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1

Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

2

Vacuum packing: a model system for laboratory-scale silage fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

H.E. JOHNSON, R.J. MERRY, D.R. DAVIES, D.B. KELL, M.K. THEODOROU AND G.W. GRIFFITH. 2004. Aims: To determine the utility of vacuum-packed polythene bags as a convenient, flexible and cost-effective alternative to fixed volume glass vessels for lab-scale silage studies. Methods and Results: Using perennial ryegrass or red clover forage, similar fermentations (as assessed by pH measurement) occurred in glass tube

H. E. Johnson; R. J. Merry; D. R. Davies; D. B. Kell; M. K. Theodorou; G. W. Griffith

2005-01-01

3

Fermentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The North Carolina Community College System BioNetwork's interactive eLearning tools (IETs) are reusable chunks of training that can be deployed in a variety of courses or training programs. IETs are designed to enhance, not replace hands-on training. Learners are able to enter a hands-on lab experience better prepared and more confident. This particular IET delves into fermentation as they grow and harvest e. coli through a fermentation process on a laboratory scale. Students keep a lab notebook and receive a certificate of completion once the module is complete.

4

Fermentative alcohol production  

DOEpatents

An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

1982-01-01

5

Fermentation efficiency of thermally dried kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three thermal drying methods (conventional, vacuum and convective) were used for drying of kefir biomass and their effect on cell viability, fermentation rate and other kinetic parameters of lactose and whey fermentation were studied. Convective drying rate was higher than conventional and even higher than vacuum at each studied temperature (28, 33 and 38°C). After that, fermentations were performed by

Harris Papapostolou; Loulouda A. Bosnea; Athanasios A. Koutinas; Maria Kanellaki

2008-01-01

6

Fermentation process  

SciTech Connect

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

7

Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26

8

Other Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods are staples for numerous consumers in many countries, especially in developing and emerging countries (DEC)\\u000a where fermentation is often the only way to preserve food from microbial contaminations. Fermented foods from DEC are characterized\\u000a by their wide diversity: they differ in the starting material (cereals, pulses, roots, vegetables, etc.), technology of production\\u000a and the main microorganisms implicated in

Christèle Humblot; Jean-Pierre Guyot

9

Cacao Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Cacao beans must be subjected to fermentation before they are used in making chocolate, and their commercial value is related to a proper procedure. Saccharomyces rosei, Hansenula anomala, Pichia fermentans, Pichia membranaefaciens, and Trichosporon cutaneum were found in fermenting cacao beans. All species isolated during the investigation grew on cacao pulp, but only S. rosei, H. anomala, and P. fermentans exhibited fermenting capacity on the sugars of cacao pulp. Species of the genus Saccharomyces were identified as the agents responsible for the alcoholic phase of the cacao fermentation. PMID:13767275

Martelli, H. L.; Dittmar, H. F. K.

1961-01-01

10

Vegetable Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different vegetable fermentation processes are currently carried out on an industrial scale, most of which still rely\\u000a on selection of the autochthonous microbiota of the raw materials and fermentation plant. The implication of lactic acid bacteria\\u000a in such processes has been deciphered by classical microbiological techniques in most cases. The application of DNA-based\\u000a culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses may provide

Hikmate Abriouel; Nabil Ben Omar; Rubén Pérez Pulido; Rosario Lucas López; Elena Ortega; Magdalena Martínez Cañamero; Antonio Gálvez

11

Fermenting Beer Vs. Fermenting Vaccines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Listener Luci Levesque from Augusta, Maine, heard that vaccines are made in fermenters, devices normally associated with beer. She asks, whats the connection? We turned to microbiologist Agnes Day of Howard University College of Medicine.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2006-05-30

12

Ruminal Fermentation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

13

Alcoholic fermentation by 'non-fermentative' yeasts.  

PubMed

All type strains of 'non-fermentative' yeasts, available in the culture collection of the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, were reinvestigated for their capacity to ferment glucose in the classical Durham tube test. Although visible gas production was absent, nearly all strains produced significant amounts of ethanol under the test conditions. Under conditions of oxygen-limited growth, even strong alcoholic fermentation may occur in a number of yeasts hitherto considered as non-fermentative. Thus, shake-flask cultures of Hansenula nonfermentans and Candida silvae fermented more than half of the available sugar to ethanol. It is concluded that the taxonomic test for fermentation capacity, which relies on detection of gas formation in Durham tubes, is not reliable for a physiological classification of yeasts as fermentative and non-fermentative species. PMID:3333301

van Dijken, J P; van den Bosch, E; Hermans, J J; de Miranda, L R; Scheffers, W A

1986-06-01

14

Fermentation and food  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This single-page reading provides an overview of fermentation's use in the production of various foods. The reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explains what fermentation is and how microorganisms are involved in this process. This explanation is followed by a list of some fermented foods with descriptions of how microbes, such as bacteria or yeast, ferment each item. Foods listed include pickled vegetables, wines, breads, and cheeses. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

15

High solids fermentation reactor  

DOEpatents

A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

1993-01-01

16

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

17

Vacuum mechatronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

1989-01-01

18

Vacuum Energy  

E-print Network

There appears to be three, perhaps related, ways of approaching the nature of vacuum energy . The first is to say that it is just the lowest energy state of a given, usually quantum, system. The second is to equate vacuum energy with the Casimir energy. The third is to note that an energy difference from a complete vacuum might have some long range effect, typically this energy difference is interpreted as the cosmological constant. All three approaches are reviewed, with an emphasis on recent work. It is hoped that this review is comprehensive in scope. There is a discussion on whether there is a relation between vacuum energy and inertia. The solution suggested here to the nature of the vacuum is that Casimir energy can produce short range effects because of boundary conditions, but that at long range there is no overall effect of vacuum energy, unless one considers lagrangians of higher order than Einstein's as vacuum induced. No original calculations are presented in support of this position. This is not a review of the cosmological constant {\\it per se}, but rather vacuum energy in general, my approach to the cosmological constant is not standard.

Mark D. Roberts

2000-12-07

19

Vacuum Virtues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

Rathey, Allen

2007-01-01

20

Gravitational vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existence of a special gravitational vacuum is considered in this paper. A phenomenological method differing from the traditional Einsteinian formalization is utilized. Vacuum, metric and matter form a complex determined by field equations and at great distances from gravitational masses vacuum effects are small but could be large in powerful fields. Singularities and black holes justify the approach as well as the Ambartsmyan theory concerning the existence of supermassive and superdense prestallar bodies that then disintegrate. A theory for these superdense bodies is developed involving gravitational field equations that describe the vacuum by an energy momentum tensor and define the field and mass distribution. Computations based on the theory for gravitational radii with incompressible liquid models adequately reflecting real conditions indicate that a gravitational vacuum could have considerable effects on superdense stars and could have radical effects for very large masses.

Grigoryan, L. S.; Saakyan, G. S.

1984-09-01

21

[Dry solid staging fermentation].  

PubMed

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic fermentation is a new perspective technology for the fuel ethanol production. Compared with traditional hot cook process in most ethanol plants, uncooked process using milled grain slurry in combination with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes makes high gravity fermentation much easier to control. In this study, dry solids staging technique was first time reported in uncooked process for fermentation ethanol. We further studied the difference between the new process and the batch fermentation, including different initial fermentation concentrations and different starting times. The results showed that at the same dry solid concentration of 30% and the same enzyme dose at 0.22% (W/W), the final ethanol output of new process was increased to 18.50% (V/V) from 17.06% (V/V) of the conventional process. This study demonstrated the new application of uncooked fermentation technology. PMID:19459324

Xu, Hongxian; Duan, Gang

2009-02-01

22

Fermentation Patterns of Poorly Fermenting Cabbage Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Thirteen varieties of cabbage, including five commonly used commercial varieties and eight newly developed hybrids, were analyzed for their ability to undergo lactic acid fermentations. The rates of fermentation, total quantities of acids produced, and chemical analyses indicate that 11 of the 13 selections could support adequate fermentation at any of the three stages of maturation. However, two varieties G27 × G51 (105) and G60 × W-1 (106), harvested during the earlier phases of the 1967 and 1968 growing seasons, failed to undergo proper fermentations and consistently resulted in producing putrid products. These hybrids when harvested at the late stage of maturation were capable of producing total titratable acidities comparable to the acceptable varieties. However the resulting sauerkrauts were judged to be of poor quality. The inability of these varieties to support adequate fermentations may be due to growth inhibitory substances or the lack of inherent maturation-dependent growth factor(s) essential for the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16349859

Stamer, J. R.; Dickson, M. H.; Bourke, J. B.; Stoyla, B. O.

1969-01-01

23

Ferment in Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

Crossland, Janice

1974-01-01

24

Alcoholic Fermentation in Yeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the basics of aerobic cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation and design and carry out experiments to test how variables such as sugar concentration influence the rate of alcoholic fermentation in yeast. In an optional extension activity students can use their yeast mixture to make a small roll of bread.

Ingrid Waldron

25

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

26

Kimchee Fermentation Chamber  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners make kimchee or sauerkraut, which is really just fermented cabbage, in a 2-liter plastic bottle. The fermentation process takes from 3 days to 2 weeks to complete, and learners measure the progress by taking a daily pH (acid level) test. This activity can be used to teach about anaerobic bacteria, acidity, osmosis, concentration, and density. It comes from a printed book that is also available in Spanish, though the Spanish version is not available online.

2012-06-26

27

Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation pattern  

E-print Network

Energy condition affects fermentation rate of Streptococcus bovis without changing fermentation fermentation patterns are unclear. Streptococcus bovis is a major ruminal bacteria, produces acetate, lactate

Boyer, Edmond

28

Fermentative production of isobutene.  

PubMed

Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock. PMID:22234536

van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

2012-02-01

29

Fermented and Acidified Vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

30

FERMENTATION PROCESS FOR MANNITOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We selected Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B...

31

Fermentation in a Bag  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on inquiry activity using zip-lock plastic bags that allows students to observe the process of fermentation and the challenge of producing ethanol from cellulosic sources. Students are asked to predict outcomes and check their observations with their predictions. Teachers can easily adapt to materials and specific classroom issues.

Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

32

Predicting methane fermentation biodegradability  

SciTech Connect

Estimation of the feedstock digestibility in cows by procedures developed by Van Soest was performed. By feeding cows feedstuff of different lignin content, cell wall digestibility can be estimated. In this article a digestibility model has been employed and tested along with other models for the rapid prediction of substrate methane fermentation biodegradability.

Chandler, J.A.; Jewell, W.J.; Gossett, J.M.; Van Soest, P.J.; Robertson, J.B.

1980-01-01

33

Fermentation method producing ethanol  

DOEpatents

Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

Wang, Daniel I. C. (Belmont, MA); Dalal, Rajen (Chicago, IL)

1986-01-01

34

Solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation has emerged as a potential technology for the production of microbial products such as feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products. Its application in bioprocesses such as bioleaching, biobeneficiation, bioremediation, biopulping, etc. has offered several advantages. Utilisation of agro-industrial residues as substrates in SSF processes provides an alternative avenue and value-addition to these otherwise under- or non-utilised

Ashok Pandey

2003-01-01

35

Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

1996-05-07

36

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

37

Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

1998-01-27

38

Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

1998-03-10

39

glycerol fermentation and a reversal of the  

E-print Network

glycerol fermentation and a reversal of the -oxidation cycle as efficient biological platforms's discovery that Escherichia coli can anaerobically ferment glycerol, laid the foundation for the development

Subramanian, Venkat

40

Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations  

PubMed Central

This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

41

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

42

Radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01

43

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

44

Fermentation of Opuntia stricta (Haw.) fruits for betalains concentration.  

PubMed

Fermentation of juice and homogenized fruits of Opuntia stricta fruits has been developed and optimized. The aim was to obtain the red food colorant betanin from prickly pear, at high concentration and low viscosity. Among three strains assayed, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus AWRI 796 has been the optimum for this process. The optimum temperature value was found to be 35 degrees C for both sugar consumption and pigment preservation. After fermentation, biomass and residual vegetal tissue were discarded by centrifugation. Supernatant was concentrated under vacuum. Therefore, liquid concentrated betanin was obtained, with low viscosity and being sugar free. Besides, bioethanol was obtained as byproduct. Characteristics of the final product obtained were pH 3.41, 5.2 degrees Brix, 9.65 g/L betanin, color strength of 10.8, and viscosity of 52.5 cP. These values are better than obtained by other procedures. PMID:18473472

Castellar, M R; Obón, J M; Alacid, M; Fernández-López, J A

2008-06-11

45

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

46

Die fermentative Spaltung des Acetylcholins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Methode zum Nachweis des Fermentes, das Acetylcholin in Cholin und Essigsäure hydrolysiert, die Cholinesterase, beschrieben. Das Verfahren ist nach derWarburgschen Methode aufgebaut.

R. Ammon

1934-01-01

47

Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes  

SciTech Connect

A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

1993-10-01

48

Vacuum pump aids ejectors  

SciTech Connect

The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

Nelson, R.E.

1982-12-01

49

Vacuum probe surface sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

50

NSLS II Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

2009-09-13

51

Ethanol fermentation and potential.  

PubMed

Ethyl alcohol is one of the United States and world's major chemicals. Beverage alcohol in the United States must be prepared from cereal grains or other natural products. The U.S. industrial alcohol market has remained relatively stable for several years at approximately 300 million gallons annually. Most of this has been produced synthetically from petroleum raw material (gas and oil). These raw materials are experiencing major price increases and are in short supply. The production of ethyl alcohol from cereal grains and cellulosic raw materials by fermentation is technically feasible and has been proven. Alcohol produced from all such materials is equal to synthetic alcohol in quality and performance. Competitive economics have controlled the basic raw materials used. The major potential new ethyl alcohol market is as a component of automobile fuels. A 10% alcohol-gasoline blend in the United States would annually require over 10 billion gallons of anhydrous alcohol. Use of alcohol for this purpose is technically feasible. However, alcohol has not been economically competitive to date. PMID:1191746

Miller, D L

1975-01-01

52

Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling  

E-print Network

FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, H-M Fan, G. Jones · Vacuum Vessel - Design requirements - Design concept and features - Analysis to date - Status and summary Replacement Time Estimates - Balance of RH Equipment · Design and analysis are consistent with pre

53

The ultimate vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate vacuum, defined as the lowest pressure that can be produced and measured reproducibly in a vacuum system at room temperature, has decreased by a factor of about 1014 since the first measurement of sub-atmospheric pressure by Robert Boyle in about 1660. A brief historical review is presented of the key advances that caused significant decreases in the ultimate

P. A. Redhead

1999-01-01

54

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11

55

ELETTRA vacuum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A status report of the vacuum system of ELETTRA, the 2 GeV, 400 mA light source under construction in Trieste, will be described. The Vacuum project, presented at ``Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop'' at Riken (Japan 22-24 March 1990) and more recently at EVC-2, the European Vacuum Conference at Trieste (Italy 21-26 May 1990), is now in the phase of testing a prototype sector, which is 1/24 of the ring circumference. Details and some technological aspects of the fabrication will be reviewed together with the vacuum performances. Results of laboratory experiments on components, standard or not, allowed us to finalize the main choices in light of the general philosophy of the project and will be properly summarized.

Bernardini, M.

1991-08-01

56

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

DOEpatents

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

57

Ethanolic fermentation of pentoses in lignocellulose hydrolysates  

SciTech Connect

In the fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates to ethanol, two major problems are encountered: the fermentation of the pentose sugar xylose, and the presence of microbial inhibitors. Xylose can be directly fermented with yeasts; such as Pachysolen tannophilus, Candida shehatae, and Pichia stipis, or by isomerization of xylose to xylulose with the enzyme glucose (xylose) isomerase, and subsequent fermentation with bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The direct fermentation requires low, carefully controlled oxygenation, as well as the removal of inhibitors. Also, the xylose-fermenting yeasts have a limited ethanol tolerance. The combined isomerization and fermentation with XI and S. cerevisiae gives yields and productivities comparable to those obtained in hexose fermentations without oxygenation and removal of inhibitors. However, the enzyme is not very stable in a lignocellulose hydrolysate, and S. cerevisiae has a poorly developed pentose phosphate shunt. Different strategies involving strain adaptation, and protein and genetic engineering adopted to overcome these different obstacles, are discussed.

Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Linden, T.; Senac, T.; Skoog, K. [Lund Univ. Chemical Center (Sweden)

1991-12-31

58

Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

1996-01-01

59

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

60

Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30 °C for 14 days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30 °C for 3 days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4 °C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

2014-09-01

61

A fatal case of CO(2) intoxication in a fermentation tank.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an odorless constituent of air. Higher concentrations can be detected in geothermal and automotive emissions, fermentation, and sublimation of dry ice. An unskilled worker entered a fermentation tank to clean it, which had not been done for about 5 months allowing for high concentrations of CO2 to build up. A second worker entered the tank to rescue the first one. Shortly after both were found the first worker was rescued directly whereas the tank had to be rotated to pull the second worker out. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful only for the first worker. Medico-legal autopsy showed bruises, hematoma, myocardial hemorrhage, and edema of the lungs. The right lung was vacuum degassed in an argon atmosphere and quadrupole-mass-spectrometry showed an elevated CO2 content in lung gases. Thus, CO2 intoxication/asphyxia in a vitiated atmosphere due to fermentation of wine mash was established as the cause of death. PMID:23316776

Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Juhnke, Christian; Bux, Roman; Schmidt, Peter

2013-03-01

62

Lactose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has a high biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey bioremediation processes with simultaneous bio-ethanol production. We have developed a flocculent S. cerevisiae strain that efficiently ferments lactose to ethanol, using a combination of genetic engineering and evolutionary engineering approaches. This strain fermented efficiently and nearly completely (residual lactose

Pedro M. R. Guimarães; José A. Teixeira; Lucília Domingues

63

Bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of non-ruminants: influence of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates.  

PubMed

The search for alternatives to in-feed antibiotics in animal nutrition has highlighted the role dietary modulation can play in improving gut health. Current antibiotic replacement strategies have involved the use of microbes beneficial to health (probiotics) or fermentable carbohydrates (prebiotics) or both (synbiotics). The present review recognises the contribution of fermented feeds and fermentable carbohydrates in improving the gut environment in non-ruminants. It proposes the screening of probiotic bacteria for the production of fermented feeds and supplementation of these feeds with fermentable carbohydrates prior to feeding animals. It is suggested that the term 'fermbiotics' should be used to describe this intervention strategy. PMID:19283504

Niba, A T; Beal, J D; Kudi, A C; Brooks, P H

2009-10-01

64

Evading death by vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already allow to exclude many panic vacuum solutions.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I. P.; Santos, Rui; Silva, João P.

2013-09-01

65

Evading death by vacuum  

E-print Network

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

2012-11-26

66

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

67

Pumpdown and Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss vacuum pumpdown. Graphics are included which depict pumpdown procedure, venting procedure, pressure curves and system pumpdown. Keywords: Outgassing, pressure range, rotary vane, rotary piston, roots blower

Rack, Philip D.

68

African fermented foods and probiotics.  

PubMed

Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

2014-11-01

69

ISABELLE vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

Halama, H J

1980-01-01

70

Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

PubMed

Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-02-15

71

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in the language of Schwinger's proper time and the Seeley-DeWitt heat kernel expansion, in the background of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker geometry.

Bogus?aw Broda; Piotr Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

72

Characteristics of some fermentative bacteria from a thermophilic methane-producing fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic bacteria from a 55‡C methane-producing beef waste fermenter were enumerated, isolated, and characterized. Direct microscopic bacterial counts were 5.2–6.8×1010 per g fermenter effluent. Using a nonselective roll-tube medium which contained 40% fermenter effluent, 8.5–14.1% of the microscopic count was culturable. Deletion of fermenter effluent significantly reduced the viable count. Sixty-four randomly picked strains were characterized. All were pleomorphic, gram-negative,

V. H. Varel; Roman L. Hruska

1984-01-01

73

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

PubMed

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

74

Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

2013-01-01

75

PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

76

Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol  

DOEpatents

A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

Glassner, David A. (4454 Satinwood Rd., Okemos, MI 48864); Jain, Mahendra K. (3950 Jonquil La., Okemos, MI 48864); Datta, Rathin (442 W. Melrose Ave., #3, Chicago, IL 60657)

1991-01-01

77

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2012-04-01

78

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2012-04-01

79

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2013-04-01

80

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2014-04-01

81

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2014-04-01

82

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2010-04-01

83

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2013-04-01

84

Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest  

E-print Network

Colonic fermentation of an indigestible carbohydrate (Polydextrose®): interest and limits, France) Introduction During in vivo colonic fermentation studies of in- digestible polysaccharides fermented organic matter (TFOM) was calculated from total SCFA production according to Van Nevel and De

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2011-04-01

86

Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

E-print Network

Note Fermented milks from Enterococcus faecalis TH563 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp the ACE-inhibitory and immunomodulatory activities were analysed in milks fermented by two bacterial of peptide fractions (fermented milks. Concanavalin A (conA), a known

Boyer, Edmond

87

27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation. 24.197 Section 24.197 Alcohol...Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added...

2010-04-01

88

27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24.212 Section 24.212 Alcohol...Other Than Standard Wine § 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition...

2011-04-01

89

Fermentation Challenge: Making Ethanol from Cellulose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This high school or beginning undergraduate level lab demonstration and inquiry activity will introduce students to the process of fermenting cellulosic biomass into cellulosic ethanol, along with the challenges researchers face in this area. The demonstration uses a Vernier probe or balloons to measure fermentation rates of different feedstocks to begin the discussion of why some carbohydrates are easily fermented by yeast while others are not. Students can design and carry out their own labs to try to improve fermentation rates of various feedstocks. The downloadable package of materials includes 1) Teacher Instructions and Answer Key 2) Student Activities and Worksheets 3) Supplementary Materials

90

A vacuum chamber feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple and inexpensive microwave feedthrough has been designed which transfers 130 ns, 5kV pulse into vacuum chamber. Feedthrough may be used over wide range and is adaptable to most coaxial cables, since either multistrand or single strand center conductor cable can be used.

Brown, V. D.

1973-01-01

91

Vacuum ultraviolet holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

1974-01-01

92

Vacuum ultraviolet holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182-A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and examined with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 386 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of submicron particles were recorded.

Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

1974-01-01

93

Vacuum insulator coating development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors discuss the electrical and mechanical requirements for vacuum insulators in high peak power generators. To increase the lifetime of these insulators, they have developed a coating called Dendresist. This coating has extended the insulator lifetime on the PITHON, DM2, CASINO, and Double-EAGLE pulsed power generators. They describe its development, and compare its electrical and mechanical strength to that

I. S. Roth; P. S. Sincerny; L. Mandelcorn; M. Mendelsohn; D. Smith; T. G. Engel; L. Schlitt; C. M. Cooke

1997-01-01

94

On Lovelock vacuum solution  

E-print Network

We show that the asymptotic large $r$ limit of all Lovelock vacuum and electrovac solutions with $\\Lambda$ is always the Einstein solution in $d \\geq 2n+1$ dimensions. It is completely free of the order $n$ of the Lovelock polynomial indicating universal asymptotic behaviour.

Naresh Dadhich

2010-12-18

95

Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. 1. Solvent considerations  

SciTech Connect

Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine{reg_sign} 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol{reg_sign} 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation.

Gu, Z.; Glatz, B.A.; Glatz, C.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)] [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1998-02-20

96

Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.  

PubMed

Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation. PMID:10099222

Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

1998-02-20

97

RUMEN FERMENTATIONS WITH NaOH-STRAW RATIONS(1) C. VAN EENAEME, O. LAMBOT, J.M. BIENFAITB. NICKS C. VAN NEVEL*  

E-print Network

of a vacuum device and a flexible tube. Fermentations were stopped by adding Thiomersal. Samples were immediately centri- fuged (3000 rpm/20 min.), the content parti- tioned into liquid and solid fractions were estimated by gas chromatography. Ammonia was determined by an autoanalyzer methodology adapted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

98

Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.  

PubMed

There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production. PMID:17765349

Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

2007-12-01

99

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

100

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOEpatents

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

1980-01-01

101

Portable vacuum object handling device  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, G.H.

1981-07-30

102

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-09

103

A novel downstream process for 1,3-propanediol from glycerol-based fermentation.  

PubMed

In this paper, a downstream process for purification of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol-based fermentation broth was investigated. The purification of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth was achieved by a process combining microfiltration, charcoal treatment, vacuum distillation, and silica gel chromatography. The broth was first filtered through hollow fiber cartridge, wherein 98.7% of biomass was removed. Soluble proteins and other color impurities in the broth were removed by the use of activated charcoal at optimal concentration of 30 g?l(-1) where the soluble proteins in the broth decreased to 0.1 g?l(-1) (96.0% protein loss). The obtained broth when concentrated by vacuum distillation resulted in the crystallization of inorganic salts. Subsequently, 1,3-propanediol was purified by gradient chromatography using silica gel as a stationary phase and mixture of chloroform and methanol as a mobile phase. Finally, with the optimal flow rate of 10 ml min(-1) and loading amount of 80 ml, the yield of 1,3-propanediol achieved was 89%. The overall yield of 1,3-propanediol using the proposed procedure was 75.47%. The developed method was found to be a simple, rapid, and efficient procedure for the purification of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth. PMID:21360149

Anand, Pinki; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar; Marwah, Ruchi G

2011-05-01

104

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1993-01-01

105

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

106

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1993-01-05

107

Integrated structure vacuum tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (inventors)

1976-01-01

108

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

109

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

110

Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ecology of bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 independent phage isolates, including ...

111

Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

1982-12-01

112

Accelerated ripening of dry fermented sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on accelerated ripening of dry fermented sausages started in the early 1990s. Fermented sausages manufacture is a very important part of meat industry in many countries and the acceleration of ripening would result in a reduction of the storage time and would increase the profit margin and the competitiveness of the end product. The different strategies that have been

Manuela Fernández; Juan A Ordóñez; José M Bruna; Beatriz Herranz; Lorenzo de la Hoz

2000-01-01

113

Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious indus- trial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Scle- rotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream process- ing and applications of scleroglucan.

Shrikant A. Survase; Parag S. Saudagar; Ishwar B. Bajaj; Rekha S. Singhal

114

Improvement of fermentative hydrogen production: various approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation of biomass or carbohydrate-based substrates presents a promising route of biological hydrogen production compared with photosynthetic or chemical routes. Pure substrates, including glucose, starch and cellulose, as well as different organic waste materials can be used for hydrogen fermentation. Among a large number of microbial species, strict anaerobes and facultative anaerobic chemoheterotrophs, such as clostridia and enteric bacteria, are

Kaushik Nath; Debabrata Das

2004-01-01

115

Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

Moore, Eugene B.

1977-01-01

116

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception,

A. S. Kertes; C. J. King

1986-01-01

117

Extractive fermentation of acetic acid  

SciTech Connect

In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1991-12-31

118

Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.  

PubMed

Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. PMID:24506010

Abawari, Rashid Abafita

2013-10-15

119

The vacuum energy crisis  

E-print Network

The smallness of the vacuum energy density and its near coincidence with the average matter density of the universe are naturally explained by anthropic selection. An alternative explanation, based on the cyclic model of Steinhardt and Turok, does not address the coincidence problem and is therefore less convincing. This article appeared in ``Science'' (4 May 2006) as a ``perspective'' for Steinhardt and Turok's paper in the same issue (astro-ph/0605173).

Alexander Vilenkin

2006-05-09

120

Is vacuum dispersive?  

E-print Network

The question we ask is: does the speed of light {\\it{in vacuo}} depend on its frequency? While the answer is NO in the frame of classical physics, we point out that the opposite could be true if one takes into account the polarization of Dirac sea. We estimate the dependence of the index of refraction of vacuum + Dirac sea versus the wavelength of an incoming beam, and suggest a way to test this effect.

Yves Pomeau

2014-09-02

121

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

Not Available

1991-01-01

122

The LHC Vacuum System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9 K and therefore a very good cryo-pump. To reduce the cryogenic power consumption, the heat load from synchrotron radiation and from the image currents in the vacuum chamber will be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K, inserted in the magnet cold bore. The design pressure necessary for operation must provide a lifetime of many days and a stringent requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench. Cryo-pumping of gas on the cold surfaces provides the necessary low gas densities but it must be ensured that the vapour pressure of cryo-sorbed molecules, of which H2 and He would be the most critical species, remains within acceptable limits. The room temperature sections of the LHC, specifically in the experiments, the vacuum must be stable against ion induced desorption and ISR-type 'pressure bumps'.

Gröbner, O.

1997-05-01

123

Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.  

PubMed

Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2?-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process. PMID:21897039

Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

2011-01-01

124

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae  

PubMed Central

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

2013-01-01

125

Improved processes for the production and isolation of dynemicin A and large-scale fermentation in a 10000-liter fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Supplementing the culture ofMicromonospora chersina sp. nov. No. M956-1 with NaI (0.5 mg\\/l) enhanced the production of dynemicin A by 35-fold in shake flask culture. Homogeneous dynemicin A was obtained from the whole broth extract by Dicalite chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and vacuum liquid chromatography. Gram quantities of dynemicin A were obtained from the fermentation ofM. chersina sp. nov.

Kin Sing Lam; Jeffrey A. Titus; Thomas T. Dabrah; Dennis L. Kimball; Jacqueline M. Veitch; Donald R. Gustavson; Bruce J. Compton; James A. Matson; Salvatore Forenza; John Ross; David Miller; John Roach; John Beutler

1992-01-01

126

Microbial growth kinetics of fed-batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch fermenters are generally operated with the addition of small doses of nutrients, therefore the volume of the fermentation broth increases with time. Batch fermenters generally contain and almost constant volume of broth and a logistic equation has been commonly employed to simulate microbial growth in them. Mass balances were determined with fed-batch fermentation to obtain expressions which account for

F. Özadali; M. Özilgen

1988-01-01

127

Microbial growth kinetics of fed-batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fed-batch fermenters are generally operated with the addition of small doses of nutrients, therefore the volume of the fermentation broth increases with time. Batch fermenters generally contain and almost constant volume of broth and a logistic equation has been commonly employed to simulate microbial growth in them. Mass balances were determined with fed-batch fermentation to obtain expressions which account

F. Özadali; M. Özilgen

1988-01-01

128

The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials  

E-print Network

The effect of isoacids on ruminal fermentation : in vitro trials G. PIVA, F. MASOERO, O. CURTO, isovaleric and valeric acids) showed a stimulating effect on ruminal microflora fermentations, particularly) on the in vitro fermentative activity of rumen microorganisms. Material and methods. Six fermentations were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011  

E-print Network

CBR Fermentation Suite Service Fee Schedule Updated Oct 2011 Please note that fees can be changed: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use of CBR centrifuge 7-L Fermenters (Working volume: 5.0 - 5.5 L) Harvest: Fermenter user must harvest but CBR can provide bottles for the use

Strynadka, Natalie

130

250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation  

E-print Network

250 CEREAL CHEMISTRY NOTE Evaluating Dough Density Changes During Fermentation by Different. During fermentation, the production of CO2, due to yeast's metabolic activities, causes the bubbles of fermentation conditions on the rheology of dough. The internal pressure of fermenting dough has been mea- sured

Page, John

131

CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation  

E-print Network

CEC-500-2010-FS-XXX New Microalgae Fermentation Process Used to Produce Biofuel TRANSPORTATION (not reliant on light and photosynthesis) algal fermentation to process sustainable, nonfood derived fermentable sugars to test process on actual commercially available products. · Fermented

132

VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation  

E-print Network

VOL. 113, NO. 3, 2007 325 Optimal Beer Fermentation W. Fred Ramirez1,3 and Jan Maciejowski2 beer fermentation problems. Using a mathematical model of beer fermentation, the direct dynamic profiles. Key words: Dynamic optimization, fermentation, mathematical modeling, optimal flavor

Cambridge, University of

133

Fermentation characteristics of corn forage ensiled in mini-silos.  

PubMed

To evaluate numerous experimental variables and their interactions involving different corn (Zea mays, L.) silage hybrids, scaled down mini-silos are necessary. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of sample size on pH, NH3, and volatile fatty acid profile of 8 corn silage hybrids, selected to vary in fiber digestibility and ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags for 90 d, and to assess the suitability of these mini-silos for detecting differences among corn silage samples. Hybrids were grown at the Cornell Teaching and Research Center located near Harford, NY, and harvested at a dry matter content of about 32% in the fall of 2002. Samples from 3 field replications of each hybrid were chipper-shredder chopped and vacuum-ensiled in bags with sample sizes of 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 g. Increasing sample size resulted in decreased lactic acid, acetic acid, total acids, and NH3. Most of the difference among sample sizes occurred between the 50- and 100-g sample sizes. Lactic acid:acetic acid ratio (3.1 +/- 0.13) and pH (3.9 +/-0.08) did not vary among sample sizes. There was no detectable butyric acid in the samples. Fermentation characteristics suggested that all samples were well ensiled but that the fermentation profile of the 50-g samples differed the most from other sample sizes. Hybrids did vary in lactic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid:acetic acid, and pH. Differences among hybrids were also noted for dry matter and crude protein. Field-chopped corn hybrids that were ensiled using mini-silos had higher acids than corresponding field-chopped corn hybrids ensiled in Ag-bags, in part due to no effluent escaping from the mini-silos. It is possible to use vacuum-sealed plastic bags to ensile corn, with samples as small as 200 g, and to use these mini-silos to assess differences among corn silage samples. Caution should be used when extrapolating mini-silo data to field-scale ensiling. PMID:15545388

Cherney, D J R; Cherney, J H; Cox, W J

2004-12-01

134

Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation.  

PubMed

There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO(2) overpressure). The transcription profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during primary wine fermentation has been studied by several research groups, but this is the first report on yeast transcriptome under second fermentation conditions. Our results indicate that the main pathways affected by these particular conditions are related to aerobic respiration, but genes related to vacuolar and peroxisomal functions were also highlighted in this study. A parallelism between the transcription profile of wine yeast during primary and second fermentation is appreciated, with ethanol appearing as the main factor driving gene transcription during second fermentation. Low temperature seems to also influence yeast transcription profile under these particular winemaking conditions. PMID:22133566

Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

2012-02-01

135

Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation  

PubMed Central

In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentation. In electrodialysis fermentation, the amount of produced lactic acid was 82.2 g/liter, which was about 5.5 times greater than that produced in non-pH-controlled fermentation. It was concluded that these good results were obtained on account of alleviating the lactic acid inhibitory effect by electrodialysis fermentation. However, the fouling of anion-exchange membranes by cells was observed in electrodialysis fermentation. PMID:16347129

Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

1986-01-01

136

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

137

What is vacuum?  

E-print Network

Vacuum can be defined with exact mathematical precision as the state which remains when a fermion, with all its special characteristics, is created out of absolutely nothing. The definition leads to a special form of relativistic quantum mechanics, which only requires the construction of a creation operator. This form of quantum mechanics is especially powerful for analytic calculation, at the same time as explaining, from first principles, many aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics. In particular, the characteristics of the weak, strong and electric interactions can be derived from the structure of the creation operator itself.

Peter Rowlands

2008-10-01

138

Clostridial fermentation of high-energy sorghum  

SciTech Connect

Pretreatment of biomass has been shown to increase the efficiency of microbial conversion of lignocellulose to energy or chemicals. Most chemical and physical pretreatments, however, are too expensive for practical application. Biological pretreatment during ensilage storage offers the potential for a low cost pretreatment process for herbaceous biomass. A number of cellulolytic microorganisms occurring naturally in silages or inoculated into the biomass during ensiling could result in significant hydrolysis of lignocellulose during storage prior to conversion to the final end products. The overall objective of this research was to induce clostridial fermentation in sorghum during ensiling through either manipulation of environmental conditions or inoculation with clostridium bacteria. The first objective was to determine whether environmental conditions can influence the natural microorganisms population distribution during ensiling, thus leading to clostridial fermentation. The second objective was to determine whether cellulolytic clostridia can compete with lactic acid bacteria in the ensiling process, resulting in a clostridial fermentation. Two studies were conducted to investigate these two objectives. Three levels of water soluble sugars ranging from 180g/kg D.M. to 15g/Kg D.M. and five levels of moisture contents ranging from 58% to 81% were used in the first part of this investigation. The fermentation types were generally heterolactic acid fermentation though sporadic clostridial fermentations were observed. The major products from the fermentations were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Although the effects of water soluble sugar and moisture content were highly significant for the amount of lactic acid and total products in the fermentations, the two factors were not enough to induce cellulolytic clostridial fermentation.

Kim, Y.J.

1989-01-01

139

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option Course Title Course # Credits  

E-print Network

B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation Science Option B.S. Degree Requirements*: Fermentation 472 05 Intro to Food Engr. Process Design BEE 473 03 OPTION: FERMENTATION SCIENCE Food Science Major Core (91-95 Cr.) FERMENTATION SCIENCE OPTION Additional Supporting Courses (8 Cr.) NUTR225 may

Escher, Christine

140

Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment  

E-print Network

Biomass fermentation, oligonucleotides synthesis, gene cloning http://www.chem.ed.ac.uk/research/additional.html#ferment complementary technologies: specialised DNA oligonucleotide synthesis, large scale fermentation and gene cloning 3032) for fermentation and cloning and Dr Scott Cockroft (scott.cockroft@ed.ac.uk 50 4758

Schnaufer, Achim

141

Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking  

SciTech Connect

Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

1986-07-01

142

Annual reports on fermentation processes. Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

Ten reviews of fermentation processes are presented in this volume. Six of these papers have been abstracted separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Chapter titles are: Practical mixed culture processes; Converting food processing wastes into food or feed; Microbiology of lignin degradation; Immobilized microbes; Peptides; Direct microbiological conversion of cellulosics to ethanol; The new biology - opportunities for the fermentation industry; Large-scale production of German interferons; yeast alcohol tolerance and recombinant DNA for improved alcohol production process, and An evaluation of N/sub 2/ fixation and hydrogen production in fermentation culture. (DMC)

Tsao, G.T. (ed.)

1980-01-01

143

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

2010-01-01

144

The vacuum arc centrifuge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of elements and isotopes by means of rotating magnetized plasma columns using a laser-triggered vacuum arc centrifuge is described. This vacuum arc centrifuge is sustained by the erosion and ionization of the cathode material, thus producing relatively pure, highly ionized, rotating plasma columns of the cathode material. Any solid metal, or mixture of metals, can be converted into plasma, and the constituent isotopes partially separated in the centrifuge, by fabricating the arc cathode out of the desired metals. The device also offers the possibility of operation with nonconducting solid elements or compounds by imbedding the desired substance in a conducting matrix. A wide variety of metals and combinations of metals were studied, ranging from C through Cu to Cd/Sn. Typical angular rotation frequencies of approx. 100,000 rad/sec were measured, with concomitant enrichments up to a factor of two for Cu 65. The device in its present form is not a viable source of partially enriched stable isotopes at a competitive cost.

Krishnan, M.; Hirshfield, J. L.

145

The LHC Vacuum System  

E-print Network

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting b ending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9 K and therefore a very good cryopump. To reduce the cryogeni c power consumption, the heat load from synchrotron radiation and from the image currents in the vacuum chamber will be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K, inserted in the magnet cold bore. The design pressure necessary for operation must provide a lifetime of several days and a further stringent requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench. Cryopumping of gas on the cold surfaces provides the necessary low gas densities but it must be ensured that the vapour pressure of cr...

Gröbner, Oswald

1998-01-01

146

LHC vacuum system  

E-print Network

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, now in the advanced construction phase at CERN, comprises two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7-TeV energy. The machine is housed in the existing LEP tunnel with a circumference of 26.7 km and requires a bending magnetic field of 8.4 T with 14-m long superconducting magnets. The beam vacuum chambers comprise the inner 'cold bore' walls of the magnets. These magnets operate at 1.9 K, and thus serve as very good cryo-pumps. In order to reduce the cryogenic power consumption, both the heat load from synchrotron radiation emitted by the proton beams and the resistive power dissipation by the beam image currents have to be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K and is inserted inside the vacuum chamber. The design of this beam screen represents a technological challenge in view of the numerous and often conflicting requirements and the very tight mechanical tolerances imposed. The synchrotron radiation produces strong outgassing from the...

Gröbner, Oswald

1999-01-01

147

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2014-04-01

148

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

149

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2012-04-01

150

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2011-04-01

151

21 CFR 573.500 - Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. 573.500 Section 573...Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product. Condensed, extracted glutamic acid fermentation product may be safely used in...

2013-04-01

152

Vacuum disconnectors an application study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ageing of vacuum interrupters with combined functions of disconnector and circuit-breaker or switch is studied for compact shielded solid insulated switchgear. Different prototypes are manufactured to investigate the influence of contact materials and contact designs. A test program is presented that realistically represents the ageing as described in the standards. The feasibility to create vacuum disconnecting circuit-breakers, vacuum switch-disconnectors

H. Schellekens; T. Shioiri; M. Homma; P. Picot; K. Sasage; D. Mazzucchi

2010-01-01

153

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

Anderson, G.H.

1983-08-09

154

Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

1979-01-01

155

Vacuum insulation on the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents recent concepts and analysis on vacuum insulation issues in the lunar environment, including dust initiated breakdown, thermal management, gas contamination, and solar radiation effects.

Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

1994-05-01

156

Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.  

PubMed

Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components. PMID:23266848

Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

2013-02-01

157

Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum  

SciTech Connect

Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

1982-12-01

158

Effective Antibiotic Resistance Mitigation during Cheese Fermentation ?  

PubMed Central

Controlling antibiotic-resistant (ART) bacteria in cheese fermentation is important for food safety and public health. A plant-maintained culture was found to be a potential source for ART bacterial contamination in cheese fermentation. Antibiotics had a detectable effect on the ART population from contamination in the finished product. The decrease in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance (AR) in retail cheese samples from 2010 compared to data from 2006 suggested the effectiveness of targeted AR mitigation in related products. PMID:21784910

Li, Xinhui; Li, Yingli; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

2011-01-01

159

The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn.  

PubMed

Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn were subjected to the process of nixtamalization, using two concentrations of lime (0.5 or 1.0%), milled, made into a dough (50% moisture) and fermented spontaneously for 72 h. A control sample was prepared without alkaline treatment. pH and titratable acidity of the dough were measured. Aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds were enumerated on Plate Count Agar (PCA), deMan, Rogossa and Sharpe (MRS) Agar and Malt Extract Agar (MEA), respectively. The identity of lactobacilli present was established at the species level using API 50 CHL. The pH of all the fermenting systems decreased with fermentation time with concomitant increase in titratable acidity. Lactic acid bacteria in numbers of 1.6 x 10(9), 2.3 x 10(9) and 1.8 x 10(9) cfu/g, respectively yeasts and molds, and numbers of 8.0 x 10(7), 5.0 x 10(5) and 1.7 x 10(5) cfu/g, respectively were observed in the control and the two nixtamalized (0.5% and 1.0% lime) samples after 48 h of fermentation. Lactobacilli identified in the fermenting nixtamalized corn dough were Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus cellobiosus as well as Pediococcus spp. The study demonstrates that nixtamalized corn though alkaline in nature can be subjected to spontaneous fermentation to produce a sour product. PMID:15358510

Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Cornelius, Beatrice; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

2004-10-01

160

Iron effect on acetone-butanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

WhenClostridium acetobutylicum was grown in batch culture under iron limitation (0.2 mg·l-1) at a pH of 4.8, glucose was fermented, to butanol as the major fermentation end product, and small quantities of acetic acid were produced. The final conversion yield of glucose into butanol could be increased from 20% to 30% by iron limitation. The acetonebutanol ratio was changed from

A. M. Junelles; R. Janati-Idrissi; H. Petitdemange; R. Gay

1988-01-01

161

Feeding Fermented Cottonseed Meal to Hogs.  

E-print Network

BULLETIN 78 Animal Husbandry Section, October, 1905 FEEDING FERMENTED COTTONSEED MEAL TO HOGS BY F. R. MARSHALL Selected as Fountlation Ior a rolantl-China ~erci at the A. and M. College. POSTOFFICE : COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS... .......................................... VI . Summary 20 FEEDING FERMENTED COTTONSEED MEAL TO HOGS. F. R. MARSHALL. The growing interest in production of pork in Texas has re-opened the old question of feeding cottonseed meal to swine. Many localities of the State produce crops well...

Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

1905-01-01

162

Entrapment Type Vacuum Pumps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Entrapment type pumps operate primarily in the high to ultra-high vacuum ranges. The discussion in this MATEC module includes applications, theory of operation, operating range and preventative maintenance. The focus is on three major types of pumps: cryosorption, cryogenic and sputter-ion. The overall performance of these types of pumps depends on a variety of parameters. For example, it is important that learners understand the balance between pumping speed and capacity. Competency is demonstrated as the learners specify systems for defined process applications.

163

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

164

Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

1997-01-01

165

Braneworld dynamics with vacuum polarization  

E-print Network

We investigate the cosmological dynamics of a brane Universe when quantum corrections from vacuum polarization are taken into account. New vacuum de Sitter points existing on Randall-Sundrum brane are described. We show also that quantum correction can destroy the DGP de Sitter solution on induced gravity brane.

A. V. Toporensky; P. V. Tretyakov

2005-12-15

166

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

167

Detecting leaks in vacuum bags  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Small leaks in vacuum bag can be readily detected by eye, using simple chemical reaction: combination of ammonia and acetic acid vapors to produce cloudy white smoke. Technique has been successfully used to test seam integrity and to identify minute pinholes in vacuum bag used in assembly of ceramic-tile heat shield for Space Shuttle Orbiter.

Carlstrom, E. E.

1980-01-01

168

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

169

On simplicity of vacuum modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find necessary and sufficient conditions of irreducibility of vacuum modules over affine Lie algebras and superalgebras. From this we derive conditions of simplicity of minimal W-algebras. Moreover, in the case of the Virasoro and Neveu–Schwarz algebras we obtain explicit formulas for the vacuum determinants.

Maria Gorelik; Victor Kac

2007-01-01

170

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

171

Statistical mechanics of the vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum is full of virtual particles which exist for short moments of time. In this paper we construct a chaotic model of vacuum fluctuations associated with a fundamental entropic field that generates an arrow of time. The dynamics can be physically interpreted in terms of fluctuating virtual momenta. This model leads to a generalized statistical mechanics that distinguishes fundamental constants of nature.

Christian Beck

2011-12-07

172

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

173

??????????????????????????????????????????? Vacuum Cooling Process of Lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research work is to study the moisture and the temperature variation of lettuce under vacuum cooling processes. The experiment was carried out in a rectangular vacuum chamber having a volume of 0.036 m3. The experimental results showed that the cooling rate at the first stage of running was considerably high. the chamber temperature profile during the

Phanlop Saranyachoet; Naris Pratinthong; Thanit Swasdisevi

174

Vacuum energy as dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the vacuum energy of massive quantum fields in an expanding universe. We define a conserved renormalized energy-momentum tensor by means of a comoving cutoff regularization. Using exact solutions for de Sitter space-time, we show that in a certain range of mass and renormalization scales there is a contribution to the vacuum energy density that scales as nonrelativistic matter and that such a contribution becomes dominant at late times. By means of the WKB approximation, we find that these results can be extended to arbitrary Robertson-Walker geometries. We study the range of parameters in which the vacuum energy density would be compatible with current limits on dark matter abundance. Finally, by calculating the vacuum energy in a perturbed Robertson-Walker background, we obtain the speed of sound of density perturbations and show that the vacuum energy density contrast can grow on sub-Hubble scales as in standard cold dark matter scenarios.

Albareti, F. D.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; Maroto, A. L.

2014-12-01

175

Microbial community dynamics during fermentation of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean.  

PubMed

Bacterial and fungal community dynamics, along with viable plate counts and water content, were investigated in the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean, during its fermentation process. Measurement of viable cells showed that the meju molding equipment might be an important source of bacterial cells (mostly Bacillus) during doenjang-meju fermentation, whereas fungi might be mostly derived from the fermentation environment including incubation shelves, air, and rice straws. Community analysis using rRNA-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that Bacillus among bacteria and Mucor among fungi were predominant in both the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju during the early fermentation period. Bacteria such as Ignatzschineria, Myroides, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Clostridium and fungi such as Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Monascus, Fusarium, and eventually Aspergillus were mainly detected as the fermentation progressed. Bacillus, an aerobic bacterial group, was predominant in the exterior regions during the entire fermentation period, while anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and microaerobic bacteria including Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Myroides, and Ignatzschineria were much more abundant in the interior regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the bacterial communities in the exterior and interior regions were clearly differentiated, suggesting that aeration might be an important factor in determining the bacterial communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. However, PCA showed that fungal communities were not separated in the exterior and interior regions and Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the major fungal taxa had significantly positive (Mucor and Geotrichum) or negative (Aspergillus) correlations with the water content during doenjang-meju fermentation, indicating that water content might be a significant factor in determining the fungal communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. PMID:24960292

Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

2014-08-18

176

Vacuum phenomenon: Clinical relevance.  

PubMed

Vacuum phenomenon (VP) is an anatomical entity of potential confusion in the diagnosis and evaluation of joint pathology. Observation of this phenomenon has been demonstrated on basic radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Although VP is most often associated with degenerative joint disease, it is observed with other pathologies. Two problematic scenarios can occur: a false-positive diagnosis of serious pathology instead of benign VP and a false-negative diagnosis of benign VP with a more serious underlying process Despite this potential for confusion, criteria for distinguishing VP from other causes of joint pain and for evaluating a suspected case of VP have not been fully established. We reviewed the literature to determine underlying mechanism, symptomology, associated pathologies, and clinical importance of VP. The formation of VP can be explained by gas solubility, pressure-volume relationships, and human physiology. CT, GRE-MRI, and multipositional views are the best imaging studies to view VP. Although most cases of VP are benign, it can be associated with clinical signs and symptoms. VP outside the spine is an underreported finding on imaging studies. VP should be on the differential diagnosis for joint pain, especially in the elderly. We have proposed criteria for diagnosing VP and generated a basic algorithm for its workup. Underreporting of this phenomenon shows a lack of awareness of VP on the part of physicians. By identifying true anatomic VP, we can prevent harm from suboptimal treatment of patients. PMID:24288359

Gohil, Ishan; Vilensky, Joel A; Weber, Edward C

2014-04-01

177

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27

178

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

179

Vacuum plasma spray coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1989-01-01

180

Precooler Ring Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

Moenich, J.

1980-10-02

181

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

182

Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution  

E-print Network

An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature $R$ as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect $\\delta\\Lambda\\sim R\\sim H^2$. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the $\\Lambda$CDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

Joan Sola

2014-02-27

183

Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

2012-11-01

184

Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1  

PubMed Central

The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive, pure culture fermentor which was suitable for gamma radiation, resistant to salt and acid, and which permitted repeated aseptic sampling of the fermenting brine, is illustrated and the specifications are given. PMID:16349651

Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

1964-01-01

185

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

186

Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

Cho, C.

1987-01-01

187

Quantitative method for colorimetric determination of formate in fermentation media  

SciTech Connect

The effect of fermentation products and media supplements on a colorimetric assay for formate were evaluated. Formate was detected at concentrations as low as 0.5 mM in fermentation media. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Sleat R.; Mah, R.A.

1984-04-01

188

27 CFR 19.314 - Removal of fermenting material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.314 Removal of fermenting material. Material received for use as fermenting material may be...

2010-04-01

189

Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose - acid yield and conversion of components  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover was fermented with a mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms to form simple (C2-C6), volatile organic acids. Alkaline pretreatment allowed a greater fermentation of the pectin and hemicellulose than of the cellulose and lignin, but all components were utilized. The percent fermentation of the soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 79.6, 74.1, 36.9, and 20.9%, respively. The yield of acid (as acetate) with respect to material fermented was 84%.

Datta, R.

1981-01-01

190

Einstein-?tsuki vacuum equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalisation of the Einstein vacuum theory to ?tsuki geometry is considered. It is shown that the theory based on Lagrangian density ?-gR is consistent and leads to a theory that is classically indistinguishable from the Einstein theory.

Smrz, P. K.

1993-01-01

191

Inhomogeneous and Interacting Vacuum Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum energy is a simple model for dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe. If the vacuum energy is inhomogeneous in spacetime then it must be interacting. We present the general equations for a spacetime-dependent vacuum energy in cosmology, including inhomogeneous perturbations. We show how any dark energy cosmology can be described by an interacting vacuum+matter. Different models for the interaction can lead to different behaviour (e.g., sound speed for dark energy perturbations) and hence could be distinguished by cosmological observations. As an example we present the cosmic microwave microwave background anisotropies and the matter power spectrum for two different versions of a generalised Chaplygin gas cosmology.

De-Santiago, Josue; Wands, David; Wang, Yuting

192

Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

Burger, D. R.

1982-01-01

193

Vacuum system pump down analysis  

SciTech Connect

My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

Rohrdanz, D.R.

1990-08-01

194

Fermentation of xylose by bacillus macerans  

SciTech Connect

Plant stems, leaves, wood and most other sources of cellulose contain hemicelluloses. When cellulose from these sources is enzymatically hydrolyzed, hemicelluloses are also hydrolyzed by the action of xylanase. The hydrolysis of hemicelluloses yields pentoses, primarily xylose, and some hexoses. Bacillus macerans is capable of fermenting pentoses to ethanol. The ability of B. macerans to ferment pentoses to ethanol was examined. The organism was grown in a continuous flow stirred-tank fermenter. In continuous culture at steady state, ethanol and acetic acid were produced, whereas in batch culture and during transients in continuous culture, ethanol, acetic acid and acetone were produced. The organism was found to have a relatively high maximum specific growth rate. This maximum specific growth rate was observed to be higher than previously reported for B. macerans organisms. It was found that B. macerans had difficulty attaining and maintaining a steady state when grown in continuous culture.

Delfino, T.A.; Blanch, H.W.; Wilke, C.R.

1981-09-01

195

Fermentative butanol production: bulk chemical and biofuel.  

PubMed

Clostridium acetobutylicum is an anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium with the ability to ferment starch and sugars into solvents. In the past, it has been used for industrial production of acetone and butanol, until cheap crude oil rendered petrochemical synthesis more economically feasible. Both economic (price of crude oil) and environmental aspects (carbon dioxide emissions) have caused the pendulum to swing back again. Molecular biology has allowed a detailed understanding of genes and enzymes, required for solventogenesis. Thus, construction of strains with improved fermentation ability is now possible. Advances in continuous culture technology and improved downstream processing also add to economic advantages of a new biotechnological process. Two major companies have already committed themselves to biobutanol production as a biofuel additive. Thus, butanol fermentation is on the rise again. PMID:18378605

Dürre, Peter

2008-03-01

196

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of

S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt

2010-01-01

197

Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product  

DOEpatents

A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

2014-02-18

198

ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION OF LACTOSE BY ENGINEERED FLOCCULENT SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with the ability to ferment lactose has biotechnological interest, particularly for cheese whey fermentation to ethanol. Direct fermentation of whey to ethanol is generally not economically feasible because the low lactose content (ca. 5% w\\/v) results in low ethanol titre (2 - 3% v\\/v), making the distillation process too expensive. Concentration of whey lactose

P. M. R. Guimarães; J. A. Teixeira; L. Domingues

199

Fermented grain products, production, properties and benefits to health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods such as Japanese traditional food “miso (fermented soy bean paste)” have been shown to be rich source of micronutrients with the potential to prevent various human diseases. We have introduced effects of a new dietary supplement of fermented grain foods mixture containing extracts from wheat germ, soybeans, rice bran, tear grass, sesame, wheat, citrus lemon, green tea, green

Yukiko Minamiyama; Shigekazu Takemura; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Shigeru Okada

2003-01-01

200

Leucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt-fermented food  

E-print Network

salt-fermented seafood. Shrimp jeotgal is made by mixing fresh tiny shrimps with rock salt, followedLeucobacter salsicius sp. nov., from a salt- fermented food Ji-Hyun Yun,1 Seong Woon Roh,1,2 Min, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea Strain M1-8T was isolated from jeotgal, a Korean salt-fermented food

Bae, Jin-Woo

201

Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of food waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to improve hydrogen fermentation of food waste in a leaching-bed reactor by heat-shocked anaerobic sludge, and also to investigate the effect of dilution rate (D) on the production of hydrogen and metabolites in hydrogen fermentation. Among various reaction constraints affecting the fermentation of food waste, a key factor is the adjustment of environmental conditions during the

Sun-Kee Han; Hang-Sik Shin

2004-01-01

202

Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

1981-01-01

203

REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

204

Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter  

E-print Network

Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter Na-Ri Shin, Mi , was isolated from a Korean alcohol fermentation starter. Optimal growth occurred at 37 6C, at pH 8 and in 1 was isolated from nuruk, which is an alcohol fermentation starter used as an amylolytic substance

Bae, Jin-Woo

205

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation  

E-print Network

Structural modifications of timothy lignin by in vitro rumen fermentation T Kondo, T Ohshita lignin undergoes in the digestive tract. Rumen fermentation has been reported to cause decomposition), but no further evidence is presented showing structural degradation of forage lignin by rumen fermentation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2011-04-01

207

Fermentative metabolism of a transga-lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig  

E-print Network

Fermentative metabolism of a transga- lactosylated oligosaccharide by pig hindgut microflora. Scarcely absorbed from the intestinal tract, this product is available for fermentation by hindgut microflora. The aim of this work was to study the fermentative metabo- lism in a continuous culture system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

208

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2010-04-01

209

Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed  

E-print Network

Original article Digestion and fermentation of proteins in rats fed keratin, albumin, cooked casein transfer and fermentation in the caecum. The caecal digestion of casein (cooked or not), ker- atin (hydrolysed or not) and bovine serum albumin (oxidized or not) was measured in rats. Protein fermentation

Boyer, Edmond

210

Reconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics  

E-print Network

Reconciling competing models: a case study of wine fermentation kinetics Rodrigo Assar1, Felipe A.sherman@labri.fr Abstract Mathematical models of wine fermentation kinetics promise early diagnosis of stuck or sluggish the biology of wine yeast fermentation through functional genomics, and contribute to our understanding

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

211

Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and  

E-print Network

Original article Wilting effect on fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of mountain the chemical characteristics and the evolution of fermentation processes in pre-wilted silages: 500 L capacity-wilting. Fermentation characteris- tics were significantly modified by wilting with an increase in pH (from 3.82 to 4

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

212

Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. I: inhibition and detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds formed or released during hydrolysis. This review describes the effect of various detoxification methods on the fermentability and chemical composition of the hydrolysates. Inhibition of fermentation can be relieved upon treatment with

Eva Palmqvist; Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal

2000-01-01

213

27 CFR 24.176 - Crushing and fermentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Crushing and fermentation. 24.176 Section 24.176 ...of Wine § 24.176 Crushing and fermentation. (a) Natural wine production...the crushing process or to facilitate fermentation but the density of the juice...

2014-04-01

214

Vacuum Refining of Molten Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallurgical fundamentals for vacuum refining of molten silicon and the behavior of different impurities in this process are studied. A novel mass transfer model for the removal of volatile impurities from silicon in vacuum induction refining is developed. The boundary conditions for vacuum refining system—the equilibrium partial pressures of the dissolved elements and their actual partial pressures under vacuum—are determined through thermodynamic and kinetic approaches. It is indicated that the vacuum removal kinetics of the impurities is different, and it is controlled by one, two, or all the three subsequent reaction mechanisms—mass transfer in a melt boundary layer, chemical evaporation on the melt surface, and mass transfer in the gas phase. Vacuum refining experimental results of this study and literature data are used to study the model validation. The model provides reliable results and shows correlation with the experimental data for many volatile elements. Kinetics of phosphorus removal, which is an important impurity in the production of solar grade silicon, is properly predicted by the model, and it is observed that phosphorus elimination from silicon is significantly increased with increasing process temperature.

Safarian, Jafar; Tangstad, Merete

2012-12-01

215

Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering. PMID:19325807

Carere, Carlo R.; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B.

2008-01-01

216

Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Janda?ka, Jozef

2012-04-01

217

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii  

DOEpatents

A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

1992-03-31

218

Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.  

PubMed

Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

2014-09-01

219

Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

220

Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

Wesley, P.

1981-02-01

221

Traditional fermented protein condiments in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fermented condiments (dawadawa, iru, ogiri) based on vegetable proteins, and consumed by different ethnic groups in Nigeria have been the pride of culinary traditions for centuries. It is evident that these products have played a major role in the food habits of communities in the rural regions serving not only as a nutritious non-meat proteins substitute but also as

O. K. Achi

222

Modeling the Dynamics of Fermentation and Respiratory  

E-print Network

Halle, Germany A biodegradation model with consecutive fermentation and respiration processes, developed. Simulation of the anaerobic plume core with H2 and acetate as intermediate products of biodegradation allows previously thought, possibly with a greater impact than plume fringe processes (aerobic respiration

Sheffield, University of

223

Oat Bran Fermentation by Rye Sourdough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 79(3):345-348 Hydration of oat bran including fermentation by rye sourdough was studied. Three types of oat bran suspensions were prepared (a control, one with whole meal rye flour added, and one with rye starter added). The suspensions were incubated for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hr. ?-Glucan content and solubilities of protein and ?-glucan were analyzed. Viscosity of

Laima Degutyte-Fomins; Tuula Sontag-Strohm; Hannu Salovaara

2002-01-01

224

Role of water activity in ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

A separate role for water activity in the conversion of sugars to ethanol by two strains of yeast is identified. During fermentation of both single and mixed sugar substrates, the water activity was shown to remain constant during the logarithmic growth phase. This is despite the changes in concentration of substrates and production, the constancy reflecting the fact that the greater influence of ethanol on the solution activity is counterbalanced, in the early stages of the fermentation, by its low yield. The end of the log phase of growth coincides with the start of a period of gradually decreasing water activity. For the more ethanol-tolerant strain UQM66Y, growth was found to cease at a constant value of water activity while that for the less tolerant strain UQM70Y depended on both ethanol concentration and water activity. It is argued that water activity is a more appropriate variable than ethanol concentration for describing some of the nonspecific inhibitory effects apparent in ethanol fermentations. A straightforward method for the calculation of water activity during such fermentations based on the use of solution osmolarity is presented.

Jones, R.P.; Greenfield, P.F.

1986-01-01

225

BUTANOL EXTRACTION FROM FERMENTATION BROTH: MATHEMATICAL EQUATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Butanol, a major product of acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation, is toxic to the cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum/C. beijerinckii that produce it. The maximum concentration of butanol in a batch reactor does not exceed 20 g/L, thus hampering recovery of this solvent due to a higher boilin...

226

Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1984-01-01

227

Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

Dunlop, Eric H.

1989-01-01

228

FERMENTED BEVERAGES OF PRE- AND PROTOHISTORIC CHINA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery from the early Neolithic village of Jlahu in Henon province have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as the seventh millennium BC. This drink paved the way for unique grain beverag...

229

Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.  

PubMed Central

An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decrease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures. PMID:3278685

D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Stewart, G G

1988-01-01

230

Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

Huber, W. K.

1986-01-01

231

Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1  

PubMed Central

The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

1966-01-01

232

Vacuum as a hyperbolic metamaterial  

E-print Network

As demonstrated by Chernodub, vacuum in a strong magnetic field behaves as a periodic Abrikosov vortex lattice in a type-II superconductor. We investigate electromagnetic behavior of vacuum in this state. Since superconductivity is realized along the axis of magnetic field only, strong anisotropy of the vacuum dielectric tensor is observed. The diagonal components of the tensor are positive in the x and y directions perpendicular to the magnetic field, and negative in the z direction along the field. As a result, vacuum behaves as a hyperbolic metamaterial medium. If the magnetic field is constant, low frequency extraordinary photons experience this medium as a (3+1) Minkowski spacetime in which the role of time is played by the spatial z coordinate. Spatial variations of the magnetic field curve this effective spacetime, and may lead to formation of "event horizons", which are analogous to electromagnetic black holes in hyperbolic metamaterials. We also note that hyperbolic metamaterials behave as diffractionless "perfect lenses". Since large enough magnetic fields probably had arisen in the course of evolution of early Universe, the demonstrated hyperbolic behavior of early vacuum may have imprints in the large scale structure of the present-day Universe.

Igor I. Smolyaninov

2011-08-10

233

The Light-Front Vacuum  

E-print Network

Background: The vacuum in the light-front representation of quantum field theory is trivial while vacuum in the equivalent canonical representation of the same theory is non-trivial. Purpose: Understand the relation between the vacuum in light-front and canonical representations of quantum field theory and the role of zero-modes in this relation. Method: Vacuua are defined as linear functionals on an algebra of field operators. The role of the algebra in the definition of the vacuum is exploited to understand this relation. Results: The vacuum functional can be extended from the light-front Fock algebra to an algebra of local observables. The extension to the algebra of local observables is responsible for the inequivalence. The extension defines a unitary mapping between the physical representation of the local algebra and a sub-algebra of the light-front Fock algebra. Conclusion: There is a unitary mapping from the physical representation of the algebra of local observables to a sub-algebra of the light-fro...

Herrmann, Marc

2015-01-01

234

RF cavity vacuum interlock system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), a continuous wave (CW) 4 GeV Electron Accelerator is undergoing construction in Newport News, Virginia. When completed in 1994, the accelerator will be the largest installation of radio-frequency superconductivity. Production of cryomodules, the fundamental building block of the machine, has started. A cryomodule consists of four sets of pairs of 1497 MHz, 5 cell niobium cavities contained in separate helium vessels and mounted in a cryostat with appropriate end caps for helium supply and return. Beam vacuum of the cavities, the connecting beam piping, the waveguides, and the cryostat insulating vacuum are crucial to the performance of the machine. The design and initial experience of the vacuum systems for the first 2 1/4 cryomodules that makeup the 45 MEV injector are discussed.

Jordan, K.; Crawford, K.; Bundy, R.; Dylla, H. F.; Heckman, J.; Marshall, J.; Nichols, R.; Osullivan, S.; Preble, J.; Robb, J.

1992-03-01

235

D-Zero Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

1986-04-07

236

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

237

Compactification, Vacuum Energy and Quintessence  

E-print Network

We study the possibility that the vacuum energy density of scalar and internal-space gauge fields arising from the process of dimensional reduction of higher dimensional gravity theories plays the role of quintessence. We show that, for the multidimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills system compactified on a $R \\times S^3 \\times S^d$ topology, there are classically stable solutions such that the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe at present can be accounted for without upsetting structure formation scenarios or violating observational bounds on the vacuum energy density.

M. C. Bento; O. Bertolami

1999-05-20

238

Relativistic invariance of the vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic invariance of the vacuum is (or follows from) one of the Wightman axioms, which is commonly believed to be true. Without these axioms, here we present a direct and general proof of continuous relativistic invariance of all real-time vacuum correlations of fields, not only scattering (forward in time), based on closed time path formalism. The only assumptions are basic principles of relativistic quantum field theories: the relativistic invariance of the Lagrangian, of the form including known interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong), and standard rules of quantization. The proof is in principle perturbative leaving a possibility of spontaneous violation of invariance. Time symmetry is, however, manifestly violated.

Bednorz, Adam

2013-12-01

239

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01

240

QED vacuum loops and Inflation  

E-print Network

A QED-based model of a new version of Vacuum Energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of Dark Energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both Dark Energy and Inflation in the same framework of Vacuum Energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between Inflation and the Big Bang, to the automatic inclusion of Dark Matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a Universe.

H. M. Fried; Y. Gabellini

2014-11-19

241

Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.  

PubMed

Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the relative accumulation of 23 compounds to significantly different concentrations for the three fermentation strategies is discussed in relation to aroma compound composition. PMID:23870989

Medina, K; Boido, E; Fariña, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

2013-12-01

242

Fermentation of five sucrose isomers by human dental plaque bacteria.  

PubMed

Sucrose has five structural isomers: palatinose, trehalulose, turanose, maltulose and leucrose. Although these isomers have been reported to be noncariogenic disaccharides, which cannot be utilized by mutans streptococci, there is no information about their fermentability by other bacteria in dental plaque. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether these isomers were fermented by predominant bacteria in human dental plaque. Clinical bacterial isolates obtained from dental plaque from 3 children aged 22 months to 50 months (146 strains) were inoculated into 3 ml of peptone-yeast extract (PY medium) containing glucose for 1 day, then an aliquot of 20 microl of culture medium was inoculated into 1 ml of PY medium containing 1% (w/v) of the respective test carbohydrates. After incubation for 1 day, the pH values and the optical density at 660 nm of the cultures were measured. Fermentation ability was measured by pH or=0.5. Of the clinical isolates, 33% fermented palatinose, and 69% of these were Actinomyces species. All of the palatinose-fermenting bacterial strains fermented trehalulose, 25% fermented turanose, 70% fermented maltulose and 23% fermented leucrose. We therefore conclude that, in human dental plaque, there are significant numbers of bacteria that are able to ferment sucrose isomers. PMID:14571118

Matsuyama, J; Sato, T; Hoshino, E; Noda, T; Takahashi, N

2003-01-01

243

Scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei.  

PubMed

Study of the effect of dissolved oxygen and shear stress on rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 showed that rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei XC 9-25 needs high dissolved oxygen and is not very sensitive to shearing stress. The scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 from a shaking flask to a 15 L fermentor was realized by controlling the dissolved oxygen to above 25% of saturation in the fermentation process, and the potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 15 L fermentor reached 10 g/L after 6-day batch fermentation. By continuously feeding glucose and ammonia in the fermentation process, the potency of rifamycin B fermentaion in the 15 L fermentor reached 18.67 g/L, which was 86.65% higher than that of batch fermentation. Based on the scale-up principle of constantly aerated agitation power per unit volume, the scale-up of rifamycin B fed-batch fermentation with continuous feed from a 15 L fermentor to a 7 m(3) fermentor and further to a 60 m(3) fermentor was realized successfully. The potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 7 m(3) fermentor and in the 60 m(3) fermentor reached 17.25 g/L and 19.11 g/L, respectively. PMID:15547969

Jin, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Jian-Ping; Cen, Pei-Lin

2004-12-01

244

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15

245

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01

246

Plates for vacuum thermal fusion  

DOEpatents

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

247

Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2011-12-05

248

Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

1987-01-01

249

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

250

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

1992-01-01

251

Vacuum Seal Permits Limited Rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flexible metal seal permits rotation of object in vacuum chamber. Seal made from two cylindrical azimuthally fluted bellows attached to ends of cylindrical axially fluted bellows with connecting tubes at both ends. Designed for rotation of sample probes in electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), other applications likely.

Lombardi, F.

1985-01-01

252

Vacuum-injection-molding processing  

SciTech Connect

An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

1982-01-01

253

Vacuum mounting for piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Special housing couples piezoelectric transducers to nonporous surfaces for ultrasonic or acoustic-emission testing. Device, while providing sound isolation on flat or nonflat surfaces, can be attached and detached quickly. Vacuum sealing mechanism eliminates need for permanent or semipermanent bonds, viscous coupling liquids, weights, magnets, tape, or springs ordinarily used.

Tiede, D. A.

1977-01-01

254

Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.  

PubMed

Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.00 ± 0.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.00 ± 1.11 log10 cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.17 ± 1.92 log10 cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

2014-11-01

255

Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

Rahmati, Shohreh

256

Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation).  

PubMed

A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of a phosphoric acid contactor, a slider-type injection valve, and a heater to address the difficulties (ghosting) encountered in the analysis of carboxylic acids. The fermentation headspace gas was also analyzed by on-line GC for nitrogen and carbon dioxide, while hydrogen was measured by difference. Raw chromatographic data were analyzed by a chromatography data system. Both raw and processed data were transmitted to a VAX 11/750 computer for further processing (using the fermentation equation) and archiving. The fermentation equation, which has recently been derived and tested on completed fermentation data, was also found to be valid during transient fermentations and thus useful as a gateway sensor for calculating various fermentation parameters on-line. Such parameters include glucose concentration and gas composition, as well as a number of unobservable parameters (such as Y(ATP), excess ATP, and NAD reduced by FdH(2)), which characterize the state of the fermentation. PMID:18553808

McLaughlin, J K; Meyer, C L; Papoutsakis, E T

1985-08-01

257

Cornstarch fermentation by the colonic microbial community yields more butyrate than does cabbage fiber fermentation; cornstarch fermentation rates correlate negatively with methanogenesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations of cornstarch and a cabbage- fiber preparation by human fecal suspensions were studied. The molar percent of butyrate oftotal short-chain fatty acid products was significantly higher when cornstarch was the substrate. Higher molar percents of butyrate were also produced from cornstarch as compared with endogenous substrate when rat fecal suspensions were used. A range ofcornstarch fermentation rates was found

Gary A Weaver; Jean A Krause; Terry L Miller; Meyer J Wolin

258

Foam and its mitigation in fermentation systems.  

PubMed

Key aspects of foaming and its mitigation in fermentation systems are presented. Foam properties and behavior, conditions that affect foaming, and consequences of foaming are discussed, followed by methods to detect and prevent foam, both without and with the use of antifoam, and their implications. Antifoams were catalogued according to their class (e.g., polyalkylene glycols, silicone emulsions, etc.) to facilitate recognition of antifoams possessing similar base compositions. Relatively few published studies directly comparing antifoams experimentally are available, but those reports found only partially identify clear benefits/disadvantages of any one antifoam type. Consequently, desired characteristics, trends in antifoam application, and chemical types of antifoams are evaluated on the basis of a thorough review of available literature reports describing a specific antifoam's usage. Finally, examples of specific foaming situations taken from both the literature and from actual experience in an industrial fermentation pilot plant are examined for their agreement with expected behavior. PMID:17567037

Junker, Beth

2007-01-01

259

Cellulase: A key enzyme for fermentation feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Biomass can be fermented to a range of useful products. For efficiency a well characterized and effective cellulase is necessary to gain fermentable sugars from cellulosics. Microbial cellulase systems are comprised of multiple components namely, endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), and beta-glucosidase, which act synergistically. We have been clarifying the cellulase system especially that of Microbispora bispora through isolation of the individual components. As there is no direct assay for the cellobiohydrolase component, we have made monoclonal antibodies to them, and are using them to characterize the cellobiohydrolases of Trichoderma reesei and M. bispora. With T. reesei, rapid purification has been achieved through MAb affinity chromatography and also a highly sensitive MAb assay for CBH in crude cellulase broths has been developed. for M. bispora, the monoclonal antibodies towards CBH have been prepared and are being used for selection of clones from a M. bispora gene library. We have focused on the M. bispora cellulase.

Eveleigh, D.E.

1988-08-01

260

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

261

Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

1986-02-01

262

Energy Utilization in Fermentation Ethanol Production  

E-print Network

ENERGY UTILIZATION IN FERMENTATION ETHANOL PRODUCTION CHARLES E. EASLEY Vice President Raphael Katzen Associates International, Inc. Cincinnati, Ohio ABSTRACT The fuel ethanol industry has put into practice several techniques for min... consumption. The second reason relates to the net energy production of a fuel ethanol plant. Since ethanol has a heating value of about 76,000 Btu per gallon (LHV) , it can be argued that fuel ethanol should not require more than this amount of energy...

Easley, C. E.

263

Fermentative biohydrogen production: trends and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically produced hydrogen (biohydrogen) is a valuable gas that is seen as a future energy carrier, since its utilization\\u000a via combustion or fuel cells produces pure water. Heterotrophic fermentations for biohydrogen production are driven by a wide\\u000a variety of microorganisms such as strict anaerobes, facultative anaerobes and aerobes kept under anoxic conditions. Substrates\\u000a such as simple sugars, starch, cellulose, as

Gustavo Davila-Vazquez; Sonia Arriaga; Felipe Alatriste-Mondragón; Antonio de León-Rodríguez; Luis Manuel Rosales-Colunga; Elías Razo-Flores

2008-01-01

264

Dry sausage fermented by Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of three probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, E-97800 and LC-705 and one commercial Pediococcus pentosaceus starter strain (control) to produce dry sausage was studied. During the fermentation process the numbers of inoculated lactic acid bacteria increased from approx. 7log10 to 8–9log10 cfu\\/g and the pH values decreased from 5.6 to 4.9–5.0. The sensory test indicated that the dry

Susanna Erkkilä; Maija-Liisa Suihko; Susanna Eerola; Esko Petäjä; Tiina Mattila-Sandholm

2001-01-01

265

Immobilized yeast cell systems for continuous fermentation applications.  

PubMed

In several yeast-related industries, continuous fermentation systems offer important economical advantages in comparison with traditional systems. Fermentation rates are significantly improved, especially when continuous fermentation is combined with cell immobilization techniques to increase the yeast concentration in the fermentor. Hence the technique holds a great promise for the efficient production of fermented beverages, such as beer, wine and cider as well as bio-ethanol. However, there are some important pitfalls, and few industrial-scale continuous systems have been implemented. Here, we first review the various cell immobilization techniques and reactor setups. Then, the impact of immobilization on cell physiology and fermentation performance is discussed. In a last part, we focus on the practical use of continuous fermentation and cell immobilization systems for beer production. PMID:16937245

Verbelen, Pieter J; De Schutter, David P; Delvaux, Filip; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R

2006-10-01

266

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

SciTech Connect

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

1980-05-01

267

The vacuum-vacuum amplitude and Bogoliubov coefficients  

SciTech Connect

We consider the problem of fixing the phases of Bogoliubov coefficients in quantum electrodynamics such that the vacuum-vacuum amplitude can be expressed via them. For a constant electric field and particles with spins of 0 and 1/2, this is done starting from the definition of these coefficients. Using the symmetry between electric and magnetic fields, we extend the result to a constant electromagnetic field. It turns out that for a constant magnetic field, it is necessary to distinguish the in- and out-states, although they differ only by a phase factor. For a spin-1 particle with a gyromagnetic of ratio g = 2, this approach fails and we reconsider the problem using the proper-time method.

Nikishov, A.I. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

2003-02-01

268

A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in VIP is one of the most important factors contributing to the long term heat insulation performance of VIP. In this paper, the researches on three factors, which influence internal pressure inside VIP, including gas and water vapor permeation through the barrier, gas absorption by getters and desiccants and outgassing of the kernel, were reviewed respectively. Following this, the research emphasis and suggestions, which should be paid attention to, were summarized.

Yang, Chun Guang; Xu, Lie

269

Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

Clark, D.P.

1986-03-01

270

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

PubMed Central

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

271

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

272

Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

Sackerlotzky, O. H.

1979-01-01

273

Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

1979-01-01

274

Ultrathin gate valve for high vacuum operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin, compact, high-vacuum gate valve used to join two vacuum systems together demonstrates multiple operation reliability. Valve measurements and non-protruding handle make valve usable in confined areas.

Ugiansky, R. J.

1971-01-01

275

Yeast communities associated with artisanal mezcal fermentations from Agave salmiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this work were to characterize the fermentation process of mezcal from San Luis Potosi, México and identify the\\u000a yeasts present in the fermentation using molecular culture-dependent methods (RFLP of the 5.8S-ITS and sequencing of the D1\\/D2\\u000a domain) and also by using a culture-independent method (DGGE). The alcoholic fermentations of two separate musts obtained\\u000a from Agave salmiana were

A. Verdugo Valdez; L. Segura Garcia; M. Kirchmayr; P. Ramírez Rodríguez; A. González Esquinca; R. Coria; A. Gschaedler Mathis

276

?-Fructofuranosidase production by repeated batch fermentation with immobilized Aspergillus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Aspergillus japonicus ATCC 20236 was immobilized in vegetal fiber and used in repeated batch fermentations of sucrose (200 g\\/l) for the production\\u000a of ?-fructofuranosidases (FFase). The assays were performed during eight consecutive cycles that were completed in a total\\u000a period of 216 h. After each 24-h cycle of fermentation (except for the first cycle, which lasted 48 h), the fermented broth

S. I. Mussatto; L. R. Rodrigues; J. A. Teixeira

2009-01-01

277

Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

1982-12-01

278

Fermentation of Wood-dust by Cellulose Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN this laboratory, fermentation of birch, aspen and pine-dusts has been investigated by enrichment cultures of thermophilic1, and recently also of mesophilic2, cellulose bacteria. he Tfiner the wood was ground, the more of the cellulose was fermented. In the best cases, a fermentation of about 70 per cent of cellulose in wood was obtained with the leaf-tree dust at 60°

Artturi I. Virtanen

1946-01-01

279

Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation  

E-print Network

Article original Effets des traitements (chauffage et fermentation par Rhizopus oligosporus sp-T3 nutritionnelle et les propriétés fonctionnelles du lupin blanc doux (LBD), un procédé de fermentation à l'aide de fermentation a été faite à partir de 3 produits : les graines de lupin non traitées (LBDnt), le lupin chauffé à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study.  

PubMed

Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22g L(-1) were found from whey containing ca. 44g L(-1) lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h. The experimental data could be explained by means of a simple knowledge-driven biochemically structured model that was built on bioenergetics principles applied to the metabolic pathways through which lactose is converted into major products. Use of the model showed that the observed concentrations of ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes. PMID:21632239

Sansonetti, S; Hobley, T J; Calabrò, V; Villadsen, J; Sin, G

2011-08-01

281

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular Proteases Inhibition by  

E-print Network

Increased Heterologous Protein Production in Aspergillus niger Fermentation through Extracellular in filamentous fungal fermentation and thereby to enhance heterologous protein production. Introduction with efficient heterologous protein production in the fungal fermentation industry (1, 2). Current strategies

Gu, Tingyue

282

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER  

E-print Network

SCALING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY WEIGHT AND FERMENTATION GUT CAPACITY IN AXIS DEER DAWN M 78666, USA The scaling relationship between body weight and fermentation gut capacity presumably impacts dietary patterns of ruminants. Interspecific scaling relationships between body weight and fermentation

Aspbury, Andrea S. - Department of Biology, Texas State University

283

Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose by the rumen anaerobic  

E-print Network

Saccharomyces cerevisiae live cells stimulate degradation and fermentation of cellulose fermentation patterns and to increase numbers of rumen bacteria, especially cellulolytic species (Wallace and fermentation of cellulose by an anaerobic fungus, Neocallimastix frontalis MCH3, which is particularly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Comparative Sugar Recovery and Fermentation Data Following Pretreatment of Poplar Wood by Leading Technologies  

E-print Network

Comparative Sugar Recovery and Fermentation Data Following Pretreatment of Poplar Wood by Leading conditions gave good yields from sulfur dioxide and lime, and a recombinant yeast strain fermented the mixed, pretreatment, sulfur dioxide pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation of hydrolyzates Introduction

California at Riverside, University of

285

Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

Burley, R. K.

1987-01-01

286

[Review of traditional Chinese medicine processed by fermentation].  

PubMed

The fermentation processing of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), as an important processing method for TCM, originated from the ancient brewing technology. It has a long history in China. Fermented TCMs (FTCMs) are widely applied among folks for preventing and treating many diseases. There are many kinds of TCM processed by spontaneous fermentation, including Massa Medicata Fermentata, Rhizoma Pinelliae Fermentata, Red fermented rice, Semen Sojae Praepaaratum, Mass Galla chinesis et camelliae Fermentata and Pien Tze Huang. This essay summarizes historical origin, main varieties, the effect of microbial strains, current processing techniques and existing problems of FTCM, and look into the prospect of modern development of FTCMs. PMID:23627162

Zhang, Li-Xia; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Yang

2012-12-01

287

Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

1980-11-01

288

Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5?5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

2010-03-01

289

Single Zymomonas mobilis strain for xylose and arabinose fermentation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to single microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugars which are genetically altered to ferment the pentose sugars, xylose and arabinose, to produce ethanol, and a fermentation process utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with a combination of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase, transaldolase and transketolase. Expression of added genes are under the control of Z. mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting glucose, xylose and arabinose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose or starch, to produce ethanol. 6 figs.

Zhang, M.; Chou, Y.C.; Picataggio, S.K.; Finkelstein, M.

1998-12-01

290

Attached-growth bioreactors for syngas fermentation to biofuel.  

E-print Network

??Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource for sustainable production of biofuels and chemicals. Syngas fermentation, a hybrid process integrating the thermochemical (i.e. gasification of feedstock… (more)

Shen, Yanwen

2013-01-01

291

Vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress in silicon pressure sensors has been made in recent years. This paper discusses three types of vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors that represent the present state of the art in this important area. The devices are a capacitive vacuum sensor, a surface-micromachined microdiaphragm pressure sensor, and a resonant pressure sensor. Vacuum sealing for these devices is accomplished using

Masayoshi Esashi; Susumu Sugiyama; Kyoichi Ikeda; YUELIN WANG; Haruzo Miyashita

1998-01-01

292

REVIEW ARTICLE Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors  

E-print Network

REVIEW ARTICLE Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors The recent development of techniques. We discuss the recent results on vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot, emphasizing of a nanocavity. This review describes the history of realizing vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS) in the single-QD (SQD

Loss, Daniel

293

Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

2011-01-01

294

Anti-allergic effect of Petasites japonicus fermented with lactic acid bacteria in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petasites japonicus (PJ, family Asteraceae) was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Bifidobacterium breve (BB) or Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), and its allergic effect was investigated. LAB-fermented PJs more potently inhibited IgE–antigen-stimulated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells than non-fermented PJ, with BB-fermented PJ more potent than LA-fermented PJ. Fermented PJ more potently inhibited TNF-? and IL-4 cytokine expression and transcription factor NF-?B

Eun-Ah Bae; Hien-Trung Trinh; Yun-Ah Jang; Hyung-Kwon Yun; Seong-Sig Hong; Dong-Hyun Kim

2009-01-01

295

In situ butanol recovery from Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations by expanded bed adsorption.  

PubMed

Although butanol is a promising biofuel, its fermentative production suffers from inhibition caused by end product toxicity. The in situ removal of butanol from cultures via expanded bed adsorption offers an effective strategy for mitigating the effects of product toxicity while eliminating the need to clarify cultures via microfiltration. The hydrophobic polymer resin Dowex Optipore L-493 was found to be both an effective butanol adsorbent and suitable for use in expanded bed adsorption. Recirculation rates through the adsorption column were strongly correlated with and ultimately controlled rates of butanol uptake from the media which, reaching as high as 41.1 g/L h, easily exceed those of its production in a typical fermentation. Vacuum application with vapor collection was found to be an effective means of adsorbent regeneration, with an average of 81% butanol recovery possible, with butanol concentrations in the cold trap reaching as high as 85.8 g/L. Integration of expanded bed adsorption with a fed-batch Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 fermentation and its continuous operation for 38.5 h enabled the net production (i.e., in solution and adsorbed) of butanol and total solvent products at up to 27.2 and 40.7 g/L of culture, respectively, representing 2.2- and 2.3-fold improvements over conventional batch culture. While adsorbent biofouling was found to be minimal, further investigation of biofouling in longer-term studies will provide useful and further insight regarding the robustness of the process strategy. PMID:24504855

Wiehn, Michael; Staggs, Kyle; Wang, Yuchen; Nielsen, David R

2014-01-01

296

Production of fermented milk high in activity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition by extending fermentation time and protease addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk was fermented for 24 h with or without maintaining pH. For the sample that maintained pH, milk was fermented with and without protease. Starter cultures proliferated until completing fermentation (15 log CFU\\/ml) in the samples made without protease. In the protease added sample, starter culture reached 12 log CFU\\/ml (6 h) and declined afterward. Free amino groups and %

Wasinee Phiromruk; Amnat Jarerat; Pairoj Luangpituksa; Thanut Amatayakul

297

Gas chromatography and gateway sensors for on-line-state estimation of complex fermentations (butanol-acetone fermentation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fermentation system has been designed to demonstrate the use of gas chromatography (GC) for on-line monitoring of the butanol-acetone and other complex saccharolytic fermentations. Tangential flow ultrafiltration was used to sterilely and continuously obtain a cell-free filtrate from the fermentation broth for on-line GC analysis of butanol, butyrate, acetate, acetone, ethanol, and acetoin. The liquid injection system consists of

Joseph K. McLaughlin; Charles L. Meyer; Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

1985-01-01

298

Fructose1,6-diphosphatase, phosphofructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from fermenting and non fermenting yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Levels of phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activities have been compared in different yeasts belonging to glucose fermenting and non-fermenting groups grown in different conditions.2.Phosphofructokinase was present in all the fermentative species tested. On the contrary its level was not measurable in any of the aerobic yeasts tested with the exception of Pichia species.3.No significant variations were observed in the

Juana M. Gancedo; Carlos Gancedo

1971-01-01

299

Decoherence delays false vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ?CDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

Bachlechner, Thomas C.

2013-05-01

300

Quantum vacuum and dark matter  

E-print Network

Recently, the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum was proposed as alternative to the dark matter paradigm. In the present paper we consider four benchmark measurements: the universality of the central surface density of galaxy dark matter haloes, the cored dark matter haloes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies, the non-existence of dark disks in spiral galaxies and distribution of dark matter after collision of clusters of galaxies (the Bullet cluster is a famous example). Only some of these phenomena (but not all of them) can (in principle) be explained by the dark matter and the theories of modified gravity. However, we argue that the framework of the gravitational polarization of the quantum vacuum allows the understanding of the totality of these phenomena.

Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

2011-11-21

301

Curved Space or Curved Vacuum?  

E-print Network

While the simple picture of a spatially flat, matter plus cosmological constant universe fits current observation of the accelerated expansion, strong consideration has also been given to models with dynamical vacuum energy. We examine the tradeoff of ``curving'' the vacuum but retaining spatial flatness, vs. curving space but retaining the cosmological constant. These different breakdowns in the simple picture could readily be distinguished by combined high accuracy supernovae and cosmic microwave background distance measurements. If we allow the uneasy situation of both breakdowns, the curvature can still be measured to 1%, but at the price of degrading estimation of the equation of state time variation by 60% or more, unless additional information (such as weak lensing data or a tight matter density prior) is included.

Eric V. Linder

2005-08-15

302

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinychloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1983-12-20

303

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the ''as-received'' condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), low density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N/sup X/ conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1984-04-01

304

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room-temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for some unusual materials such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, various thicknesses of sheet, or as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to either CPVC, polyethylene, or stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1983-09-28

305

Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum  

E-print Network

From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

Seto, Keita

2014-01-01

306

Radiation Reaction in Quantum Vacuum  

E-print Network

From the development of the electron theory by H. A. Lorentz in 1906, many authors have tried to reformulate this model named "radiation reaction". P. A. M. Dirac derived the relativistic-classical electron model in 1938, which is now called the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. But this model has the big difficulty of the run-away solution. Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. Therefore, it is desirable to stabilize this model of the radiation reaction for estimations. Via my recent research, I found a stabilized model of radiation reaction in quantum vacuum. This leads us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan's charge to mass ratio including radiation, de/dm, derived as the 4th order tensor measure. In this paper, I will discuss the latest update of the model and the ability of the equation of motion with radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings.

Keita Seto

2014-05-26

307

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

308

Quantum vacuum and accelerated expansion  

E-print Network

A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's heat kernel expansion.

Bogus?aw Broda; Micha? Szanecki

2008-12-29

309

Inflation in a Symmetric Vacuum  

E-print Network

If in a finite universe, the tree-level vacuum is a symmetric superposition of coherent states, in each of which the inflaton field assumes a different, energy-minimizing mean value (vev), then the resulting energy is positive and decreases exponentially as the volume of the universe increases. This effect can drive inflation when that volume is small and explain part of dark energy when it is big, but the effect is exceedingly tiny except at very early times.

Kevin Cahill

2007-05-23

310

Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

2009-01-01

311

Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E. [Univ. Laval, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Geneie Chimique

1995-11-01

312

Running Jobs in the Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

2014-06-01

313

Increased Flavonoid Compounds from Fermented Houttuynia cordata using Isolated Six of Bacillus from Traditionally Fermented Houttuynia cordata  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids, which form a major component in Houttuynia cordata Thunb., display a wide range of pharmacological activities. The expression of plant flavonoids is partly regulated by fermentation. Therefore, we studied the effects of fermentation on H. cordata in order to identify the strains present during the fermentation process, and to determine whether fermented H. cordata could be used as a probiotic. Our results showed that all 6 of the bacterial strains isolated from fermented H. cordata (FHC) belonged to the genus Bacillus. As expected, fermenting H cordata also increased the flavonoid content as increases were observed in the levels of rutin, quercitrin, and quercetin. To test the effects of fermentation, we treated LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with non-fermented H. cordata extracts (HCE) or FHC extracts (FHCE). Compared to the HCE-treated cells, the FHCE-treated cells showed increased viability. No cytotoxic effects were detected in the FHCE-treated groups in the 2 cell lines used in the study, namely, RAW264.7 and RBL-2H3. FHCE-treated HepG2 cells showed decreased growth, compared to HCE-treated HepG2 cells. These results indicate that the fermented H. cordata predominantly contained Bacillus strains. Furthermore, FHCE are able to prevent LPS-induced inflammatory effects and inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells. PMID:24278599

Kwon, Ryun Hee

2012-01-01

314

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism  

E-print Network

Short Communication Effect of exogenous electron shuttles on growth and fermentative metabolism) and hydrogen (Reimann et al., 1996). Anaerobic fermentative bacteria belonging to the genus Clos- tridia

Johnson, Peter D.

315

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid  

E-print Network

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 36 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do GFW (mg/ml) Activity 100x (%) Activity 1000x (%) O2 valve N2: Fermentation Suite Brom B2 (F7) PDF.xls: ProductionProfile Fermentation (Hrs) Activity (100x dilution) Activity

Strynadka, Natalie

316

Characteristics of Spoilage-Associated Secondary Cucumber Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological utilization of lactic acid and the formation of acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. The objectives of this study were to characterize the chemical and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations and to isolate and characterize potential causative microorganisms. Both commercial spoilage samples and laboratory-reproduced secondary fermentations were evaluated. Potential causative agents were isolated based on morphological characteristics. Two yeasts, Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, were identified and detected most commonly concomitantly with lactic acid utilization. In the presence of oxygen, yeast metabolic activities lead to lactic acid degradation, a small decline in the redox potential (Eh, Ag/AgCl, 3 M KCl) of the fermentation brines, and an increase in pH to levels at which bacteria other than the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the primary fermentation can grow and produce acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. Inhibition of these yeasts by allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) resulted in stabilization of the fermented medium, while the absence of the preservative resulted in the disappearance of lactic and acetic acids in a model system. Additionally, three Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, a Clostridium sp., and Pediococcus ethanolidurans, were identified as potentially relevant to different stages of the secondary fermentation. The unique opportunity to study commercial spoilage samples generated a better understanding of the microbiota and environmental conditions associated with secondary cucumber fermentations. PMID:22179234

Franco, Wendy; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D.; McFeeters, Roger F.

2012-01-01

317

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service  

SciTech Connect

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

1993-07-01

318

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

319

The antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize (kenkey) and their interactions during fermentation.  

PubMed

A total of 241 lactic acid bacteria belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus fermentum/reuteri and Lactobacillus brevis from various processing stages of maize dough fermentation were investigated. Results indicated that each processing stage has its own microenvironment with strong antimicrobial activity. About half of the Lact. plantarum and practically all of the Lact. fermentum/reuteri investigated were shown to inhibit other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, explaining the elimination of these organisms during the initial processing stages. Further, widespread microbial interactions amounting to 85% to 18% of all combinations tested were demonstrated amongst lactic acid bacteria within the various processing stages, i.e. raw material, steeping, 0 h and 48 h of fermentation, explaining the microbial succession taking place amongst lactic acid bacteria during fermentation. The antimicrobial effect was explained by the combined effect of acids, compounds sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and other compounds with antimicrobial activity with the acid production being the most important factor. The pattern of antimicrobial factors was not species-specific and the safety and storage stability of fermented maize seem to depend on a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria with different types of antimicrobial characteristics. This means that introduction of pure cultures as starters may impose a risk to the product. PMID:8567490

Olsen, A; Halm, M; Jakobsen, M

1995-11-01

320

Biologically active amines in fermented and non-fermented commercial soybean products from the Spanish market.  

PubMed

Biologically active amines were determined in commercial soybean products. The antioxidant polyamines were found in both non-fermented and fermented soybean products. Natto and tempeh showed the highest content of polyamines (75-124 and 11-24 mg/kg of spermidine and spermine, respectively). On the other hand, the bacterial-related biogenic amines, tyramine, histamine, tryptamine and ?-phenylethylamine, were detected in practically all fermented products with a high variability. The highest contents were found in sufu, tamari and soybean paste. Extremely high tyramine and histamine contents, 1700 and 700 mg/kg, respectively, found in some sufu samples could be unhealthy. However, biogenic amines observed in the other soybean products should not be a risk for healthy consumers. However, individuals who take monoamine and diamine oxidase inhibitors drugs should be strongly recommended to avoid this kind of products in order to suffer no adverse health effects. These biogenic amines were not detected in non-fermented soybean products. PMID:25466133

Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fuste, J; Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

2015-04-15

321

FERMENTATION RESIDUES FROM RUMINOCOCCUS CELLULOSE FERMENTATIONS AS COMPONENTS OF WOOD ADHESIVE FORMULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives f...

322

Changes in antioxidant activities and physicochemical properties of Kapi, a fermented shrimp paste, during fermentation.  

PubMed

Changes in chemical composition, physical properties and antioxidant activities of Kapi were monitored during fermentation for 12 months. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl), ABTS (2, 2 - azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging activity as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) gradually increased as the fermentation time increased, particularly during the first 8 months (P??0.05). The continuous increases in ammonia nitrogen, formaldehyde nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were noticeable within the first 8 months (P?fermentation, as evidenced by the decreases in lightness (L*-value), but the increases in redness (a*-value) and yellowness (b*-value). Low level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in Kapi was found during 12 months. Antioxidant activities of Kapi were more likely governed by the low molecular weight peptides, amino acids as well as Maillard reaction products generated during fermentation. PMID:25328185

Faithong, Nandhsha; Benjakul, Soottawat

2014-10-01

323

Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 2. A Vacuum Energy Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of our undergraduate physics courses, we study what can happen in space, but space itself plays a passive role. In basic cosmology, the opposite is true. It is the behavior of space that plays the major role. In this, paper #2, we first discuss the nature of a simple expanding space, and then look at the consequence of applying Newton's law of gravity in this space. The calculations are particularly simple if most of the energy behaves like the vacuum energy discussed earlier in paper #1. The calculation is easy but the results are spectacular.

Huggins, Elisha

2013-10-01

324

Fermented Milks and Milk Products as Functional Foods - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods and beverages possess various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Lactic acid bacteria play a major role in determining the positive health effects of fermented milks and related products. The L.acidophilus and Bifidobacteria spp are known for their use in probiotic dairy foods. Cultured products sold with any claim of health benefits should meet the criteria of suggested minimum number

V K SHIBY; H N MISHRA

2011-01-01

325

A novel approach for scaling-up a fermentation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explores a method for scaling-up a fermentation system. The method consists of two parts. The first part investigates the effects of the environmental state variables on cultivation. If a wide range of the state variables has no significant effect on yield or productivity, scaling-up is not an issue in the fermentation system. If only a small range

Yuh-Lih Hsu; Wen-Teng Wu

2002-01-01

326

Absorbed substrate fermentation for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 130 litre packed-bed bioreactor was used for pectinase production with Aspergillus niger using absorbed substrate fermentation techniques. Pectinolytic enzyme activity and relative CO2 production were used as indicators of metabolic activity. Absorbed substrate fermentation is an efficient process for pectinase production and is also an interesting model because the culture medium, water, nutrients and specific inducers, can be designed

S. Huerta; E. Favela; R. López-Ulibarri; A. Fonseca; G. Viniegra-González; M. Gutiérrez-Rojas

1994-01-01

327

Kinetics of multiproduct acidogenic and solventogenic batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large amounts of data indicated that most of the metabolic processes of the acidogenic (acid producing) and the solventogenic (solvent producing) fermentations were regulated by product accumulation. A simple unstructured model simulated microbial growth, product formation and substrate utilization in six different fermentations, where five different microorganisms produced various combinations of ten different products. Specific growth rates of these microorganisms

Mustafa Özilgen

1988-01-01

328

Characterisation of the dominant microbiota of Sudanese fermented milk Rob  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant microorganisms in the Sudanese traditional fermented dairy product Rob from cows’ milk were isolated and identified by using morphological, physiological and molecular typing techniques. From seven production sites in Khartoum, samples of Rob used as inocula for fermentation were analysed by the determination of the cfumL?1 on MRS, M17, potato dextrose agar and plate count agar. Samples of

Warda S Abdelgadir; Siddig H Hamad; Peter L Møller; Mogens Jakobsen

2001-01-01

329

Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.  

PubMed

Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

2014-10-01

330

Innovations in Indian Fermented Milk Products — A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dahi is considered the oldest Indian fermented milk product and is equivalent to Western yogurt from which derivatives such as shrikhand (sweetened concentrated curd) and lassi (stirred curd) are derived. Dietetic significance of Indian fermented milk products has been established due to its various nutritional and therapeutic properties. Acceptable quality dahi could be obtained with the application of acid producing

S. Sarkar

2008-01-01

331

ETHANOL FERMENTATION OF SUGARS IN CORN STOVER DILUTE ACID HYDROLYSATES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The biomass-to-ethanol fermentation process is limited in part by the presence of inhibitory compounds that are formed when biomass is pretreated with dilute acid to release fermentable sugars. We have developed a biological system for abatement of inhibitory chemicals and incorporated its use into...

332

Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

2010-06-01

333

Pretreatment of methanogenic granules for immobilized hydrogen fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen can be produced through fermenting sugars in a mixed bacterial culture under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic granular sludge was proposed as immobilized hydrogen producing bacteria to be used in hydrogen fermentation after methanogenic activity of the granule was eliminated in the pretreatment process. This paper reports an innovative treatment method to directly convert methanogenic granules to hydrogen producing granules using

Bo Hu; Shulin Chen

2007-01-01

334

Variation in the fermentative pattern of some Saccharomyces species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acquisition of the ability to ferment galactose, maltose, sucrose, raffinose and melibiose by yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces was investigated. During cultivation in selective media 11 strains belonging to 5 species gained the ability to ferment one or several of these sugars. De-adaptation was not usually observed after cultivation in glucose medium, indicating that the saltants are stable

Ragnhild Scheda; D. Yarrow

1968-01-01

335

FERMENTATION PROCESS MONITORING THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF AEROSOL RELEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Fermentation involves many complex biological processes some of which are sometimes difficult to monitor. n this study, aerosol measurement was explored as an additional technique for monitoring a batch aerobic fermentation process using Escherichia coli strain W3110. sing this t...

336

Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteriditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteris- tics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentra- tion of lactic acid, which could make chickens less suscep- tible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmo-

L. Heres; B. Engel; F. van Knapen; M. C. M. de Jong; J. A. Wagenaar; B. A. P. Urlings

2003-01-01

337

Solid state fermentation of agricultural wastes for endoglucanase production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignocellulosic biomass (especially agricultural wastes) is known to be an excellent carbon source for microbial enzyme production. In this paper, the cellulase production from lignocellulosic materials under solid state fermentation (SSF) was investigated. The effects of fermentation conditions, such as moisture content, initial pH, temperature, and composition of mixed substrate (wheat straw and wheat bran) on endoglucanase production by

Luiza Jecu

2000-01-01

338

Corynebacterium simulans sp. nov., a non- lipophilic, fermentative Corynebacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three coryneform strains isolated from clinical samples were analysed. These strains fitted the biochemical profile of Corynebacterium striatum by conventional methods. However, according to recently described identification tests for fermenting corynebacteria, the strains behaved rather like Corynebacterium minutissimum . The three isolates could be distinguished from C. minutissimum by a positive nitrate and nitrite reductase test and by not fermenting

Pierre Wattiau; Georges Wauters

339

FERMENTATION INHIBITION BY 2,6-DICHLORO-4-NITROANILINE (DCNA)  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of DCNA (2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline) on the fermentation rate of peach wine produced in Georgia was determined. DCNA was identified by GC-MS and quantitated (1.2 mg/l) by GLC in peach concentrates that fermented more slowly than normal. The effect of the DCNA on the g...

340

How-to-Do-It: A Simple Demonstration of Fermentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a simple demonstration of fermentation. The materials needed, the basic experimental set-up, and various projects are outlined. Included are a diagram of an apparatus for measuring carbon dioxide production and a table showing typical results of the effect of pH on fermentation. (RT)

Yurkiewicz, William J.; And Others

1989-01-01

341

Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

2011-10-01

342

Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden  

SciTech Connect

It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

Not Available

1981-10-19

343

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

SciTech Connect

This invention is comprised of a method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

Wyman, C.E.

1991-03-20

344

The Microbial Diversity of Traditional Spontaneously Fermented Lambic Beer  

PubMed Central

Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration. PMID:24748344

Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2014-01-01

345

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method is described for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process. 2 figs.

Wyman, C.E.

1999-02-09

346

The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.  

PubMed

Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration. PMID:24748344

Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2014-01-01

347

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

1999-02-09

348

In vitro ruminal fermentation of organic acids common in forage.  

PubMed Central

Mixed rumen bacteria from cows fed either timothy hay or a 60% concentrate were incubated with 7.5 mM citrate, trans-aconitate, malate, malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Citrate, trans-aconitate, and malate were fermented at faster rates than malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Acetate was the primary fermentation product for all six acids. Quinate and shikimate fermentations gave rist to butyrate, whereas malate and malonate produced significant amounts of propionic acid. High-pressure liquid chromatography of fermentation products from trans-aconitate incubations revealed a compound that was subsequently identified as tricarballylate. As much as 40% of the trans-aconitate acid was converted to tricarballylate, and tricarballylate was fermented slowly. The slow rate of tricarballylate metabolism by mixed rumen bacteria and its potential as a magnesium chelator suggest that tricarballylate formation could be an important factor in the hypomagnesemia that leads to grass tetany. PMID:6696413

Russell, J B; Van Soest, P J

1984-01-01

349

Vacuum friction in rotating particles  

E-print Network

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

A. Manjavacas; F. J. García de Abajo

2010-09-21

350

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-04-14

351

Vacuum alignment and lattice artifacts  

E-print Network

When a subgroup of the flavor symmetry group of a gauge theory is weakly coupled to additional gauge fields, the vacuum tends to align such that the gauged subgroup is unbroken. At the same time, the lattice discretization typically breaks the flavor symmetry explicitly, and can give rise to new lattice-artifact phases with spontaneously broken symmetries. We discuss the interplay of these two phenomena, using chiral lagrangian techniques. Our first example is two-flavor Wilson QCD coupled to electromagnetism. We also consider examples of theories with staggered fermions, and demonstrate that recent claims in the literature based on the use of staggered fermions are incorrect.

Maarten Golterman; Yigal Shamir

2014-10-29

352

Laser-triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowgill, Donald F. (Danville, CA)

1990-01-01

353

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-03-10

354

Shielding vacuum fluctuations with graphene  

E-print Network

The Casimir-Polder interaction of ground-state and excited atoms with graphene is investigated with the aim to establish whether graphene systems can be used as a shield for vacuum fluctuations of an underlying substrate. We calculate the zero-temperature Casimir-Polder potential from the reflection coefficients of graphene within the framework of the Dirac model. For both doped and undoped graphene we show limits at which graphene could be used effectively as a shield. Additional results are given for AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

Sofia Ribeiro; Stefan Scheel

2014-03-14

355

Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles  

SciTech Connect

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J. [Instituto de Optica--CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

2010-09-10

356

MSW Effects in Vacuum Oscillations  

SciTech Connect

We point out that for solar neutrino oscillations with the mass-squared difference of Delta m^2 ~;; 10^-10 - 10^-9 eV^2, traditionally known as"vacuum oscillation'' range, the solar matter effects are non-negligible, particularly for the low energy pp neutrinos. One consequence of this is that the values of the mixing angle theta and pi/2-theta are not equivalent, leading to the need to consider the entire physical range of the mixing angle 0<=theta<=pi/2 when determining the allowed values of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

Friedland, Alexander

2000-02-06

357

Superluminal propagation of squeezed vacuum  

E-print Network

We experimentally demonstrate the superluminal propagation of modulated quadrature squeezed vacuum optical field, generated via the polarization self-rotation (PSR) effect. We observed the advancement of the signal propagating through a resonant Rb vapor with negative dispersion due to Zeeman coherence. The measured advancement grew linearly with atomic density, reaching a maximum of $11 \\pm 1 \\mu$s, which corresponded to a negative group velocity of $v_g\\approx - 7,000 $ m/s. We also confirmed that the increasing advancement was accompanied by a reduction of output squeezing levels due to optical losses, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

Romanov, Gleb; Novikova, Irina; Mikhailov, Eugeniy E

2014-01-01

358

BUTANOL PRODUCTION FROM WHEAT STRAW BY SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION USING CLOSTRIDIUM BEIJERINCKII: PART I-BATCH FERMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simult...

359

Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

360

Classification of fermented soybean paste during fermentation by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and principal component analysis.  

PubMed

Fermented soybean paste (doenjang, FSP) is a traditionally fermented Korean food produced by fermentation with various microorganisms that is known to exhibit various beneficial bioactivities. To investigate the changes in nonvolatile metabolites of FSP during fermentation, samples produced with six fermentation times were analyzed using an (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-based metabolomics technique. This revealed clear separation of 50% methanol extracts of the FSP samples with different fermentation times in the principal component plots by combining PC1 and PC2, which cumulatively accounted for 94.2% of the variance. Major compounds contributing to the separation of 50% methanol extracts of FSP with various fermentation times were isoleucine/leucine, lactate, alanine, acetic acid, glutamine, choline, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. In addition, the (1)H NMR spectra of chloroform extracts were separated mainly by a combination of PC1 and PC3, which accounted for 72.6% of the variance. The present study suggests the usefulness of a (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach to discriminate FSP samples subjected to different fermentation times, and this is the first report regarding metabolomic profiling of FSP. PMID:19270378

Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Min-Su; Liu, Kwang-Hyun; Auh, Joong-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Suk; Kwon, Dae Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

2009-03-23

361

Ethanol fermentation kinetics in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation system with a pervaporation membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

The kinetics of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was studied in a continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pervaporation membrane bioreactor. Three sequential 500-h cycles of CCCF experiments were carried out. A glucose volumetric consumption of 3.8 g L(-1) h(-1) and ethanol volumetric productivity of 1.39 g L(-1) h(-1) were obtained in the third cycle, with a specific glucose utilization rate of 0.32 h(-1) and ethanol yield rate of 0.13 h(-1). The prolonged fermentation time and good fermentation performance indicate that the CCCF would be a feasible and promising fermentation process technology. PMID:22446047

Chen, Chunyan; Tang, Xiaoyu; Xiao, Zeyi; Zhou, Yihui; Jiang, Yue; Fu, Shengwei

2012-06-01

362

Food fermentations: microorganisms with technological beneficial use.  

PubMed

Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on "the history of use", "traditional food", or "general recognition of safety". Authoritative lists of microorganisms with a documented use in food have therefore come into high demand. One such list was published in 2002 as a result of a joint project between the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and the European Food and Feed Cultures Association (EFFCA). The "2002 IDF inventory" has become a de facto reference for food cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature. PMID:22257932

Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh; Frisvad, Jens C; Gerds, Monica L; Hammes, Walter P; Harnett, James; Huys, Geert; Laulund, Svend; Ouwehand, Arthur; Powell, Ian B; Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Seto, Yasuyuki; Ter Schure, Eelko; Van Boven, Aart; Vankerckhoven, Vanessa; Zgoda, Annabelle; Tuijtelaars, Sandra; Hansen, Egon Bech

2012-03-15

363

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

364

Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator  

SciTech Connect

The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of {approx}10 MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of {approx}100 nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4-6 mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100-200 m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

Malyshev, O. B.; Scott, D. J.; Bailey, I. R.; Barber, D. P.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brummitt, A.; Carr, S.; Clarke, J. A.; Cooke, P.; Dainton, J. B.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Malysheva, L. I.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Rochford, J. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom) and Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); DESY-Hamburg, Notkestrasse 85 22607 Hamburg (Germany); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Chilton, Didcot Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD [United Kingdom and Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford St., Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Institute of Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham Durham DH1 3LE, (United Kingdom); CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton Didcot Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15

365

Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined  

E-print Network

We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

Y. Nogami

2008-08-01

366

The large-scale structure of vacuum  

E-print Network

The vacuum state in quantum field theory is known to exhibit an important number of fundamental physical features. In this work we explore the possibility that this state could also present a non-trivial space-time structure on large scales. In particular, we will show that by imposing the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor to be conserved and compatible with cosmological observations, the vacuum energy of sufficiently heavy fields behaves at late times as non-relativistic matter rather than as a cosmological constant. In this limit, the vacuum state supports perturbations whose speed of sound is negligible and accordingly allows the growth of structures in the vacuum energy itself. This large-scale structure of vacuum could seed the formation of galaxies and clusters very much in the same way as cold dark matter does.

F. D. Albareti; J. A. R. Cembranos; A. L. Maroto

2014-05-15

367

Robot design for a vacuum environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

1987-01-01

368

The large-scale structure of vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum state in quantum field theory is known to exhibit an important number of fundamental physical features. In this work we explore the possibility that this state could also present a nontrivial spacetime structure on large scales. In particular, we will show that by imposing the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor to be conserved and compatible with cosmological observations, the vacuum energy of sufficiently heavy fields behaves at late times as nonrelativistic matter rather than as a cosmological constant. In this limit, the vacuum state supports perturbations whose speed of sound is negligible and accordingly allows the growth of structures in the vacuum energy itself. This large-scale structure of vacuum could seed the formation of galaxies and clusters very much in the same way as cold dark matter does.

Albareti, Franco D.; Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Maroto, Antonio L.

2014-10-01

369

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours)  

E-print Network

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Fermentation (hours) rpm Do Wet cell weight (g/L) Feed Rate (ml/L) Expon. (Wet cell weight (g/L)) Figure 2. Fermentation profile of a Fed-Batch conducted in the CBR Fermentation smaller than the critical specific growth rate ( fermentation started with a simple batch

Strynadka, Natalie

370

A Novel Technique that Enables Efficient Conduct of Simultaneous Isomerization and Fermentation  

E-print Network

A Novel Technique that Enables Efficient Conduct of Simultaneous Isomerization and Fermentation of the hemicellulosic portion is not fermentable by the same species of yeasts. Xylose fermentation by native yeasts can isomerase (XI) occurs optimally at a pH of 7­8, whereas subsequent fermentation of xylulose to ethanol

Relue, Patricia

371

Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis  

E-print Network

Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation Electrolysis cell Fermentation Lignocellulose a b s t r a c t A two-stage dark-fermentation/ L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted

372

Article original Essai sur l'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale  

E-print Network

Article original Essai sur l'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale au monensin L Mbanzamihigo CJ; accepté le 5 avril 1995) Résumé ― L'adaptation de la fermentation ruminale au monensin a été'adaptation de la fermentation rumi- nale au monensin. fermentation ruminale 1 mouton 1 monensin 1 adaptation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

373

Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp)  

E-print Network

Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp) and metabolism of its sulphate). The purpose of this study was to assess the fermentation characteristics and sulphate metabolism of Ulva and ulvan by human faecal bacteria fermentation system using a semi-continu- ous fermenter. Ulva and ulvan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide  

SciTech Connect

In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

1994-03-01

375

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

IRWIN, J.J.

1999-07-01

376

Coordinate induction of dissimilatory ammonification and fermentative pathways in rhizobia.  

PubMed

Dissimilatory ammonification was indicated as the common feature of ten rhizobial strains representing six species and three genera. In the absence of external electron acceptors, all investigated strains were capable of ethanolic fermentation. However, induction of anaerobic nitrite reduction was shown to be coupled with a shift of fermentation towards acetate in all the strains tested. Three metabolic groups could be distinguished with regard to nitrite regulation of ethanolic fermentation. It was shown for Bradyrhizobium sp. strain USDA 3045 that nitrite is the signal for switching between fermentative pathways although both ammonia and acetate excretion could not accelerate until nitrate had been utilized first. In the absence of N oxyanions, ethanol was indicated as the main product of mannitol fermentation, five-fold more abundant than acetate. An inverse composition was found in nitrite-amended cultures, due to a four-fold increase in acetate excretion whereas ethanol was kept at low level. Nitrite-supported fermentation towards acetate has not been previously reported for rhizobia. This benefit of this pathway was a two-fold shorter doubling time on 1% mannitol and 2.5 mM nitrite compared to no-nitrite media variants but also enabled fermentation of the more reduced carbon compound glycerol. PMID:19350412

Polcyn, W?adys?aw; Podeszwa, Justyna

2009-06-01

377

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, D W; Beuchat, L R

1986-05-01

378

Mathematical models of ABE fermentation: review and analysis.  

PubMed

Among different liquid biofuels that have emerged in the recent past, biobutanol produced via fermentation processes is of special interest due to very similar properties to that of gasoline. For an effective design, scale-up, and optimization of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process, it is necessary to have insight into the micro- and macro-mechanisms of the process. The mathematical models for ABE fermentation are efficient tools for this purpose, which have evolved from simple stoichiometric fermentation equations in the 1980s to the recent sophisticated and elaborate kinetic models based on metabolic pathways. In this article, we have reviewed the literature published in the area of mathematical modeling of the ABE fermentation. We have tried to present an analysis of these models in terms of their potency in describing the overall physiology of the process, design features, mode of operation along with comparison and validation with experimental results. In addition, we have also highlighted important facets of these models such as metabolic pathways, basic kinetics of different metabolites, biomass growth, inhibition modeling and other additional features such as cell retention and immobilized cultures. Our review also covers the mathematical modeling of the downstream processing of ABE fermentation, i.e. recovery and purification of solvents through flash distillation, liquid-liquid extraction, and pervaporation. We believe that this review will be a useful source of information and analysis on mathematical models for ABE fermentation for both the appropriate scientific and engineering communities. PMID:23072615

Mayank, Rahul; Ranjan, Amrita; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

2013-12-01

379

Metagenomic Analysis of the Viral Communities in Fermented Foods? †  

PubMed Central

Viruses are recognized as the most abundant biological components on Earth, and they regulate the structure of microbial communities in many environments. In soil and marine environments, microorganism-infecting phages are the most common type of virus. Although several types of bacteriophage have been isolated from fermented foods, little is known about the overall viral assemblages (viromes) of these environments. In this study, metagenomic analyses were performed on the uncultivated viral communities from three fermented foods, fermented shrimp, kimchi, and sauerkraut. Using a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique, a total of 81,831, 70,591 and 69,464 viral sequences were obtained from fermented shrimp, kimchi and sauerkraut, respectively. Moreover, 37 to 50% of these sequences showed no significant hit against sequences in public databases. There were some discrepancies between the prediction of bacteriophages hosts via homology comparison and bacterial distribution, as determined from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These discrepancies likely reflect the fact that the viral genomes of fermented foods are poorly represented in public databases. Double-stranded DNA viral communities were amplified from fermented foods by using a linker-amplified shotgun library. These communities were dominated by bacteriophages belonging to the viral order Caudovirales (i.e., Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae). This study indicates that fermented foods contain less complex viral communities than many other environmental habitats, such as seawater, human feces, marine sediment, and soil. PMID:21183634

Park, Eun-Jin; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Abell, Guy C. J.; Kim, Min-Soo; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

2011-01-01

380

Liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation of ammoniated corn to ethanol.  

PubMed

Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of nonfermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the added ammonia nitrogen in ammonia treated corn (approximately 1 g per kg corn) may satisfy the yeast nutritional requirement for free amino nitrogen (FAN). In this study, procedures for ammoniation, liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation at two scales (12-L and 50-mL) were used to determine the fermentation rate, final ethanol concentration, and ethanol yield from starch in ammoniated or nonammoniated corn. The maximum achievable ethanol concentration at 50 h fermentation time was lower with ammoniated corn than with nonammoniated corn. The extra nitrogen in ammoniated corn satisfied some of the yeast requirements for FAN, thereby reducing the requirement for corn steep liquor. Based upon these results, ammoniation of corn does not appear to have a positive impact on the fermentability of corn to ethanol. Ammoniation may still be cost effective, if the advantages in terms of improved separations outweigh the disadvantages in terms of decreased fermentability. PMID:19194940

Taylor, Frank; Kim, Tae Hyun; Abbas, Charles A; Hicks, Kevin B

2008-01-01

381

Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptome during bread dough fermentation.  

PubMed

The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

2013-12-01

382

Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

2013-01-01

383

Volatile organic compounds from a Tuber melanosporum fermentation system.  

PubMed

A total of 59 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified from Tuber melanosporum fermentation: 53 from its fermented mycelia and 32 from the fermentation broth. Alcohol-derived compounds were predominant in both the fermentation mycelia and the broth, although long chain fatty acids and isoprenoids were, for the first time, also found in the mycelia. The intense wine bouquet properties of the broth arose from several specific flavor substances, including sulfur compounds, pyrazines, furans and jasmones. Comparing the VOCs identified in this work with those previously reported, our results are more similar to the composition of the Tuber fruiting-body than previous Tuber fermentations. The composition and accumulation of flavor volatiles (e.g., pyrazines, sulfur compounds, and esters) and major constituents (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) in this fermentation were significantly influenced by the sucrose concentration in the medium. The obtained information could therefore be useful in applications to convert the flavors of truffle mycelia similar to those of the fruiting-body by optimising the fermentation process. PMID:22980851

Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Guan; Li, Hong-Mei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2012-12-15

384

Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation  

PubMed

Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production. PMID:9933520

Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

1999-01-01

385

Inorganic types of fermentation and anaerobic respirations in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We proposed long ago the following sequence as one of the main pathways in the evolution of energy-yielding metabolism: fermentation?nitrate fermentation?nitrate respiration?oxygen respiration. In the present report our concept is presented in a more general form: (1) fermentation? ?(2) fermentation with H2 release?(3) inorganic types of fermentation?(4) anaerobic respirations ?(5) oxygen respiration, based upon recent biological and physical information. The

Fujio Egami

1974-01-01

386

Metabolically engineered bacteria for producing hydrogen via fermentation.  

PubMed

Hydrogen, the most abundant and lightest element in the universe, has much potential as a future energy source. Hydrogenases catalyse one of the simplest chemical reactions, 2H(+) + 2e(-) ? H(2), yet their structure is very complex. Biologically, hydrogen can be produced via photosynthetic or fermentative routes. This review provides an overview of microbial production of hydrogen by fermentation (currently the more favourable route) and focuses on biochemical pathways, theoretical hydrogen yields and hydrogenase structure. In addition, several examples of metabolic engineering to enhance fermentative hydrogen production are presented along with some examples of expression of heterologous hydrogenases for enhanced hydrogen production. PMID:21261829

Vardar-Schara, Gönül; Maeda, Toshinari; Wood, Thomas K

2008-03-01

387

Gravitational Correction to Vacuum Polarization  

E-print Network

We consider the gravitational correction to (electronic) vacuum polarization in the presence of a gravitational background field. The Dirac propagators for the virtual fermions are modified to include the leading gravitational correction (potential term) which corresponds to a coordinate-dependent fermion mass. The mass term is assumed to be uniform over a length scale commensurate with the virtual electron-positron pair. The on-mass shell renormalization condition ensures that the gravitational correction vanishes on the mass shell of the photon, i.e., the speed of light is unaffected by the quantum field theoretical loop correction, in full agreement with the equivalence principle. Nontrivial corrections are obtained for off-shell, virtual photons. We compare our findings to other works on generalized Lorentz transformations and combined quantum-electrodynamic gravitational corrections to the speed of light which have recently appeared in the literature.

U. D. Jentschura

2015-01-28

388

Laser sealed vacuum insulating window  

DOEpatents

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1985-08-19

389

SXLS Phase 2 vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the SXLS (Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source) is described. It is a room temperature, racetrack-shaped electron storage ring, 8.5 meters in circumference. The Phase 2 design consists of replacing the two room temperature 180{degree} dipole magnets of Phase 1 with superconducting magnets. However, even though superconducting magnets are used, the vacuum chambers within them will operate at room temperature. The chambers are constructed as weldments and are made of INCONEL-625. They are bakeable to 150{degrees}C in-situ and incorporate nine photon beam ports. Each have built-in distributed sputter-ion pumps (DIP), non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps, beam position monitors, and ion clearing electrodes. R D is underway to optimize the DIP, which much operate at 3.86 Tesla, and to develop a low photo yield coating or treatment for the internal surfaces of the chambers.

Schuchman, J.C.; Chou, T.S.; Halama, H.; Hsieh, H.; Kim, T.; Pjerov, S.; Staicu, F.

1991-01-01

390

Laser sealed vacuum insulation window  

DOEpatents

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01

391

TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

Sekachev, I.

2008-03-01

392

Discharge Properties and Emitted Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study on reliability of vacuum interrupter (VI) such as detection method of the slow leak has been extensively carried out, while study on discharge properties in low vacuum of VI is still insufficient. In this report, we experimentally investigated discharge properties inside VI under closed contact and open contact conditions of main contactors in low vacuum of VI to simulate

Mohamad Kamarol; Shinya Ohtsuka; Hitoshi Saitou; Masayuki Sakaki; Masayuki Hikita

2005-01-01

393

Mycopesticide production by fermentation: potential and challenges.  

PubMed

The agriculture industry is in need of novel biopesticides and development of large-scale production of mycopesticide, either fungal cells themselves or cell-free fungal components. The identification of a fungal strain with pesticide activity, and its improvement, is the primary step in developing infective propagules such as conidia, blastospores, chlamydospores, oospores, and zygospores as well as in preparing hydrolytic enzyme mixtures. This review discusses various parameters for submerged and solid state fermentation to produce fungal structures, particularly of mycoparasitic and entomopathogenic species that are prospective candidates for use as mycopesticides. The understanding of the molecular aspects of fungus-fungus and fungus-insect interactions, the role of hydrolytic enzymes especially chitinases in the killing process, and the possible use of chitin synthesis inhibitors are the prime areas of research aimed at making fungi more effective either singly or in combination as mycopesticides. PMID:10524330

Deshpande, M V

1999-01-01

394

Inflammation, suppuration, putrefaction, fermentation: Joseph Lister's microbiology  

PubMed Central

This paper focuses on Lister's inaugural lecture at King's College, London, in October 1877. As the new Professor of Clinical Surgery, Lister had much to report, including impressively high survival rates from complex operations previously regarded as foolhardy. Instead, he chose to address the processes of fermentation in wine, blood and milk. His reasons are not obvious to a modern audience, just as they probably were not to those who heard him in the Great Hall at King's. Having brought microbiological apparatus from his laboratory to the lecture theatre and presented proof of bacterial variety and specificity, Lister publicly demonstrated the creation of the first pure bacterial culture in the history of microbiology. It was an ingenious and well-thought-out strategy designed to generate a frame of mind among his new colleagues and future students, receptive to the causative role of bacteria in septic diseases. His timing was impeccable.

Richardson, Ruth

2013-01-01

395

Monitoring of fermentation parameters with fiber optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioprocess control requires reliable and continuous monitoring of nutrients and various process parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH. Currently, the on-line control of these parameters is achieved electrochemically via dip-in electrodes or indirectly by off-gas analysis. Optical sensors offer an alternative to these conventional methods. Fiber- optic sensors for measuring pH, CO2 and O2 have been developed. We have demonstrated the use of a fiber-optic sensor for the continuous monitoring of fermentation pH. In this paper we discuss the use of a ratiometric method and medium calibration as a way to improve the precision of the fiber-optic sensor.

Agayn, Venetka I.; Walt, David R.

1994-03-01

396

Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.  

PubMed

An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. PMID:22975252

Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

2012-11-01

397

Resource Letter QEDV-1: The QED vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on vacuum structures and their effects in Quantum Electrodynamics. References to books and journal articles that deal with perturbative vacuum effects as well as nonperturbative processes in extremely strong external fields like spontaneous positron production in strong Coulomb fields are provided.

Greiner, Walter; Schramm, Stefan

2008-06-01

398

On the Vacuum Propagation of Gravitational Waves  

E-print Network

We show that, for any local, causal quantum field theory which couples covariantly to gravity, and which admits Minkowski spacetime vacuum(a) invariant under the inhomogeneous proper orthochronous Lorentz group, plane gravitational waves propagating in such Minkowski vacuum(a) do not dissipate energy or momentum via quantum field theoretic effects.

Xiao Liu

2007-06-04

399

String Field Theory Around the Tachyon Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that around the tachyon vacuum the kinetic term of cubic open string field theory is made purely of ghost operators we are led to gauge invariant actions which manifestly implement the absence of open string dynamics around this vacuum. We test this proposal by showing the existence of lump solutions of arbitrary codimension in this string field theory. The

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

400

Vacuum in Gas and Fluid Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we review some interesting problems of vacuum states arising in hyperbolic conservations laws with applications\\u000a to gas and fluid dynamics. We present the current status of the understanding of compressible Euler flows near vacuum and\\u000a discuss related open problems.

Juhi Jang; Nader Masmoudi

401

Vacuum Energy: If Not Now, Then When?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the cosmological evidence for a low matter density universe and a cosmological constant or dynamical vacuum energy and address the cosmological coincidence problem: why is the matter density about one-half the vacuum energy now. This is reasonble, following the anthropic argument of Efstathiou and of Martel, Schapiro & Weinberg.

Bludman, Sidney A.

2000-01-01

402

Vacuum microfabrication on live fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival rate of Drosophila when exposed to moderate vacuum levels is studied and it is established that the organism can be subjected to 55 mTorr vacuum for periods as long as 70 minutes with a significant rate of survival (>20%). This finding opens a number of new opportunities for performing fabrication processes, similar to the ones performed on a

Angela J. Shum; Babak A. Parviz

2007-01-01

403

On Gauge Invariance and Vacuum Polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on the elementary remark that the extraction of gauge invariant results from a formally gauge invariant theory is ensured if one employs methods of solution that involve only gauge covariant quantities. We illustrate this statement in connection with the problem of vacuum polarization by a prescribed electromagnetic field. The vacuum current of a charged Dirac field,

Julian Schwinger

1951-01-01

404

Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum

Huggins, Elisha

2013-01-01

405

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, John D. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01

406

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1995-03-07

407

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, J.D.

1993-11-09

408

Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers  

DOEpatents

The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

1995-01-01

409

Vacuum Measuring System on the EAST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is the first whole superconducting divertor tokamak commissioned in the world [1]. The first limiter plasma was obtained in 2006 and the single null and double null divertor plasma in 2007. After the 2nd campaign in 2007 with full metal first walls, the plasma facing components were modified to full doped graphite walls and vacuum system was upgraded to meet the requirement of particles exhaust [23]. The vacuum system is one of the most fundamental and important sub-systems of the EAST. The Vacuum Measuring System (VMS) is required not only for the basic vacuum operation, but also for physics research, such as for wall conditioning, wall retention and divertor physics and so on. The VMS for device and vacuum system operation, wall conditioning and physics research will be introduced, in this paper.

Wang, H. Y.; Hu, J. S.; Wang, X. M.; Chen, Q.; Cao, B.; Yu, Y. W.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, Y.; Li, J. H.; EAST vacuum group

410

Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations  

SciTech Connect

The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of 'white noise' fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the 'ground state' energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

Gevorkyan, A. S., E-mail: g_ashot@sci.am [NAS of Armenia, Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems (Armenia); Gevorkyan, A. A. [Yerevan State University (Armenia)

2011-06-15

411

Influence of killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on wine fermentation.  

PubMed

The effect of killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth of sensitive strains during must fermentation was studied by using a new method to monitor yeast populations. The capability of killer yeast strains to eliminate sensitive strains depends on the initial proportion of killer yeasts, the susceptibility of sensitive strains, and the treatment of the must. In sterile filtered must, an initial proportion of 2-6% of killer yeasts was responsible for protracted fermentation and suppression of isogenic sensitive strains. A more variable initial proportion was needed to get the same effect with non-isogenic strains. The suspended solids that remain in the must after cold-settling decreased killer toxin effect. The addition of bentonite to the must avoided protracted fermentation and the suppression of sensitive strains; however, the addition of yeast dietary nutrients with yeast cell walls did not, although it decreased fermentation lag. PMID:11816985

Pérez, F; Ramírez, M; Regodón, J A

2001-09-01

412

Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of corn for fuel alcohol  

SciTech Connect

The integration of enzyme saccharification with fermentation reduces the total time required to produce acceptable levels of ethanol. The use of a more concentrated mash (84.8 L total mash/bu corn) results in a 26.6% increase in ethanol productivity and a 21.4% increase in beer ethanol concentration compared to standard corn mash (96.6 L total mash/bu corn). Thus, the energy requirement and cost of distillation can be reduced. The addition of waste cola syrup at 30 g invert sugar/L total mash gave a 19% increase in ethanol concentration in the final beer and required only a small increase in period of fermentation. Surplus laundry starch can replace 30-50% of the weight of corn normally used in fermentation without influencing ethanol production or the time required for fermentation. Both of these waste materials reduce the unit cost of ethanol and demonstrate the value of such substances in ethanol systems.

Mullins, J.T.

1985-01-01

413

Microbiology of 'obiolor': a Nigerian fermented non-alcoholic beverage.  

PubMed

Obiolor is an acidic non-alcoholic beverage prepared by fermenting sorghum and millet malts. The traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the beverage were investigated. Bacillus spp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus lactis were the associated micro-organisms most actively involved. Yeasts were present in low numbers towards the end of the fermentation. Other micro-organisms isolated did not appear to play a role in the fermentation process. Variations in the important microbial groups involved and their metabolic products were studied. Titratable acidity increased gradually until the end of the fermentation while the total soluble solids and pH declined. Acetobacter spp. were probably responsible for the unacceptability of the product after 24 h. PMID:2123172

Achi, O K

1990-09-01

414

Hydrolysis of starch and fermentable hydrolysates obtained therefrom  

SciTech Connect

Starch in slurry was liquefied by strong acid and a-amylase, saccharified in the presence of acid cation exchanger, and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to obtain an aqueous solution of fermentable sugar.

Muller, W.C.; Miller, F.D.

1981-05-05

415

DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

416

Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation  

DOEpatents

A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Arora, Dinesh K. (Fayetteville, AR); Ko, Ching-Whan (Fayetteville, AR); Phillips, John Randall (Fayetteville, AR); Basu, Rahul (Bethlehem, PA); Wikstrom, Carl V. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

2007-10-23

417

Analysis and behavior of colistin during anaerobic fermentation.  

PubMed

A new analytical method for the determination of colistin in fermenter samples was developed followed by a study on the behavior of this substance during anaerobic fermentation. Analysis of colistin A and B was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Separation of the analytes was performed on a Security Guard column (4×3mm). Fourteen fermentation tests in batch as well as in continuous reactors were carried out. After 44days of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure, initially spiked with 500mg/kg of colistin sulfate, a considerable decrease of the colistin concentration to less than 1mg/kg could be observed. Furthermore, the daily production of biogas and methane was measured. A correlation between gas production and colistin concentration could not be determined. However, an increase of 10% of the cumulative methane production was observed in those fermenters spiked with an initial bolus of 500mg/kg colistin. PMID:25151074

Riemenschneider, C; Zerr, W; Vater, N; Brunn, H; Mohring, S A I; Hamscher, G

2014-10-01

418

Persistence of fermentative process to phenolic toxicity in groundwater  

SciTech Connect

The fermentation process is an important component in the biodegradation of organic compounds in natural and contaminated systems. Comparing with terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), however, research on fermentation processes has to some extent been ignored in the past decades, particularly on the persistence of fermentation process in the presence of toxic organic pollutants. Both field and laboratory studies, presented here, showed that microbial processes in a groundwater-based system exhibited a differential inhibitory response to toxicity of phenolic compounds from coal tar distillation, thus resulting in the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen. This indicated that fermentation processes could be more resistant to phenol toxicity than the subsequent TEAPs such as methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, thus providing us with more options for enhancing bioremediation processes.

Wu, Y.X.; Lerner, D.N.; Banwart, S.A.; Thornton, S.E.; Pickup, R.W. [Lancaster Environmental Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

2006-11-15

419

REFUSE OF FERMENTATION BRINES IN THE CUCUMBER PICKLING INDUSTRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The project evaluated on a commercial scale the technological and economic feasibility of recycling spent cucumber fermentation brine. Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were used. The results showed that brine recycling was practical on a comm...

420

Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

None

1981-04-01

421

Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

1985-01-01

422

Carbon cycling by cellulose-fermenting nitrogen-fixing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most abundant organic materials on Earth are plant polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Inasmuch as vast quantities of these polymers are present in anaerobic environments (e.g., in soils and sediments), anaerobic microorganisms that ferment plant polysaccharides play a central role in carbon cycling on the planet as a source of CO2 and, indirectly, of CH4. Cellulose-fermenting bacteria from

S. B. Leschine; E. Canale-Parola

1989-01-01

423

Main microorganisms involved in the fermentation of Ugandan ghee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghee is widely produced from a traditional fermented butter-like product named mashita in western Uganda. However, no detailed studies have been done to identify the microorganisms involved in mashita fermentation. The aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms present at the end of mashita ripening using culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. The most commonly identified species of lactic acid

Martin Patrick Ongol; Kozo Asano

2009-01-01

424

Fermentation of Raw Poultry Byproducts for Animal Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the fermentation of raw, inedible poultry byproducts mixed with sugarbeet pulp and dextrose and inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and( or) Enteroccocus faecium resulted in a drop of pH in the byproducts to approximately 4.0 to 4.5 within 48 h. To keep the fermented product stable for a period of 21 d, the addition of 2 3% (wt\\/wt)

H. A. P. Urlings; P. G. H. Bijker; J. G. van Logtestijn

425

Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteritidis.  

PubMed

The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteristics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentration of lactic acid, which could make chickens less susceptible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmonella. Two studies were performed to quantify the effect of fermented liquid feed on the susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella. The fermented feed was prepared by fermenting a dry broiler feed supplemented with 1.4 parts of water. Lactobacillus plantarum was used for fermentation. The fermented liquid feed (FLF) contained 10(9) to 10(10) cfu lactobacilli per gram, and the pH was 4. Individually housed control chickens and FLF-fed chickens were inoculated with 10(2) to 10(7) cfu Salmonella enteritidis (SE). Colonization was estimated by cloacal swabs and quantitative caecal culture. The proportion of SE-shedding chickens was decreased in FLF-fed chickens. FLF-fed chickens required a longer time after inoculation or a higher inoculation dose to get the same proportion of infected chickens in comparison with dry feed-fed chickens. The level of cecal colonization with Salmonella in the ceca was not different at the end of the experimental period. The results indicate that FLF can hamper the introduction of Salmonella in broiler flocks because the chickens are less susceptible for infection. Fermented liquid feed might therefore be a new hurdle in the strategy to control Salmonella in chicken flocks. PMID:12710480

Heres, L; Engel, B; van Knapen, F; de Jong, M C M; Wagenaar, J A; Urlings, H A P

2003-04-01

426

Solid-state fermentation of carob pods for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from carob pods by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid-state fermentation was investigated. The maximal ethanol concentration (160±3 g\\/kg dry pods), ethanol productivity (6.7 ± 0.2 g\\/kg per hour), ethanol yield (40 ± 1.8%), biomass concentration (7.5 ± 0.4 x 108 cells\\/g carob pulp) and fermentation efficiency (80 ± 2%) were obtained at an inoculum amount of 3%,

T. Roukas

1994-01-01

427

In situ extractive fermentation of acetone and butanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of the acetone-butanol fermentation was increased by continuously removing acetone and butanol from the fermentation broth during fed-batch culture. Whole broth containing viable cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum was cycled to a Karr reciprocating plate extraction column in which acetone and butanol were extracted into oleyl alcohol flowing counter-currently through the column. By continuously removing these toxic metabolites from

S. R. Roffler; H. W. Blanch; C. R. Wilke

1988-01-01

428

Study of butanol extraction through pervaporation in acetobutylic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substrates conversion during acetobutylic fermentation is essentially limited by the concentration of butanol in the fermentation medium, since butanol itself a by-product of this process. Butanol concentrations of 14-16 g\\/L inhibit bacterial growth, thereby limiting glucose consumption between 60 and 70 g\\/L. Thus, there is a limit to the amount of usable substrate beyond which the inhibiting level of butanol

M. A. Larrayoz; L. Puigjaner

1987-01-01

429

Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which\\u000a can be used for production of bioenergy and\\/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from\\u000a the green crop drying industry, brown juice, is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation,\\u000a is outlined. The resulting all-round

Mette Hedegaard Thomsen

2005-01-01

430

Alcoholic fermentation: on the inhibitory effect of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of ethanol was studied during alcoholic fermentation under strictly anaerobic conditions assured by stripping dissolved oxygen with pure nitrogen. It is shown that ehthanol produced during batch fermentation is more inhibitory than added ethanol in the range of 0 to 76 g\\/liter. Thus, the inhibition constant is 105.2 and 3.8 g\\/liter for added and produced ethanol, respectively.

M. Novak; P. Strehaiano; M. Moreno; G. Goma

1981-01-01

431

Methane fermentation process for utilization of organic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogas is a renewable and sustainable energy carrier generated via anaerobic digestion of biomass. This fuel is derived from various biomass resources and depending on its origin it contains methane (40-75%), carbon dioxide (20-45%) and some other compounds. The aim of this paper is to present the current knowledge and prospects of using the methane fermentation process to dispose of various types of organic wastes as well as conditions and factors affecting the methane fermentation process.

Fr?c, M.; Ziemi?ski, K.

2012-07-01

432

Culture-independent study of the diversity of microbial populations in brines during fermentation of naturally-fermented Aloreña green table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aloreña table olives are naturally fermented traditional green olives with a denomination of protection (DOP). The present study focused on Aloreña table olives manufactured by small and medium enterprises (SMEs) from Valle del Guadalhorce (Southern Spain) under three different conditions (cold storage, and ambient temperature fermentations in small vats and in large fermentation tanks). The microbial load of brines during

Hikmate Abriouel; Nabil Benomar; Rosario Lucas; Antonio Gálvez

2011-01-01

433

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 rpm N2 Base Acid  

E-print Network

UBC Centre for Blood Research: Fermentation Suite Brom A5 (F4) PDF.xls: FermentationProfile Air O2 Fermentation (Hrs) pH rpm Temp Do OD CK (mg/50-L) MeOH (ml) dO2 (%)Temp (C) 40 20 60 80 0 100 6 8 4 2 0 10 28

Strynadka, Natalie

434

Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

2013-01-01

435

Enhanced fermentation systems with continuous removal of inhibitory products  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. A major limitation of microbial fermentations is the dilute aqueous product streams that result, largely due to inhibition of the microbes by the desired products. If these inhibitory products can be removed during the ongoing fermentation, the overall rates, yields, and net product formation may be increased. Simultaneous fermentation and separation have been tested with different separation techniques, such as adsorption, liquid extraction, pervaporation, membrane separations, distillation, and others. These separations can occur directly in situ within the fermentor or indirectly using a sidestream separator with recycle of the unused substrate. These approaches are briefly reviewed. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have investigated two modified immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) to remove the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the separation by adsorption of tactic acid, and the other uses liquid solvent extraction for the production of butanol. Keywords: extractive fermentation, in situ separation, adsorption, tactic acid, butanol.

Davison, B.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

1994-06-01

436

Open and continuous fermentation: Products, conditions and bioprocess economy.  

PubMed

Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. PMID:25476917

Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-Bin; Chen, Jin-Chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

2014-12-01

437

Anaerobic Fermentation of Woody Biomass Pretreated with Supercritical Ammonia †  

PubMed Central

The degradability of ground hardwood by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium thermocellum with or without Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A) was greatly enhanced by pretreatment of the substrate with supercritical ammonia. Relative to C. thermocellum monocultures, cocultures of C. thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A degraded 1.5-fold more pretreated soft maple but produced 2- to 5-fold more fermentation endproducts because Thermoanaerobacter sp. removed reducing sugars produced by C. thermocellum during the fermentation. Dry weight losses were not totally accounted for in end products, due to formation of partially degraded material (<0.4 ?m diameter wood particles) during the fermentation. One pretreated hardwood, Southern red oak, was fermented poorly because it released soluble inhibitors at the 60°C incubation temperature. Considerable (6- to 11-fold) increases in substrate degradability were also noted for supercritical ammonia-pretreated wood materials fermented in an in vitro rumen digestibility assay. Degradation of pretreated softwoods by either thermophilic or mesophilic fermentation was not measurable under the conditions tested. PMID:16347166

Weimer, P. J.; Chou, Y.-C. T.

1986-01-01

438

Microorganisms associated with Maari, a Baobab seed fermented product.  

PubMed

A microbiological study was carried out on Baobab fermented seeds (Maari) obtained from 4 different production sites in Burkina Faso (Mansila, Toulfé, Ouagadougou and Gorgadji). A total of 390 representative isolates comprising 251 aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) and 139 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated and identified to species level using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods including conventional morphological analysis, carbohydrate fermentation profiling, rep-PCR ((GTG)(5)-fingerprinting) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fermentation of Baobab seeds was initiated by the AMB identified as Bacillus subtilis (82% of AMB isolates) and Staphylococcus sciuri (18% of AMB isolates). No lactic acid bacteria were isolated at the beginning of the process. After 24h fermentation time, Enterococcus faecium appeared in the fermenting seeds and remained until the end of the fermentation, as the predominant LAB. In Maari collected from retail outlets the AMB count ranged from 6.7log10CFU/g to 10log10CFU/g while the LAB load ranged from 4.4log10CFU/g to 9.9log10CFU/g. The AMB were identified as belonging to genus Bacillus (12 species), Staphylococcus (3 species) and one species of Aerococcus, Macrococcus, Leifsonia, Kurthia, Proteus, Acinetobacter and Globicatella, respectively. A putatively novel, previously undescribed Corynebacterium sp. was also found. E. faecium was the dominant LAB in all investigated retail samples except one sample dominated by Pediococcus acidilactici. PMID:20688411

Parkouda, Charles; Thorsen, Line; Compaoré, Clarisse S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Jensen, Jan S; Diawara, Bréhima; Jakobsen, Mogens

2010-09-01

439

Continuous Cellulosic Bioethanol Fermentation by Cyclic Fed-Batch Cocultivation  

PubMed Central

Cocultivation of cellulolytic and saccharolytic microbial populations is a promising strategy to improve bioethanol production from the fermentation of recalcitrant cellulosic materials. Earlier studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of cocultivation in enhancing ethanolic fermentation of cellulose in batch fermentation. To further enhance process efficiency, a semicontinuous cyclic fed-batch fermentor configuration was evaluated for its potential in enhancing the efficiency of cellulose fermentation using cocultivation. Cocultures of cellulolytic Clostridium thermocellum LQRI and saccharolytic Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus strain X514 were tested in the semicontinuous fermentor as a model system. Initial cellulose concentration and pH were identified as the key process parameters controlling cellulose fermentation performance in the fixed-volume cyclic fed-batch coculture system. At an initial cellulose concentration of 40 g liter?1, the concentration of ethanol produced with pH control was 4.5-fold higher than that without pH control. It was also found that efficient cellulosic bioethanol production by cocultivation was sustained in the semicontinuous configuration, with bioethanol production reaching 474 mM in 96 h with an initial cellulose concentration of 80 g liter?1 and pH controlled at 6.5 to 6.8. These results suggested the advantages of the cyclic fed-batch process for cellulosic bioethanol fermentation by the cocultures. PMID:23275517

Jiang, He-Long; He, Qiang; He, Zhili; Hemme, Christopher L.; Wu, Liyou

2013-01-01

440

Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedovi? 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedovi?, Viktor A.; Manojlovi?, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-?ukalovi?, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

441

16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3 Section 501...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and...

2011-01-01

442

16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3 Section 501...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and...

2010-01-01

443

16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3 Section 501...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and...

2012-01-01

444

16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3 Section 501...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and...

2014-01-01

445

16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. 501.3 Section 501...PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.3 Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners. Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners, packaged and...

2013-01-01

446

Vacuum arc plasma mass separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of a metal plasma flow in a transport system with a curvilinear magnetic field was studied experimentally. The flow was generated by a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a composite (W+Fe) cathode. The ion energy measurements at the transport system output showed that all ion components were accelerated up to equal energies per charge unit, about 150 eV and 320 eV in the outer and inner areas of the curved plasma flow, respectively. The spatial separation of the atoms of the cathode material was measured at the system output by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ions of the lighter element (Fe) were concentrated in the inner part of the cathodic plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (W) was substantially shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The maximum mass separation efficiency reached 45, the effective value being 7.7. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for the separation of the heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Lebedev, N. V.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Chernikch, A. A.

2015-02-01

447

Identification of Gram-negative non-fermenters and oxidase-positive fermenters by the Oxi\\/Ferm Tube  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the recent introduction of the Roche Oxi\\/Ferm Tube to the UK two identification schemes have been developed by the manufacturer for use with the kit. We evaluated the success of these two schemes in identifying 222 predominantly culture collection strains belonging to 45 taxa of non-fermenters and nine taxa of oxidase-positive fermenters. The strains were chosen to represent all

B. Holmes; J. Dowling; S. P. Lapage

1979-01-01

448

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

449

High vacuum facility for hydrazine thruster testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ongoing modification is described of a large vacuum chamber to accommodate the ignition of an arcjet hydrazine thruster while maintaining a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less. The vacuum facility consists of a 20 ft stainless steel vacuum tank with an internal LN2 shroud, four 35 in. cryopumps and an 8 in. turbopump. To maintain a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less, 900 sq ft of liquid helium (LHe) shroud surface was installed to maintain the vacuum level and pumping requirements. A vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less will allow the hydrazine thrust to exit the thruster nozzle and radiate into a space type environment so that the plume flow field can be analyzed and compared to the analytical model density distribution profile. Some other arcjet thruster characteristics measured are the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and exhaust contamination. This data is used to evaluate if the arcjet thruster with its high specific impulse in comparison to current chemical propulsion thruster can be used for the next generation of communication satellites.

Neary, Patrick F.

1990-01-01

450

Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter.  

PubMed

Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages. PMID:24863368

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

2014-07-16

451

Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

Avery, R.T.

1984-06-01

452

Transient Molecular Transfer During Vacuum Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common question in contamination budgeting involves the loss of collected volatiles during ambient I&T activity under vacuum and the resultant cross-contamination from outgassing. (1) How much of the material collected under ambient conditions evaporates under vacuum? (2) Why do pristine surfaces sometimes show increased molecular contamination after vacuum bakeout? (3) How much of the collected molecular contamination is transient (i.e. migratory) and how much is permanent? Measuring the transient deposition may be accomplished using a thermally passive QCM

Perry, Radford L.

2011-01-01

453

Dielectric function of the QCD vacuum.  

PubMed

It is shown that the inverse of the ghost form factor in the Hamilton approach to Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge can be interpreted as the color dielectric function of the QCD vacuum. Furthermore, the horizon condition to the ghost form factor implies that in the infrared the QCD vacuum is a perfect color diaelectric medium and therefore a dual superconductor. The dielectric function is explicitly calculated within a previously developed variational approach, using a specific ansatz for the vacuum wave functional. PMID:18764449

Reinhardt, H

2008-08-01

454

Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge.  

PubMed

Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a "universal" instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity. PMID:12006025

Hole, M J; Dallaqua, R S; Simpson, S W; Del Bosco, E

2002-04-01

455

Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatogrphic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

Pomes, A.F.

1980-01-01

456

Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High-performance liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatographic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

Pomes, A.F.

1980-01-01

457

Fermentation condition outweighed truffle species in affecting volatile organic compounds analyzed by chromatographic fingerprint system.  

PubMed

The influences of fermentation conditions and truffle species (i.e., Tuber melanosporum, Tuber sinense, Tuber indicum, and Tuber aestivum) on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originated from truffle fermentation mycelia were studied by using chromatographic fingerprint system for the first time. Gas chromatography combined with statistical methods including similarity analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to develop chromatographic fingerprint system for truffle VOCs evaluation. Fermentation conditions affected the VOCs from truffle fermentation mycelia much more significantly than truffle species. This indicated that it is possible to adjust the aroma of truffle fermentation mycelia similar with the natural fruiting-body through the control of fermentation process. PMID:19576383

Tang, Ya-Jie; Wang, Guan; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2009-08-01

458

Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation  

DOEpatents

Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

1985-05-14

459

Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long term storage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the ...

460

SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification  

SciTech Connect

Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

2013-09-30

461

Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González-Díaz

Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

2013-08-01

462

Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-?m size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage requirements.

Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

2011-09-01

463

Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.  

PubMed

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound. PMID:24117835

Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

2014-01-01

464

[Comparison of microorganisms fermenting syngas into ethanol].  

PubMed

To evaluate the ability of microbial mix-culture fermenting syngas into ethanol, we studied the microbial mix-cultures A-fm 4, G-fm 4, Lp-fm 4 and B-fm 4 obtained by enrichment and compared with Clostridium autoethanogenum DSM10061 with 10% and 25% inoculation size. The results show that, with 10% inoculation size, the ethanol production of A-fm 4, G-fm 4, Lp-fm 4, B-fm 4 and C. autoethanogenum were 349.15, 232.16, 104.25, 79.90 and 26.99 mg/L respectively. With 25% inoculation size, the ethanol production were 485.81, 472.73, 348.58, 272.52 and 242.15 mg/L respectively. Higher inoculation size will increase the production of ethanol. The tested mix-culture exhibited a significant yield advantage compared with the maximum production of C. autoethanogenum reported in the literature (259.64 mg/L). This research provided a practical method to improve ethanol production from syngas. PMID:23789275

Song, Andong; Feng, Xinjun; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui; Yang, Dajiao

2013-03-01

465

Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju. PMID:23874133

Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu

2013-01-01

466

Awaking the vacuum in relativistic stars.  

PubMed

Void of any inherent structure in classical physics, the vacuum has revealed to be incredibly crowded with all sorts of processes in relativistic quantum physics. Yet, its direct effects are usually so subtle that its structure remains almost as evasive as in classical physics. Here, in contrast, we report on the discovery of a novel effect according to which the vacuum is compelled to play an unexpected central role in an astrophysical context. We show that the formation of relativistic stars may lead the vacuum energy density of a quantum field to an exponential growth. The vacuum-driven evolution which would then follow may lead to unexpected implications for astrophysics, while the observation of stable neutron-star configurations may teach us much on the field content of our Universe. PMID:21230888

Lima, William C C; Matsas, George E A; Vanzella, Daniel A T

2010-10-01

467

Ultra-high-vacuum electrical feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device for cathodic sputtering utilizes cathode dark-space region adjacent to high negative-potential surfaces. Feedthrough is made of metal and glass, is helium leaktight, and is bakeable; it can be incorporated into any vacuum apparatus.

Gavaler, J. R.; Janocko, M. A.

1976-01-01

468

Polytetrafluoroethylene lubricates ball bearings in vacuum environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene /PTFE/ balls are interspersed among steel ball bearings to provide a dry lubricant in a high vacuum environment. The steel balls are lubricated by the film worn off the PTFE balls.

1966-01-01

469

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect

This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

Irwin, J.J.

1997-09-24

470

Thermally actuated MEMS seal for vacuum applications  

E-print Network

This thesis presents the design, fabrication and testing of a new, leak-free, permanently sealable MEMS valve for use in vacuum applications. This device is different from existing MEMS valves in that it is leak-free in ...

Dighe, Aalap (Aalap Shirish)

2011-01-01

471

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

1996-07-23

472

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1996-01-01

473

Electrospray emitters For diffusion vacuum pumps  

E-print Network

Following similar principles as regular diffusion vacuum pumps, an electrospray emitter is set to produce a jet of charged particles that will drag air molecules out of a volume. To be a feasible concept, the emitted ...

Diaz Gómez Maqueo, Pablo (Pablo Ly)

2011-01-01

474

Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition  

DOEpatents

A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

Hill, R.A.

1986-05-15

475

APS storage ring vacuum system development  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1991-01-01

476

Thermal contact conductance in a vacuum  

E-print Network

The object of this work is to develop analytically equations by which one could predict the thermal contact conductance between contiguous surfaces operating in a vacuum environment. In this work the solution to the problem ...

Yovanovich, M. Michael

1965-01-01

477

Vacuum Currents around a Magnetic Flux String  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine vacuum polarization effects around a singular magnetic flux string in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. In particular we determine the local effects: charge and current densities and the flux induced by the vacuum current. The analysis is performed entirely on the basis of exact solutions to the pertinent Dirac equations, and we find that the (3+1)-dimensional effects can be described in a simple way as a superposition of the (2+1)-dimensional effects.

Flekkøy, E. G.; Leinaas, J. M.

478

Vacuum Currents around a Magnetic Flux String  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine vacuum polarization effects around a singular magnetic flux string in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. In particular we determine the local effects: charge and current densities and the flux induced by the vacuum current. The analysis is performed entirely on the basis of exact solutions to the pertinent Dirac equations, and we find that the (3+1)-dimensional effects can be

E. G. Flekkøy; J. M. Leinaas

1991-01-01

479

Gravito-magnetic vacuum spacetimes: kinematic restrictions  

E-print Network

We show that there are no vacuum solutions with a purely magnetic Weyl tensor with respect to an observer submitted to kinematic restrictions involving first order differential scalars. This result generalizes previous ones for the vorticity-free and shear-free cases. We use a covariant approach which makes evident that only the Bianchi identities are used and, consequently, the results are also valid for non vacuum solutions with vanishing Cotton tensor.

J. J. Ferrando; J. A. Saez

2003-03-12

480

Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented.

Park, Jae-hyeon, E-mail: jae-hyeon.park@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-02-01

481

Vacuum switch-disconnectors : 1. Dielectric behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study on vacuum switch-disconnectors addresses two major questions: dielectric behaviour of the VI and the reliability in a practical situation. In the experimental study, the ageing of a specially designed vacuum switch-disconnector is studied. Several internal design parameters (shape of the shields, contacts and contact gap) are varied. The ageing of VIpsilas is simulated by no-load switching, by load

H. Schellekens; A. Henon; P. Picot

2008-01-01

482

Vacuum pressure, dark energy and dark matter  

E-print Network

It has been argued that the correct, i.e. positive, sign of quantum vacuum energy density, or more properly, negative sign of quantum vacuum pressure, requires not a very large number, e.g. ~100, of additional, undiscovered fundamental bosonic particle species, absent in the standard model. Interpretation of the new particle species in terms of dark matter ones permits to qualitatively, and even quantitatively, connect all the three concepts given in the title.

Bogus?aw Broda; Micha? Szanecki

2012-01-05

483

Vacuum Injection in Aviation Manufacturing Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of composites in the aircraft industries is becoming common use. The production techniques often applied are wet hand lay-up for smaller aircraft and high cost techniques for application of composites in civil and military aircraft. Within the family of Resin Transfer Moulding theVacuum Injection production method has been developed as a promising low-cost high quality production technique. Vacuum Injection

M. J. L. van Tooren; M. P. Dirven; A. Beukers

2001-01-01

484

Cavity cooling a trapped nanosphere in vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe recent experiments that have demonstrated cavity optomechanical cooling of the center-of-mass motion of nanospheres. The naturally charged silica spheres are levitated within vacuum using an overlapping optical and electrodynamical trap. Using this system we have cavity cooled trapped nano-spheres of radius 200nm from above room temperature to less than 10K in a vacuum of 10-4 mbar.

Barker, P. F.; Millen, J.; Fonseca, P. G. Z.; Mavrogordatos, T.; Monteiro, T. S.

2014-09-01

485

Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.  

PubMed

A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones. PMID:23111921

Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2012-12-01

486

A comprehensive and quantitative review of dark fermentative biohydrogen production  

PubMed Central

Biohydrogen production (BHP) can be achieved by direct or indirect biophotolysis, photo-fermentation and dark fermentation, whereof only the latter does not require the input of light energy. Our motivation to compile this review was to quantify and comprehensively report strains and process performance of dark fermentative BHP. This review summarizes the work done on pure and defined co-culture dark fermentative BHP since the year 1901. Qualitative growth characteristics and quantitative normalized results of H2 production for more than 2000 conditions are presented in a normalized and therefore comparable format to the scientific community. Statistically based evidence shows that thermophilic strains comprise high substrate conversion efficiency, but mesophilic strains achieve high volumetric productivity. Moreover, microbes of Thermoanaerobacterales (Family III) have to be preferred when aiming to achieve high substrate conversion efficiency in comparison to the families Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. The limited number of results available on dark fermentative BHP from fed-batch cultivations indicates the yet underestimated potential of this bioprocessing application. A Design of Experiments strategy should be preferred for efficient bioprocess development and optimization of BHP aiming at improving medium, cultivation conditions and revealing inhibitory effects. This will enable comparing and optimizing strains and processes independent of initial conditions and scale. PMID:22925149

2012-01-01

487

Cell Surface Measurements in Hydrocarbon and Carbohydrate Fermentations  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was grown in 11-liter batch fermentations with hexadecane or sodium citrate as the sole source of carbon. Surface and interfacial tension measurements of the microbial broth indicated that surface-active compounds were being produced only during growth on the hydrocarbon substrate. Contact angle measurements of an aqueous drop on a smooth lawn of cells in a hexadecane bath indicated a highly hydrophobic surface of the cells in the initial stages of the hydrocarbon fermentation (120° contact angle). At this stage, the entire cell population was bound to the hydrocarbon-aqueous interface. The contact angle dropped rapidly to approximately 45° after 14 h into the fermentation. This coincided with a shift of the cell population to the aqueous phase. Thus, the cells demonstrated more hydrophilic characteristics in the later stages of the fermentation. Contact angles on cells grown on sodium citrate ranged from 18 to 24° throughout the fermentation. The cells appear to be highly hydrophilic during growth on a soluble substrate. From the contact angle and aqueous-hydrocarbon interfacial tension, the surface free energy of the cells was calculated along with the cell-aqueous and cell-hydrocarbon interfacial tension. The results of these measurements were useful in quantitatively evaluating the hydrophobic nature of the cell surface during growth on hydrocarbons and comparing it with the hydrophilic nature of the cell surface during growth on a soluble substrate. PMID:16345526

Neufeld, R. J.; Zajic, J. E.; Gerson, D. F.

1980-01-01

488

Characterization and fermentation of dilute-acid hydrolyzates from wood  

SciTech Connect

Dilute-acid hydrolyzates from alder, aspen, birch, willow, pine, and spruce were fermented without prior detoxification. The hydrolyzates were prepared by a one-stage hydrolysis process using sulfuric acid (5 g/L) at temperatures between 188 and 234 C and with a holding time of 7 min. The fermentations were carried out anaerobically by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10 g of d.w./L) at a temperature of 30 C and an initial pH of 5.5. The fermentabilities were quite different for the different wood species, and only hydrolyzates of spruce produced at 188 and 198 C, hydrolyzates of pine produced at 188 C, and hydrolyzates of willow produced at 198 C could be completely fermented within 24 h. From the sum of the concentrations of the known inhibitors furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF), a good prediction of the maximum ethanol production rate could be obtained, regardless of the origin of the hydrolyzate. Furthermore, in hydrolyzates that fermented well, furfural and HMF were found to be taken up and converted by the yeast, concomitant with the uptake of glucose.

Taherzadeh, M.J.; Niklasson, C.; Liden, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering] [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Reaction Engineering; Eklund, R. [Mid Sweden Univ., Oernskoeldsvik (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [Mid Sweden Univ., Oernskoeldsvik (Sweden). Dept. of Industrial Technology; Gustafsson, L. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology] [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology

1997-11-01

489

Fermentation of raw poultry byproducts for animal nutrition.  

PubMed

In this study, the fermentation of raw, inedible poultry byproducts mixed with sugarbeet pulp and dextrose and inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum and(or) Enteroccocus faecium resulted in a drop of pH in the byproducts to approximately 4.0 to 4.5 within 48 h. To keep the fermented product stable for a period of 21 d, the addition of > or = 3% (wt/wt) of a fermentable carbohydrate was necessary. With a high inoculation level of approximately 10(8) to 10(9) L. plantarum per gram, or with acidification of the initial mixture with .4% lactic acid, the number of Enterobacteriaceae decreased faster than with inoculation at 10(5) L. plantarum per gram, or without initial acidification. After 21 d of fermentation, a high level of enzymatic breakdown of proteins and amino acids was observed: the nonprotein N level increased from 5% to between 15 and 40% of total N and the volatile N level increased from 1% to between 3 and 11% of total N. An increase in histamine, cadaverine, and putrescine was also observed. Despite the technological measures taken, such as the application of a high inoculum of starter culture and initial acidification with .4% lactic acid, this amino acid breakdown could not be reduced to an acceptable level. These results suggest that, because of biochemical deterioration, fermentation alone is not a useful method of preservation of raw poultry byproducts. PMID:8407654

Urlings, H A; Bijker, P G; van Logtestijn, J G

1993-09-01

490

Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.  

PubMed

Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. PMID:23624242

Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2013-11-01

491

Integration of chemical catalysis with extractive fermentation to produce fuels.  

PubMed

Nearly one hundred years ago, the fermentative production of acetone by Clostridium acetobutylicum provided a crucial alternative source of this solvent for manufacture of the explosive cordite. Today there is a resurgence of interest in solventogenic Clostridium species to produce n-butanol and ethanol for use as renewable alternative transportation fuels. Acetone, a product of acetone-n-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, harbours a nucleophilic ?-carbon, which is amenable to C-C bond formation with the electrophilic alcohols produced in ABE fermentation. This functionality can be used to form higher-molecular-mass hydrocarbons similar to those found in current jet and diesel fuels. Here we describe the integration of biological and chemocatalytic routes to convert ABE fermentation products efficiently into ketones by a palladium-catalysed alkylation. Tuning of the reaction conditions permits the production of either petrol or jet and diesel precursors. Glyceryl tributyrate was used for the in situ selective extraction of both acetone and alcohols to enable the simple integration of ABE fermentation and chemical catalysis, while reducing the energy demand of the overall process. This process provides a means to selectively produce petrol, jet and diesel blend stocks from lignocellulosic and cane sugars at yields near their theoretical maxima. PMID:23135469

Anbarasan, Pazhamalai; Baer, Zachary C; Sreekumar, Sanil; Gross, Elad; Binder, Joseph B; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S; Toste, F Dean

2012-11-01

492

Regulation mechanisms in mixed and pure culture microbial fermentation.  

PubMed

Mixed-culture fermentation is a key central process to enable next generation biofuels and biocommodity production due to economic and process advantages over application of pure cultures. However, a key limitation to the application of mixed-culture fermentation is predicting culture product response, related to metabolic regulation mechanisms. This is also a limitation in pure culture bacterial fermentation. This review evaluates recent literature in both pure and mixed culture studies with a focus on understanding how regulation and signaling mechanisms interact with metabolic routes and activity. In particular, we focus on how microorganisms balance electron sinking while maximizing catabolic energy generation. Analysis of these mechanisms and their effect on metabolism dynamics is absent in current models of mixed-culture fermentation. This limits process prediction and control, which in turn limits industrial application of mixed-culture fermentation. A key mechanism appears to be the role of internal electron mediating cofactors, and related regulatory signaling. This may determine direction of electrons towards either hydrogen or reduced organics as end-products and may form the basis for future mechanistic models. PMID:24980940

Hoelzle, Robert D; Virdis, Bernardino; Batstone, Damien J

2014-11-01

493

Biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by integrating dark- and photo-fermentation.  

PubMed

Hydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) by integrating dark-fermentation by Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 2822 and photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01 was investigated. The SCB was hydrolysed by sulphuric acid and the hydrolysate detoxified by passing through adsorbent resin column (Amberlite XAD-4) to remove the inhibitory furfural, and subjected to dark-fermentation. The cellulosic residue from acid hydrolysis was hydrolysed by the new isolate Cellulomonas fimi to release sugars for H2 production by E. aerogenes, through simultaneous saccharification, filtration and fermentation (SSFF). Cumulative H2 production during dark-fermentation and SSFF was 1000 and 613 ml/L, respectively. The spent media of dark-fermentation and SSFF were utilized for photo-fermentation by Rhodopseudomonas BHU 01. The cumulative H2 production was 755 ml/L for dark-fermentation and 351 ml/L for SSFF spent medium. PMID:24291314

Rai, Pankaj K; Singh, S P; Asthana, R K; Singh, Shweta

2014-01-01

494

Bacteriophage endolysins expressed in yeast kill strains of Lactobacillus that contaminate fermentations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Species of Lactobacillus are the predominant contaminants that reduce ethanol yields and cause “stuck” fermentations, decreasing the profitability of biofuel production with expen...

495

Statistical optimization of enzymatic saccharification and ethanol fermentation using food waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology (RSM) based on the 23 factorial central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the conditions of enzymatic saccharification and ethanol fermentation using food waste. Optimum conditions were found to be saccharification pH of 5.20, enzyme reaction temperature of 46.3°C, enzyme concentration of 0.16% (v\\/v), fermentation pH of 6.85, fermentation temperature of 35.3°C, and fermentation time of

Jung Kon Kim; Baek Rock Oh; Hyun-Jae Shin; Chi-Yong Eom; Si Wouk Kim

2008-01-01

496

Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana : influence of amino-acid supplementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing\\u000a the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared

Juan Octavio Valle-Rodríguez; Guillermo Hernández-Cortés; Jesús Córdova; Mirna Estarrón-Espinosa; Dulce María Díaz-Montaño

497

A novel solid-state fermentation system using polyurethane foam as inert carrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel solid-state fermentation method using polyurethane foam as inert carrier impregnated with a synthetic liquid medium was developed simulating the nutritional composition and culture conditions of solid-state fermentation on wheat bran. With this system, biomass, the important parameter involved in solid-state fermentation processes, can be measured directly. Some other superiorities of this system over conventional solid-state fermentation systems are

Y. Zhu; J. P. Smits; W. Knol; J. Bol

1994-01-01

498

Red oak wood derived inhibitors in the ethanol fermentation of xylose by Pichia stipitis CBS 5776  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Xylose, the predominant sugar in red oak prehydrolysate, is fermented to ethanol byPichia stipitis CBS 5776. Toxic model compounds derived from red oak hemicelluloses, lignin, and extractives inhibited the fermentation. Treatment of the prehydrolysate with molecular sieve and mixed bed ion resins facilitated the ethanol fermentation giving about 10 g\\/l ethanol from 32 g\\/l initial xylose. Fermentation inhibitors derived

Ai V. Tran; Robert P. Chambers

1985-01-01

499

Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-06-05

500

Fermentation, Hydrogen, and Sulfur Metabolism in Multiple Uncultivated Bacterial Phyla  

SciTech Connect

BD1-5, OP11, and OD1 bacteria have been widely detected in anaerobic environments, but their metabolisms remain unclear owing to lack of cultivated representatives and minimal genomic sampling. We uncovered metabolic characteristics for members of these phyla, and a new lineage, PER, via cultivation-independent recovery of 49 partial to near-complete genomes from an acetate-amended aquifer. All organisms were nonrespiring anaerobes predicted to ferment. Three augment fermentation with archaeal-like type II and III ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) that couples adenosine monophosphate salvage with CO2 fixation, a pathway previously not described in Bacteria. Members of OD1 reduce sulfur and may pump protons using archaeal-type hydrogenases. For six organisms, the UGA stop codon is translated as tryptophan. All bacteria studied here may play previously unrecognized roles in hydrogen production, sulfur cycling, and fermentation of refractory sedimentary carbon.

Wrighton, Kelly C.; Thomas, Brian C.; Sharon, I.; Miller, Christopher S.; Castelle, Cindy; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Hettich, Robert L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; Banfield, Jillian F.

2012-09-27