricated Tec-Ring (a ; Teflon O-ring with a core of rubber), and the friction is low even at large ; diameters. The behavior of such a seal is compared with that of a lubricated ;

D. E. Armstrong; Normand Blais

1963-01-01

79

Vacuum in Multicolor QCD.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is assumed that among asymptotic solutions to the Makeenko-Migdal equation of the form exp(-aA - bL) (A = area, L = perimeter, A and L are large) there is also the solution which has asymptotic freedom at small distances. It is then shown that vacuum i...

P. Olesen

1980-01-01

80

Type D Vacuum Metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, the vacuum field equations are solved for Petrov type D. An exhaustive set of ten metrics is obtained, including among them a new rotating solution closely related to the Ehlers-Kundt ``C'' metric. They all possess at least two Killing vectors and depend only on a small number of arbitrary constants.

William Kinnersley

1969-01-01

81

Vacuum arc recovery phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experimental and theoretical study has been designed to uncover the mechanism underlying the rapid recovery of electrical strength of a short vacuum gap after arcing. In the experiment the contacts were of gas-free silver and the contact area and gap length were varied. Recovery strength was measured following the forced extinction of a 250 amp arc in 0.5

J. A. Rich; G. A. Farrall

1964-01-01

82

Various unique vacuum holders  

SciTech Connect

Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

Gregar, J.S.

1992-12-01

83

Cryogenic vacuum pump design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the problems and tradeoffs involved in cryogenic vacuum pump analysis, design and manufacture. Particular attention is paid to the several issues unique to cryopumps, e.g., radiation loading, adsorption of noncondensible gases, and regeneration. A general algorithm for cryopump design is also proposed.

A. J. Bartlett; P. A. Lessard

1984-01-01

84

The LHC Vacuum System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting b ending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at

Oswald Gröbner

1998-01-01

85

Electtra vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elettra is a third-generation synchrotron light source which is being built especially for the use of high brilliance radiation from insertion devices and bending magnets. The UHV conditions in a storage ring lead to a longer beam lifetime-one of the most important criterion. The Elettra vacuum system presents some peculiarities which cannot be found in any already existing machine. The

M. Bernardini; F. Daclon; F. Giacuzzo; R. Kersevan; J. Miertusova; F. Pradal

1993-01-01

86

Vacuum insulator coating development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

1997-01-01

87

RF Vacuum Electronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We summarize our second quarter progress and discuss third quarter plans for the development of an edge emitter based vacuum triode with performance goals of 10 microA/micrometer emission current density at less than 250V and which can be modulated at1 GH...

D. Arch J. Holmen P. Bauhahn T. Akinwande T. Ohnstein

1992-01-01

88

Interpreting cosmological vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

The cosmological vacuum decay scenario recently proposed by Wang and Meng [Classical Quantum Gravity 22, 283 (2005)] is rediscussed. From thermodynamic arguments it is found that the {epsilon} parameter quantifying the vacuum decay rate must be positive in the presence of particle creation. If there is no particle creation, the proper mass of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) particles is necessarily a time-dependent quantity, scaling as m(t)=m{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}. By considering the presence of baryons in the cosmological scenario, it is also shown that their dynamic effect is to alter the transition redshift z{sub *} (the redshift at which the Universe switches from decelerating to accelerating expansion), predicting values of z{sub *} compatible with current estimates based on type Ia supernova. In order to constrain the {omega}{sub m}-{epsilon} plane, a joint statistical analysis involving the current supernovae observations, gas mass fraction measurements in galaxy clusters and CMB data is performed. At 95% c.l. it is found that the vacuum decay rate parameter lies on the interval {epsilon}=0.06{+-}0.10. The possibility of a vacuum decay into photons is also analyzed. In this case, the energy density of the radiation fluid scales as {rho}{sub r}={rho}{sub ro}a{sup -4+{epsilon}}, and its temperature evolution law obeys T(t)=T{sub o}a(t){sup {epsilon}}{sup /4-1}.

Alcaniz, J.S.; Lima, J.A.S. [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatorio Nacional, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, USP, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2005-09-15

89

Triggered vacuum gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a sealed vacuum gap are described and the difficulties encountered in applying this gap as an overvoltage protection device are discussed. It is shown how these difficulties can be ameliorated by the use of gas-free electrode materials and by triggering the gap when breakdown is required. Several methods of triggering are discussed and some practical triggering devices are

J. M. Lafferty

1966-01-01

90

Butanol recovery from model solution\\/fermentation broth by pervaporation: evaluation of membrane performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an overview of butanol separation from model solutions and fermentation broth by pervaporation. It is difficult to compare different authors’ work on butanol separation because of the number of variables involved. These variables include type of membrane, membrane thickness, feed temperature, condensation temperature, vacuum or sweep gas, feed butanol concentration, etc. For comparison we have calculated the butanol

N. Qureshi; H. P. Blaschek

1999-01-01

91

ISAC target vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF has been in full operation since 1999. The ISAC east and west targets use proton beam from the cyclotron to produce various radioactive isotopes, which are then ionized and extracted. The ions are then passed through the mass separator and selected ions are transferred to the low energy experiments or injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The accompanying radioactive contamination from the production of radioactive ions requires a complex vacuum system. The main target vacuum space consists of two semiseparate (primary and secondary) volumes pumped by turbo-molecular pumps. The primary volume uses four pumps while the secondary volume uses two pumps. Two hermetic rotary vane pumps are used as backing pumps. The nominal vacuum in both volumes is about 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa (1.0x10{sup -6} Torr). The pressure is monitored by two cold cathode and two hot filament ion gauges. The cold cathode gauges are used to interlock the system, which is critical during the bake out of the target and beam production. The exhaust gas from the vacuum pumps can be radioactive. Three gas storage tanks (decay tanks) are used for temporary storage of the radioactive exhaust and its controlled release to the atmosphere. Gas-species insensitive membrane gauges are used for monitoring the pressure in the storage tanks. This article describes the details of the ISAC target vacuum system as well as some procedures related to the handling of the exhaust gas with traces of radioactive contamination produced by the targets.

Yosifov, Dimo; Sekachev, Igor [TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2006-07-15

92

Vacuum requirements for RHIC  

SciTech Connect

In this note the lifetime due to inelastic scattering of beam and residual gas ions is calculated in units of pressure (Torr). In addition, the transverse emittance growth due to elastic scattering is expressed in units of pressure. The definition of inelastic scattering includes both capture of an electron from a residual gas ion and central nuclear collisions between beam ion and gas atom. Emittance growth via elastic scattering is a simple consequence of multiple Coulomb scattering. Is is important to note that in an accelerator only the density of residual gas atoms is relevant to the machine operation. The measure of this density is the vacuum gauge, where this gauge is calibrated in pressure units at some known temperature T{sub G}. The vacuum unit or pressure is of course temperature dependent, and thus when quoting vacuum requirements for RHIC it is vital to state the temperature at which the pressure is computed. It might be necessary to scale any computed gas density to the pressure appropriate for the measurement with the vacuum gauge. Typically, the vacuum gauge operates at room temperature {approximately}300{degree}K. An explanation on how to rescale pressure as a function of temperature is given in the text. This note assumes the residual gas density in the so-called warm section (300{degree}K) of RHIC to be composed of 90% H{sub 2}, 5% CH{sub 4} and 5% CO. The gas in the cold section (5{degree}K) is assumed to be 100% He. The beam ions are taken to be {sup 197}Au{sup 79+}.

Rhoades-Brown, M.J.; Harrison, M.

1991-12-01

93

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

94

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

95

FERMENTATION PROCESS FOR MANNITOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We selected Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B...

96

Fermentative production of isobutene.  

PubMed

Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

2012-01-11

97

Predicting methane fermentation biodegradability  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the feedstock digestibility in cows by procedures developed by Van Soest was performed. By feeding cows feedstuff of different lignin content, cell wall digestibility can be estimated. In this article a digestibility model has been employed and tested along with other models for the rapid prediction of substrate methane fermentation biodegradability.

Chandler, J.A.; Jewell, W.J.; Gossett, J.M.; Van Soest, P.J.; Robertson, J.B.

1980-01-01

98

Tritium handling in vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

Gill, J.T. [Monsanto Research Corp., Miamisburg, OH (United States). Mound Facility; Coffin, D.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1986-10-01

99

Vacuum Mechanisms of Nanoscale Precision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principles of design of vacuum mechanims of nanoscale precision are presented. Physical basics of the mechanisms nanoscale\\u000a precision are discussed. Vacuum multicoordinate drives and manipulators are also shown.\\u000a \\u000a The analysis of vacuum technological equipment and vacuum research equipment shows that the most strict requirements for the\\u000a object transference are in electron beam micro lithography equipment. For example, electron beam

E. A. Deulin; V. P. Mikhailov; Yu. V. Panfilov; R. A. Nevshupa

100

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

101

VACUUM OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF FRUITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum osmotic dehydration leads a special behaviour of mass transfer in fruit-sugar soluion system.Vacuum treatments intensify the capillary flow function and increase water transfer ratio.but have no significant influence on sugar uptake.Fruits such as pineapples which have higher porosity are more suitable to be treated under vacuum during the osmotic dehydration.

Xian Quan Shi; Pedro Fito Maupoey

1993-01-01

102

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOEpatents

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

1980-01-01

103

Insertion device vacuum system designs  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

Hoyer, E.

1988-05-01

104

Challenges For Vacuum Interrupter Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum interrupters form the key component of a medium voltage (MV) vacuum switchgear design. Vacuum interrupter technology is now well established and key manufacturers across the world are routinely producing interrupters for ratings up to 52kVrms. Manufacturers have focused on reducing the cost of interrupter components by adapting to more efficient contact geometry, improved contact materials, finite element modelling for

R. Parashar; A. Baker; A. Sitzia

2006-01-01

105

Fermentation of cellodextrins to ethanol using mixed-culture fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The potential for enhancing ethanol production from cellodextrins by employing mixed-culture (Candida wickerhamii-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentations was investigated. Initially, ethanol production was monitored in fermentation medium containing 50 g/l glucose plus 45 g/l cellobiose. Inoculum levels and times of inoculum addition were varied. Of the conditions tested, the most rapid rates of ethanol formation occurred in fermentations in which either C. wickerhamii and S. cerevisiae were coinoculated at a ratio of 57 : 1 cell/ml or in fermentations in which a 10-fold-greater S. cerevisiae inoculum was added to a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation after one day incubation. These conditions were used to attempt to enhance fermentations in which cellodextrins produced by trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of cellulose served as the sole carbon source. Cellodextrins that were not further purified after cellulose hydrolysis contained compounds that were slightly inhibitory to C. wickerhamii. In this case the mixed-culture fermentations produced 12-45% more ethanol than a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation. However, if the substrate was treated with Darco G-60 charcoal, the toxic materials were apparently removed and the pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentations performed as well as the mixed-culture fermentations.

Freer, S.N.; Wing, R.E.

1985-07-01

106

Vacuum chuck having vacuum-nipples wafer support  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A vacuum chuck is disclosed which has nipples as support structure and for vacuum delivery. In the preferred embodiment, two types of nipples are used: "plain" nipples which provide only support and vacuum nipples which provide support and deliver vacuum to retain the wafer on the chuck. The contact surface of the plain nipples is made smaller than that of the vacuum nipples. The chuck is secured to a stage using special supports which have limited flexibility in two axis with respect to the chuck, so as to prevent warping the chuck. Special vacuum nipples are disclosed which do not deliver vacuum unless the wafer exerts sufficient predetermined pressure on the nipple. The chuck is designed to hold both 200 mm and 300 mm wafers.

2001-07-10

107

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

108

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

109

Dry vacuum pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

Sibuet, R.

2008-05-01

110

Edison's vacuum technology patents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

Waits, Robert K.

2003-07-01

111

An automated vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

Atkins, W.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Vaughn, G.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Bridgman, C. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

1991-01-01

112

Vacuum actuated gas delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Vacuum Actuated Cylinder (VACTM) gas source provides sub-atmospheric pressure delivery of the metal fluorides commonly used as dopants for ion implant. The VAC gas source is a mechanical system based on an embedded pressure control device located inside the cylinder. A pre-set sub-atmospheric pressure must be achieved in the delivery manifold before flow is permitted from the cylinder.

W. K. Olander; M. Donatucci; J. Mayer; L. Wang

2000-01-01

113

LHC vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the

Oswald Gröbner

1999-01-01

114

The LHC vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9

O. Gröbner

1997-01-01

115

The ITER vacuum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the torus exhaust pumping, the cryopumps for the neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating, and the cryopumps for the ITER cryostat. All customized cryosorption pumps are force-cooled with supercritical helium and share a similar modular design of cryosorption pumping panels. For regeneration of the cryopumps as well as for roughing down the system volumes prior to operation, four identical sets of forepump trains are used. This paper will focus on the areas of the ITER vacuum systems which require customized developments and cannot rely on commercial solutions. The complex pumps have been tailored for the very specific applications and requirements at ITER, especially characterised by the need to be tritium compatible. An outline of the development path which was needed to come up with a sound design for the ITER cryopumps is given. The way of development is culminating in the manufacturing of 1:1 scale prototypes, which will be extensively tested in dedicated test facilities to ensure compatibility with all design requirements.

Day, C.; Murdoch, D.

2008-05-01

116

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

SciTech Connect

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

Martin, G.R. (Process Consulting Services, Grapevine, TX (United States)); Lines, J.R. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States)); Golden, S.W. (Glitsch, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-10-01

117

Removal of inhibitors from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation.  

PubMed

In this study, vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) was used to remove two prototypical fermentation inhibitors (acetic acid and furfural) from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. The effect of operating parameters, such as feed temperature and feed velocity, on the removal efficiencies of inhibitors was investigated. Under optimal conditions, more than 98% of furfural could be removed by VMD. However, the removal efficiency of acetic acid was considerably lower. After furfural and acetic acid were selectively removed from hydrolyzates by VMD, ethanol production efficiency increased by 17.8% compared to original hydrolyzates. PMID:23907067

Chen, Jingwen; Zhang, Yaqin; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Mi, Xigeng; Huang, He

2013-07-11

118

Solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

Ashok Pandey

2003-01-01

119

Fermentative production of isobutene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is

B. N. M. Van Leeuwen; A. M. Van der Wulp; I. Duijnstee; A. J. A. Van Maris; A. J. J. Straathof

2012-01-01

120

Cellulase from Submerged Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial production of cellulase enzymes by submerged culture fermentation began in the early 1970s, with cellulase made\\u000a by Trichoderma sold for use in research and pilot studies. The mid-1980s saw the first large industrial uses of cellulase for stonewashing\\u000a denim and as an additive for animal feeds. This was accompanied by the introduction of commercial cellulases made by fungi\\u000a of

Jeffrey Tolan; Brian Foody

121

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

122

Stability of linseed oil and antioxidants containing dry fermented sausages: A study of the lipid fraction during different storage conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different packaging conditions (aerobic, vacuum and modified atmosphere) were evaluated in order to study the stability of the lipid fraction of dry fermented sausages manufactured with a partial substitution of pork backfat by linseed oil and antioxidants. After 5 months of storage, ?-linolenic acid was better preserved by vacuum and MAP (7.32 and 7.74g\\/100g fatty acids, respectively) than in aerobic

I. Valencia; D. Ansorena; I. Astiasarán

2006-01-01

123

Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Deanda, Kristine A. (Conifer, CO)

1998-01-01

124

Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

1998-03-10

125

Fermentation of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits for betalains concentration.  

PubMed

Fermentation of juice and homogenized fruits of Opuntia stricta fruits has been developed and optimized. The aim was to obtain the red food colorant betanin from prickly pear, at high concentration and low viscosity. Among three strains assayed, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus AWRI 796 has been the optimum for this process. The optimum temperature value was found to be 35 degrees C for both sugar consumption and pigment preservation. After fermentation, biomass and residual vegetal tissue were discarded by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated under vacuum. Therefore, liquid concentrated betanin was obtained, with low viscosity and being sugar free. Besides, bioethanol was obtained as byproduct. Characteristics of the final product obtained were pH 3.41, 5.2 degrees Brix, 9.65 g/L betanin, color strength of 10.8, and viscosity of 52.5 cP. These values are better than obtained by other procedures. PMID:18473472

Castellar, M R; Obón, J M; Alacid, M; Fernández-López, J A

2008-05-13

126

Energetic Deposition in Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

In hoping to improve Niobium deposition on Copper cavity, a vacuum deposition system has been built to test the idea of Nb energetic condensation on copper substrate. The system directly uses microwave power to create the pure Nb plasma, which can be used to extract energetic Nb ion flux to do direct deposition on copper substrate. In this paper, we briefly describe the system, discuss the potential benefit of this technique and report the initial result of Nb plasma creation and Niobium thin film deposition.

G. Wu; L. Phillips; R. Sundelin; T. Goodman

2001-09-01

127

RF vacuum electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize our second quarter progress and discuss third quarter plans for the development of an edge emitter based vacuum triode with performance goals of 10 micro-A/micron emission current density at less than 250 V and which can be modulated at 1 GHz for 1 hour. Design and layout of the emitter test mask was completed and fabrication of two process runs of edge emitter diodes were completed. These diode emitters utilize a comb emitter design where high resistivity TaN thin films act as current limiters to prevent edge burnout. Testing of these devices will start during the third quarter. Initial design work on the edge emitter triode was started and is described. Extensive finite element modeling (FEM) and analysis to aid in the triode design took place and is described. Significant process development also took place. Experimental studies of dielectrics such as sputtered SiO2, Si3N4, and PECVD SiO2 and Si3N4 were carried out to understand their leakage characteristics and, thus, to understand their impact on emitter performance. A description of our vacuum test station is also given.

Akinwande, T.; Bauhahn, P.; Ohnstein, T.; Holmen, J.; Arch, D.

1992-04-01

128

Accelerator Vacuum Protection System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new and elaborate automatic vacuum protection system using fast acting valve has been installed to avoid accidental venting of accelerator from experimental chamber side. To cover all the beam lines and to reduce the system cost, it has been installed at a common point from where all the seven beam lines originate. The signals are obtained by placing fast response pressure sensing gauges (HV SENSOR) near all the experimental stations. The closing time of the fast valve is 10 milli-second. The fast closing system protects only one vacuum line at a time. At IUAC, we have seven beam lines so one sensor was placed in each of the beam lines near experimental chamber and a multiplexer was incorporated into the fast closing system. At the time of experiment, the sensor of the active beam line is selected through the multiplexer and the Fast closing valve is interlocked with the selected sensor. As soon as the pressure sensor senses the pressure rise beyond a selected pressure, the signal is transferred and the fast valve closes within 10 to 12 millisecond.

Barua, Pradip; Kothari, Ashok; Archunan, M.; Joshi, Rajan

2012-11-01

129

MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP  

DOEpatents

A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

Eckberg, E.E.

1960-09-27

130

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

Anderson, G.H.

1983-08-09

131

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps\\/ceramic-packages and caps\\/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses

Takeshi Matsumura; Takayuki Tokuda; Akinobu Tsutinaga; Masafumi Kimata; Hideyuki Abe; Naotaka Tokashiki

2010-01-01

132

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction mechanisms, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are introduced. Applications of vacuum technology in the field of surface science, microfabrication, particle accelerators and analytical techniques are described. Finally, the use of vacuum in different industries with their corresponding applications is briefly reviewed.

Moshfegh, A. Z.

2004-06-01

133

Cleaning validation of fermentation tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. The size of a fermentation tank can be several hundred cubic meters limiting the use of many traditional sampling methods since the reachable areas are scarce compared to the entire tank surface. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of

Satu Salo; Alan Friis; Gun Wirtanen

2008-01-01

134

Lactic acid fermented vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose en- zymes, particularly amylases, proteases and lipases, hy- drolyse polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to non-toxic products with flavours, aromas and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer (STEINKRAUS 1997). The lactic acid fermentation of vegetable products, applied as a preservation method for the production of

J. KAROVI?OVÁ; Z. KOHAJDOVÁ

135

Fermented liquid feed for pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed

Joris A. M. Missotten; Joris Michiels; Anneke Ovyn; Stefaan De Smet; Noël A. Dierick

2010-01-01

136

Microbial ecology of cereal fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereals are globally number one as food crops as well as substrates for fermentation. Well known products are beer, sake, spirits, malt vinegar, and baked goods made from doughs leavened by yeasts or sourdough. Fermentation processes are enabled by technological measures that act on the metabolically resting grains and direct ecological factors controlling the activity of lactic acid bacteria and

Walter P. Hammes; Markus J. Brandt; Kerstin L. Francis; Julia Rosenheim; Michael F. H. Seitter; Stephanie A. Vogelmann

2005-01-01

137

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

138

Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes  

SciTech Connect

A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

1993-10-01

139

Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

2012-12-20

140

Pseudoredundant vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss models that can account for today’s dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

2008-08-01

141

THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE  

DOEpatents

A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

Price, G.W.

1954-08-01

142

CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees

J. B. Fitzpatrick

1987-01-01

143

Chemical pumping in vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical pumping in vacuum technology has gained an ever increasing importance during the last two decades. It is based on the capability of metals, such as Zr, Ti, Ba and others, in pure or (more usually) alloy forms, to chemisorb the active residual gases present in vacuum devices or systems. These metals, used in powder form or in many different

B Ferrario

1996-01-01

144

Vacuum Technology:. Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is devoted on principles and applications of vacuum technology. Classification and properties of vacuum are discussed. Various pumping mechanisms as well as three basic flow regimes namely viscous, intermediate and molecular are briefly presented. Gas-surface interaction concepts including physisorption and chemisorption states with their distinctive character as well as desorption phenomenon are considered. Two types of surface reaction

A. Z. Moshfegh

2004-01-01

145

Ultrahigh Vacuum Twist Compression Apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new apparatus is described which is used for bonding of metals in ultrahigh vacuum by the twist compression technique. It is shown that adhesion between hard metal specimens can be readily measured in ultrahigh vacuum after some initial mechanical abrasion of the surfaces, while adhesion tests in air at atmospheric pressure do not yield measurable adhesion coefficients. Experimental results

J. M. Bradford; K. B. Wear; M. E. Sikorski

1970-01-01

146

Vacuum Requirements for LAMPF II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The LAMPF II accelerator will require sufficient vacuum to prevent beam loss or beam blowup within the time the beam is in the accelerator. Because this time is quite short (tau < 0.03 s), the vacuum requirements should be somewhat less strict than for th...

D. Neuffer

1984-01-01

147

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, l...

T. M. Simko R. E. Collins F. A. Beck D. Arasteh

1995-01-01

148

Vacuum Dewatering During Paper Manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water removal during paper making is one of the most energy-intensive and capital-intensive processes. Vacuum dewatering is one of the intermediate stages of water removal on the paper machine where the compressible, wet mat is dewatered using applications of higher vacuum. A summary of the various stages of dewatering on the paper machine wire and the potential mechanisms of dewatering

S. Ramaswamy

2003-01-01

149

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

150

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

151

The AGS Booster vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Hseuh, H.C.

1989-01-01

152

Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

1987-09-01

153

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum ...

R. A. Rucinski K. D. Dixon R. Krasa K. J. Krempetz G. T. Mulholland

1993-01-01

154

14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES...Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be...discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the...

2013-01-01

155

14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section...AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT...Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a) There...unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and...

2013-01-01

156

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

157

Fermentation method producing ethanol  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for preparing and isolating a mutant strain of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. The mutant strain is able to ferment hexose and pentose carbohydrates to produce ethanol and acetic acid in gram ratios of at least about 8:1. The process includes the steps of: 1.) exposing Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum cells to a mutagenic agent sufficient to effect mutation of the cells; 2.) culturing the mutated cells in a growth medium containing minimal carbon sources and pyruvate for a predetermined time period; 3.) enriching the growth medium with at least one antibiotic, the antibiotic killing the actively growing cells in the medium without substantially affecting the non-actively growing cells; and 4.) isolating a mutant Clostridium thermosaccharolyticium strain from the non-actively growing cells via the inability to utilize pyruvate as a carbon source.

Wang, D.I.C.; Dalal, R.

1986-02-04

158

The electrical resistance of vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the physics of electrical conduction in vacuum between two parallel conducting planes (planar vacuum diode). After reviewing known features of conduction in the high-voltage range, we turn to the low-voltage range. An ohmic current-voltage characteristic is calculated in the case of identical cathodic and anodic electrodes, whence an electrical resistance of the vacuum gap can be defined. The inverse resistance involves the elemental conductance 2e 2/h and the number of conductance channels between the two electrodes. The channels are thermally populated from the electrodes and the population is analytically calculable from the Poisson equation of electrostatics and the Boltzmann law of thermal equilibrium. The observed resistance of a real vacuum diode (Mullard's EB 91) is accounted for without adjusting parameters. The paper also examines the link-up between Joule's law, involving dissipation, and Ohm's law, with vacuum being contrasted with a material conducting medium; the origin of dissipation in vacuum is understood. Quantum and statistical physics are kept at the undergraduate level. Finally, the results obtained for the vacuum diode shed light upon the quantized conductance of nanoscale semiconductor wires, a topic usually handled only in graduate courses.

Bringuier, E.

2013-07-01

159

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

160

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

161

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27

162

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

163

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01

164

Controlling Factors in Methane Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional wastewater treatment plants generally use an anaerobic digester to stabilize the wastewater settleable solids and the excess microbial solids produced within the plant. The anaerobic fermentation process is very pH dependent. The methane bact...

R. E. Speece R. Clark

1969-01-01

165

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)|

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

166

Xylose Fermentation with Clostridium Thermohydrosulfuricum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, the fermentation of xylose to ethanol with a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum, was examined. The focus of this investigation was on the physiological parameters which most strongly affect the eco...

A. Mancuso C. R. Wilke H. W. Blanch

1982-01-01

167

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

168

Optimization Strategies Based on Sequential Quadratic Programming Applied for a Fermentation Process for Butanol Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the mathematical optimization of a continuous flash fermentation process for the production of biobutanol was\\u000a studied. The process consists of three interconnected units, as follows: fermentor, cell-retention system (tangential microfiltration),\\u000a and vacuum flash vessel (responsible for the continuous recovery of butanol from the broth). The objective of the optimization\\u000a was to maximize butanol productivity for a desired

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Caliane Bastos Borba Costa; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Francisco Maugeri Filho; Daniel Ibraim Pires Atala; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel; Rubens Maciel Filho

2009-01-01

169

Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery  

PubMed Central

Approximately 5% (1 in 20) of all deliveries in the United States are operative vaginal deliveries. The past 20 years have seen a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favor of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice. This article reviews in detail the indications, contraindications, patient selection criteria, choice of instrument, and technique for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. The use of vacuum extraction at the time of cesarean delivery will also be discussed. With vacuum extraction becoming increasingly popular, it is important that obstetric care providers are aware of the maternal and neonatal risks associated with such deliveries and of the options available to effect a safe and expedient delivery.

Ali, Unzila A; Norwitz, Errol R

2009-01-01

170

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

171

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluninum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The detaileds of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1991-08-20

172

A Fatal Case of CO(2) Intoxication in a Fermentation Tank.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) is an odorless constituent of air. Higher concentrations can be detected in geothermal and automotive emissions, fermentation, and sublimation of dry ice. An unskilled worker entered a fermentation tank to clean it, which had not been done for about 5 months allowing for high concentrations of CO(2) to build up. A second worker entered the tank to rescue the first one. Shortly after both were found the first worker was rescued directly whereas the tank had to be rotated to pull the second worker out. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful only for the first worker. Medico-legal autopsy showed bruises, hematoma, myocardial hemorrhage, and edema of the lungs. The right lung was vacuum degassed in an argon atmosphere and quadrupole-mass-spectrometry showed an elevated CO(2) content in lung gases. Thus, CO(2) intoxication/asphyxia in a vitiated atmosphere due to fermentation of wine mash was established as the cause of death. PMID:23316776

Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Juhnke, Christian; Bux, Roman; Schmidt, Peter

2013-01-14

173

Vacuum microelectronic devices [and prolog  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review\\/tutorial paper, we cover the history, physics, and current status of vacuum microelectronic devices. First we overview the performance requirements of vacuum microelectronic devices necessary for them to replace, or fill voids left by, solid state devices. Next we discuss the physical characteristics of micro-field-emission sources important to device applications. These characteristics include fundamental features, such as current-voltage

IVOR BRODIE; PAUL RICHARD SCHWOEBEL

1994-01-01

174

Vacuum frying of potato chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of

Jagoba Garayo; Rosana Moreira

2002-01-01

175

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of

S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt

2010-01-01

176

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

177

Vacuum and beam transport lines: main principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some details of vacuum system designs of beam transport lines are presented. The effect of gas desorption on vacuum equilibrium and stability and ion-induced pressure instability in the beam transport lines are discussed. Main vacuum relationships are also given as a basis for understanding the vacuum system configuration of beam transport lines. Residual gas spectra together with specific outgassing rates

J. Pivar?; K. D. Tumanov

1997-01-01

178

MEMS Vacuum Packaging Technology and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many MEMS (micro electro-mechanic systems) parts have to meet the requirements for vacuum packaging. In vacuum packaging, leakage and gas permeation, which affects the normal function of the components, are major problems. Hermetic sealing is one of the most important technologies for reliable vacuum packaging. In this paper, several hermetic sealing technologies for vacuum packaging was presented, including eutectic bonding,

Jin Yufeng; Zhang Jiaxun

2005-01-01

179

FERMENTATION REACTIONS OF ERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAE  

PubMed Central

White, Thomas G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa), and Richard D. Shuman. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Bacteriol. 82:595–599. 1961.—A study was made to determine the effect of four different basal media, to which fermentable carbon compounds had been added, upon 22 selected strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa). Acid production was measured by (i) chemical indicator, (ii) change in pH, and (iii) production of titrable acidity. At least two determinations, usually four, were made for each test on each strain. The fermentation pattern varied according to the medium, the indicator, and the method of measuring acid production. Andrade's base plus serum was the most dependable medium because it permitted the least variation in the total number of different patterns. Of the three methods used to measure acid production, the chemical indicator gave the most valid and reproducible results. The within-strain variation was not extreme and most strains persisted in a given fermentation pattern under like conditions of growth and acid production. Results of the study indicated that, regardless of the medium and indicator routinely used, one should be familiar with the fermentation pattern of known strains of the erysipelas organism.

White, Thomas G.; Shuman, Richard D.

1961-01-01

180

Fermentative butanol production by Clostridia.  

PubMed

Butanol is an aliphatic saturated alcohol having the molecular formula of C(4)H(9)OH. Butanol can be used as an intermediate in chemical synthesis and as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical and textile industry applications. Moreover, butanol has been considered as a potential fuel or fuel additive. Biological production of butanol (with acetone and ethanol) was one of the largest industrial fermentation processes early in the 20th century. However, fermentative production of butanol had lost its competitiveness by 1960s due to increasing substrate costs and the advent of more efficient petrochemical processes. Recently, increasing demand for the use of renewable resources as feedstock for the production of chemicals combined with advances in biotechnology through omics, systems biology, metabolic engineering and innovative process developments is generating a renewed interest in fermentative butanol production. This article reviews biotechnological production of butanol by clostridia and some relevant fermentation and downstream processes. The strategies for strain improvement by metabolic engineering and further requirements to make fermentative butanol production a successful industrial process are also discussed. PMID:18727018

Lee, Sang Yup; Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Seh Hee; Nielsen, Lars K; Kim, Jaehyun; Jung, Kwang S

2008-10-01

181

Reduce costs with vacuum excavation  

SciTech Connect

Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

Vitale, S.A.

1983-09-01

182

Possibility of Increasing Natural Folate Content in Fermented Milk Products by Fermentation and Fruit Component Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOLASOV Á M., FIEDLEROV Á V., ROUBAL P., PECHA ?OVÁ M. (2005): Possibility of increasing natural folate content in fermented milk products by fermentation and fruit component addition. Czech J. Food Sci., 23: 196-201. The possibility of the increase of the natural folate content in fermented milk products by the fermentation process and by the addition of fruit component was

MARIE HOLASOVÁ; PETR ROUBAL; MARTINA PECHA

2005-01-01

183

Fermented liquid feed and fermented grain to piglets effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grain, and fermented liquid compound feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance of piglets. Three dietary treatments were designed: dry feed (DRY); fermented liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLF was

N. Canibe; B. B. Jensen

2007-01-01

184

Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)|

Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

1996-01-01

185

Lactic Acid Fermentations: Basic Principles and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO pub on lactic acid fermentation (reference: food technology) - covers (1) historical background (2) biochemical basis for development and process control (3) selection and stability of starter cultures; microorganisms (4) lactic fermentations in dev...

G. V. Gonzalez

1984-01-01

186

Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers  

SciTech Connect

First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

2011-06-22

187

D-Zero Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

1986-04-07

188

Mathematical theory of physical vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article sets out mathematical basics of unifying fundamental physical theory, with a single postulate of nonvoid physical vacuum. It will be shown that all basic equations of classical electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and gravitation theory could be derived from two nonlinear equations, which define dynamics of physical vacuum in three-dimensional Euclidean space and, in turn, are derived from equations of Newtonian mechanics. Through the characteristics of physical vacuum, namely its density and propagation velocity of various density’s perturbations, such principal physical conceptions as matter and antimatter, electric, magnetic and gravitational fields, velocity of light, electron, photon and other elementary particles, internal energy, mass, charge, spin, quantum properties, Planck constant and fine structure constant will have clear and sane definitions.

Magnitskii, N. A.

2011-06-01

189

Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance  

SciTech Connect

It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, CEP 15980-900, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-04-23

190

Downstream processing of pullulan from fermentation broth  

Microsoft Academic Search

pullulan, a water soluble extracellular polysaccharide, was produced by downstream fermentation employing the strain Aureobasidium pullulans. To obtain pure biopolymer from the fermentation broth, it is necessary to harvest cells, heat the broth, remove the melanin pigments co-produced during fermentation, concentration, precipitate and dry. Centrifugation of the fermentation broth at 10,000 rpm for 15min gave cell pellets that were discarded

Shengjun Wu; Zhengyu Jin; Jin Moon Kim; Qunyi Tong; Hanqing Chen

2009-01-01

191

Diesel fuel by fermentation of wastes  

SciTech Connect

An improved diesel fuel which is entirely capable of preparation from renewable resources. The fuel comprises a blend of fermentation produced butanol and fermentation produced glycerides. The substrates useful for the butanol fermentation are conventional industrial waste products, such as cheese whey and low value carbohydrate containing waste materials such as corn cobs, wood chips, etc. Similar substrate materials are used in the fermentation or growth culture of glyceride producing microbes.

Pierce, S.M.; Wayman, M.

1983-01-11

192

Observations of the Vacuum Arc and Metal Transfer During Vacuum Consumable Arc Remelting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations have been made using high speed color photography of the vacuum arc and electrode surfaces during vacuum consumable arc remelting of a maraging steel alloy. Events on the film are coordinated with electrical signals from the vacuum arc. Based...

F. J. Zanner

1979-01-01

193

Quantum vacuum magneto-optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article we report on the recent experimental activities concerning the magneto-optics of quantum vacuum performed by our team based at the LNCMI of Toulouse. In particular, we will deal with quantum vacuum Cotton-Mouton and inverse Cotton-Mouton effects which have been predicted in the framework of Quantum electrodynamics. Finally, we will present our experiment on photon oscillations into massive particles in the presence of a magnetic field, an effect that could be a signature of physics beyond the standard model.

Battesti, Rémy; Berceau, Paul; Fouché, Mathilde; Rikken, Geert L. J. A.; Rizzo, Carlo

2013-01-01

194

Low investment approach to alcohol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper suggests attitudes for designing a low investment fuel alcohol plant instead of providing a specific blueprint, noting that the criteria for an agro-industrial complex can be applied rather than those of a modern chemical plant. In the case of fermenter design, for example, alternative approaches suggested are, the use of open-vat fermenters, tower fermentation maintaining high concentrations of

Bungay

1980-01-01

195

The fermentation process integrated with membrane distillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production in tubular bioreactor integrated with the membrane distillation (MD) system has been investigated. The fermentation of sugar with Saccharomyces cerevisiae proceeds with the formation of by-products, which tends to inhibit the yeast productivity. The removal of by-products from the fermenting broth by MD process increased the efficiency and the rate of sugar conversion to ethanol. The fermentation process

Marek Gryta

2001-01-01

196

Degradation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

5-Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) may occur in malt in high quantities depending on roasting conditions. However, the HMF content of different types of beers is relatively low, indicating its potential for degradation during fermentation. This study investigates the degradation kinetics of HMF in wort during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that HMF decreased exponentially as fermentation progressed. The first-order

Halise Gül Ak?ll?oglu; Burçe Ataç Mogol; Vural Gökmen

2011-01-01

197

Computer applications to fermentation processes  

SciTech Connect

A review of real-time digital computer applications to fermentation processes is presented. The state of instrumentation and the principles of operation are briefly examined with a special emphasis on the on-line capabilites. Also reviewed are the recent developments in bioreactor state/parameter estimation with the utilization of various measurements, macroscopic material-energy balances, and the principles of basic biochemistry. The use of these estimates toward control or modeling purposes is discussed. Finally, the advances in the application of modern computer control and optimization techniques to fermentation processes are presented. 515 references.

Wang, N.S.; Stephanopoulos, G.N.

1984-01-01

198

Minkowski vacuum stress tensor fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the fluctuations of the stress tensor for a massless scalar field in two- and four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime in the vacuum state. Covariant expressions for the stress tensor correlation function are obtained as sums of derivatives of a scalar function. These expressions allow one to express spacetime averages of the correlation function as finite integrals. We also study the

Thomas A. Roman; L. H. Ford

2005-01-01

199

Vacuum Distillation of Americium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200 exp 0 C and 10 exp -6 torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal we...

J. W. Berry J. B. Knighton C. A. Nannie

1982-01-01

200

Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2011-12-05

201

Vacuum-injection-molding processing  

SciTech Connect

An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

1982-01-01

202

A simple triggered vacuum gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple triggered vacuum gap has previously been described by the authors in this journal (see ibid., vol.5, 415, 1972). Further studies have resulted in improvement of the performance with regard to sensitivity and consistency of the trigger characteristics and immunity from bridging due to metal particles eroded from the arc. The earlier design suffered from rather frequent bridging of

N. Vidyardhi; R. S. N. Rau

1973-01-01

203

High Temperature Ultrahigh Vacuum Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All-metal valves heatable up to 300 to 400 C in closed and open position were developed for handling aggressive gases such as UF6 in high vacuum technology. Sealing aspects of valves with large nominal width, such as transfer valve NW 150 and corner valve...

W. Baechler G. Jokisch H. P. Kabelitz K. Teutenberg

1976-01-01

204

Vacuum pumping system for TPX  

SciTech Connect

The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

St. Onge, K.D.

1995-12-31

205

Vacuum Pyrolysis of Sodium Stearate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol ext...

S. L. Chong

1985-01-01

206

Sizing the vacuum chambers conservatively  

SciTech Connect

This note will examine many different scenarios, both optimistic and pessimistic, for the performance of the B Factory. The primary reason for this is to establish limits for the emittances in the two rings. This information will be needed to ensure that the vacuum chambers are sized to permit the maximum flexibility. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

Hutton, A.

1990-05-21

207

APS storage ring vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components.

R. C. Niemann; R. Benaroya; M. Choi; R. J. Dortwegt; G. A. Goeppner; J. Gonczy; C. Krieger; J. Howell; R. W. Nielsen; B. Roop; R. B. Wehrle

1991-01-01

208

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

209

PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

210

Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations  

SciTech Connect

Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1998-02-20

211

Development of a Vacuum Superinsulation Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vacuum superinsulation system with pressure resistant, temperature resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency was developed. Vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performe...

H. Timm D. Seefeldt C. Nitze

1983-01-01

212

Development of a Vacuum Superinsulation Panel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After completion of the investigations the vacuum-insulated panel is available as prototype. The aim of the investigations was to optimize and to finalize the vacuum superinsulation system with regard to a pressure-resistant, temperature-resistant thermal...

H. Timm D. Seefeldt C. Nitze

1983-01-01

213

Materials for ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses materials for use in ultrahigh vacuum systems of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} Torr or lower. The author briefly discusses alloys, solders, insulators and joining methods for vacuum systems. (JDL)

Lee, G.

1989-08-15

214

14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain flammable...

2010-01-01

215

14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain flammable...

2009-01-01

216

The History of Vacuum Regulation Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inordinate amount of time, money and anguish has been invested in changing the ways that vacuum is controlled in milking machines. These extraordinary efforts have not resulted in a commensurate improvement in milking performance. There are two fundamental methods of influencing the vacuum in the milking machine: 1) a device to regulate 'system' vacuum, usually located near the receiver

Douglas J. Reinemann

217

Drying leather with vacuum and toggling sequentially  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated a drying method that will enable leather to be dried under vacuum and stretch sequentially to improve area yield. Vacuum drying offers fast speed at a low temperature, which would be advantageous to heat-vulnerable chrome-free leather. Adding a toggle action after vacuum drying cou...

218

High rate vacuum deposition of polymer electrolytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new, high rate, vacuum processes have been developed for the deposition of polymer electrolyte layers on wide web substrates. One method involves the vacuum extrusion of monomer salt solutions followed by e-beam or ultraviolet (UV) curing. The second method involves the vacuum flash evaporation of the monomer salt solution followed by e-beam or UV curing. Each method is compatible

J. D. Affinito; M. E. Gross; C. A. Coronado; G. C. Dunham; P. M. Martin

1996-01-01

219

Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum superinsulation system with pressure resistant, temperature resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency was developed. Vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. Applications include coverings of linings with high temperature and\\/or pressure requirements. A vacuum insulated panel prototype was built.

H. Timm; D. Seefeldt; C. Nitze

1983-01-01

220

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation

R. A. Rucinski; K. D. Dixon; R. Krasa; K. J. Krempetz; G. T. Mulholland; G. R. Trotter; J. B. Urbin

1993-01-01

221

Increasing electric standoff between conductors in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed power systems have limitations on power delivery. One limitation is the breakdown potential between conductive surfaces in vacuum. In a vacuum breakdown, a vacuum arc is generated between the surfaces. The microscopic limit on the breakdown potential is at the onset of field emission from the surface. The microscopic field for the onset of field emission is in excess

Donald Pellinen

2007-01-01

222

Charging and Discharge in Vacuum and Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success of vacuum electronic devices often depends on secure electrical insulation of the components. The presence of solid insulator significantly decreases the insulation strength of the vacuum apparatus. Charging of solid insulator in the pre-breakdown process enhances the electric field near the triple junction and leads to electrical discharge. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) on spacecraft surface is similar to other vacuum

Mengu Cho

2007-01-01

223

14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature...

2010-01-01

224

14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section...Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There must be means...pressure in the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature...

2009-01-01

225

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2010-10-01

226

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 6 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 ...GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system....

2009-10-01

227

Feed component inhibition in ethanolic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

Inhibition by secondary feed components can limit productivity and restrict process options for the production of ethanol by fermentation. New fermentation processes (such as vacuum or extractive fermentation), while selectively removing ethanol, can concentrate nonmetabolized feed components in the remaining broth. Stillage recycle to reduce stillage waste treatment results in buildup of nonmetabolized feed components. Continuous culture experiments are presented establishing an inhibition order: CaCl/sub 2/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > NaCl, NH/sub 4/Cl > KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ > xylose, MgCl/sub 2/ > MgSO/sub 4/ > KCl. Reduction of the water activity alone is not an adequate predictor of the variation in inhibitory concentration among the different components tested. As a general trend, specific ethanol productivity increases and cell production decreases as inhibitors are added at higher concentration. It is postulated that these results can be interpreted in terms of an increase in energy requirements for cell maintenance under hypertonic (stressed) conditions. Ion and carbohydrate transport and specific toxic effects are reviewed as they related to the postulated inhibition mechanism. Glycerol production increases under hypertonic conditions and glycerol is postulated to function as a nontoxic osmoregulator. Calcium was the most inhibitory component tested, causing an 80% decline in cell mass production at 0.23 mol Ca/sup 2 +//L and calcium is present at substantial concentration in many carbohydate sources. For a typical final cane molasses feed, stillage recycle must be limited to less than one-third of the feed rate; otherwise inhibitory effects will be observed.

Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

1984-01-01

228

Taming the {alpha}-vacuum  

SciTech Connect

An interacting scalar field theory in de Sitter space appears to be nonrenormalizable for a generic {alpha}-vacuum state. This pathology arises since the usual propagator used allows for a constructive interference among propagators in loop corrections, which produces divergences that are not proportional to standard counterterms. This interference can be avoided by defining a new propagator for the {alpha}-vacuum based on a generalized time-ordering prescription. The generating functional associated with this propagator contains a source that couples to the field both at a point and at its antipode. To one loop order, we show that a set of theories with very general antipodal interactions is causal and renormalizable.

Collins, Hael; Holman, R. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2004-10-15

229

Decoherence delays false vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ?CDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

Bachlechner, Thomas C.

2013-05-01

230

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

231

Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1983-11-21

232

Vacuum distillation of americium metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-purity americium metal has been distilled in multigram quantities from a plutonium-americium alloy. The procedure consisted of a two-stage vacuum distillation carried out at 1200°C and 10⁻⁶ torr pressure. Four batches of americium metal were produced ranging in weight from 13.3 grams to 54.1 grams. The purity of the americium product ranged from 99.27 to 99.79%.

J. W. Berry; J. B. Knighton; C. A. Nannie

1982-01-01

233

Quantum vacuum and accelerated expansion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's heat kernel expansion.

Broda, B.; Szanecki, M.

234

Vacuum Ultraviolet Irradiation of Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interest in incoherent sources for wavelength-selective photochemistry has increased lately, but little is still known about the behavior of polymers when exposed to far UV and vacuum UV (VUV) radiation. The same dearth of information exists regarding UV (VUV) radiation emitted by low-pressure plasmas during polymer treatment. In order to study VUV-UV effects on several polymers (polyethylene - PE,

A. C. Fozza; J. E. Klemberg-Sapieha; Michael R. Wertheimer

1999-01-01

235

Vacuum stability of Standard Model++  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest results of the ATLAS and CMS experiments point to a preferred narrow Higgs mass range (m_h \\simeq 124 - 126 GeV) in which the effective potential of the Standard Model (SM) develops a vacuum instability at a scale 10^{9} -10^{11} GeV, with the precise scale depending on the precise value of the top quark mass and the strong coupling constant. Motivated by this experimental situation, we present here a detailed investigation about the stability of the SM^{++} vacuum, which is characterized by a simple extension of the SM obtained by adding to the scalar sector a complex SU(2) singlet that has the quantum numbers of the right-handed neutrino, H", and to the gauge sector an U(1) that is broken by the vacuum expectation value of H". We derive the complete set of renormalization group equations at one loop. We then pursue a numerical study of the system to determine the triviality and vacuum stability bounds, using a scan of 10^4 random set of points to fix the initial conditions. We show that, if there is no mixing in the scalar sector, the top Yukawa coupling drives the quartic Higgs coupling to negative values in the ultraviolet and, as for the SM, the effective potential develops an instability below the Planck scale. However, for a mixing angle -0.35 \\alt \\alpha \\alt -0.02 or 0.01 \\alt \\alpha \\alt 0.35, with the new scalar mass in the range 500 GeV \\alt m_{h"} \\alt 8 TeV, the SM^{++} ground state can be absolutely stable up to the Planck scale. These results are largely independent of TeV-scale free parameters in the model: the mass of the non-anomalous U(1) gauge boson and its branching fractions.

Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Goldberg, Haim; Huang, Xing; Lüst, Dieter; Taylor, Tomasz R.; Vlcek, Brian

2013-02-01

236

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of a barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yearns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

Shurter, R.P.

1990-10-10

237

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of sodium stearate was studied to provide useful information for Green River oil shale pyrolysis. Sodium stearate is a typical compound of carboxylic acid salts amounting to 3.6% of total organic materials in the oil shale by methanol extraction. Sodium stearate contained in a stainless steel miniature reactor was heated at 450°C in a fluidized sand bath. Pyrolysis

Chong

1985-01-01

238

Holographic Description of Vacuum Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a holographic description of vacuum bubbles, with possible implications for a consistent description of the multiverse. In particular, we elaborate on the recent observation by Maldacena, that the interior of AdS bubbles can be described in terms of CFT degrees of freedom living on the worldsheet of the bubble wall. We consider the scattering of bulk gravitons in the ambient parent vacuum, off the bubble wall. In the dual description, the transmission coefficient is interpreted as the probability that a graviton is absorbed by the worldsheet CFT degrees of freedom. The result is in agreement with intuitive expectations. Conformal invariance is not exact in this setup, and the leading corrections due to the IR and UV cut-offs are displayed. Aside from bulk scattering states, we find that when a bubble nucleates within a parent dS vacuum, there is a zero mode of the graviton which describes lower dimensional gravity with a finite Newton's constant. This massless graviton lives within one Hubble radius away from the bubble wall. Possible implications for a fully holographic description of the inflating multiverse are briefly discussed.

Garriga, J.

239

Improved processes for the production and isolation of dynemicin A and large-scale fermentation in a 10000-liter fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Supplementing the culture ofMicromonospora chersina sp. nov. No. M956-1 with NaI (0.5 mg\\/l) enhanced the production of dynemicin A by 35-fold in shake flask culture. Homogeneous dynemicin A was obtained from the whole broth extract by Dicalite chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and vacuum liquid chromatography. Gram quantities of dynemicin A were obtained from the fermentation ofM. chersina sp. nov.

Kin Sing Lam; Jeffrey A. Titus; Thomas T. Dabrah; Dennis L. Kimball; Jacqueline M. Veitch; Donald R. Gustavson; Bruce J. Compton; James A. Matson; Salvatore Forenza; John Ross; David Miller; John Roach; John Beutler

1992-01-01

240

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research project is to build and test a pressure fermentation system for the production of ethanol from synthesis gas. The fermenters, pumps, controls, and analytical system will be procured or fabricated and assembled in our laboratory. This system will then be used to determine the effects of high pressure on growth and ethanol production by clostridium ljungdahlii. The limits of cell concentration and mass transport relationships will be found in continuous stirred tank reactor and immobilized cell reactors. The minimum retention times and reactor volumes will be found for ethanol production in these reactors. Retention times of a few seconds are expected to result from these experiments. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Not Available

1991-01-01

241

Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.  

PubMed

There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production. PMID:17765349

Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

2007-07-10

242

Vacuum Technology and Standardization-An Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

Akram, H. M.; Rashid, H.

2011-06-01

243

Aerobic fermentation in tobacco pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the genes coding for the two dedicated enzymes of ethanolic fermentation, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), and show that they are functional in pollen. Two PDC-encoding genes were isolated, which displayed reciprocal regulation: PDC1 was anaerobically induced in leaves, whereas PDC2 mRNA was absent in leaves, but constitutively present in pollen. A flux through the ethanolic

Marcel Bucher; Karl A. Brander; Sandro Sbicego; Therese Mandel; Cris Kuhlemeier

1995-01-01

244

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

PubMed

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-06-24

245

Mechanical design of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) vacuum system uses most of the vacuum system from the original TMX and substantially increases its capabilities. The vacuum system provides the main structure for the experimental apparatus, as well as providing and maintaining the vacuum environment. The vacuum vessel provides the structure supporting all magnets, as they are contained inside the vacuum

D. D. Lang; M. O. Calderon; S. R. Thomas; D. R. Garner

1981-01-01

246

Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 2. A Vacuum Energy Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of our undergraduate physics courses, we study what can happen in space, but space itself plays a passive role. In basic cosmology, the opposite is true. It is the behavior of space that plays the major role. In this, paper #2, we first discuss the nature of a simple expanding space, and then look at the consequence of applying Newton's law of gravity in this space. The calculations are particularly simple if most of the energy behaves like the vacuum energy discussed earlier in paper #1.1 The calculation is easy but the results are spectacular.

Huggins, Elisha

2013-10-01

247

Microbiology of Naturally Fermented Fish (Sardinella sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation of Sardinella sp. were enumerated and characterized. Total heterotrophic bacterial counts obtained after six days of fermentation were 6.23 × 10 cfu\\/g and 5.65 × 10 cfu\\/g for fish treated with 10 and 15% (w\\/v) sodium chloride, respectively. Counts on MacConkey agar increased steadily as fermentation progressed and reached a peak at the sixth

S. C. Achinewhu; E. N. Amadi; I. S. Barimalaa; J. Eke

2004-01-01

248

Mechanism of the Butanol-Acetone Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE mechanism of sugar breakdown in alcoholic fermentation by yeast, lactic acid fermentation by lactic acid bacteria and glycolysis by animal tissues has been elucidated, but the intermediate steps of the butanol-acetone fermentation are not yet known. The main problem, the transformation of C6-compounds into C4-compounds (like butyric acid or butanol), has not yet boon solved. Two facts indicate that

E. Simon

1943-01-01

249

Optimization of spent sulfite liquor fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemicellulose-derived sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), a process stream of the sulfite pulping process, may be fermented to ethanol. Low nutrient concentration, the presence of inhibitors, and a large proportion of xylose limit fermentation of the sugars in SSL. Factorial design experiments were used to find optimum conditions for hexose and xylose fermentation using a robust SSL-adapted (non-xylose

Steve S. Helle; Tony Lin; Sheldon J. B. Duff

2008-01-01

250

Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually consists of loose substrate particles, although in research situations agar like substrates are also common. Solid-state

M. J. Hoogschagen

2007-01-01

251

Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

Walter P. Hammes

252

Identification and succession of lactic acid bacteria during fermentation of 'urutan', a Balinese indigenous fermented sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Urutan' is a Balinese traditional fermented sausage, which is made of lean pork and fat mixed with spices, sugar, and salt. The mixture is stuffed into cleaned pig intestine and fermented under uncontrolled condition during sun drying for 5 days. The investigation showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were the dominating bacteria during 'urutan' fermentation. Among the 71 isolates obtained,

N. S. Antara; I. N. Sujaya; A. Yokota; K. Asano; W. R. Aryanta; F. Tomita

2002-01-01

253

Fermentation Kinetics and Process Economics for the Production of Ethanol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this study was to develop and optimize fermentation technology for the production of ethanol. Using glucose as the fermentable substrate, optimal fermentation parameters of pH, temperature, oxygen tension, and sugar concentration were determine...

C. R. Wilke G. R. Cysewski

1976-01-01

254

Fermentation of Soluble Cello-Oligosaccharides by Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast strains that ferment cellobiose were examined with respect to fermentation on soluble cellodextrin preparations. Hydrolysis of the fermentation products was followed using thin layer chromatography. Candida and Brettanomyces sp. hydrolyze cellobiose...

S. M. Lastick D. D. Spindler K. Grohmann

1983-01-01

255

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2009-04-01

256

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2010-04-01

257

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2013-04-01

258

Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol  

DOEpatents

A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

Glassner, David A. (4454 Satinwood Rd., Okemos, MI 48864); Jain, Mahendra K. (3950 Jonquil La., Okemos, MI 48864); Datta, Rathin (442 W. Melrose Ave., #3, Chicago, IL 60657)

1991-01-01

259

Design and simulation of a vacuum micropump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of micropumps developed result in pressure differences of less than about 3 mH2O. In this work, a vacuum micropump with cascaded chambers is proposed; it is composed of two layers of reciprocal actuated membranes and two layers of check valves. Design of the vacuum micropump with electrostatic and piezoelectric actuators as well as cantilever check valves is proposed. The selection of actuation modes and actuation valves is addressed. Two theoretical design functions are derived to calculate the maximum attainable vacuum with the operation rounds of the membranes and the cascaded stage number. The analyses suggest that large membrane displacement, small dead volume of the chamber, and small backward leakage rate are preferred in obtaining higher vacuum. The increase of chamber stage numbers results in an exponential increase of the vacuum. The relationship between the vacuum and operation rounds is also similar to that between the vacuum and stage numbers: the more rounds the vacuum micropump is operated for, the higher the vacuum is obtained. The designed vacuum micropump can be integrated into the current IC techniques with batch production and high pumping ability.

Cui, Zhenjiang; Takoudis, Christos G.

2001-09-01

260

Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement  

DOEpatents

Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

Flaherty, Robert (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1981-01-01

261

Leak Detection in Vacuum Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. This module explains the importance of determining vacuum system integrity through leak qualification tests. Learners are introduced to a systematic set of methods for determining the existence of a leak, as well as its size, type and location. Emphasis is placed on the use of a helium mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The centerpiece of this module is a computer program that simulates leak detection with an MSLD.

2012-12-26

262

Vacuum friction in rotating particles.  

PubMed

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed. PMID:20867571

Manjavacas, A; García de Abajo, F J

2010-09-08

263

Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles  

SciTech Connect

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J. [Instituto de Optica--CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-09-10

264

Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions  

SciTech Connect

In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

265

Laser-triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

1990-12-18

266

Laser-triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

This invention pertains to a laser-triggered vacuum switch that has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 6 figs.

Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

1988-09-27

267

Laser-triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowgill, Donald F. (Danville, CA)

1990-01-01

268

Vacuum drying of oak wood  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du [L.E.T.-UA CNRS, Poitiers (France)

1995-12-31

269

Electrospray deposition of carbon nanotubes in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report on a novel and effective technique for the deposition of carbon nanotubes onto surfaces in vacuum directly from a liquid suspension. The technique, based on in-vacuum electrospray ionization, has the potential to bridge the gap between high resolution techniques requiring ultra-high vacuum conditions, and non-volatile molecules and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes. Atomic force microscopy of double-walled

James N O’Shea; John B Taylor; Janine C Swarbrick; Graziano Magnano; Louise C Mayor; Karina Schulte

2007-01-01

270

alpha-vacuum and inflationary bispectrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the non-Gaussianity originated from the alpha-vacuum on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For the alpha-vacuum, there exists a correlation between points in the acausal two patches of de Sitter spactime. Such kind of correlation can lead to large local form non-Gaussianity in the alpha-vacuum. For the single field slow-roll inflationary scenario, the space-time is in

Wei Xue; Bin Chen

2009-01-01

271

Oil spill cleanup using vacuum technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum technique is established for oil spill cleanup. It consists of environmental tank, oil-collecting unit, vacuum system, and air distributors. The vacuum technique is found very effective under all possible operating conditions. Several operating parameters are investigated such as hole arrangement (vertical and horizontal slots), air distributors location (one-side and two-sides strategies), air volumetric flow rate over the range

Mazmdouh T Ghannam; Omar Chaalal

2003-01-01

272

Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide  

SciTech Connect

In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

1994-03-01

273

Electrical strength of multilayer vacuum insulators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

Harris, J. R.; Kendig, M.; Poole, B.; Sanders, D. M.; Caporaso, G. J.

2008-12-01

274

LCLS XTOD Tunnel Vacuum System (XVTS)  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum system of the XVTS (X-Ray Vacuum Transport System) for the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) XTOD (X-ray Transport, Optics and Diagnostics) system has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's NTED (New Technologies Engineering Division) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The system layout, detailed analyses and selection of the vacuum components for the XTOD tunnel section are presented in this preliminary design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated. Also included are the plans for procurement, mechanical integration, and the cost estimates.

Beale, R; Duffy, P; Kishiyama, K; Mckernan, M; McMahon, D; Lewis, S; Trent, J; Tung, L; Shen, S

2005-11-04

275

Gravity effects to the Vacuum Bubbles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the nucleation process of the vacuum bubbles in curved spacetime. We systematically classify the vacuum bubbles in a de Sitter background and investigate the tunneling between the degenerate vacua in symmetric double-well potential. We also show that the existence of the small false vacuum bubbles within the true vacuum background in the gravity theory with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We discuss the dynamics of the bubble after its materialization. This article is prepared for the proceedings of Astrophysics And Cosmology After Gamow in Odessa, Ukraine, Aug 2009.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo

2010-01-01

276

Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators  

SciTech Connect

The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

2008-07-01

277

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

278

Anaerobic fermentations of cellulose to methane  

SciTech Connect

A review with 54 references is presented. Subjects discussed include cellulose degradation in the presence of high sulfate, interspecies H transfer, cellulose fermentation to CH4 and CO2, cellulose fermentation in the rumen, interaction between primary and ancillary microorganisms, and H metabolism in desulfovibrio.

Peck, H.D. Jr.; Odom, M.

1981-01-01

279

Slowly fermentable dietary fibers for colonic health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary fiber refers to a broad class of nutrients that have differing physiological effects; the ideal dietary fiber is likely to: (1) have a low, steady rate of gas production to minimize bloating; (2) produce high levels of short chain fatty acids to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria and reduce inflammation; (3) ferment slowly to deliver beneficial fermentation products

Devin J Rose

2008-01-01

280

Exploring Microbial Fermentation with Korean Kimchee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To get a closer look at metabolism and succession, consider the fermentation process for making traditional Kimchee. This non-pathogenic system provides opportunities for real time data acquisition and analysis. Experimental data is provided for variables such as pH and O2 levels. * measure key metabolic indicators and observe succession in a fermentation culture for making Kimchee

John M. Greenler (Beloit College;Biology); Robin McC. Greenler (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

281

African fermented foods: from art to science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fermentation of food has the following advantages: longer keeping quality, variety in flavour, making inedible foods edible. In addition, the fermented foods have enhanced nutritional values and decreased toxicity. Unfortunately, production of these foods in most African countries is largely unsophisticated and does not allow for increased production to meet increasing demand. To improve the production, there should

S. A. Odunfa

1988-01-01

282

Fermentation Studies on Extracts of Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Strain CFCC 8 fermented 10% w/v sucrose-equivalent fodd...

J. M. Smith

1983-01-01

283

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

284

Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ecology of bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 independent phage isolates, including ...

285

Mass spectrometer monitoring of a yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow-through membrane based mass spectrometer is employed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling fermentations. A sample stream in either the gaseous or liquid phase can be continuously passed through the interface, with a fraction of the volatile compounds transferred into the spectrometer. For the monitoring of alcohol fermentation employing bakers' yeast, a water-saturated carrier gas (Nâ) is bubbled

J. C. Weaver; C. R. Perley; C. L. Cooney

1980-01-01

286

BUTANOL FERMENTATION RESEARCH: UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM MANIPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An overview of advances in acetone-butanol fermentation research is presented with specific reference to the history of acetone-butanol fermentation, genetic manipulation of the butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, as well as upstream and downstream processing. Butanol is a superi...

287

Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic SCFA formation from fermentable carbohydrate is important for the maintenance of morphologic and functional integrity of the colonic epithelium. Carbohydrate-induced diarrhea occurs when the amount of carbohydrate entering the colon exceeds its fermentation capacity. Deficient availability or utilization of SCFA, mainly of n-butyrate, is the cause of diversion colitis and may play important roles in colonic carcinogenesis, in starvation

K. H. Soergel

1994-01-01

288

Genetics of Lactobacilli in Food Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacilli play a substantial role in food biotechnology and influence our quality of life by their fermentative and probiotic properties. Despite their obvious importance in fermentation ecology and biotechnology only recent years have brought some insight into the genetics of lactobacilli. These genetic investigations allow the elucidation of traits determinative for competitiveness and ecology and thus product safety and quality.

Rudi F. Vogel; Matthias Ehrmann

1996-01-01

289

Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source\\/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications. This review discusses fermentative hydrogen production from various points of view. First, the theoretical

Jan Bartacek; Jana Zabranska; Piet N. L. Lens

2007-01-01

290

Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious indus- trial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Scle- rotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream process- ing and applications of scleroglucan.

Shrikant A. Survase; Parag S. Saudagar; Ishwar B. Bajaj; Rekha S. Singhal

291

Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)|

Moore, Eugene B.

1977-01-01

292

Improvement of fermentative hydrogen production: various approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of biomass or carbohydrate-based substrates presents a promising route of biological hydrogen production compared with photosynthetic or chemical routes. Pure substrates, including glucose, starch and cellulose, as well as different organic waste materials can be used for hydrogen fermentation. Among a large number of microbial species, strict anaerobes and facultative anaerobic chemoheterotrophs, such as clostridia and enteric bacteria, are

Kaushik Nath; Debabrata Das

2004-01-01

293

Hydrogen fermentation of organic municipal wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Hydrogen gas is recognized as a promising energy resource in the future. Microbial hydrogen fermentation would be an attractive process for hydrogen recovery. In particular, hydrogen production using fermentative bacteria has some advantages such as a high rate of hydrogen,production without light. In this study, the hydrogen production from organic wastes was investigated using batch experiments. Bean curd manufacturing

T. noike; O. Mizuno

294

Amino acid fermentation by Bacteroides melaninogenicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each of four strains ofBacteroides melaninogenicus grew well in a trypticaseyeast extract medium, without carbohydrate. Addition of glucose did not increase growth, and the sugar was fermented to only a limited extent. However, growth decreased when the trypticase concentration of the medium was reduced. These observations suggest that amino acid fermentation is of major importance in the energy metabolism ofB.

Ann Wahren; R. J. Gibbons

1970-01-01

295

Microbiology of the malolactic fermentation: Molecular aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malolactic fermentation conducted by lactic acid bacteria follows alcoholic fermentation during winemaking, and several positive effects make it indispensable for most wines. Research has focused on the growth and physiology of lactic acid bacteria in wine; resulting in the design of malolactic starter cultures. Future work on these starters will concentrate on aromatic changes as additional criteria for strain selection.

Aline Lonvaud-Funel

1995-01-01

296

Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was

1987-01-01

297

Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract  

SciTech Connect

Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

1980-04-01

298

Recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a two-step process consisting of vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation was employed to treat waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Firstly, WPCBs were pyrolysed under vacuum condition at 600°C for 30min in a lab-scale reactor. Then, the obtained pyrolysis residue was heated under vacuum until the solder was melted, and then the molten solder was separated from

Yihui Zhou; Wenbiao Wu; Keqiang Qiu

2010-01-01

299

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design

1998-01-01

300

Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

Hussain, Z.

1995-08-01

301

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae.  

PubMed

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C; Grossman, Arthur R

2013-05-22

302

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae  

PubMed Central

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

2013-01-01

303

Discharge Properties and Emitted Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on reliability of vacuum interrupter (VI) such as detection method of the slow leak has been extensively carried out, while study on discharge properties in low vacuum of VI is still insufficient. In this report, we experimentally investigated discharge properties inside VI under closed contact and open contact conditions of main contactors in low vacuum of VI to simulate

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki; Masayuki Hikita

2005-01-01

304

TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

Sekachev, I.

2008-03-01

305

Laser sealed vacuum insulation window  

DOEpatents

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01

306

Minkowski vacuum stress tensor fluctuations  

SciTech Connect

We study the fluctuations of the stress tensor for a massless scalar field in two- and four-dimensional Minkowski spacetime in the vacuum state. Covariant expressions for the stress tensor correlation function are obtained as sums of derivatives of a scalar function. These expressions allow one to express spacetime averages of the correlation function as finite integrals. We also study the correlation between measurements of the energy density along a world line. We find that these measurements may be either positively correlated or anticorrelated. The anticorrelated measurements can be interpreted as telling us that, if one measurement yields one sign for the averaged energy density, a successive measurement with a suitable time delay is likely to yield a result with the opposite sign.

Ford, L.H.; Roman, Thomas A. [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, Connecticut 06050 (United States)

2005-11-15

307

Laser sealed vacuum insulating window  

DOEpatents

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1985-08-19

308

Giant magnetoelectric effect in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film cantilever type sensors made of AlN and FeCoSiB are operated in vacuum, reducing air damping and thus increasing the ME coefficient and improving the limit of detection (LOD) for ac-magnetic fields. Depending on the sensor geometry, the response is increased by a factor of 5 resulting in a ME coefficient of 20 kV/cmOe at 152 Hz and by a factor of 11 with 12 kV/cmOe at 4.7 kHz and an improvement in LOD by an order of magnitude. Modelling these cantilevers reveals dominant contributions of viscoelastic and molecular damping above and intrinsic damping below 10-2 mbar, respectively.

Kirchhof, Christine; Krantz, Matthias; Teliban, Iulian; Jahns, Robert; Marauska, Stephan; Wagner, Bernhard; Knöchel, Reinhard; Gerken, Martina; Meyners, Dirk; Quandt, Eckhard

2013-06-01

309

All-metal sealing elements for high-vacuum components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of high-vacuum technology in many areas of science and engineering requires vacuum equipment to be simpler in service and to take less expense for manufacture. A sealing element of a new design for high-vacuum equipment and brief results of tests of specimens of vacuum valves are presented in this article. A vacuum valve consists of a sealing unit in

N. G. Gavrilov; L. A. Mironenko

2000-01-01

310

Vacuum energy in the bag model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all

P. Candelas

1983-01-01

311

Vacuum energy in the bag model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum energy of the Yang-Mills field is examined for the conditions of the bag model. The dominance of high-frequency effects results in a vacuum energy that decomposes naturally into a volume energy, a surface energy, and higher shape energies. These quantities are identified with the parameters of the bag model. The imposition of confining boundary conditions for all frequencies

P. Candelas

1986-01-01

312

Nonconservation of energy by the vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If collapsed objects or black holes absorb energy from the vacuum, then their increasing mass will generate a repulsive gravitational force, which might account for the present cosmic acceleration. Direct evidence for vacuum instability should be sought in high-energy particle collisions, where energy conservation has not been seriously tested.

Bayer, Gregor W.

2006-10-01

313

Coherent control of broadband vacuum squeezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the observation of optical fields carrying squeezed vacuum states at sideband frequencies from 10Hz to above 35MHz . The field was generated with type-I optical parametric oscillation below threshold at 1064nm . A coherent, unbalanced classical modulation field at 40MHz enabled the generation of error signals for stable phase control of the squeezed vacuum field with respect to

Simon Chelkowski; Henning Vahlbruch; Karsten Danzmann; Roman Schnabel

2007-01-01

314

Simple vacuum experiments for undergraduate student laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of typical simple experiments, intended for didactic laboratory vacuum classes for undergraduate students majoring in Physics, Physics Engineering and Material Sciences, is presented.For all the experiments, the students perform actual measurements of characteristics of different vacuum components or material properties and compare the obtained results with the values tabulated in the literature: pumping speed measurements, leak measurements, outgassing

J. M. F. dos Santos

2005-01-01

315

Simple vacuum experiments for undergraduate student laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of typical simple experiments, intended for didactic laboratory vacuum classes for undergraduate students majoring in Physics, Physics Engineering and Material Sciences, is presented. For all the experiments, the students perform actual measurements of characteristics of different vacuum components or material properties and compare the obtained results with the values tabulated in the literature: pumping speed measurements, leak measurements,

J. M. F. dos Santos

2005-01-01

316

Vacuum Impregnation Viability of Some Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of applying vacuum impregnation to modify fruits and vegetable composition and structure for a number of industrial uses (minimal processing, freezing or drying pretreatments, etc.). Vacuum impregnation technology consists in the immersion of vegetable products, characterized through high porosity (apple, quince, strawberries, apricots, peaches, peppers, mushrooms, etc), in solutions which

Claudiu Ursachi; Rodica Segal; Claudia Muresan

317

RF amplifiers based on vacuum microelectronic technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the advent of practical high-performance gated vacuum emitters would have a strong impact on RF source technology. Gated emitters, typified by the field emitter array (FEA), combining the advantages of electron transport in vacuum with those of solid-state microfabrication, would enable the development of new classes of density modulated RF sources. These devices may offer the

R. K. Parker; R. H. Abrams

1990-01-01

318

Solid state ionics applications in vacuum technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of proton and oxygen ion-conducting ceramics to vacuum technology is discussed. The study is an outgrowth of our previous work where it was demonstrated that hydrogen and oxygen gas may conveniently be introduced into vacua using these ceramics. In the present work, a novel water vapor source for vacuum purposes is presented. Various internal gas sources for O2

T Schober

2001-01-01

319

Status of vacuum and plasma technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum and surface technology have significantly contributed to the rapid progress in microelectronics, data storage, displays, photonics, aerospace, automotive, architectural glass and other industries. One of the key elements in the impressive development of vacuum and surface technology is the increased use of plasma processes. Plasma can be used as a tool for heating, evaporation, sputtering, etching and ionization as

Horst Heidsieck

1999-01-01

320

Materials for high vacuum technology, an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern accelerators stringent requirements are placed on materials of vacuum systems. Their physical and mechanical properties, machinability, weldability or brazeability are key parameters. Adequate strength, ductility, magnetic properties at room as well as low temperatures are important factors for vacuum systems of accelerators working at cryogenic temperatures, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at CERN. In

Stefano Sgobba

2006-01-01

321

String Field Theory Around the Tachyon Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that around the tachyon vacuum the kinetic term of cubic open string field theory is made purely of ghost operators we are led to gauge invariant actions which manifestly implement the absence of open string dynamics around this vacuum. We test this proposal by showing the existence of lump solutions of arbitrary codimension in this string field theory. The

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

322

Development of Low Noise Vacuum Vane Pumps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noise reduction of rotary vane vacuum pumps is considered. Noise parameters were examined during the development of a vacuum pump with flow rate 630 cum/hr. The acoustic state of a serial pump was studied and a modified serial pump was built. Noise reduct...

H. P. Berges D. Vorberg

1984-01-01

323

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC I. Kinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC has been studied emphasizing two aspects: the kinetics of PVC pyrolysis reactions and the yields of pyrolysis products. The purpose of the kinetic study is to identify each apparent reaction involved in PVC pyrolysis. Three stages of weight loss have been evidenced by TG analysis during PVC decomposition both under vacuum and in nitrogen atmosphere, while

Rosa Miranda; Jin Yang; Christian Roy; Cornelia Vasile

1999-01-01

324

Large rotary vacuum seals for manual operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of rotary vacuum seals having shaft diameters of 3.9 in and 5.0 in. is described. Mechanical support for the seals is provided by bearings and O-rings are used for vacuum sealing. The seals have been successfully applied to the rotation of large windows to preserve transparency during photolysis studies.

M W Jones; L J Rigby

1967-01-01

325

Kinetics of Osmotic Dehydration under Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration under vacuum was studied. The effect of vacuum application was explained on the basis of the diffusional osmotic transport parameter, the mass transfer coefficient and interfacial area. A mathematical model is proposed to explain the mechanism of water transport during osmotic dehydration based on a more fundamental parameter, the osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure ratios were calculated for dehydration

N. K. Rastogi; K. S. M. S. Raghavarao

1996-01-01

326

MICROWAVE VACUUM DRYING OF BANANA SLICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum drying of banana slices was studied in a domestic microwave oven. The results show that banana temperature rises uniformly and rapidly to the saturation water vapor temperature corresponding to the vacuum used then rises slowly until most of the free moisture is lost. The thermal and drying efficiencies were found to drop from almost 100% at the beginning of

Nidhal Mousa; Mohammed Farid

2002-01-01

327

Recent advances in vacuum arc ion sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense beams of metal ions can be formed from a vacuum arc ion source. Broadbeam extraction is convenient, and the time-averaged ion beam current delivered downstream can readily be in the tens of milliamperes range. The vacuum arc ion source has for these reasons found good application for metallurgical surface modification--it provides relatively simple and inexpensive access to high dose

I. G. Brown; A. Anders; S. Anders; M. R. Dickinson; R. A. MacGill; E. M. Oks

1995-01-01

328

Gravitational effects on and of vacuum decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for a classical field theory to have two stable homogeneous ground states, only one of which is an absolute energy minimum. In the quantum version of the theory, the ground state of higher energy is a false vacuum, rendered unstable by barrier penetration. There exists a well-established semiclassical theory of the decay of such false vacuums. In

Sidney Coleman; Frank de Luccia

1980-01-01

329

Vacuum-Coaters Construction and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thin films obtained by high-vacuum deposition are characterized by high layer quality and reproducibility of layer properties. As a rule, the evacuation process of modern vacuum-coating equipment will be automatic. Most frequently, use is made of combinat...

G. Kienel

1975-01-01

330

Electrical breakdown of small gaps in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of the characteristics of an electric arc breakdown in vacuum between two silver or silver-nickel alloy convex electrodes, enabled us to show experimentally that the process initiating discharge in vacuum is the electronic emission at the micrometer scale. Increased content of nickel in the alloy improves the insulation and achieves high resistance to erosion for low power arcs.

N. Zouache; A. Lefort

1997-01-01

331

Vacuum vessel and pumping system of TEXTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designs of the vacuum vessel and pumping system of the TEXTOR toroidal plasma experiment are presented. The vacuum vessel is an all-metal welded torus consisting of four large and four small rigid sections connected by eight bellows sections, and can be heated up to 400 C. Numerous portholes are provided for diagnostics, as well as pumping units, divertors and

D. A. Butzek; K. Derichs; W. Graf; A. Cosler; K. H. Dippel; M. Schuerer; W. Bieger

1979-01-01

332

The GANIL Vacuum System-Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GANIL heavy ion accelerator located in France consists mainly of two large separated sector cyclotrons. This paper discusses the vacuum characteristics, design and operation of the first of these cyclotrons, which has been on line since June 1982. The vacuum chamber is described as monolithic. It is made of stainless steel, mild steel, copper, elastomer, and plastic materials; the

G. Rommel

1983-01-01

333

MEMS vacuum packaging technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum packaging is essential for various kinds of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices for enhancing the performance and reliability. This paper presents our works on research on vacuum packaging of MEMS devices. A hermetical sealing technique has been developed, which involves the processes of anodic bonding for silicon and glass wafers with imperfect interface, adhesive bonding, glass frit bonding and silicon-to-gold

Y. Jin; Z. F. Wang; P. C. Lim; D. Y. Pan; J. Wei; C. K. Wong

2003-01-01

334

Vacuum Ultraviolet Photochemistry of Tetrahydrothiophene and Sulfolane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vacuum uv photolysis of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) involves the breaking of the S to alpha -C bond. Besides ethylene, C sub 3 H sub 6 and 1,3-butadiene are also formed. Photolyses of THT, tetrahydrofuran, and pyrrolidine are similar. The vacuum uv phot...

A. A. Scala I. Colon

1979-01-01

335

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7-GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The storage ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, RF, and insertion device systems. The vacuum

R. C. Niemann; R. Benaroya; M. Choi; R. J. Dortwegt; R. Ferry; G. A. Goeppner; J. D. Gonczy; C. Krieger; J. Howell; R. W. Nielsen; B. Roop; R. B. Wehrle

1991-01-01

336

Test Stand System for Vacuum Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test stand, designed to utilize all of the space inside a bell jar type vacuum system, is described. The stand affords simultaneous testing of several test setups and may be rotated from outside during tests without interfering with the vacuum. The stan...

D. F. Newman

1971-01-01

337

Test Stand System for Vacuum Chambers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test stand system for supporting test items in a vacuum chamber is described. The system consists of a frame adapted to conform to the inside of the vacuum chamber and supporting a central vertical shaft. The shaft rotates on bearings located at each en...

D. F. Newman

1973-01-01

338

Automatic Valve for a Backing Vacuum Pump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The automatic valve maintaining the constant current in the absorbing pump pipe when vacuum system pumping-out has been described. The valve overlaps the volume pumped out when the pump stops filling with that of the pump connection line with vacuum syste...

K. I. Gubrienko V. A. Pichugin

1976-01-01

339

Vacuum cooling of liquids: mathematical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum cooling is very often used when a fast temperature decrease of products is required. Particularly food, pharmaceutical and other industrial areas take advantage of a fast cooling process which reduces high temperature effects and minimizes the time during which, for example, an increased growth of microorganisms can occur. The basic principle of vacuum cooling consists in removing of the

M. Dostal; K. Petera

2004-01-01

340

Immobilized yeast cell systems for continuous fermentation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several yeast-related industries, continuous fermentation systems offer important economical advantages in comparison with traditional systems. Fermentation rates are significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation is combined with cell immobilization techniques to increase the yeast concentration in the fermentor. Hence the technique holds a great promise for the efficient production of fermented beverages, such as beer, wine and cider as

Pieter J. Verbelen; David P. De Schutter; Filip Delvaux; Kevin J. Verstrepen; Freddy R. Delvaux

2006-01-01

341

Leuconostoc oenos entrapment: Application to continuous malo-lactic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malolactic fermentation is one of the major biological steps in the organoleptic maturation of wine and cider.Classically, this fermentation takes place after the alcoholic fermentation. The medium is then quite poor with respect to the requirements for the cellular multiplication. The industrial control of this second fermentation is uncertain and justifies the long maturation times.In this work we have

A. Durieux; V. Garre; J. Mukamana; J.-M. Jourdain; D. Silva; A.-M. Plaisant; J.-P. Defroyennes; G. Foroni; J.-P. Simon

1996-01-01

342

Lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented Chinese foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology in China. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in many fermentation processes of Chinese traditional foods, demonstrating their profound effects on improving food quality and food safety. This review article outlines the main types of LAB fermentation as well as their typical fermented foods such as koumiss, suan-tsai, stinky tofu and

Shan-na Liu; Ye Han; Zhi-jiang Zhou

2011-01-01

343

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%),

G. U. Ochuba; V. L. Von Riesen

1980-01-01

344

Concentration control in alcoholic fermentation processes from ultrasonic velocity measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the alcoholic fermentation of several carbohydrate aqueous solutions, using an ultrasonic velocity measurement technique, is presented in this paper. It is shown that the changes occurring during the course of an alcoholic fermentation can be monitored on-line by measuring the velocity of an elastic wave propagating through the fermenting medium. During the alcoholic fermentation, carbohydrates are transformed

Pablo Resa; Luis Elvira; Francisco Montero de Espinosa

2004-01-01

345

Non-destructive testing of tea fermentation using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea colour determination during fermentation is a vital problem in the tea industries. The human experts have been traditionally measuring change of colour during fermentation by picking up some amount and observing the colour by eye approximation. Methods are also available for analyzing the formation of colour constituents during fermentation. Another method uses colorimeter for determining the colour during fermentation.

S Borah; M Bhuyan

2003-01-01

346

Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

347

Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol,

L. C. Chiang; H. Y. Hsiao; P. P. Ueng; L. F. Chen; G. T. Tsao

1981-01-01

348

In-situ recovery of butanol during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

End product inhibition can be reduced by the in situ removal of inhibitory fermentation products as they form. Extractive fermentation, in which an immiscible organic solvent is added to the fermentor in order to extract inhibitory products, was applied to the acetone-butanol fermentation. Six solvents or solvent mixtures were tested in batch extractive fermentations: kerosene, 30 wt% tetradecanol in kerosene,

S. R. Roffler; H. W. Blanch; C. R. Wilke

1987-01-01

349

Identification of the Gene for Maltose Fermentation in Saccharomyces Italicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1949, Gilliland1 established the fact that only one gene for maltose fermentation is present in Saccharomyces Italicus. He crossed this species with S. Chevalieri, which is unable to ferment maltose and is therefore of the recessive formula mm, and obtained a hybrid Mm. All the 4-spored asci isolated from this interspecific hybrid yielded two fermenters to two non-fermenters of

Ö. Winge; C. Roberts

1950-01-01

350

Dynamics of false-vacuum bubbles  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of localized inflation is investigated by calculating the dynamics of a spherically symmetric region of false vacuum which is separated by a domain wall from an infinite region of true vacuum. For a range of initial conditions, the false-vacuum region will undergo inflation. An observer in the exterior true-vacuum region will describe the system as a black hole, while an observer in the interior will describe a closed universe which completely disconnects from the original spacetime. We suggest that this mechanism is likely to lead to an instability of Minkowski space: a region of space might undergo a quantum fluctuation into the false-vacuum state, evolving into an isolated closed universe; the black hole which remains in the original space would disappear by quantum evaporation. The formation of these isolated closed universes may also be relevant to the question of information loss in black-hole formation.

Blau, S.K.; Guendelman, E.I.; Guth, A.H.

1987-03-15

351

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1995-03-07

352

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1993-11-09

353

Automobile flywheel energy storage: practical vacuum requirements  

SciTech Connect

For passenger automobiles with 1367 kg curb weight during typical driving conditions in city traffic, fuel efficiency improvements of 50 to 100% (5 to 7 km) can be realized by proper utilization of a flywheel-energy storage unit (0.2 kWh) and a heat engine. A brief introduction is given concerning the pros and cons of flywheels compared to other energy storage options. Discussion is then given regarding a serious concern of composite-flywheel energy storage for vehicles: that of a suitable vacuum environment for the rotating, composite flywheel. To be practical, a vacuum system for such an environment must be reliable, safe and economical (in energy resources and dollars) to manufacture, monitor, maintain and repair. Each embodiment of flywheel energy storage may be sufficiently unique to require a vacuum environment tailored to suit it. A general discussion of the important vacuum parameters and practical vacuum systems is followed by examples of candidate designs.

Frank, D.N.; Milleron, N.

1981-10-23

354

Neutrino masses and Higgs vacuum stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Standard Model electroweak vacuum has been found to be metastable, with the true stable vacuum given by a large, phenomenologically unacceptable vacuum expectation value ? M P . Moreover, it may be unstable in an inflationary universe. Motivated by the necessity of physics beyond the Standard Model and to accommodate non-zero neutrino masses, we investigate vacuum stability within type-II seesaw and left-right symmetric models. Our analysis is performed by solving the renormalisation group equations, carefully taking into account the relevant threshold corrections. We demonstrate that a phenomenologically viable left-right symmetric model can be constructed by matching it with the SM at one-loop. In both models we demonstrate the existence of a large area of parameter space where the Higgs vacuum is absolutely stable.

Kobakhidze, Archil; Spencer-Smith, Alexander

2013-08-01

355

In-vacuum target transfer facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to transfer highly oxidizing and hygroscopic targets in-vacuum or in controlled atmosphere and to change the target ladder without affecting the chamber vacuum, an in-vacuum target transfer system has been designed, fabricated and installed. It consists of a transfer body, compatible flanges with gate valves at the bell jar and the chamber. Ca, being a highly oxidizing element, was taken as a test case to stress the utility of the in-vacuum target transfer system. Using the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) technique, we could see that there was only 11.5% of O2 in the target when it was transferred from the bell jar to the scattering chamber using the in-vacuum target transfer facility. When the target was exposed to air for 35 min the O2 content rose to 63.5 at.%

Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, Samit; Avasthi, D. K.

1995-02-01

356

Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of "white noise" fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the "ground state" energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

2011-06-01

357

Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation.  

PubMed

There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO(2) overpressure). The transcription profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during primary wine fermentation has been studied by several research groups, but this is the first report on yeast transcriptome under second fermentation conditions. Our results indicate that the main pathways affected by these particular conditions are related to aerobic respiration, but genes related to vacuolar and peroxisomal functions were also highlighted in this study. A parallelism between the transcription profile of wine yeast during primary and second fermentation is appreciated, with ethanol appearing as the main factor driving gene transcription during second fermentation. Low temperature seems to also influence yeast transcription profile under these particular winemaking conditions. PMID:22133566

Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

2011-11-15

358

Process for enhanced fermentation of xylose to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing an enhanced ethanol yield by aerobically fermenting D-xylose in a fermentation medium with Pachysolen tannophilus having deposit accession numbers. The improvement comprises adding glucose to the fermentation medium after the fermentation has commenced and during the carrying forth of the fermentation with the adding being continuously or at intervals during each 24 hours of the carrying forth of the fermentation and being of an amount of the glucose providing a glucose concentration not exceeding one percent by weight of the fermentation medium until substantially all D-xylose is consumed.

Jeffries, T.W.

1987-05-05

359

Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation.  

PubMed

To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

Lu, Z; Pérez-Díaz, I M; Hayes, J S; Breidt, F

2012-09-28

360

Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking  

SciTech Connect

Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

1986-07-01

361

Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

Toldrá, Fidel

362

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part I—Batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of WS without agitation (Process III), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation with additional sugar supplementation (Process IV),

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Ronald E. Hector; Stephen R. Hughes; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

363

Dry fermentation of agricultural residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

1981-09-01

364

In-situ recovery of butanol during fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-product inhibition in the acetone-butanol fermentation was reduced by using extractive fermentation to continuously remove acetone and butanol from the fermentation broth. In situ removal of inhibitory products from Clostridium acetobutylicum resulted in increased reactor productivity; volumetric butanol productivity increased from 0.58 kg\\/(m3h) in batch fermentation to 1.5 kg\\/(m3h) in fed-batch extractive fermentation using oleyl alcohol as the extraction solvent.

S. R. Roffler; H. W. Blanch; C. R. Wilke

1987-01-01

365

21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340 Food...Surgical Devices § 884.4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to facilitate...

2010-04-01

366

21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340 Food...Surgical Devices § 884.4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to facilitate...

2009-04-01

367

21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

2013-04-01

368

7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913 Agriculture... § 58.913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal...and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum...

2010-01-01

369

7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913 Agriculture... § 58.913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal...and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum...

2009-01-01

370

Vacuum Microelectronic Emitters and Their Applications Using Compound Semiconductor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum microelectronic devices (VMDs) are a class of devices in which electron transport occurs both in semiconductors and in vacuum. They have the potential of combining the advantages of vacuum tube based devices with those of modern semiconductor devic...

D. Holcombe W. N. Jiang U. K. Mishra

1994-01-01

371

46 CFR 154.1335 - Pressure and vacuum protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control station. (2) If vacuum protection is required under § 154.804, a vacuum gauge meeting paragraphs...the wheelhouse. (c) If vacuum protection is required under...interbarrier space; (3) Cargo pump discharge line; (4)...

2009-10-01

372

46 CFR 154.1335 - Pressure and vacuum protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control station. (2) If vacuum protection is required under § 154.804, a vacuum gauge meeting paragraphs...the wheelhouse. (c) If vacuum protection is required under...interbarrier space; (3) Cargo pump discharge line; (4)...

2010-10-01

373

Effects of patulin on rumen microbial fermentation in continuous culture fermenters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight single-flow continuous culture fermenters were used to study the effects of different concentrations of patulin on rumen microbial fermentation. Two 1l fermenters were spiked with 0, 30, 60 or 90mg of patulin every 12h for 3 consecutive days. True digestion of organic matter (TOM), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and crude protein (CP) decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively) with

M. O. Tapia; M. D. Stern; R. L. Koski; A. Bach; M. J. Murphy

2002-01-01

374

Effect of Acetic Acid on Growth and Ethanol Fermentation of Xylose Fermenting Yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of some xylose fermenting yeasts, Candida shehatae, Pichia stipitis CBS5773, fusant F101 and fusant F198, was completely inhibited in xylose medium added with 0.5% v\\/v acetic acid which caused the reduction of pH to 4.1. Only one xylose fermenting strain, Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL-Y2460, showed relatively low growth and ethanol fermentation. However, in the medium added with 1.0% v\\/v acetic

Savitree Limtong; Tawatchai Sumpradit; Vichien Kitpreechavanich; Manee Tuntirungkij; Tatsuji Seki; Toshiomi Yoshida

375

CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time which demonstrates that the pump used was in fact adequate for this application.

Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

1987-10-13

376

Fate of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 during the Fermentation of ‘Siljo’, a Traditional Ethiopian Fermented Legume Condiment, and during Product Storage at Ambient and Refrigeration Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of Salmonella spp. in fermenting foods and their elimination during prolonged fermentation is documented. This prompted the study to evaluate the fate of Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 during the fermentation of ‘Siljo’, a traditional fermented legume condiment, and during the storage of the fermented product at ambient and cold temperatures. ‘Siljo‘ was made to ferment naturally and the

Eden Ephraim; Mogessie Ashenafi

2005-01-01

377

Acetonobutylic fermentation: improvement of performances by coupling continuous fermentation and ultrafiltration.  

PubMed

The technology of coupling ultrafiltration and fermentation has been tested with the acetonobutylic fermentation in continuous mode. The device developed was sterilizable by steam and permitted drastic cleaning of the ultrafiltration (UF) membrane without interrupting the continuous fermentation. It has been shown to be an easily operated and reliable experimental tool for studying high-cell-density cultures and inhibition phenomena. With total recycle of biomass, a dry weight concentration of 125 g/L was attained, which greatly enhanced the volumetric solvent productivity of acetonobutylic fermentation in averaging 4. 5 g/L h for significant periods of time (>70 h) and maintaining solvent concentration and yield at acceptable levels. PMID:18555356

Ferras, E; Minier, M; Goma, G

1986-04-01

378

Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems  

SciTech Connect

Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, and process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.

Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L. (Graham Manufacturing Co., Inc., Batavia, NY (United States))

1995-03-01

379

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

380

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

381

The Uses of the Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three problems in quantum field theory are analyzed. Each presents the vacuum in a different role. The connections among these significant roles are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter II contains a calculation of the zero-point energy in the Kaluza-Klein model. The zero-point fluctuations induce a potential which makes the compact dimension contract. The effective potential is seen to be the four-dimensional version of the Casimir effect. Chapter III contains a Monte Carlo study of asymptotic freedom scales in lattice QCD. Two versions of SU(2) gauge theory, having different representations of the gauge group, are compared. A new method is used to calculate the ratio of scale parameters of the two theories. The method directly uses the weak -coupling behavior of the theories. The Monte Carlo results are compared with perturbative calculations on the lattice, one of which is presented. They are in good agreement. Chapter IV applies the hypothesis of dimensional reduction to five -dimensional SU(2) and four-dimensional SO(3) lattice gauge theories. New analytic results for the strong- and weak -coupling limits are derived. Monte Carlo calculations show dimensional reduction in the strong-coupling phases of both theories. At the phase transition, the two theories show a similar loss of dimensional reduction. An external source of random flux does not induce dimensional reduction where it is not already present.

Rohrlich, Daniel Mosheh

382

The vacuum system of KEKB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the KEK B-factory, two rings with a circumference of 3016m, mainly made of copper, were constructed. A gap between the flanges is filled using Helicoflex as a vacuum seal. The contact force of an RF finger in a bellows is assured by using a spring finger. Pumping slots are backed by crossing bars to prevent the penetration of beam-induced fields. To obtain a pressure of 10-9Torr with the beam when the photo-desorption coefficient reaches 10-6, the design of pump layout is aimed to realize 100ls-1m-1. NEG strips are used as the main pump. Chemical polishing is applied to clean the extruded surface of a copper chamber. Almost all chambers were baked before installation. Only ion pumps were baked in situ. The photo-desorption coefficient at the start of commissioning was slightly higher than expected, but a decrease of the coefficient is as expected on the whole. At high currents, some bellows were found to be warmed by the TE mode of beam induced fields. The effect of the electron cloud became evident, especially in the LER. Direct damage by the beam is seen at the surface of the movable mask.

Kanazawa, K.; Kato, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Shimamoto, M.; Shirai, M.

2003-02-01

383

Dynamics of neutral vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

A time-independent Hamiltonian formulation of relativistic atomic structure and scattering problems is developed in which virtual-pair creation and annihilation effects are explicitly included. The method is discussed in the context of a specific problem---the scattering of a positron by a system consisting of two electrons bound to a nucleus of charge {ital Z}. This provides the basis for a consistent treatment of spontaneous positron production that can occur when {ital Z} exceeds a critical value {ital Z}{sub cr}{approx}173. For {ital Z} not too much greater than {ital Z}{sub cr} the two-electron atom is stable and represents the (doubly charged) vacuum state. In the approach adopted here the one-electron state, which is unstable against spontaneous pair creation, is viewed as a resonance in the scattering of the positron by the two-electron target atom. The lifetime of the unstable state is determined, in the usual way, from a knowledge of the width of the resonance. The formal resonance theory required to carry out this analysis is developed here with the aid of an effective-potential description of the scattering problem of the type familiar from standard treatments of resonant processes in nonrelativistic atomic and nuclear reaction theories.

Rosenberg, L. (Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (US))

1990-02-01

384

Microbial Dynamics during Barley Tempeh Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, othe...

X. M. Feng

2006-01-01

385

Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganis...

J. D. McMillan

1993-01-01

386

Fermentation products and their industrial use  

SciTech Connect

A review on the tonnage of production of various industrial chemicals, their methods of synthesis, and the possibilities of the fermentative method being competitive with the synthetic method is given.

Lefebvre, G.; Arlie, J.P.

1982-01-01

387

Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.  

PubMed

Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components. PMID:23266848

Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

2012-12-04

388

Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

Avery, R.T.

1984-06-01

389

Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows  

SciTech Connect

Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term (>8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

Hall Crannell

2011-02-01

390

Vacuum control subsystem for the Fermilab Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

The CAMAC 170 module and CIA crate provide a convenient, cost effective method of interfacing any system requiring a large number of simple devices to be multiplexed into the Accelerator Control System. The system is ideal for relatively slowly changing systems where ten bit analog to digital conversions are sufficiently accurate. Together with vacuum interface CIA cards and prom-based software resident in the 170, this system is used to provide intelligent local monitoring and control for the Tevatron vacuum subsystems. Although not implemented in the vacuum interface, digital to analog converters could be included on the plug in modules as well, providing a total digital and analog multiplexing scheme. 2 refs.

Zagel, J.R.; Chapman, L.J.

1981-06-01

391

Quantum interactions between nonperturbative vacuum fields  

SciTech Connect

We develop an approach to investigate the nonperturbative dynamics of quantum field theories, in which specific vacuum field fluctuations are treated as the low-energy dynamical degrees of freedom, while all other vacuum field configurations are explicitly integrated out from the path integral. We show how to compute the effective interaction between the vacuum field degrees of freedom both perturbatively (using stochastic perturbation theory) and fully nonperturbatively (using lattice field theory simulations). The present approach holds to all orders in the couplings and does not rely on the semiclassical approximation.

Millo, R.; Faccioli, P. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Via Sommarive 14, Povo, Trento (Italy); Scorzato, L. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT), Strada delle Tabarelle 286, Villazzano, Trento (Italy)

2010-04-01

392

Contralateral cerebral infarction following vacuum extraction.  

PubMed

Cerebral infarction is a rare complication following a vacuum-assisted delivery occurring on the side of the vacuum application and often accompanied by a cephalhematoma. We report a case of cerebral infarction that was contralateral to the side of the vacuum application in a term baby. The baby presented with seizures in the immediate neonatal period. There was no fracture of the skull to account for a contusion injury. We discuss the mechanisms of intracranial vascular injuries during the process of natural and assisted birth. PMID:15017477

Kumar, Manoj; Avdic, Sanja; Paes, Bosco

2004-01-01

393

Vacuum orientations in strong CP violation  

SciTech Connect

We study the QCD vacuum orientation angles in correlation with the strong CP phases. A vacuum alignment equation of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is derived based on the anomalous Ward identity. It is emphasized that a chiral rotation of the quark field causes a change of the vacuum orientation and a change in the definition of the light pseudoscalar generators. As an illustration of the idea, {eta} {yields} 2{pi} decays are carefully studied in different chiral frames and shown to be independent of. chiral rotations.

Huang, Zheng; Viswanathan, K.S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Wu, Dan-di [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1991-12-01

394

Microbial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentations.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination is a pervasive problem in any ethanol fermentation system. These infections can at minimum affect the efficiency of the fermentation and at their worse lead to stuck fermentations causing plants to shut down for cleaning before beginning anew. These delays can result in costly loss of time as well as lead to an increased cost of the final product. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common bacterial contaminants found in ethanol production facilities and have been linked to decreased ethanol production during fermentation. Lactobacillus sp. generally predominant as these bacteria are well adapted for survival under high ethanol, low pH and low oxygen conditions found during fermentation. It has been generally accepted that lactobacilli cause inhibition of Saccharomyces sp. and limit ethanol production through two basic methods; either production of lactic and acetic acids or through competition for nutrients. However, a number of researchers have demonstrated that these mechanisms may not completely account for the amount of loss observed and have suggested other means by which bacteria can inhibit yeast growth and ethanol production. While LAB are the primary contaminates of concern in industrial ethanol fermentations, wild yeast may also affect the productivity of these fermentations. Though many yeast species have the ability to thrive in a fermentation environment, Dekkera bruxellensis has been repeatedly targeted and cited as one of the main contaminant yeasts in ethanol production. Though widely studied for its detrimental effects on wine, the specific species-species interactions between D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae are still poorly understood. PMID:21770989

Beckner, M; Ivey, M L; Phister, T G

2011-08-02

395

Rapid fermentation for ensiling of poultry intestines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of two temperatures (26±2°C and 37°C) and inoculation of 5% (w\\/w) pre-fermented silage as starter culture on hastening the process of fermentation of poultry intestine with 10% (w\\/w) molasses and 0·5% (v\\/w) propionic acid under microaerophilic condition was studied. The pH values, reducing sugar contents, standard plate counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeast and mould numbers were lower

D. M. Shaw; D. Narasimharao; N. S. Mahendrakar

1998-01-01

396

Iron effect on acetone-butanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

WhenClostridium acetobutylicum was grown in batch culture under iron limitation (0.2 mg·l-1) at a pH of 4.8, glucose was fermented, to butanol as the major fermentation end product, and small quantities of acetic acid were produced. The final conversion yield of glucose into butanol could be increased from 20% to 30% by iron limitation. The acetonebutanol ratio was changed from

A. M. Junelles; R. Janati-Idrissi; H. Petitdemange; R. Gay

1988-01-01

397

Continuous fermentation of cellulosic biomass to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results are presented for continuous conversion of pretreated hardwood flour to ethanol. A simultaneous saccharification\\u000a and fermentation (SSF) system comprised ofTrichoderma reesei cellulase supplemented with additional ?-glucosidase and fermentation bySaccharomyces cerevisiae was used for most experiments, with data also presented for a direct microbial conversion (DMC) system comprised ofClostridium thermocellum. Using a batch SSF system, dilute acid pretreatment of

C. R. South; D. A. Hogsett; L. R. Lynd

1993-01-01

398

The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.  

PubMed

Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product. PMID:15358510

Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

2004-10-01

399

Whey Alcohol Fermentation with Mixed Yeast Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper study the process of whey alcohol fermentation with mixed yeasts cultures. After the experiments of strains combination, the yeast strains of Saccharomyces uvarum TY-3, Saccharomyces uvarum TY-1 and Saccharomyces carlsbergensis AY-5 were selected and mixed at the ratio of 5.0:2.5:2.5. The optimized fermenting condition was obtained through orthogonal experiments with the result as follows: the initial pH value

Wang Jianming; Guo Linhai; Zhao Guoren

2009-01-01

400

Applications of the Air Lift Fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first development of the airlift fermenter by Le Francois in 1955 (1), the applications have increased to cover\\u000a most areas of fermentation. This configuration has likewise been developed into many different forms, including: (a) Concentric\\u000a tube airlift (2); (b) external loop airlift (3); (c) jet loop reactor (4); and (d) propeller loop reactor (4).\\u000a \\u000a The subject for discussion

L. A. Wood; P. W. Thompson

1987-01-01

401

Effects of Fermentation in Saltine Cracker Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 66(l):6- 10 Yeast was found to be necessary in cracker sponges. Stack weight During the 18-hr sponge fermentation, gas was produced, the pH declined, decreased with increased yeast fermentation because of the decreased and the flour proteins were enzymatically modified. With the total starter dough density. In addition, the cracker cell structure was finer and more system, cracker

D. E. ROGERS; R. C. HOSENEY

402

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures\\u000a of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji

Yoshikatsu Murooka; Mitsuo Yamshita

2008-01-01

403

A fermentor for study of sauerkraut fermentation.  

PubMed

A fermentor was designed and constructed for study of the physical, microbiological, and chemical changes that occur during the sauerkraut fermentation. The fermentor has some essential features that include restriction in volume of the sauerkraut bed, construction of clear plastic to permit visual determination of liquid-level changes as a result of gas entrapment within the sauerkraut bed, and a gas-lift device for use in nitrogen purging of the fermenting brine. Fermentations exhibited two distinct stages, the first one gaseous and the second non-gaseous. The gaseous stage was characterized by rapid CO(2) and acid production due to growth by hetero-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with resultant gas entrapment within the sauerkraut bed and a rise in liquid level. Also, rapid disappearance of fructose and rapid appearance of mannitol occurred during this stage. The nongaseous stage was characterized by growth of homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria with little or no CO(2) production and a gradual increase in lactic acid until all fermentable sugars were metabolized. Nitrogen purging appeared to offer several potential advantages, including a means for brine circulation, removal of CO(2) from the brine, and anaerobiosis to ensure retention of ascorbic acid, desirable color, and other oxygen-sensitive traits in sauerkraut. PMID:18584591

Fleming, H P; McFeeters, R F; Humphries, E G

1988-02-20

404

Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae  

SciTech Connect

Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

2012-03-01

405

Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González-Díaz

Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

2013-08-01

406

Vacuum stability and the Cholesky decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss how the Cholesky decomposition may be used to ascertain whether a critical point of the field theory scalar potential provides a stable vacuum configuration. We then use this method to derive the stability conditions in a specific example.

Unwin, James

2011-05-01

407

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect

This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

Irwin, J.J.

1997-09-24

408

Basic vacuum technology for junior glassblowers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper used in conjunction with classroom discussion is intended to provide the junior scientific glassblower with a fundamental understanding of the terminology and tools relative to high vacuum generation, measurement, and maintenance in the laborat...

I. B. Duncanson

1990-01-01

409

Vacuum Microwave Integrated Circuits for radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum microwave integrated circuits (VMIC) for radar applications is suggested for design of radars with high resistance against radioactivity and high power electromagnetic. We present design of the VMIC suggested and give preliminary results of its feasibility study and implementation.

K. A. Lukin; Gun-Sik Park

2008-01-01

410

Vacuum Freezing Multiple Phase Transformation Process Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Freezing Multiple Phase Transformation (VFMPT) Process accomplishes vapor liquefaction by desublimation of the vapor on a refrigerated surface, production of a second water vapor of higher temperature than the melting point of ice, and then dir...

C. Y. Cheng W. C. Cheng

1986-01-01

411

Facility for Vacuum Impregnation of Superconducting Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Facility for vacuum impregnation is developed specifically for the construction of superconducting magnets. Various methods of impregnation for superconducting magnet are described. This facility can be used for large coil of dimensions up to 45 cm. diago...

P. Kush A. Banerjee C. K. Ramachandran S. C. Bapna M. Thirumaleshwar

1986-01-01

412

Re-circulating linac vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10{Mu}A recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10{Mu}A average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing.

Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

2003-05-09

413

Prototype vacuum chamber for compact SR ring  

SciTech Connect

A 650 MeV compact (3.14 m in circumference) superconducting electron storage ring is being developed as a synchrotron radiation light source for X-ray lithography. The vacuum system is designed to maintain a beam-on operating pressure of 1 x 10/sup -9/ Torr or less. This system has unique features. A prototype vacuum chamber has been fabricated and tested for evaluation of the vacuum system. A base pressure of 2.6 x 10/sup 10/ Torr (nitrogen equivalent) has been achieved. The pumping speed of the cryopump built into the chamber has been measured at 12000--17000 1/s for hydrogen gas. These results have confirmed to feasibility of this vacuum system for the SR ring.

Yasumitsu, N.

1988-09-30

414

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of cold molecular beams  

SciTech Connect

Experiments will be described which combine nonlinear optics, mass- and energy-resolved ion detection, energy-resolved electron detection, and a supersonic nozzle to study vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of ultracold molecules.

Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

1984-01-01

415

{alpha}-vacuum and inflationary bispectrum  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we discuss the non-Gaussianity originated from the {alpha}-vacuum on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For the {alpha}-vacuum, there exists a correlation between points in the acausal two patches of de Sitter spactime. Such kind of correlation can lead to large local form non-Gaussianity in the {alpha}-vacuum. For the single field slow-roll inflationary scenario, the space-time is in a quasi-de Sitter phase during the inflation. We will show that the {alpha}-vacuum in this case will lead to non-Gaussianity with a distinguished feature, of a large local form and a very different shape.

Xue Wei; Chen Bin [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-02-15

416

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1996-01-01

417

A Simple Ultrahigh Vacuum Rotatable Seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and robust high torque, high vacuum rotatable seal is described. The seal has been tested to a pressure of 4×10?10 Torr and can be adapted to bakable systems. A number of configurations are described.

J. C. Mills

1972-01-01

418

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1991-01-01

419

Review of Anode Phenomena in Vacuum Arcs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews anode phenomena in vacuum arcs. It discusses arc modes at the anode, anode temperature measurements, anode ions, transitions of the arc into various modes (principally the anode spot mode), and theoretical explanations of anode phenomen...

H. C. Miller

1984-01-01

420

LCLS EXTRUDED ALUMINUM VACUUM CHAMBER - NEW APPROACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free electron laser when it becomes operational in 2009. Synchrotron radiation will be produced by 33 undulators, each 3.4 meters long, with a fixed gap of 6.8 mm. Vacuum chambers for these undulators should have the maximum possible vertical aperture. Multiple vacuum chambers for insertion devices with 1-mm

Emil Trakhtenberg; Patric DenHartog; Mark Erdmann; Greg Wiemerslage

421

A Vacuum Drying Model for Mango Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum drying of mango pulp at varying conditions of pulp thickness (2, 3, and 4 mm) and vacuum chamber plate temperature (65, 70, and 75°C) was carried out under 30–50 mm of mercury absolute pressure. A model based on moisture diffusivity was found to give close prediction to moisture content of the pulp at different times of drying with correlation coefficient varying

S. Jaya; H. Das

2003-01-01

422

Future trends in vacuum technology applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the medium voltage range the vacuum switching principle is well established. Today vacuum circuit breakers are available up to 52 kV rated voltage and 80 kA short-circuit current. Based on long term experiences and knowledge from basic research development there is a clear progress into lower and higher voltage ranges and highest interrupting capabilities. In addition to expansion of

H. Fink; R. Renz

2002-01-01

423

On the observation of vacuum birefringence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest an experiment to observe vacuum birefringence induced by intense laser fields. A high-intensity laser pulse is focused to ultra-relativistic intensity and polarizes the vacuum which then acts like a birefringent medium. The latter is probed by a linearly polarized X-ray pulse. We calculate the resulting ellipticity signal within strong-field QED assuming Gaussian beams. The laser technology required for

Thomas Heinzl; Ben Liesfeld; Kay-Uwe Amthor; Heinrich Schwoerer; Roland Sauerbrey; Andreas Wipf

2006-01-01

424

Re-circulating linac vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10?A re-circulating linac synchrotron light source is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads

Russell P. Wells; John N. Corlett; Alexander A. Zholents

2003-01-01

425

Vacuum arc ion charge-state distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum arc ion charge-state spectra have been measured for a wide range of metallic cathode materials. The charge-state distributions were measured using a time-of-flight diagnostic to monitor the energetic ion beam produced by a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. Data were obtained for 48 metallic cathode elements: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn Fe,

I. G. Brown; X. Godechot

1991-01-01

426

Reliable vacuum system cuts steam requirements 50%  

SciTech Connect

In choosing a new high-vacuum system for fractional distillation, Polarome Manufacturing Company, New York, NY and Newark, NJ, a producer of high-quality flavor and fragrance chemicals, considered reliability and performance and steam consumption to be the most important factors. Distillation is carried out under vacuum to minimize thermal degradation. For stable operation, the vacuum system for the distillation column has to be ultra-reliable, and has to be able to go on-line quickly. Fluctuations in vacuum affect operating temperature and fractionation and cause deterioration of the product quality. Polarome's process requires a gas removal rate from the distillation column of 7.5 lg/hr of air plus 7.5 lb/hr of condensible vapors at 0.5 mm Hg absolute pressure at 105/sup 0/F. Polarome chose a combination ejector/liquid ring pump system that combines the two distinctly different types of equipment to improve high-vacuum efficiency. The unit requires only 400 lb/hr of motive steam at 125 psig, and the liquid ring pump only draws 5.7 brake hp. Polarome purchased two virtually identical four-stage systems, each composed of two ejector stages, a shell-and-tube condenser, and a two-stage liquid ring vacuum pump. The fully packaged systems were delivered skid-mounted, ready to pipe and operate. Polarome found a number of advantages with their combined system. Steam savings are considerable - up to 50% over a conventional ejector system - because the liquid-ring pump is substituted for the less efficient final two ejector stages. In Polarome's vacuum range of 0.5 mm Hg, this was considered the most efficient way of drawing vacuum, with lowest investment and operating costs for the greatest capacity.

Not Available

1985-12-01

427

Vacuum states in de Sitter space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine possible vacuum states for scalar fields in de Sitter space, concentrating on those states (1) invariant under the de Sitter group O(1,4) or (2) invariant under one of its maximal subgroups E(3). For massive fields there is a one-complex-parameter family of de Sitter-invariant states, which includes the ``Euclidean'' vacuum state as a special case. We show these states

Bruce Allen

1985-01-01

428

Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of tetrahydrothiophene and sulfolane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum uv photolysis of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) involves the breaking of the S to ..cap alpha..-C bond. Besides ethylene, CâHâ and 1,3-butadiene are also formed. Photolyses of THT, tetrahydrofuran, and pyrrolidine are similar. The vacuum uv photolysis of tetramethylene sulfone (sulfolane) was also studied; products are SOâ, cyclobutane, 1-butene, and ethylene. No cis-2-butene was observed. (DLC)

A. A. Scala; I. Colon

1979-01-01

429

Vacuum sealing: indication, technique, and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Vacuum sealing is a new therapeutic concept to achieve secure and rapid wound healing in traumatic soft tissue damage (incl.open\\u000a and closed fractures), in acute and, as an intermediate measure, in chronic infections. The tissue defect is filled in with\\u000a open-porous polyvinylalcohol-foam and the entire wound surface is covered with a semipermeable transparent Polyurethane drape.\\u000a Using Redon-drainage tubes and vacuum

W. Fleischmann; U. Becker; M. Bischoff; H. Hoekstra

1995-01-01

430

Compact high-voltage vacuum feedthrough  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum feedthrough has been designed at this laboratory to operate at 40 kV and 10-9 Torr. It is small in size, 3.81 cm in diameter and extending 4.45 cm into the vacuum chamber. A selection of commercial connectors is available. The re-entrant design fully shields the conductor for safety, prevention of noise pickup, and protection from environmental effects.

J. D. Stein

1976-01-01

431

Compact high-voltage vacuum feedthrough  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum feedthrough has been designed at this laboratory to operate at 40 kV and 10?9 Torr. It is small in size, 3.81 cm in diameter and extending 4.45 cm into the vacuum chamber. A selection of commercial connectors is available. The re-entrant design fully shields the conductor for safety, prevention of noise pickup, and protection from environmental effects.

J. D. Stein

1976-01-01

432

Characteristics of some fermentative bacteria from a thermophilic methane-producing fermenter  

SciTech Connect

Anaerobic bacteria from a 55/sup 0/C methane-producing beef waste fermenter were enumerated, isolated, and characterized. Direct microscopic bacterial counts were 5.2-6.8 X 10/sup 10/ per g fermenter effluent. Using a nonselective roll-tube medium which contained 40% fermenter effluent, 8.5-14.1% of microscopic count was culturable. Deletion of fermenter effluent significantly reduced the viable count. Sixty-four randomly picked strains were characterized. All were pleomorphic, gram-negative, anaerobic rods, many of which were difficult to grow in liquid media. The strains were divided into 5 major groups based on glucose fermentation, hydrogen sulfide production, starch hydrolysis, fermentation products, and morphology. Glucose was fermented by 75% of the isolates, 76% utilized starch, 25% produced hydrogen sulfide, 76% produced hydrogen, 37% produced indole, 21% hydrolyzed gelatin, and 13% were sporeformers. Ethanol, lactate, formate, acetate, and hydrogen were common fermentation products. Twenty-four representative strains had 1-12 flagella. Growth was observed between 35 and 73/sup 0/C. These studies indicate that species diversity among the isolated organisms was low. 38 references, 3 tables.

Varel, V.H.

1984-01-01

433

Organoleptic profiles of different ciders after continuous fermentation (encapsulated living cells) versus batch fermentation (free cells)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations of fruit juices for the batch production of fruit wines must be conducted in different ways depending on the chemical compositions of those natural raw materials.The special case of cider production with apple juices characterized by a low pH, a low nitrogen content and the keeping of the apple bouquet after the fermentation allow us to develop a bi-

J. P. Simon; A. Durieux; V. Pinnel; V. Garré; J. Vandegans; P. Rosseels; N. Godan; A. M. Plaisant; J. P. Defroyennes; G. Foroni

1996-01-01

434

Effects of Vessel Geometry, Fermenting Volume and Yeast Repitching on Fermenting Beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Inst. Brew. 115(2), 148-150, 2009 This paper statistically examines the effect of tank shape and size, fermenting volume and yeast pitching number on fermenta- tion parameters routinely monitored in a series of industrial fer- mentations. With the fermenter tanks employed in this pilot study, little effect of tank shape existed between any of the pa- rameters. The number of

R. A. Speers; Scott Stokes

435

Modified microbial fermenter performance in animal cell culture and its implications for flexible fermenter design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified microbial fermenters were adapted for use in animal cell cultivations within an active microbial pilot plant rapidly and inexpensively. Multiple batches of Jurkat cells (human T-lymphoma) and Spodoptera frugiperda (using a baculovirus expression vector) were conducted in modified 75 L Chemap fermenters and a 280 L pilot plant seed vessel. These retrofitted reactors were evaluated for suitable temperature control,

B. H. Junker; G. Hunt; B. Burgess; J. Aunins; B. C. Buckland

1994-01-01

436

Natural Abundance Isotopic Fractionation in the Fermentation Reaction: Influence of the Fermentation Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotopic parameters of fermentation products provide reliable criteria for characterizing their carbohydrate precursors on the condition that the isotopic coefficients which relate individual sites in the products and in the reactants have strictly reproducible or predictible values. Since fermentation may be performed either in natural media (such as fruit juices) which exhibit variable compositions or in “synthetic” media prepared

Ben-Li Zhang; Yunianta; Claude Vallet; Maryvonne L. Martin

1997-01-01

437

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cullulose (untreated BW-200 Solka Floc) to ethanol utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae QM 8226, has resulted in increased rates and longer times of hydrolysis when compared to simple saccharifications. Additionally, two schemes for ethanol removal during hydrolysis, nitrogen sparging and vacuum operation, have also shown increased rates and longer times of saccharification of cellulose when compared to the simple SSF. Both early and delayed yeast additions, different lengths of SSF operations, and different sparging techniques were investigated. The beta-glucosidase fraction of the T. ressei Rut C-30 cellulase enzyme system was able to convert cellobiose to glucose in the presence of ethyl alcohol eliminating the strong inhibition of celloboise on cellulase while the yeast converted glucose to ethanol by glucolysis eliminating the inhibition of glucose on beta-glucosidase. The hydrolysis curves did not fit either simple or competitive product inhibition Michaelis-Menten type kinetic analysis. An enzyme deactivation-inhibition model seems necessary to fit the data. The yield parameter for ethanol/substrate (Yp/s) varied from .42g/g to .47g/g (theoretical .51g/g) with the majority of glucose being converted to ethanol in less than 15 hours.

Shea, P.T.

1981-01-01

438

Dynamics and control strategies for a butanol fermentation process.  

PubMed

In this work, mathematical modeling was employed to assess the dynamic behavior of the flash fermentation process for the production of butanol. This process consists of three interconnected units as follows: fermentor, cell retention system (tangential microfiltration), and vacuum flash vessel (responsible for the continuous recovery of butanol from the broth). Based on the study of the dynamics of the process, suitable feedback control strategies [single input/single output (SISO) and multiple input/multiple output (MIMO)] were elaborated to deal with disturbances related to the process. The regulatory control consisted of keeping sugar and/or butanol concentrations in the fermentor constant in the face of disturbances in the feed substrate concentration. Another objective was the maintenance of the proper operation of the flash tank (maintenance of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the liquid and vapor phases) considering that oscillations in the temperature in the tank are expected. The servo control consisted of changes in concentration set points. The performance of an advanced controller, the dynamic matrix control, and the classical proportional-integral controller was evaluated. Both controllers were able to regulate the operating conditions in order to accommodate the perturbations with the lowest possible alterations in the process outputs. However, the performance of the PI controller was superior because it showed quicker responses without oscillations. PMID:19730825

Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Costa, Caliane Bastos Borba; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Atala, Daniel Ibraim Pires; de Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi; Maciel Filho, Rubens

2010-04-01

439

Plasma Window as a Fast Vacuum Valve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma Window as a Fast Vacuum Valve. A. Hershcovitch, E. Johnson, Brookhaven National Laboratory, J. Noonan, E. Rotela, S. Sharma, A. Khounsary, Argonne National Laboratory-- Fast igniting plasma windows are being considered for use as emergency valves in case of vacuum breach in a beamline. Plasmas can be ignited faster than mechanical valves can close without causing damage to beamlines (unlike, presently used, msec spring loaded shutters). And, plasma windows have proven capability to separate between vacuum and atmosphere. In all existing vacuum valves, motion of solid objects is required. Consequently, the fastest valves or shutters are limited to a closing time of 7x10-3 sec. or longer (and a much longer opening time). But, intense discharges can be established within a few nanoseconds (10-9 sec.). Establishment of the plasma vacuum separator is determined by the motion of fast charged particles (as compared to solid objects in existing valves). Recently, an already established plasma window withstood vacuum breach tests. These experiments and fast igniting plasma configurations will be discussed.

Hershcovitch, Ady; Johnson, Erik; Noonan, John; Rotela, Elbio; Sharma, Sushil; Khounsary, Ali

1999-11-01

440

LHC : The World's Largest Vacuum Systems being commissioned at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

When it switches on in 2008, the 26.7 km Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of UHV vacuum for the circulating beams and 50 km of insulation vacuum around the cryogenic

J M Jiménez

2008-01-01

441

LHC World Largest Vacuum Systems Being Commissioned at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with its 26.7 km of circumference and three different vacuum systems for the beams and insulation vacuum for magnets and liquid helium transfer lines, will have the world's largest vacuum system operating over a wide range of pressures and employing an impressive array of vacuum technologies. This system is composed by 54 km of

Jose Miguel Jimenez

2009-01-01

442

Current status of the science and technology of vacuum glazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current state-of-the-art of the science and technology of vacuum glazing. The construction of vacuum glazing, and its method of manufacture in the laboratory, is described. Experimental data are presented on the magnitude of heat flows through vacuum glazing. Gaseous heat transfer is negligible, and the internal vacuum is shown to be stable over many years, in

R. E. Collins; T. M. Simko

1998-01-01

443

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

None

1981-04-01

444

Probing and modeling voltage breakdown in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Voltage breakdown limits many technologies that rely on strong electric fields. Although many kinds of voltage breakdown have been well-explained, voltage breakdown in vacuum---the sudden transition from vacuum insulation to vacuum arc---remains relatively poorly understood. Despite the importance of vacuum insulation, technology has hardly improved breakdown voltages in the last ninety years. This work describes experiments in vacuum breakdown, as well as computer simulations of the initial stages of breakdown. A better understanding of voltage breakdown could particularly benefit particle accelerators used for high energy physics experiments and radiation sources, which require the highest attainable electric fields in the microwave resonators that accelerate particles. Despite some differences, voltage breakdown in microwave resonators shares some features with breakdown in DC vacuum gaps (diodes). In both cases, the localized adsorption of gas around an electron emission-source (e.g., field emission) could lead to breakdown. Analytical calculation shows that breakdown occurs when the product of the gas density and emission current exceed a critical value. Voltage breakdown in vacuum results from the interaction of the electric field and the electrodes. Using a scanning electron microscope, with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to identify surface constituents, we found that breakdown occurs often at the site of foreign particles on the cathode, usually leaving only a very small trace of the original material. At the breakdown site we frequently find small craters, surrounded by a large starburst-shaped pattern; surface analysis suggests that during breakdown, ions bombard the surface within the starburst region and sputter away surface contaminants and oxides. In general, particulate contamination on the cathode determines the breakdown voltage, independent of the cathode material or the thickness of the insulating surface oxide; however, the oxide thickness does change the nature of the starburst and the damage done to the surface during breakdown.

Werner, Gregory Richard

445

Superconducting cyclotron and its vacuum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large superconducting cyclotron is under construction at this Centre and will be used to accelerate heavy ion beams to energy up to 80 MeV/A for light heavy ions and about 10 MeV/A for medium mass heavy ions. The vacuum system for this accelerator has several different aspects. The main acceleration chamber will be evacuated to a level of about 10-7 torr using both turbo molecular pumps and specially designed cryopanels. The surfaces exposed to this 'vacuum' are mostly made of OFE copper. The cryogenic transfer lines, to cool the cryopanels, are of several meters in length and they pass through RF resonators extending below the magnet. The cryostat that will house the superconducting coils has an annular vacuum chamber, which is evacuated to a level of approximately 10-5 torr using a turbo molecular pump. Cryopumping action starts once the coils are cooled to low temperatures. A differential pumping is provided below the RF liner that encloses the pole tip of the main magnet. The space that is pumped in this case contains epoxy-potted trim coils wound around the pole tips. Crucial interlocks are provided between the differential vacuum and the acceleration chamber vacuum to avoid distortion of the RF liner, which is made of thin copper sheets. The other important vacuum system provides thermal insulation for the liquid helium transfer lines. In this paper a brief description of the superconducting cyclotron will be given. Details of various vacuum aspects of the accelerator and the logistics of their operation will be presented. Introduction of some of the improved equipment now available and improved techniques are also discussed.

Sur, A.; Bhandari, R. K.

2008-05-01

446

Emerging approaches in fermentative production of statins.  

PubMed

Microbial metabolites have many important applications in pharmaceutical and health-care industry. The products of microbial origin are usually produced by submerged fermentation. The solid-state fermentation represents an alternative mode of fermentation, which is increasingly being employed as an alternative to submerged fermentation for metabolite production. The prospect of producing high-value product using low-value raw material offers a substantial premium to switch to these technologies. The cost of statins being one major factor, solid-state fermentation with agro-industrial residues as carbon, nitrogen and support matrix, promises to substantially lower the cost of production. Hence, newer approaches are required to exploit the agro-industrial residues for statin production. The development of these technologies offers an opportunity to exploit low-cost substrates without substantial investment in newer production methodologies. The emerging evidence of beneficial effect of statins in applications other than lipid lowering such as in Alzheimer disease, HIV, age-related dementia, and cancer chemotherapy makes it very important to develop methods for economic production of statins. PMID:23912209

Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

2013-08-03

447

Glucosinolate derivatives in stored fermented cabbage.  

PubMed

The research focused on the glucosinolate (GLS) breakdown products formed during the fermentation of cabbage. A relationship between the contents of degradation products in fermented cabbage and native GLS in raw cabbage was investigated. The effect of fermented cabbage storage on the contents of individual compounds was also assayed. Ascorbigen formed from one of the degradation products of glucobrassicin (indole GLS) was found to be a dominating compound in fermented cabbage. Irrespective of the time of fermented cabbage storage, the content of ascorbigen reached approximately 14 micromol/100 g. Neither the content of isothiocyanates, the major degradation products of aliphatic GLS, nor that of cyanides exceeded 2.5 microM. Storage of cabbage caused periodical increases and decreases in the contents of cyanides and consequent declines in the contents of isothiocyanates. The highest relative contents (expressed as a percentage of the native GLS content) of degradation products--ranging from >70 to 96%--were reported for the products of glucoraphanin degradation, whereas the lowest-- <5% --were reported for the products of sinigrin degradation. PMID:15612779

Ciska, Ewa; Pathak, Dorothy R

2004-12-29

448

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...indicator activation level shall not be less than 8 inches of mercury. (1) Inspection procedure. Run the engine to evacuate...applications until the vehicle vacuum gauge reads 8 inches of mercury. Observe the functioning of the low-vacuum indicator....

2012-10-01

449

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...indicator activation level shall not be less than 8 inches of mercury. (1) Inspection procedure. Run the engine to evacuate...applications until the vehicle vacuum gauge reads 8 inches of mercury. Observe the functioning of the low-vacuum indicator....

2011-10-01

450

Effect of cooking, fermentation, dehulling and utensils on antioxidants present in pearl millet rabadi - a traditional fermented food.  

PubMed

Effect of cooking, fermentation, dehulling and the use of utensils on flavonoids (quercitin and pelargonidin) - antioxidants present in pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) rabadi, along with proximate composition and sensory acceptability of the product were studied. Study revealed an increased ash and flavonoids and reduced crude fibre after cooking in all samples, while fermentation enhanced the crude protein and reduced fat and crude fibre after 16 h in fermented-cooked-fermented rabadi prepared in steel and earthen pot and cooked-fermented rabadi in earthen pot. Enhanced flavonoids were observed in all samples after 16 h fermentation. Fermented-cooked-fermented samples were better with high (?<0.05) protein in steel pot rabadi and high (?<0.001) ash and quercitin (?<0.1 in earthen pot rabadi. Major nutrients were unaffected after dehulling except the crude fibre, which decreased and quercitin increased significantly (?<0.1). Remarkable rise in quercitin was observed when rabadi was fermented-cooked and fermented in earthen pot. Sensory evaluation showed the acceptance of all samples in the range of liked extremely (fermented-cooked-fermented-steel pot) to liked slightly (fermented-cooked in earthen pot). PMID:23572604

Gupta, V; Nagar, R

2010-02-06

451

Fermentation kinetics for xylitol production by a Pichia stipitis D ...  

Treesearch

... fungi, biotechnology, wood-decaying fungi, alcohol, yeast fungi, fermentation, ... FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into ... yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance .

452

21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented ammoniated condensed whey. (a) Identity. The product is produced by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus fermentation of whey with the addition of ammonia. (b) Specifications. The product contains 35...

2013-04-01

453

BAM Media M117: Oxidative-Fermentative (OF) Test Medium  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M117: Oxidative-Fermentative (OF) Test Medium. January 2001. ... M117 Oxidative-Fermentative (OF) Test Medium. Base. Peptone, 2 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

454

Report of the Fermentation Research Institute, Number 62, August 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content: Viability of Bacillus stearothermophilus CU21 in soil extracts; Culture of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis using a microbial flock produced from alcohol fermentation slop; Culture of the marine yeasts using alcohol fermentation slop and its tax...

1984-01-01

455

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

2013-04-01

456

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

2009-04-01

457

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...kind of fruit, and yeast foods, sterilizing...or other approved fermentation adjuncts. Water...used to rehydrate yeast to a maximum to...addition of rehydrated yeast is limited to 0.5 percent. After fermentation natural wines...

2010-04-01

458

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Lignocellulose: Process Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes for producing ethanol from lignocellulose are capable of improved hydrolysis rates, yields, and product concentrations compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) systems, because t...

J. D. Wright C. E. Wyman K. Grohmann

1987-01-01

459

Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production  

DOEpatents

A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

1995-11-07

460

Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.  

PubMed

In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. PMID:21215612

Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

2010-12-15

461

Solid-state fermentation of grape pomace for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Grape pomace was used as a substrate for the production of ethanol under solid-state fermentation conditions. The yield of ethanol amounted to greater than 80% of the theoretical, based on the fermentable sugar consumed.

Y. D. Hang; C. Y. Lee; E. E. Woodams

1986-01-01

462

Mechanical design of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) vacuum system uses most of the vacuum system from the original TMX and substantially increases its capabilities. The vacuum system provides the main structure for the experimental apparatus, as well as providing and maintaining the vacuum environment. The vacuum vessel provides the structure supporting all magnets, as they are contained inside the vacuum vessel, all of the neutral-beam injectors, and the various diagnostics. The vessel provides the main vacuum enclosure and the various access ports required by the magnet system, injector system, internal vacuum system, and plasma diagnostics. The vacuum environment is created and maintained by two systems, the external vacuum system and the internal vacuum system. The external system consists of mechanical pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps, and creates a vacuum inside the vessel down to a minimum pressure of 10/sup -6/ Torr. The internal vacuum system further reduces the pressure into the 10/sup -8/ Torr range and provides the fast pumping required to handle the excess gas from the neutral-beam injector system during a plasma shot. The internal vacuum system consists of titanium sublimators and liquid nitrogen (LN) liners that separate the vacuum vessel into various pumping regions.

Lang, D.D.; Calderon, M.O.; Thomas, S.R.; Garner, D.R.

1981-09-24

463

A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: Microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.  

PubMed

Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

2013-06-20

464

Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.  

PubMed

Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances. PMID:22924

Turtola, L O

1977-09-01

465

Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.  

PubMed

Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2013-08-20

466

Quantum vacuum energy in graphs and billiards  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum (Casimir) energy in quantum field theory is a problem relevant both to new nanotechnology devices and to dark energy in cosmology. The crucial question is the dependence of the energy on the system geometry. Despite much progress since the first prediction of the Casimir effect in 1948 and its subsequent experimental verification in simple geometries, even the sign of the force in nontrivial situations is still a matter of controversy. Mathematically, vacuum energy fits squarely into the spectral theory of second-order self-adjoint elliptic linear differential operators. Specifically one promising approach is based on the small-t asymptotics of the cylinder kernel e{sup -t{radical}(H)}, where H is the self-adjoint operator under study. In contrast with the well-studied heat kernel e{sup -tH}, the cylinder kernel depends in a non-local way on the geometry of the problem. We discuss some results by the Louisiana-Oklahoma-Texas collaboration on vacuum energy in model systems, including quantum graphs and two-dimensional cavities. The results may shed light on general questions, including the relationship between vacuum energy and periodic or closed classical orbits, and the contribution to vacuum energy of boundaries, edges, and corners.

Kaplan, L. [Department of Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

2010-12-23

467

Osmotic pressure of matter and vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The walls of the box which contains matter represent a membrane that allows the relativistic quantum vacuum to pass but not matter. That is why the pressure of matter in the box may be considered as the analog of the osmotic pressure. However, we demonstrate that the osmotic pressure of matter is modified due to interaction of matter with vacuum. This interaction induces the nonzero negative vacuum pressure inside the box, as a result the measured osmotic pressure becomes smaller than the matter pressure. As distinct from the Casimir effect, this induced vacuum pressure is the bulk effect and does not depend on the size of the box. This effect dominates in the thermodynamic limit of the infinite volume of the box. Analog of this effect has been observed in the dilute solution of 3He in liquid 4He, where the superfluid 4He plays the role of the non-relativistic quantum vacuum, and 3He atoms play the role of matter.

Volovik, G. E.

2010-01-01

468

APT/LEDA RFQ Vacuum Pumping System*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and fabrication of a vacuum pumping system for the APT/LEDA(Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) RFQ(Radio Frequency Quadrupole linac. The over-riding requirement for the APT/LEDA RFQ vacuum pumping system is that it be capable of pumping the combined gas load from the lost proton beam, gas streaming from the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) and out-gassing from the surfaces of the RFQ cavity and vacuum plumbing. The total gas load will be on the order of 7.2 x 10-4 Torr-liters/sec. The main gas to be pumped will be the hydrogen from the beam loss in the front end of RFQ, and the system must be able to pump hydrogen on a continual basis. All vacuum pumps are to be completely oil-free and a single pump type must pump all species of gas (H2, O2, N2 and any outgassed mixture). Redundancy must be provided in the system pumping and gauging to ensure that the minimal "operating vacuum level" of 1 x 10-6 Torr is maintained even under abnormal conditions. Preliminary test results of the cryogenic pumping system will be presented.

Shen, Stewart; Kishiyama, Keith; Parker, John; Wilson, Norman; Schrage, Dale

1997-05-01

469

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization.  

PubMed

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article, recent research studies for the valorization of olive fermentation brine performed by several authors were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the metabolic products produced during table olive preparation. The selection of the corresponding valorization process will depend on the agricultural or industrial environment of the olive fermentation brine. Although some methods are strongly consolidated in this sector, other options, more respectful to the environment, should also be considered. PMID:23530329

Fendri, Imen; Chamkha, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Labat, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Abdelkafi, Slim

470

Fermentative butanol production: bulk chemical and biofuel.  

PubMed

Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium with the ability to ferment starch and sugars into solvents. In the past, it has been used for industrial production of acetone and butanol, until cheap crude oil rendered petrochemical synthesis more economically feasible. Both economic (price of crude oil) and environmental aspects (carbon dioxide emissions) have caused the pendulum to swing back again. Molecular biology has allowed a detailed understanding of genes and enzymes, required for solventogenesis. Thus, construction of strains with improved fermentation ability is now possible. Advances in continuous culture technology and improved downstream processing also add to economic advantages of a new biotechnological process. Two major companies have already committed themselves to biobutanol production as a biofuel additive. Thus, butanol fermentation is on the rise again. PMID:18378605

Dürre, Peter

2008-03-01

471

New Aspects of Fungal Starter Cultures for Fermented Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of a variety of foods include a fermentation step by filamentous fungi. Nowadays these fermented foods are\\u000a produced by selected fungal starter cultures instead of relying on the indigenous flora, which may contain spoilage or mycotoxinogenic\\u000a strains. The most important fungal species for food fermentation are Penicillium nalgiovense for the production of mould fermented meat products, P. camemberti

Rolf Geisen; Paul Färber

472

Optimization of exopolysaccharide yields in sourdoughs fermented by lactobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the yields of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced in situ during sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus reuteri TMW 1.106 synthesizing glucan from sucrose were investigated under variation of the fermentation parameters dough yield (DY),\\u000a pH, sucrose content and fermentation substrate. The obtained amounts of EPS after 1 day of fermentation were higher in softer\\u000a (DY 500) than in firmer (DY 220)

Susanne Kaditzky; Rudi F. Vogel

2008-01-01

473

Wine-making by cell-recycle-batch fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to check the overall validity of more efficient fermentation systems to reduce wine-making costs, we carried out an off-skins fermentation of clarified Trebbiano toscano grape-juice, making use of a non-conventional “cell-recycle-batch fermentation” process. The results showed that the process causes a reduction of the fermentation length as well as an improvement in ethanol productivity and yield and can

Gianfranco Rosini

1986-01-01

474

Wine-making by cell-recycle-batch fermentation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to check the overall validity of more efficient fermentation systems to reduce wine-making costs, we carried out an off-skins fermentation of clarified Trebbiano toscano grape-juice, making use of a non-conventional “cell-recycle-batch fermentation” process. The results showed that the process causes a reduction of the fermentation length as well as an improvement in ethanol productivity and yield and

Gianfranco Rosini

1986-01-01

475

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

476

Optimization of conditions and cell feeding procedures for alcohol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol fermentation was studied with an emphasis on the separation of cell growth and alcohol production stages. Experiments were conducted to establish the optimal conditions for alcohol production in batch fermentations and to simulate continuous fermentations with cell feeding at various stages. It was found that the glucose concentration should be kept under 10% (w\\/v), and the temperature should be

T. Ciftci; A. Constantinides; S. S. Wang

1983-01-01

477

Ethanol production in a continuous fermentation\\/membrane pervaporation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of ethanol fermentation processes, predominantly based on batch operation in the U.S. fuel ethanol industry, could be improved by adoption of continuous processing technology. In this study, a conventional yeast fermentation was coupled to a flat-plate membrane pervaporation unit to recover continuously an enriched ethanol stream from the fermentation broth. The process employed a concentrated dextrose feed stream

D. J. O'Brien; J. C. Craig Jr.

1996-01-01

478

REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

479

Microbial fermented tea – a potential source of natural food preservatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process have shown inhibitory effects against several food-borne and pathogenic bacteria. With the trend of increasing use of natural and biological preservatives in

Haizhen Mo; Yang Zhu; Zongmao Chen

2008-01-01

480

Penicillin fermentation biomass growth model using cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simulate penicillin fermentation biomass growth process, a penicillin batch fermentation biomass growth model using cellular automata is established. The model uses three-dimensional cellular automata as its growth space, and uses Morre type neighborhood as its cell neighborhood. The transition rules of the model are made based on the mechanism and dynamic differential equation model of a penicillin batch fermentation

Naigong Yu; Xiaogang Ruan

2004-01-01

481

Sophorolipids production by Candida bombicola using self-cycling fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-cycling fermentation (SCF) technique was applied to cultures of Candida bombicola. Sophorolipids, secondary metabolites, were observed only when the SCF was operated with an extended phase of fermentation at the end of each cycle. A new control strategy was developed to allow the production of sophorolipids by coupling the fermentation control to the secondary metabolism of the culture. Cycling

William C. McCaffrey; David G. Cooper

1995-01-01

482

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were conducted to establish optimum operating conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of starch to lactic acid acid using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. A predictive model was developed for SSF by combining the kinetics of saccharification and fermentation. Saccharification kinetics were determined through experiments on starch hydrolysis in which the effects of temperature, pH and different fermentation products

R. Anuradha; A. K. Suresh; K. V. Venkatesh

1999-01-01

483

The effect of temperature on spontaneous wine fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fermentation of mixed cultures of apiculate and Saccharomyces yests at various temperatures was studied employing a selective medium for wine yeasts. In mixed cultures, fermentation at low temperatures (10°C) did not permit suitable propagation of Saccharomyces yeast, contrary to pure culture fermentations. It is suspected that under these conditions the apiculate yeasts produce inhibitory substances that prevent normal reproduction

R. Sharf; P. Margalith

1983-01-01

484

Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

2012-01-01

485

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses

Shiyuan Yu; Morris Wayman; Sarad K. Parekh

1987-01-01

486

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2010-04-01

487

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2013-04-01

488

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2009-04-01

489

Gigawatt power microwave devices and vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low pressure breakdown is a major concern for developing high power microwave (HPM) devices, especially when going to more compact designs and to extreme powers, typically cm-size gaps in the tube and GW level output. In connection with the vacuum quality, we will consider the general aspects which may contribute to limit the operation of a HPM device: high voltage arcing, electrode erosion and degassing, rf breakdown in the cavities, surface breakdown at the windows, repetition rate. Vacuum measurement and electromagnetic compatibility with vacuum equipment will be treated too. As an example, we will consider in details the development of a compact magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) operating successfully at the Gigawatt level in the S-band.

Larour, J.

2008-05-01

490

Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

2008-08-11

491

APT/LEDA RFQ vacuum pumping system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and fabrication of a vacuum pumping system for the ATP/LEDA (Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac. Resulted from the lost proton beam, gas streaming from the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) and out-gassing from the surfaces of the RFQ cavity and vacuum plumbing, the total gas load will be on the order of 7.2 x 10{sup -4} Torr-liters/sec, consisting mainly of hydrogen. The system is designed to pump on a continual basis with redundancy to ensure that the minimal operating vacuum level of 1 x 10{sup -6} Torr is maintained even under abnormal conditions. Details of the design, performance analysis and the preliminary test results of the cryogenic pumps are presented.

Shen, S., LLNL

1997-07-21

492

Catalysis of Schwinger vacuum pair production  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new catalysis mechanism for nonperturbative vacuum electron-positron pair production, by superimposing a plane-wave x-ray probe beam with a strongly focused optical laser pulse, such as is planned at the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) facility. We compute the absorption coefficient arising from vacuum polarization effects for photons below threshold in a strong electric field. This setup should facilitate the (first) observation of this nonperturbative QED effect with planned light sources such as ELI yielding an envisioned intensity of order 10{sup 26} W/cm{sup 2}.

Dunne, Gerald V. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Gies, Holger [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Schuetzhold, Ralf [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

2009-12-01

493

Vacuum topology and incoherence in quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect

An explicit expression is derived for the quantum gravitational vacuum state by use of the saddle-point approximation and a conformally invariant action. It consists of a superposition of zero-energy classical vacua that differ in the topology both of the local Lorentz frames (leading to CP nonconservation) and of space itself. Space is found to have Planck-size wormholes and spinorial knots, and is surrounded by a vapor of disconnected submanifolds. The scattering matrix constructed on this vacuum is not unitary but the superscattering matrix conserves probability.

Strominger, A.

1984-05-14

494

QCD Vacuum in the Early Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal equilibrium value of the number density of the vacuum fluctuations (instantons) in QCD has been determined by Gross, Pisarski, and Yaffe for the high temperature of the early Universe. It is shown that, in coming to thermal equilibrium, all \\|?,vac> states are suppressed except those with ? = +/-\\(?/2\\). The instanton contribution to the electric dipole moment of the neutron is found to depend only on the chiral phase of the quark mass matrix and is no larger than its experimental upper limit so that the ``strong CP problem'' appears to be eliminated by this identification of the vacuum state.

Sachs, Robert G.

1997-01-01

495

Structural Analysis of the NCSX Vacuum Vessel  

SciTech Connect

The NCSX (National Compact Stellarator Experiment) vacuum vessel has a rather unique shape being very closely coupled topologically to the three-fold stellarator symmetry of the plasma it contains. This shape does not permit the use of the common forms of pressure vessel analysis and necessitates the reliance on finite element analysis. The current paper describes the NCSX vacuum vessel stress analysis including external pressure, thermal, and electro-magnetic loading from internal plasma disruptions and bakeout temperatures of up to 400 degrees centigrade. Buckling and dynamic loading conditions are also considered.

Fred Dahlgren; Art Brooks; Paul Goranson; Mike Cole; Peter Titus

2004-09-28

496

MEANS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A VACUUM  

DOEpatents

A new method is given for starting the operation of evapor-ion vacuum pumps. Ordinarily this type of pump is started by inducing an electric field with the vacuum chamber; however, by placing such an electric field in the chamber at the outset, a glow discharge may be initiated which is harmful to the pump. The procedure consists of using a negative electric field during which time only gettering action takes place; subsequently when the field reverses after a sufficient reduction of the number of gaseous particles in the chamber both gettering and ionizing takes place.

Otavka, M.A.

1960-08-01

497

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOEpatents

A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01

498

What happens when vacuum extraction fails?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of forceps delivery or cesarean section (CS) following failed vacuum extraction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective cohort study of all women who underwent forceps delivery and\\/or CS after failed vacuum extraction in 1993–2006\\u000a was conducted. Cases were identified by searching the computerized delivery discharge database. All files were reviewed and\\u000a those who underwent CS were compared to

Nir Melamed; Yariv Yogev; Shirley Stainmetz; Avi Ben-Haroush

2009-01-01

499

Explosion proofing the ``explosion proof`` vacuum cleaner  

SciTech Connect

Because of the low humidity environments required in the fabrication of nuclear explosives, assembly technicians can be charged to tens of kilovolts while operating, for example, compressed air, venturi-type, `explosion proof` vacuum cleaners. Nuclear explosives must be isolated from all sources of, and return paths for, AC power and from any part of the lightning protection system. This requirement precludes the use of static ground conductors to drain any charge accumulations. Accordingly, an experimental study of the basic charging mechanisms associated with vacuum operations were identified, the charge generation efficacies of various commercial cleaners were established, and a simple method for neutralizing the charge was devised.

Jones, R.D.; Chen, K.C.; Holmes, S.W.

1995-07-01

500

Vacuum energy of a spherical plasma shell  

SciTech Connect

We consider the vacuum energy of the electromagnetic field interacting with a spherical plasma shell together with a model for the classical motion of the shell. We calculate the heat kernel coefficients, especially that for the TM mode, and carry out the renormalization by redefining the parameters of the classical model. It turns out that this is possible and results in a model which, in the limit of the plasma shell becoming an ideal conductor, reproduces the vacuum energy found by Boyer in 1968.

Bordag, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, Vor dem Hospitaltore 1, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Khusnutdinov, N. [Department of Physics, Kazan State University, Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation) and Department of Physics, Tatar State University of Humanity and Education, Tatarstan 2, Kazan 420021 (Russian Federation)

2008-04-15