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1

Dynamic lipidomic insights into the adaptive responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the repeated vacuum fermentation.  

PubMed

Vacuum fermentation is utilized in a wide range of life science industries and biomedical R&D. Little is known, however, on the effects of the vacuum on the yeast, and in particular, on the yeast lipidome that plays a central role in maintaining cell membrane and other vital (yeast) cell functions. The present study evaluated the adaptive responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to repeated vacuum fermentation by lipidomic analysis. We employed gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS(n)) to quantify a total of 13 intermediate sterols and 139 phospholipid species of yeast cells. Principal components analysis found that the PI (phosphatidylinositol) 26:0, PI 28:0, PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) 32:1, and PE 34:1 were potential biomarkers to distinguish the vacuum fermentation process. Quantitative analysis showed that vacuum fermentation increased the synthesis of PI and the PC (phosphatidylcholine) species with short saturated acyl chains. The synthesis of PC via CDP-choline and turnover of PC were enhanced, instead of formation via methylation of PE. Additionally, increased PI at the expense of PE and PG (phosphatidylglycerol) was associated with enhancement of ethanol productivity. Vacuum fermentation caused eburicol accumulation, suggesting that vacuum can activate the branch of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Eburicol decrease and PI increase contributed to recovery of cellular activities with oxygenating treatment. Ethanol productivity was increased by sixfold in vacuum-treated cells. These observations may allow the development of future mechanistic approaches to optimization of yeast fermentation under vacuum for bioindustry and life science applications. In particular, our findings on changes in lipid molecular species and the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway elucidate the defense responses of yeast cell membranes during the repeated vacuum fermentation, which by extension, provided an important lead insight on how best to protect the cell membranes from the extreme long-term stress conditions. PMID:20955009

Zhou, Xiao; Zhou, Jian; Tian, Hongchi; Yuan, Yingjin

2010-10-01

2

Proteomic insights into adaptive responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the repeated vacuum fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses and adaptation mechanisms of the industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae to vacuum fermentation were explored using proteomic approach. After qualitative and quantitative analyses, a total of 106\\u000a spots corresponding to 68 different proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight\\u000a mass spectrometry. The differentially expressed proteins were involved in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolisms, various\\u000a signal pathways (Ras\\/MAPK, Ras–cyclic adenosine

Jing-Sheng Cheng; Xiao Zhou; Ming-Zhu Ding; Ying-Jin Yuan

2009-01-01

3

Fermentation efficiency of thermally dried kefir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three thermal drying methods (conventional, vacuum and convective) were used for drying of kefir biomass and their effect on cell viability, fermentation rate and other kinetic parameters of lactose and whey fermentation were studied. Convective drying rate was higher than conventional and even higher than vacuum at each studied temperature (28, 33 and 38°C). After that, fermentations were performed by

Harris Papapostolou; Loulouda A. Bosnea; Athanasios A. Koutinas; Maria Kanellaki

2008-01-01

4

Simultaneous Fermentation and Separation in the Ethanol and Abe Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous separation of solvent products during fermentation reduces product inhibition and increases reactor productivity. Separation techniques used for simultaneous extraction during ethanol fermentation and butanol-acetone fermentation are reviewed. These techniques can be classified by product removal into gas phase (vacuum fermentation, gas stripping), liquid phase (liquid-liquid extraction, aqueous two-phase system), and solid phase (adsorption). Recent developments in separation techniques use

Chang-Ho Park; Qinghuang Geng

1992-01-01

5

Fermentation process  

SciTech Connect

Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

Lutzen, N.W.

1982-02-23

6

Vacuum Mechatronics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an incr...

S. Hackwood S. E. Belinski G. Beni

1989-01-01

7

Fermentation of Liquids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application discloses a method and an apparatus for fermenting liquids. Liquids are fermented by controlling flow patterns within the liquid so as to retain fermentation culture medium in a fermenting chamber while at the same time removing fer...

E. Wick

1978-01-01

8

Butanol fermentation.  

PubMed

This review provides an overview on bacterial butanol production and recent developments concerning strain improvement, newly built butanol production plants, and the importance of alternative substrates, especially lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The butanol fermentation using solventogenic clostridial strains, particularly Clostridium acetobutylicum, is a very old industrial process (acetone-butanol-ethanol-ABE fermentation). The genome of this organism has been sequenced and analysed, leading to important improvements in rational strain construction. As the traditional ABE fermentation process is economically unfavourable, novel butanol production strains are being developed. In this review, some newly engineered solvent-producing Clostridium strains are described and strains of which sequences are available are compared with C. acetobutylicum. Furthermore, the past and present of commercial butanol fermentation are presented, including active plants and companies. Finally, the use of biomass as substrate for butanol production is discussed. Some advances concerning processing of biomass in a biorefinery are highlighted, which would allow lowering the price of the butanol fermentation process at industrial scale. PMID:24350428

Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Montoya, José; Linder, Sonja; Dürre, Peter

2013-01-01

9

Ethanol production by bacterial fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to develop and optimize the process technology for the production of ethanol using the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. Specifically, the process and operating conditions will be studied to maximize the yield of ethanol. The experimental design is described using both batch and continuous cultures with glucose as the substrate. Separation methods, therefore, will be developed to remove the alcohol from the fermentation media to prevent the inhibitory effects of ethanol on Z. mobilis. Vacuum fermentation and solvent extraction can be used to separate the alcohol from the media. Kinetic data will be obtained from both the batch and continuous fermentors. The kinetic data can be correlated using mathematical models. Mathematical models for Z. mobilis will be developed for the effect of pH, temperature and nutrient composition on the specific growth rate. A model will also be developed to account for the possible product inhibition by ethanol. Dynamic tests will also be conducted on the continuous system to determine how fast the fermentation will respond to environmental changes. The simultaneous hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and fermentation of glucose to ethanol is one of the most exciting possibilities. A literature survey will be made to determine the compatibility of conducting the hydrolysis reaction along with the bacterial fermentation. The final objective will be to make an economic assessment of the process of producing ethanol using Z. mobilis.

King, F.G.

1985-01-01

10

Sugarcane Fish Silage Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO pub on sugar cane fish silage fermentation covers (1) attempts to ensile sugar cane for feed production; relevant research (2) the incorporation of fish in the fermentation with animal droppings as inoculum, redirecting the fermentation to produce h...

D. A. Ali N. Samaroo L. A. Shah

1985-01-01

11

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15

12

Vacuum mechatronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

1989-01-01

13

Vacuum Virtues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

Rathey, Allen

2007-01-01

14

Vacuum regulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vacuum regulator for automotive vehicles of the type having an engine exhaust system and a computer controlled exhaust gas recirculation system. The vacuum regulator consists of: a housing having separate interconnected upper and lower portions; a solenoid in the housing including a bobbin having a valve seat; a mechanism for defining an inlet for atmospheric air

M. Slavin; R. P. Fontecchio

1986-01-01

15

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor  

SciTech Connect

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-06-01

16

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

SciTech Connect

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

1987-01-01

17

Vacuum Gauges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Semiconductor manufacturing equipment requires the use of many different types of vacuum gauges. Selection is based on range of process operations and production requirements. This MATEC module explores the theory and functionality of vacuum gauges and provides many examples of different types of gauges. The focus is on understanding the operating ranges and application constraints of each type of gauge. Mathematical equations are used to explain calibration, sensitivity, and overall operations of each type of gauge.

2012-11-28

18

Vacuum Technology: Vacuum Technology III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a link to a PDF version of lecture slides that discuss gas sources in a vacuum. The presentation explains concepts such as vapor pressure curves, thermal desorption and first and second order desorption. Keywords: Vaporization, desorption, diffusion, permeation, backstreaming

Rack, Philip D.

2012-12-12

19

[Dry solid staging fermentation].  

PubMed

Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic fermentation is a new perspective technology for the fuel ethanol production. Compared with traditional hot cook process in most ethanol plants, uncooked process using milled grain slurry in combination with granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes makes high gravity fermentation much easier to control. In this study, dry solids staging technique was first time reported in uncooked process for fermentation ethanol. We further studied the difference between the new process and the batch fermentation, including different initial fermentation concentrations and different starting times. The results showed that at the same dry solid concentration of 30% and the same enzyme dose at 0.22% (W/W), the final ethanol output of new process was increased to 18.50% (V/V) from 17.06% (V/V) of the conventional process. This study demonstrated the new application of uncooked fermentation technology. PMID:19459324

Xu, Hongxian; Duan, Gang

2009-02-01

20

QED vacuum loops and vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A QED-based "bootstrap" mechanism is suggested as a possible source of vacuum energy. In place of the conventional assumption that the vacuum expectation value of the current operator j ? vanishes in the absence of a classical, external field, one notes the possibility that, on very small scales, the vacuum fluctuations can generate an equation for an effective, C-number giving rise to a finite and computable vacuum energy.

Fried, H. M.; Gabellini, Y.

2013-12-01

21

Fermentation and Hydrocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photosynthesis is examined as a possible annually renewable resource for material and energy. The production of fermentation alcohol from sugar cane as a major component of materials for chemical feedstocks is examined as well as the direct photosynthetic...

M. Calvin

1978-01-01

22

The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation  

SciTech Connect

We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

Lee, Bum-Hoon [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wonwoo [Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-07-10

23

Pervaporation of Model Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol Fermentation Product Solutions Using Polytetrafluoroethylene Membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice\\/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested

David L. Vrana; Michael M. Meagher; Robert W. Hutkins; Bruce Duffield

1993-01-01

24

Natural vacuum electronics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

Leggett, Nickolaus

1990-01-01

25

Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

1991-01-01

26

Fermentation Microorganisms and Flavor Changes in Fermented Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food fermentation processes often result in profound changes in flavor relative to the starting ingredients. However, fermenting foods are typically very complex ecosystems with active enzyme systems from the ingredient materials interacting with the metabolic activities of the fermentation organisms. Factors such as added salt, particle sizes, temperature, and oxygen levels will also have important effects on the chemistry that

R. F. MCFEETERS

2004-01-01

27

Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

1982-01-01

28

Control of fermenters - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermenter control has been an active area of research and has attracted more attention in recent years. This is due to the new developments in other related areas which can be exploited to overcome the inherent difficulties in fermenter control. Beginning with conventional regulatory control of operating variables such as temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration, research in fermenter control

K. Yamuna Rani; V. S. Ramachandra Rao

1999-01-01

29

Continuous Fermentation of Novobiocin  

PubMed Central

Continuous fermentation trials with Streptomyces niveus in a nine-stage fermentation system (7-liter reaction volume per stage) indicated that the cultures used gradually lost their ability to produce novobiocin when cultured over periods from 10 to 25 days. It was found that mycelial degeneration could be circumvented by operational means during continuous culture using the following technique: Two interchangeable 24-liter stages were installed at the front end of the nine-stage system and connected in parallel with the latter. Alternatingly one of these two tanks was then used as first stage of the continuous fermentation system. The holdup time in the first vessel was adjusted to limit cell growth chiefly to this stage so that most of the antibiotic production took place in subsequent stages. The first stages were switched at approximately weekly intervals. Each of the new tanks was prepared as a batch, inoculated with a high-producing cell population, and allowed to grow for 3 days before it was connected to the remaining system for continuous operation. Using this technique no evidence of culture degeneration was encountered in subsequent novobiocin production stages over a period of 33 days. In conventional runs without periodic replacement of the first stage, culture degeneration with the novobiocin fermentation occurred within a period of 10 to 25 days of continuous operation. This observation indicates that the described technique offers a solution to the problem of maintaining high steady-state titers in continuous novobiocin fermentations. Extension of this technique to other continuous fermentations where culture degeneration is a problem is indicated.

Reusser, F.

1961-01-01

30

Educational Vacuum Trainers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you inherited a bell jar vacuum system and are scratching your head over how to set it up or are unsure of its operations or capabilities? Or do you want to do more with your bell jar vacuum? The forum on Bell Jar Vacuums - with the topic Vacuum Trainers can help you. The intent of this forum is for this to be a place where technical issues, classroom exercises, activities, etc. can be discussed. There's no endorsement by manufacturers and commercial issues are off limits. Steve Hansen (bell jar expert) gives some brief descriptions of the vacuum trainers that are or have been available over the past decade or so - Varian, MKS, Science Source, American Vacuum Society. Links are provided to various data sheets, articles and online exercises. Steve, the forum moderator has experience in all of these.Keywords: vacuum, "vacuum trainer","bell jar" and/or belljar, MKSVarian, VPAL, VTS, sputtering, plasma

Hansen, Steve

2012-07-31

31

Optimizing process vacuum condensers  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum condensers play a critical role in supporting vacuum processing operations. Although they may appear similar to atmospheric units, vacuum condensers have their own special designs, considerations and installation needs. By adding vacuum condensers, precondensers and intercondensers, system cost efficiency can be optimized. Vacuum-condensing systems permit reclamation of high-value product by use of a precondenser, or reduce operating costs with intercondensers. A precondenser placed between the vacuum vessel and ejector system will recover valuable process vapors and reduce vapor load to an ejector system--minimizing the system`s capital and operating costs. Similarly, an intercondenser positioned between ejector stages can condense motive steam and process vapors and reduce vapor load to downstream ejectors as well as lower capital and operating costs. The paper describes vacuum condenser systems, types of vacuum condensers, shellside condensing, tubeside condensing, noncondensable gases, precondenser pressure drop, system interdependency, equipment installation, and equipment layout.

Lines, J.R.; Tice, D.W. [Graham Mfg. Co., Batavia, NY (United States)

1997-09-01

32

Vacuum Probe Surface Sampler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of microorganisms, drug particles or the like is described. A vacuum head having a hollow handle connected to a suitable va...

B. A. Zahlava

1971-01-01

33

Zymomonas ethanol fermentations  

SciTech Connect

Studies on various industrial raw materials indicate that a Zymomonas process has its greatest commercial potential in fermenting starch-based substrates. High yields, productivities and ethanol concentrations can be achieved. Genetic manipulation is now being used to extend the substrate range to lactose and other carbohydrates. 31 references.

Rogers, P.L.; Goodman, A.E.; Heyes, R.E.

1984-09-01

34

Xylose fermentation by yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization and fermentation of xylose by the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus I fGB 0101 and Pichia stipitis 5773 to 5776 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions are investigated. Pa. tannophilus requires biotin and thiamine for growth, whereas Pi. stipitis does not, and growth of both yeasts is stimulated by yeast extract. Pi. stipitis converts xylose (30 g\\/l) to ethanol under anaerobic conditions

H. Dellweg; M. Rizzi; H. Methner; D. Debus

1984-01-01

35

Effects of yeast, fermentation time, and preservation methods on tarhana.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties of tarhana soup produced with different dough treatments, fermentation times, and preservation methods were examined. Tarhana doughs were prepared with yogurt (control) or baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fermented for 3 days. Samples were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hr. Samples were then preserved via one of four methods: sun dried, dried in the shade, vacumn dried, and frozen. Frozen samples produced lower organic acid levels after 72 hr of fermentation in both control (0.68 g/100 g) and yeast (0.61 g/100 g) applications than samples that were dried (0.94 g/100 g control samples; 0.81 g/100 g samples with yeast). Increasing fermentation time resulted in a significant effect on the formation of organic acid in the tarhana (p < .01). At 72 hr of fermentation, total acidity increased 11%, 17%, and 23% for tarhana samples vacumn-dried, sun-dried, and dried in the shade, respectively. Preservation methods also affected the moisture, ash, crude protein, total acidity, pH, salt, fat, reducing sugar levels, and the sensory assestment of tarhana soup (p < .01). Sensory characteristics were not significantly affected by baker's yeast in any of the preservation methods used (p > .01). However, sensory scores for tarhana prepared from the samples dried in a sheltered area showed a reduction in color desireablilty as the fermentation time increased. The soup prepared from frozen tarhana (72 hr fermentation, with yeast) had the highest scores with respect to color, mouth feel, flavor, and overall acceptability. Vacuum-dried samples' scores in these areas were also high in comparison to the two other drying methods. PMID:21108130

Gurbuz, Ozan; Gocmen, Duygu; Ozmen, Nese; Dagdelen, Fatih

2010-01-01

36

The Classical Vacuum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

Boyer, Timothy H.

1985-01-01

37

Fermentation of cellodextrins to ethanol using mixed-culture fermentations  

SciTech Connect

The potential for enhancing ethanol production from cellodextrins by employing mixed-culture (Candida wickerhamii-Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fermentations was investigated. Initially, ethanol production was monitored in fermentation medium containing 50 g/l glucose plus 45 g/l cellobiose. Inoculum levels and times of inoculum addition were varied. Of the conditions tested, the most rapid rates of ethanol formation occurred in fermentations in which either C. wickerhamii and S. cerevisiae were coinoculated at a ratio of 57 : 1 cell/ml or in fermentations in which a 10-fold-greater S. cerevisiae inoculum was added to a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation after one day incubation. These conditions were used to attempt to enhance fermentations in which cellodextrins produced by trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysis of cellulose served as the sole carbon source. Cellodextrins that were not further purified after cellulose hydrolysis contained compounds that were slightly inhibitory to C. wickerhamii. In this case the mixed-culture fermentations produced 12-45% more ethanol than a pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentation. However, if the substrate was treated with Darco G-60 charcoal, the toxic materials were apparently removed and the pure culture C. wickerhamii fermentations performed as well as the mixed-culture fermentations.

Freer, S.N.; Wing, R.E.

1985-07-01

38

Heating steels in vacuum  

SciTech Connect

It is recommended that high-strength and corrosion-resistant steels be heated in an electric vacuum furnace. Absence of oxidation and decarburization, decrease in the deformation of the part, increase in service life, plus safety, and nontoxicity in the shop, are cited as advantages. Annealing, carburizing, hardening, brazing, and sintering--all detailed-can be more efficiently accomplished in vacuum heating. As vacuum heating requires certain surface conditions, the compositions of residual mediums is studied. The microrelief and surface finish obtained after vacuum heating is determined. Annealing in a vacuum is compared to annealing in air, a depletion in manganese indicating a greater savings by use of vacuum. Ductility is also tested. The gas of special purity nitrogen is recommended for best results. In general, then, use of electric vacuum furnaces is recommended.

Marmer, E.N.

1983-03-01

39

[Genetic algorithm for fermentation kinetics of submerged fermentation by Morchella].  

PubMed

Fermentation kinetics is important for optimizing control and up-scaling fermentation process. We studied submerged fermentation kinetics of Morchella. Applying the genetic Algorithm in the Matlab software platform, we compared suitability of the Monod and Logistic models, both are commonly used in process of fungal growth, to describe Morchella growth kinetics. Meanwhile, we evaluated parameters involved in the models for Morchella growth, EPS production and substrate consumption. The results indicated that Logistic model fit better with the experimental data. The average error of this model was 5.8%. This kinetics model can be useful for optimizing and up-scaling fungal fermentation process. PMID:18998550

Wang, Ying; Piao, Meizi; Sun, Yonghai

2008-08-01

40

Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations  

PubMed Central

This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures.

Marco, Mariangeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

41

Lactic acid fermentation of onions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid fermentation was conducted on sweet, white, and yellow storage onions to produce souronion. The onions were sliced to 0.3cm thick, salt was added at 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5g\\/100g without or with sugar at 1.0 and 2.0g\\/100g, and the fermentation temperature was 18°C. Since onions do not have the necessary lactic acid bacteria for the anaerobic fermentation, onions were

J. S. Roberts; D. R. Kidd

2005-01-01

42

Ecology of Lactic Fermentations of Starchy Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of starchy foods - covers (1) potential application of biotechnology to food fermentation (2) traditional fermentation of maize in Mexico (3) taxonomic distribution of lactic microorganisms from traditional an...

C. Pozo R. Raimbault R. Velazquez R. Viniegra-Gonzalez

1985-01-01

43

Fermentation of philippine vegetable blends.  

PubMed

Seven blends of Philipphine vegetables, two of which contained soybeans and one mongo bean sprouts, were prepared for fermentation and study of microbiological and chemical changes. The fermentations were typical lactic acid bacterial fermentations, initiated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and continued by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and L. plantarum. The combination of high acidity and low pH resembled other vegetable fermentations, such as sauerkraut. The procedure offers a method of preserving surplus vegetables, and, in addition, a method for incorporating and preserving the high-protein-containing soybeans. PMID:16349831

Orillo, C A; Sison, E C; Luis, M; Pederson, C S

1969-01-01

44

Vacuum probe surface sampler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

1973-01-01

45

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1992-01-01

46

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1993-01-01

47

Working in a Vacuum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

Rathey, Allen

2005-01-01

48

Study of Vacuum Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vacuum cold welding and shear friction of several engineering materials was studied at extremely high vacuum levels above 10 to the -12th power torr in the temperature range 90 to 260 C with interface contact stresses up to 1000 psi. The effect of surface...

M. J. Hordon J. R. Roehrig

1967-01-01

49

Vacuuming radioactive sludge  

SciTech Connect

Vacuuming an estimated 55 cubic yards of radioactive sludge from the floor of Hanford's K East Basin was a complicated process. Workers stood on grates suspended above the 20-foot deep basin and manipulated vacuuming equipment at the end of long poles--using underwater cameras to guide their work.

2006-10-16

50

Vacuum Probe Surface Sampler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacu...

B. A. Zahlava

1973-01-01

51

Vacuum driven accelerated expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that an improved estimation of quantum vacuum energy can yield not only acceptable but also experimentally sensible results. The very idea consists in a straightforward extraction of gravitationally interacting part of the full quantum vacuum energy by means of gauge transformations. The implementation of the idea has been performed in the formalism of effective action, in

B. Broda; P. Bronowski; Marcin Ostrowski; Micha? Szanecki

2008-01-01

52

Stellarator Helical Vacuum Vessel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that...

E. J. Yavornik

1983-01-01

53

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations.

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

54

Cryogenic vacuum tight adhesive  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic adhesive for vacuum tight joints at cryogenic temperatures has been developed. It consists of three components, the main component being epoxy silicone organic resin. The joints made with the adhesive remain vacuum tight at liquid helium temperature, including superfluid helium. It was found possible to connect different materials with the adhesive (copper and stainless steel with each other, aluminum, aluminum alloys, fiberglass, etc.). The joints withstood thermal shock tests of ten repeated sharps cooling to liquid nitrogen temperature and heating in hot water. Using the adhesive a lot of different vacuum tight low temperature joints have been made. More than fifteen years of wide application of this adhesive in vacuum tight cryogenic joints proved its high reliability. Some designs of vacuum tight cryogenic joints are presented and the technique of their manufacturing is described.

Anashkin, O. P.; Keilin, V. E.; Patrikeev, V. M.

1999-12-01

55

Control of fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work substrate feeding rate to a fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysate for production of ethanol has been studied. During hydrolysis of lignocellulose inhibitors are formed that effect the microorganism (here Saccharomyces cerevisiae) that ferments the sugar to ethanol in a negative way. To make the hydrolysate fermentable the inhibitors are often removed by detoxification prior to fermentation, but an

Anneli Nilsson

1999-01-01

56

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

SciTech Connect

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, L.E.; Rader, D.J.

2000-06-06

57

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

SciTech Connect

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01

58

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOEpatents

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2001-01-01

59

Evading death by vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already allow to exclude many panic vacuum solutions.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I. P.; Santos, Rui; Silva, João P.

2013-09-01

60

Vacuum deposition system  

SciTech Connect

The Physics Section vacuum deposition system is available for several types of thin film techniques. This vacuum evaporation system operates in the high vacuum range. The evaporation source is a resistive heating element, either a boat or a filament design. Coating is then line of sight from the source. Substrates to be coated can have a maximum diameter of 17 inches. At this time the variations in the thickness of the coatings can be controlled, by monitor, to within about 100 angstroms. The system diagrams follow the Operation Procedures and the Sample Coating Procedures provided in this document. 3 figs.

Austin, S.; Bark, D.

1990-05-31

61

Fermentation of Cellodextrins by Different Yeast Strains  

PubMed Central

The fermentation of cellodextrins by eight yeast species capable of fermenting cellobiose was monitored. Only two of these species, Torulopsis molischiana and T. wickerhamii, were able to ferment ?-glucosides with a degree of polymerization between one and six. These two species showed exocellular ?-glucosidase activity. Four other species were able to ferment cellotriose, and the last two species only fermented cellobiose. These latter six species produced a ?-glucosidase capable of attacking cellodextrins, but this enzyme was endocellular.

Gonde, Pierre; Blondin, Bruno; Leclerc, Marc; Ratomahenina, Robert; Arnaud, Alain; Galzy, Pierre

1984-01-01

62

Supermite vacuum interface design  

SciTech Connect

A new water-plastic-vacuum interface has been designed for Sandia Laboratory's Supermite (2.8 MV, 2.2 ohm) accelerator. This design was based on the PBFA I vacuum interface. Electrostatic field plots show that in positive polarity the water feed to the PBFA I interface will fail at 2 MV on Supermite. This is confirmed by positive polarity experiments and field plots using the PBFA I style vacuum interface at the Naval Research Labs. Modifications to the water section geometry to increase the water breakdown strength in positive polarity result in equivalent electric field grading at the plastic-vacuum interface but allow positive polarity operation at voltages up to 3.1 MV. This is accomplished by incorporating a dielectric field shaper which significantly improves the electric field grading across the insulator.

Moore, W.B.; Stinnett, R.W.; McDaniel, D.H.

1985-01-01

63

Multistage Turbomolecular Vacuum Pump.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes a multistage vacuum turbomolecular pump which consists of a housing containing rotor and stator disks having working elements (blades, radial slots) along their periphery. To increase the compression stage and reducing the reverse flo...

B. V. Ivanov I. D. Anokhin L. B. Leonov V. I. Kuznetsov

1973-01-01

64

Vacuum Pump Explosion Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made into explosions and backfires occurring in vacuum pumps used on Navy oxygen component test stands. Research and testing uncovered several fire and toxicity hazards on these pumps which carry gaseous oxygen flows. Corrective recom...

H. H. Yuen T. D. Weikel

1972-01-01

65

On Gowdy vacuum spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Fuchsian techniques, a large family of Gowdy vacuum spacetimes have been constructed for which one has detailed control over asymptotic behaviour. In this paper we formulate a condition on initial data yielding the same form of asymptotics.

Ringström, Hans

2004-03-01

66

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

67

Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes  

SciTech Connect

A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

1993-10-01

68

Nonlinear Squeezed Vacuum States:  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some of the properties of nonlinear squeezed vacuum states associated with trapped ions are considered, especially the photon number distribution, the phase properties, the Husimi-Kano Q function and the Wigner-Moyal W function of these nonlinear squeezed vacuum states. The structure of these functions is shown to depend on the nonlinearity parameter, its functional dependence and the squeezing parameter. It is shown that increasing the nonlinearity parameter results in the photon number distribution being squeezed independent.

Darwish, M.

69

Precision of Vacuum Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The required precision of vacuum installations in most technologies (thin film coating, electron beam welding, diffusionwelding)\\u000a is the same as in traditional engineering industry, but operating conditions of the mechanisms work are much worse, because\\u000a of vacuum and periodical outgassing baking (see Tables 1.1, 1.2, 1.4). At the same time, the equipment of surface research,\\u000a electron beam-, ion beam lithography,

E. A. Deulin; V. P. Mikhailov; Yu. V. Panfilov; R. A. Nevshupa

70

Vacuum Erection Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum erection devices (VEDs) are safe, effective treatments for erectile dysfunction with few side effects. Vacuum negative\\u000a pressure more than 100 mmHg causes a combination of arterial and venous blood to fill the corpora cavernosum. The use of an\\u000a elastic band to trap the blood within the penis allows sufficient rigidity for penetration. Devices approved by the Food and\\u000a Drug

Hunter Wessells

71

Vacuum self-magnetization?  

SciTech Connect

We study vacuum properties in a strong magnetic field as the zero temperature and zero density limit of quantum statistics. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) the vacuum energy density diverges for B > B{sub c} = m{sub w}{sup 2}/e, leading to vacuum instability. A logarithmic divergence of vacuum magnetization is found for B = Bc, which suggests that if the magnetic field is large enough, it is self-consistently maintained, and this mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the instability of the ground state for B > B{sub c}{sup '} = m{sub n}{sup 2}/q also leads to the vacuum energy density divergence for fields B > B{sub c}{sup '} and to the magnetization divergence for B B{sub c}{sup '}. The possibility of virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in strong magnetic field and the applicability of the neutral bosons model to describe the virtual positronium behavior in a magnetic field are discussed. We conjecture that this could lead to vacuum self-magnetization in QED.

Perez Rojas, H.; Rodriguez Querts, E. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Calle E No. 309, esq. a 15 Vedado, C. Havana (Cuba)

2006-06-19

72

High pressure synthesis gas fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

Not Available

1992-01-01

73

Social Ferment and School Finance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

Hack, Walter G.

1972-01-01

74

Aerobic Fermentation Apparatus Design Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the process of transferring oxygen from the gaseous to the liquid phase in the light of the theory of absorption with reaction in the aerobic fermentations used to produce microorganisms and their metabolites. The variables characteris...

R. Falini

1968-01-01

75

Controlling Factors in Methane Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conventional wastewater treatment plants generally use an anaerobic digester to stabilize the wastewater settleable solids and the excess microbial solids produced within the plant. The anaerobic fermentation process is very pH dependent. The methane bact...

R. E. Speece R. Clark

1969-01-01

76

Microbiology of Cheese Lactic Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication on microbiology of cheese lactic acid fermentation - covers (1) ecology and classification of the lactic acid microorganisms involved in cheese production (2) the properties of such bacteria; their role in cheese-making (3) growth condit...

J. L. Bergere

1985-01-01

77

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A multimembrane reactor is described. Four layers (gas, cells, nutrient, and solvent) are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethyl alcohol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification removes the toxic effect of TBP on yeast metabolism. (Refs. 29).

Cho, T.; Shuler, M.L.

1986-03-01

78

Production of arginine by fermentation.  

PubMed

Studies on the production of L-arginine by fermentation using mutants of Corynebacterium (Brevibacterium), Bacillus, and Serratia have been conducted since the 1960s. More recently, the breeding of L-arginine production strains by gene recombination techniques using Escherichia coli has been investigated. To produce L-arginine efficiently by fermentation, it is necessary to breed strains with a strong biosynthetic pathway to L-arginine. Because L-arginine is biosynthesized from the precursor L-glutamic acid through ornithine and citrulline, the use of strains with a high capability for producing L-glutamic acid is desirable. Corynebacterium (Brevibacterium), which is well known in the production of L-glutamic acid, was selected as a starting strain for the breeding of an L-arginine producer and has been used on a commercial scale. Regarding the fermentation conditions, as for other amino acids, L-arginine fermentation is controlled by regulating pH near the neutral point. Due to its high oxygen requirement, L-arginine production is seriously impaired without sufficient oxygen. Advanced purification methods are necessary to obtain highly pure L-arginine from the fermentation broth. After fermentation is complete, bacterial cells and proteins are removed by means of a membrane or centrifugation, and impurities are removed by means of an ion-exchange resin or activated carbon. Highly pure L-arginine crystals can be obtained through concentration at the end of the process. PMID:15465800

Utagawa, Takashi

2004-10-01

79

Stellarator helical vacuum vessel  

SciTech Connect

A design study of a stainless steel, heavy wall, helically shaped vacuum torus has been made for use in a proposed Stellarator configuration. The study concerns itself with the shape of the vacuum vessel and the division of the vessel into components that can be machined and welded together into a helical configuration. A complication in the design requires that a circular magnet coil be located at the minor toroidal axis and that this coil be embedded within the periphery of the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel has a minor toroidal axis diameter of 4 meters, a 68.6-cm shell diameter, and a 1.9-cm wall thickness. It twists about the minor toroidal axis twice in 360/sup 0/C. (An n value of 2). It is proposed that the unit be made of cylindrical segments with the ends of the cylinders cut at appropriate lengths and angles to form the helix. A mathematical derivation of the dimensions necessary to produce the required shapes of the segments has been made. Also, drawings of the vacuum vessel components have been produced on LANL's CTR CAD/CAM system. The procedure developed can be used for any value of n as dictated by physics requirements.

Yavornik, E.J.

1983-01-01

80

Fermentations with new recombinant organisms  

SciTech Connect

US fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. The authors have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21--34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different industrially hardened strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks.

Bothast, R.J.; Nichols, N.N.; Dien, B.S.

1999-10-01

81

Improving Vacuum Cleaners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

1997-01-01

82

Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.  

PubMed

This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30°C for 14days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30°C for 3days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4°C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

2014-09-01

83

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

84

A fatal case of CO(2) intoxication in a fermentation tank.  

PubMed

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an odorless constituent of air. Higher concentrations can be detected in geothermal and automotive emissions, fermentation, and sublimation of dry ice. An unskilled worker entered a fermentation tank to clean it, which had not been done for about 5 months allowing for high concentrations of CO2 to build up. A second worker entered the tank to rescue the first one. Shortly after both were found the first worker was rescued directly whereas the tank had to be rotated to pull the second worker out. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful only for the first worker. Medico-legal autopsy showed bruises, hematoma, myocardial hemorrhage, and edema of the lungs. The right lung was vacuum degassed in an argon atmosphere and quadrupole-mass-spectrometry showed an elevated CO2 content in lung gases. Thus, CO2 intoxication/asphyxia in a vitiated atmosphere due to fermentation of wine mash was established as the cause of death. PMID:23316776

Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Juhnke, Christian; Bux, Roman; Schmidt, Peter

2013-03-01

85

Fermented liquid feed and fermented grain to piglets effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to determine the microbial and nutritional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grain, and fermented liquid compound feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance of piglets. Three dietary treatments were designed: dry feed (DRY); fermented liquid cereal grain feed (FLG); and fermented liquid feed (FLF). The FLF was

N. Canibe; B. B. Jensen

2007-01-01

86

Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

87

Lactic Fermentation in Traditional Foods of Thailand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation in traditional foods in Thailand - covers (1) major agricultural products (2) raw materials and products of lactic fermentation (3) processes and microorganisms (4) commercialization aspects (5) relevant resea...

W. Kaengsubha L. Kraidej M. Suwana-Adth

1985-01-01

88

Vacuum tool manipulator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprising a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing t...

W. T. Zollinger

1992-01-01

89

Vacuum insulating panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical aspects and practical possibilities for realization of a new type of thermal insulation, vacuum panel insulation (VPI), are given. From a functional point of view, it is a flat all metal Dewar flask with an array of supporting beads. They span metal foils at desired distances and limit conduction by internal, near-point contacts. Model studies and first reports show

V Nemani?

1995-01-01

90

Vacuum thermal insulation panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum thermal insulation panel comprises a pair of laminated plastic and aluminum sheets together with a plastic edge strip sealed to the edges of the sheets so as to define an evacuable volume in which a glass fiber mat is disposed. The insulation panel of the present invention takes advantage of the light-weight, low cost and low thermal conductivity

J. R. Young; R. M. Schreck

1984-01-01

91

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1992-01-01

92

Compact vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1992-01-01

93

Topics in vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a theory has more than one classically stable vacuum, quantum tunneling and thermal jumps make the transition between the vacua possible. The transition happens through a first order phase transition started by nucleation of a bubble of the new vacuum. The outward pressure of the truer vacuum makes the bubble expand and consequently eat away more of the old phase. In the presence of gravity this phenomenon gets more complicated and meanwhile more interesting. It can potentially have important cosmological consequences. Some aspects of this decay are studied in this thesis. Solutions with different symmetry than the generically used O(4) symmetry are studied and their actions calculated. Vacuum decay in a spatial vector field is studied and novel features like kinky domain walls are presented. The question of stability of vacua in a landscape of potentials is studied and the possible instability in large dimension of fields is shown. Finally a compactification of the Einstein-Maxwell theory is studied which can be a good lab to understand the decay rates in compactification models of arbitrary dimensions.

Masoumi, Ali

94

High Vacuum Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metal-to-metal seal vacuum valve is provided with a bellows which aids in preventing leakage through the housing cover and about the stem. The inner surface of the valve housing is provided with a metal valve seat having a relatively sharp edge around...

J. M. Frame

1965-01-01

95

Inexpensive high vacuum feedthroughs.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the use of rigid coaxial cable in the construction of high vacuum coaxial and coaxial push-pull rotary motion feedthroughs. This type of feedthroughs is shown to be extremely cheap and simple to make and modify. It can be used for moderately high voltages and provides a continuous, well shielded, low-noise feedthrough cable in any desired configuration.

Gerber, S.; Post, D.

1973-01-01

96

Operating a vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion of vacuum gas gathering systems refers to the operation of a gathering system below atmospheric pressure. Advantages include recovery of gas that would otherwise remain in the reservoir, increased GPM content of the gathered gas, harmlessness of leaks, possibility of installing lower-priced pipe, and ability to make temporary repair of leaks. Disadvantages include difficulty of detecting leaks, severe

Felts

1981-01-01

97

Vacuum System at IUAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology is an integral part of any accelerator system. At IUAC we have a 15UD PELLETRON, superconduting LINAC, Low Energy Ion beam Facility and a 1.7MV pelletron. Vacuum requirement in these accelerators is ~10-8 torr. Various types of Vacuum pump are used in different zones of the accelerators depending on load. Since the whole accelerator is quite long, distributed pumps are placed in different sections as per load. In ion sources displacement type pump viz turbo-pumps are usually used as the gas load is quite high. In other parts of the accelerator combination of getter and ion pumps are used. It is very much necessary to isolate different sections for maintenance purpose. Proper valves are used to isolate the sections and to avoid vacuum accidents proper interlock system is introduced. If air goes in some sections accidentally, valves will close automatically to protect other sections. The talk will cover different types of pumps and interlock used in accelerators at IUAC.

Mandal, A.

2012-11-01

98

VACUUM FLOW STEEL DEGASSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steel degassing technique developed and used by the Henrichschutte ; steel plant in Germany's Ehr is described. The process, reportedly capable of ; reduci Hâ, Nâ, and Oâ contents of all types of steels to those ; levels obtalned by vacuum casting techniques, require from 12 to 15 min in a 6O ; to 80-ton ladle. The metal i

Starratt

1958-01-01

99

HYDC Vacuum Circuit Breakers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the commutation principle, using vacuum interrupters as a means for interrupting high direct current at high voltage, has been demonstrated convincingly by a large number of tests. Currents in excess of 15 kA at 20 kV have been interrupted by a single device in an inductive circuit. Tests are reported in which higher current were cleared by

A. N. Greenwood; P. Barkan; W. C. Kracht

1972-01-01

100

Vacuum ultraviolet holography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

1974-01-01

101

Various unique vacuum holders  

SciTech Connect

Glassblowers use vacuum holding devices to support a flat plate in the glassflowing lathe to seal onto the end of, or inside of, a glass cylinder. Glassblowing blowhose swivels tend to leak; a rotating union from the hydraulics industry is better. Various graphite holder designs are described.

Gregar, J.S.

1992-12-01

102

Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques  

SciTech Connect

Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

Kim, K.

1984-01-01

103

Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

1989-01-01

104

Gas bearing operates in vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bearing has restrictions to reduce air leaks and is connected to external pumpout facility which removes exhausted air. Token amount of air which is lost to vacuum is easily removed by conventional vacuum pump.

Perkins, G. S.

1975-01-01

105

Furnace brazing under partial vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

Mckown, R. D.

1979-01-01

106

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19

107

Understand vacuum-system fundamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper

G. R. Martin; J. R. Lines; S. W. Golden

1994-01-01

108

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOEpatents

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA) [Pleasanton, CA; Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

1980-01-01

109

Perfluoropolyethers as Vacuum Pump Fluids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the state of the art in the field of utilizing perfluoropolyethers in the creation of "clean" vacuums, when the term "clean" vacuum defines one that does not contain contaminates which interfere with the process to be carried out in the vacuum. (SL)

Laurenson, L.

1977-01-01

110

Portable vacuum object handling device  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, G.H.

1981-07-30

111

Insertion device vacuum system designs  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

Hoyer, E.

1988-05-01

112

RFQ Vacuum brazing at CERN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to describe the vacuum brazing procedure used at CERN for the brazing of Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). The RFQ is made of high precision machined OFE copper pieces assembled together. Vacuum brazing is one of the most promising techniques used to join the individual components leading to vacuum tightness and high precision alignment. The

S Mathot

2008-01-01

113

Fermentation of cellodextrins by different yeast strains.  

PubMed

The fermentation of cellodextrins by eight yeast species capable of fermenting cellobiose was monitored. Only two of these species, Torulopsis molischiana and T. wickerhamii, were able to ferment beta-glucosides with a degree of polymerization between one and six. These two species showed exocellular beta-glucosidase activity. Four other species were able to ferment cellotriose, and the last two species only fermented cellobiose. These latter six species produced a beta-glucosidase capable of attacking cellodextrins, but this enzyme was endocellular. PMID:16346606

Gondé, P; Blondin, B; Leclerc, M; Ratomahenina, R; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1984-08-01

114

Edison's vacuum technology patents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

Waits, Robert K.

2003-07-01

115

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

116

Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

1998-01-01

117

Integrated structure vacuum tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (inventors)

1976-01-01

118

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23

119

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

1993-01-01

120

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1993-01-05

121

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOEpatents

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-04-28

122

The MEA vacuum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The leak security system and multiple pump unit with turbomolecular pump of the MEA vacuum system, consisting of a klystron system with diode pump and a bunch-conducting system with triode pump, is described. The triode pump has better pump capacities for rare gases but as it only works from 0.0001 Torr the pump unit has to be used. To replace the klystrons the two systems are coupled by two windows with nitrogen in between for high frequencies. To safeguard the system, slow isolation valves with Pirami gages, fast valves with ionization gages, and residual gas analyzers are installed. Hand valves and residual gas analyzer heads are used for the pump unit. The vacuum level is better than 0.0000001 Torr.

Stroo, R.; Schwebeke, H.; Heine, E.

1984-12-01

123

Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.  

PubMed

Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

2014-03-17

124

MicroOrganisms and Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your issue dated April 5, in a review of Jörgensen's ``Micro-Organisms and Fermentation,'' occurs the following :- ``In England, however, we are slow in applying scientific research to industrial pursuits, and though a number of brewers already use Hansen's system, it can hardly be said that it has received the attention it deserves, and chance, tradition, and blind empiricism

Frank E. Lott

1894-01-01

125

Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

1981-01-01

126

Aspects of vacuum alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of both spontaneous symmetry breaking and explicit symmetry breaking, the ground state of a system is determined by vacuum alignment. In this thesis I examine the consequences of vacuum alignment in models with many competing explicit symmetry breaking interactions. In particular, I investigate the appearance of unexpectedly massless pseudo-Goldstone bosons and their connection to second order phase transitions in the symmetry of the ground state. The foundation for this investigation is a model based on the spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern SU(3)L ? SU(3)R ? SU(3). One feature of this model, repeated phase transitions, motivates a new approach toward generating light states. In this approach, states are light because there are many nearby phase transitions rather than as a consequence of a symmetry. I test this new approach by applying repeated phase transitions to composite higgs models of electroweak symmetry breaking. This investigation not only elucidates the advantages and disadvantages of repeated phase transitions but it also provides a new path to a light composite higgs. A more familiar approach to a light composite higgs is the Little Higgs mechanism. This achieves a light higgs by protecting it with additional global symmetries. As a consequence of these additional symmetries, new TeV scale particles must be introduced which tend to cause conflicts with precise low energy experiments. Imposing a discrete symmetry known as T parity on these models not only removes many problematic processes but also creates a dark matter candidate. I construct a T parity invariant version of the Simplest Little Higgs model and find a cosmologically viable dark matter candidate. To demonstrate an application of vacuum alignment outside of electroweak symmetry breaking, I also examine the constraints from B meson mixings and decays on models of spontaneous CP violation in topcolor-assisted technicolor. In these models, CP is violated as a consequence of vacuum alignment in the technicolor sector, then communicated to the standard model fields through quark mass terms.

Martin, Adam O.

127

Vacuum Beat Wave Acceleration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) utilizes two laser beams with differing wavelengths to accelerate particles in vacuo.(Sprangle et al., Opt. Comm. 124), 69 (1996); Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. E 52, 5443 (1995). The mechanism relies on the v×B force, circumventing the so-called Lawson-Woodward theorem. A proof-of-principle experiment will be performed at the Naval Research Laboratory, based on design

C. I. Moore; B. Hafizi; E. Esarey; P. Sprangle; A. Ganguly; J. L. Hirshfield

1997-01-01

128

Indonesian Tap? Ketan Fermentation 1  

PubMed Central

Indonesian tapé ketan is a fermentation in which a mold, Amylomyces rouxii Calmette (Chlamydomucor oryzae Went and Prinsen Geerligs), in combination with one or more yeasts such as Endomycopsis burtonii converts steamed rice to a sweet-sour, slightly alcoholic paste. A study was made to determine the biochemical changes that occur in the substrate during fermentation. It was found that the product was ready for consumption after fermentation at 30°C for 36 to 48 h. A. rouxii used about 30% of the total rice solids, resulting in a crude protein of 12% in 96 h, whereas the combination of the mold with E. burtonii reduced total solids by 50% in 192 h, causing crude protein to increase to 16.5%. Soluble solids increased from 5 to about 67% in 36 h and decreased to 12% at 192 h with A. rouxii alone, whereas soluble solids fell to about 8% at 192 h in the fermentation with both the mold and the yeast. The mold, by itself, reduced the starch content of the rice from 78 to 10% in 48 h and to less than 2% in 144 h. The mold plus yeast reduced the starch content to about 18% in 48 h; however the “starch” content did not fall below 6% even at 192 h, presumably because the yeast was producing glycogen, which was determined along with the residual starch. With both the mold and the mold plus yeast fermentations, reducing sugars increased from less than 1% to approximately 5% in 24 h and reached maximum concentration, 16 to 17%, between 36 and 48 h. A. rouxii by itself produced a maximum of about 5.6% (vol/vol) ethanol at 96 h. The highest concentration of ethanol (8%, vol/vol) was produced by the mold plus E. burtonii at 144 h. The mold by itself reduced the starting pH from 6.3 to about 4.0 in 48 h. The combination of the mold and yeast reduced the pH to 4.1 in 144 h. The mold increased total acidity to approximately 6.2 meq of H+ per 100 ml, and the combination of the mold and yeast increased the total acidity to 7.8 meq of H+ per 100 ml in 192 h. At 48 h there was practically no difference in the volatile acidity (0.20) for the combined fermentation compared with 0.26 meq of H+ per 100 ml for the mold fermentation. The mold and at least one species of yeast were required to develop the rich aroma and flavor of typical Indonesian tapé.

Cronk, T. C.; Steinkraus, K. H.; Hackler, L. R.; Mattick, L. R.

1977-01-01

129

The ITER vacuum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the torus exhaust pumping, the cryopumps for the neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating, and the cryopumps for the ITER cryostat. All customized cryosorption pumps are force-cooled with supercritical helium and share a similar modular design of cryosorption pumping panels. For regeneration of the cryopumps as well as for roughing down the system volumes prior to operation, four identical sets of forepump trains are used. This paper will focus on the areas of the ITER vacuum systems which require customized developments and cannot rely on commercial solutions. The complex pumps have been tailored for the very specific applications and requirements at ITER, especially characterised by the need to be tritium compatible. An outline of the development path which was needed to come up with a sound design for the ITER cryopumps is given. The way of development is culminating in the manufacturing of 1:1 scale prototypes, which will be extensively tested in dedicated test facilities to ensure compatibility with all design requirements.

Day, C.; Murdoch, D.

2008-05-01

130

Vacuum: From Art to Exact Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of vacuum technology. Includes vacuum pump developments (mechanical, ion, and cyrogenic pumps), measurement techniques, the development of the American Vacuum Society, and electronics in vacuum technology. (JN)

Lafferty, James M.

1981-01-01

131

Comparative fermentation behaviour and chemical characteristics of Saccharomyces and Zymomonas fermented culled apple juice.  

PubMed

Ethanol production from culled apple juice showed that fermentability of the juice could be enhanced by addition of DAHP or ammonium sulphate in Saccharomyces and DAHP in Zymomonas fermentation. Addition of trace elements inhibited both the fermentations and ethanol, consequently. With respect to by-products of fermentation, no clear advantage of Zymomnas fermentation of culled apple juice could be observed. Differences in physico-chemical characteristics of the fermented apple juice were also noted. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proved to be better than Zymomonas in most of the parameters and is preferrable from handling and spoilage point of view. PMID:7896319

Sandhu, D K; Joshi, V K

1994-12-01

132

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

Barroso, A.; Ferreira, P. M.; Ivanov, I.; Santos, R.; Silva, João P.

2013-07-01

133

R&D ERL: Vacuum  

SciTech Connect

The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

2010-01-01

134

Propionic acid production by extractive fermentation. I. Solvent considerations.  

PubMed

Solvent selection for extractive fermentation for propionic acid was conducted with three systems: Alamine 304-1 (trilaurylamine) in 2-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and Witcohol 85 NF (oleyl alcohol). Among them, the solvent containing 2-octanol exhibited the highest partition coefficient in acid extraction, but it was also toxic to propionibacteria. The most solvent-resistant strain among five strains of the microorganism was selected. Solvent toxicity was eliminated via two strategies: entrapment of dissolved toxic solvent in the culture growth medium with vegetable oils such as corn, olive, or soybean oils; or replacement of the toxic 2-octanol with nontoxic Witcohol 85 NF. The complete recovery of acids from the Alamine 304-1/Witcohol 85 NF was also realized with vacuum distillation. PMID:10099222

Gu, Z; Glatz, B A; Glatz, C E

1998-02-20

135

Novel Leuconostoc citreum starter culture system for the fermentation of kimchi, a fermented cabbage product  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the dominant microorganisms involved in kimchi fermentation and to examine their effect on kimchi fermentation,\\u000a we randomly isolated and characterized 120 lactic acid bacteria from kimchi during a 5-day fermentation at 15°C. Leuconostoc citreum was dominant during the early and mid-phases of kimchi fermentation whereas Lactobacillus sake\\/Lactobacillus curvatus or Lactobacillus brevis were found during later stages. Eighty-two out

In-Kwon Choi; Seok-Ho Jung; Bong-Joon Kim; Sae-Young Park; Jeongho Kim; Hong-Ui Han

2003-01-01

136

Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.  

PubMed

Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues. PMID:20610173

Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

2010-01-01

137

Choline fermentation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.  

PubMed

Baker, F. D. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), H. R. Papiska, and L. Leon Campbell. Choline fermentation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. J. Bacteriol. 84:973-978. 1962-Hayward and Stadtman pointed out that the organism they described as Vibrio cholinicus is closely related to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. We have established that some strains of D. desulfuricans carry out the same fermentation of choline as does V. cholinicus. We have also shown that V. cholinicus carries out the sulfate-linked fermentation of lactate identical with that of D. desulfuricans. Both organisms have identical reduced cytochrome spectra, with peaks at 417 to 420, 525, and 553 mmu. V. cholinicus also contains the green pigment desulfoviridin, characteristic of D. desulfuricans, which in alkaline solution gives a red fluorescence at 365 mmu. Immunological data from cross-agglutination and absorption tests show that the two organisms have similar antigenic properties. Morphological, cultural, and biochemical studies have also demonstrated that V. cholinicus is indistinguishable from D. desulfuricans. Therefore, V. cholinicus should be regarded taxonomically as a strain of D. desulfuricans. PMID:13969140

BAKER, F D; PAPISKA, H R; CAMPBELL, L L

1962-11-01

138

Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.  

PubMed

Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

2013-01-01

139

Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually consists of loose substrate particles, although in research situations agar like substrates are also common. Solid-state

M. J. Hoogschagen

2007-01-01

140

Optimization of spent sulfite liquor fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemicellulose-derived sugars in spent sulfite liquor (SSL), a process stream of the sulfite pulping process, may be fermented to ethanol. Low nutrient concentration, the presence of inhibitors, and a large proportion of xylose limit fermentation of the sugars in SSL. Factorial design experiments were used to find optimum conditions for hexose and xylose fermentation using a robust SSL-adapted (non-xylose

Steve S. Helle; Tony Lin; Sheldon J. B. Duff

2008-01-01

141

Fermentation of Soluble Cello-Oligosaccharides by Yeasts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yeast strains that ferment cellobiose were examined with respect to fermentation on soluble cellodextrin preparations. Hydrolysis of the fermentation products was followed using thin layer chromatography. Candida and Brettanomyces sp. hydrolyze cellobiose...

S. M. Lastick D. D. Spindler K. Grohmann

1983-01-01

142

Cosmology with a decaying vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of unstable false vacuum states are analyzed from the point of view of the quantum theory of unstable states. Some of false vacuum states survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We show that at this time region the instantaneous energy of the false vacuum states tends to the energy of the true vacuum state as 1/t2 for t --> ?.

Urbanowski, K.; Szyd?owski, M.

2013-02-01

143

Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

1979-01-01

144

Vacuum leak detector and method  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

1983-01-01

145

Fermentation of Philippine Vegetable Blends1  

PubMed Central

Seven blends of Philipphine vegetables, two of which contained soybeans and one mongo bean sprouts, were prepared for fermentation and study of microbiological and chemical changes. The fermentations were typical lactic acid bacterial fermentations, initiated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and continued by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and L. plantarum. The combination of high acidity and low pH resembled other vegetable fermentations, such as sauerkraut. The procedure offers a method of preserving surplus vegetables, and, in addition, a method for incorporating and preserving the high-protein-containing soybeans.

Orillo, C. A.; Sison, E. C.; Luis, M.; Pederson, C. S.

1969-01-01

146

Recovery of succinic acid produced by fermentation of a metabolically engineered Mannheimia succiniciproducens strain.  

PubMed

There have recently been much advances in the production of succinic acid, an important four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for many industrial applications, by fermentation of several natural and engineered bacterial strains. Mannheimia succiniciproducens MBEL55E isolated from bovine rumen is able to produce succinic acid with high efficiency, but also produces acetic, formic and lactic acids just like other anaerobic succinic acid producers. We recently reported the development of an engineered M. succiniciproducens LPK7 strain which produces succinic acid as a major fermentation product while producing much reduced by-products. Having an improved succinic acid producer developed, it is equally important to develop a cost-effective downstream process for the recovery of succinic acid. In this paper, we report the development of a simpler and more efficient method for the recovery of succinic acid. For the recovery of succinic acid from the fermentation broth of LPK7 strain, a simple process composed of a single reactive extraction, vacuum distillation, and crystallization yielded highly purified succinic acid (greater than 99.5% purity, wt%) with a high yield of 67.05wt%. When the same recovery process or even multiple reactive extraction steps were applied to the fermentation broth of MBEL55E, lower purity and yield of succinic acid were obtained. These results suggest that succinic acid can be purified in a cost-effective manner by using the fermentation broth of engineered LPK7 strain, showing the importance of integrating the strain development, fermentation and downstream process for optimizing the whole processes for succinic acid production. PMID:17765349

Song, Hyohak; Huh, Yun Suk; Lee, Sang Yup; Hong, Won Hi; Hong, Yeon Ki

2007-12-01

147

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04

148

Vacuum thermal insulation panel  

SciTech Connect

A vacuum thermal insulation panel comprises a pair of laminated plastic and aluminum sheets together with a plastic edge strip sealed to the edges of the sheets so as to define an evacuable volume in which a glass fiber mat is disposed. The insulation panel of the present invention takes advantage of the light-weight, low cost and low thermal conductivity of plastic materials to form an evacuable volume into which a glass fiber insulating mat is disposed for support of the panel which is evacuated to provide improved thermal insulation. Additionally, a gas permeation barrier is employed on the edge strip of the panel to minimize gas permeation at its edges. A metal foil layer provides gas permeation protection through the large surface areas of the sheets themselves.

Young, J.R.; Schreck, R.M.

1984-04-24

149

Pseudoredundant vacuum energy  

SciTech Connect

We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel [Institute for Strings, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics and Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2008-08-15

150

Vacuum Powder Injector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method developed to provide uniform impregnation of bundles of carbon-fiber tow with low-solubility, high-melt-flow polymer powder materials to produce composite prepregs. Vacuum powder injector expands bundle of fiber tow, applies polymer to it, then compresses bundle to hold powder. System provides for control of amount of polymer on bundle. Crystallinity of polymer maintained by controlled melt on takeup system. All powder entrapped, and most collected for reuse. Process provides inexpensive and efficient method for making composite materials. Allows for coating of any bundle of fine fibers with powders. Shows high potential for making prepregs of improved materials and for preparation of high-temperature, high-modulus, reinforced thermoplastics.

Working, Dennis C.

1991-01-01

151

LIGO vacuum system study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

1988-01-01

152

Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument  

SciTech Connect

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph

1999-06-25

153

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a vacuum barrier for separating a region of vacuum from a pressurized gaseous region in an excimer laser. It comprises a first thin layer of metal having a thickness in the range of 2000-4000 Angstroms; a first thin layer of polyimide having a thickness of approximately 1 mil overlying the first thin layer of metal; a second

Shuter

1992-01-01

154

Vacuum pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to provide background data on sugarcane bagasse vacuum pyrolysis. Product yields and properties were investigated. Vacuum pyrolysis tests were performed at bench and pilot plant scales. The bagasse finest particles with a diameter smaller than 450 ?m were removed in order to overcome difficulties caused by their low density and high ash content. In

Abdelkader Chaala; Christian Roy

2002-01-01

155

Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

Du Fresne, E. R.

1985-01-01

156

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the ''as-received'' condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1984-01-01

157

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room-temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for some

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

158

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for

E. D. Erikson; T. G. Beat; D. D. Berger; B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

159

Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument  

DOEpatents

A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

2000-01-01

160

Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

1997-01-01

161

Vacuum carburizing—process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increased interest in vacuum carburizing concept is being observed in the last years all around the world as a result of the progress in designing of modern furnaces for thermo-chemical treatment under low pressure and of better knowledge of physico-chemistry of these processes. This in turn allows a precise control with aid of computer simulations. The vacuum carburizing simulation

P. Kula; R. Pietrasik; K. Dybowski

2005-01-01

162

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOEpatents

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28

163

Breather cloth for vacuum curing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

Reed, M. W.

1979-01-01

164

The AGS Booster vacuum systems  

SciTech Connect

The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Hseuh, H.C.

1989-01-01

165

Improved processes for the production and isolation of dynemicin A and large-scale fermentation in a 10000-liter fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Supplementing the culture ofMicromonospora chersina sp. nov. No. M956-1 with NaI (0.5 mg\\/l) enhanced the production of dynemicin A by 35-fold in shake flask culture. Homogeneous dynemicin A was obtained from the whole broth extract by Dicalite chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and vacuum liquid chromatography. Gram quantities of dynemicin A were obtained from the fermentation ofM. chersina sp. nov.

Kin Sing Lam; Jeffrey A. Titus; Thomas T. Dabrah; Dennis L. Kimball; Jacqueline M. Veitch; Donald R. Gustavson; Bruce J. Compton; James A. Matson; Salvatore Forenza; John Ross; David Miller; John Roach; John Beutler

1992-01-01

166

Penicillin production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Penicillin was produced by a non-sterile solid state fermentation (SSF) on bagasse impregnated with culture medium. The use of concentrated media greatly enhanced the antibiotic production in this system. It was observed that adequate initial moisture content (70%) of the impregnated solid medium results in higher production. A comparison between solid and liquid fermentation showed superior yield and productivity.

J. Barrios-González; A. Tomasini; G. Viniegra-González; L. López

1988-01-01

167

Solid state fermentation of banana wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using a strain ofAspergillus niger, the protein content of banana wastes was raised from 6 to 18 % by solid state fermentation. A meal of green bananas was obtained by solar drying, and fermentation was conducted in a 15 kg (dry weight) capacity stirred reactor. As the substrate consumption was 24 % of initial weight after 43 h. of

J. Baldensperger; J. Le Mer; L. Hannibal; P. J. Quinto

1985-01-01

168

Simultaneous saccharification: fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, an ethanol production process has been developed which utilizes Trichoderma reesei cellulase and Candida brassicae IFO 1664 in the simultaneous saccharification\\/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol. The direct production of ethanol from cellulose in an SSF process alleviates the problem of end production inhibition. Glucose does not accumulate in this system, but rather is fermented to ethanol

D. J. Spangler; George H. Emert

1986-01-01

169

Xylitol recovery from fermented sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, obtained by acid hydrolysis, was fermented by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 to produce xylitol. Assays were made in order to determine the best conditions to clarify the fermented broth using activated carbon. The clarified medium was treated with ion-exchange resins after which xylitol crystallization was attempted. The best clarifying treatment was found by adding 25 g

P. V. Gurgel; I. M. Mancilha; R. P. Peçanha; J. F. M. Siqueira

1995-01-01

170

Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious indus- trial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Scle- rotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream process- ing and applications of scleroglucan.

Shrikant A. Survase; Parag S. Saudagar; Ishwar B. Bajaj; Rekha S. Singhal

171

Recent advances in solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has built up credibility in recent years in biotech industries due to its potential applications in the production of biologically active secondary metabolites, apart from feed, fuel, food, industrial chemicals and pharmaceutical products and has emerged as an attractive alternative to submerged fermentation. Bioremediation, bioleaching, biopulping, biobeneficiation, etc. are the major applications of SSF in bioprocesses which

Reeta Rani Singhania; Anil Kumar Patel; Carlos R. Soccol; Ashok Pandey

2009-01-01

172

The microflora of fermented nixtamalized corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nixtamalization is a traditional process that improves the nutritional quality of corn. To provide a means of utilizing the nutritional benefits of nixtamalized corn and improve product acceptability, lactic acid fermentation was applied. The objective of the study was to study the microbial profile and establish the important lactobacilli of fermenting nixtamalized corn dough. Two batches of cleaned whole corn

Samuel Sefa-Dedeh; Beatrice Cornelius; Wisdom Amoa-Awua; Esther Sakyi-Dawson; Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

2004-01-01

173

Colonic fermentation: metabolic and clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colonic SCFA formation from fermentable carbohydrate is important for the maintenance of morphologic and functional integrity of the colonic epithelium. Carbohydrate-induced diarrhea occurs when the amount of carbohydrate entering the colon exceeds its fermentation capacity. Deficient availability or utilization of SCFA, mainly of n-butyrate, is the cause of diversion colitis and may play important roles in colonic carcinogenesis, in starvation

K. H. Soergel

1994-01-01

174

Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract  

SciTech Connect

Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

1980-04-01

175

Chromosomal structures of bottom fermenting yeasts.  

PubMed

A genomic comparison of bottom fermenting yeasts was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern blot analysis with some S. cerevisiae gene probes. We confirmed that strains of bottom fermenting yeast have four chromosomes originating from S. bayanus. Since the structures of these chromosomes were recombined with S. cerevisiae chromosomes, these S. bayanus chromosomes could be differentiated from S. cerevisiae chromosomes using Southern hybridization. Our Southern hybridization results indicate that bottom fermenting yeasts have both chromosomes originating from both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. It was reconfirmed that top fermenting yeast should be classified as S. cerevisiae, based on the chromosomal structure. The chromosomal structure of S. pastorianus CBS1538, the type stain of S. pastorianus, was also investigated. This strain has chromosomes originating only from S. bayanus. S. carlsbergensis CBS1513 has chromosomes originating from both S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. From these results, we contend that bottom fermenting yeasts should be classified as S. carlsbergensis. PMID:10553286

Yamagishi, H; Ogata, T

1999-09-01

176

COMPARATIVE AND FERMENTATION STANARDISATIOND STUDIES ON DASAMULARISHTA  

PubMed Central

Asavas and arishtas are produced by fermentation in an earthen pot according to textual procedure. The size and shape of the pot and the quantity of the drug. That can be taken in a pot for fermentation is not mentioned in the literature. The present Study was taken up to determine the quantity of drug that can be fermented in an earthen Pot to obtain best results. Dasamularishta was fermented in different volumes in earthen pots of identical size, shape and capacity, as well as in stainless steel vessel and porcelain jar. The drug filled up to 3/4th of the volume of the earthen pot had shown better results than the earthen pots containing various volumes of drug. The stainless steel container and porcelain jar also showed comparable results to the earthen pot fermented drug. Thin layer chromatography of different preparation showed five spots.

Alam, Muzaffer; Dasan, K.K.S; Joy, S.; Purushothaman, K. K.

1988-01-01

177

Comparative and fermentation stanardisationd studies on dasamularishta.  

PubMed

Asavas and arishtas are produced by fermentation in an earthen pot according to textual procedure. The size and shape of the pot and the quantity of the drug. That can be taken in a pot for fermentation is not mentioned in the literature. The present Study was taken up to determine the quantity of drug that can be fermented in an earthen Pot to obtain best results.Dasamularishta was fermented in different volumes in earthen pots of identical size, shape and capacity, as well as in stainless steel vessel and porcelain jar.The drug filled up to 3/4(th) of the volume of the earthen pot had shown better results than the earthen pots containing various volumes of drug. The stainless steel container and porcelain jar also showed comparable results to the earthen pot fermented drug. Thin layer chromatography of different preparation showed five spots. PMID:22557633

Alam, M; Dasan, K K; Joy, S; Purushothaman, K K

1988-07-01

178

Functional compounds in fermented buckwheat sprouts.  

PubMed

Fermented buckwheat sprouts (FBS) are used as multifunctional foods. Their production process includes fermentation with lactic acid bacteria. The major strains were found to include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, and Pediococcus pentosaceus in an investigation of the lactic acid bacteria. We searched for the functional components, and nicotianamine (NA) and 2?-hydroxynicotianamine (HNA) were identified as angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. NA and HNA increased during fermentation. Indole-3-ethanol was identified as an antioxidant (a SOD active substance), and may have been generated from tryptophan during fermentation because it was not contained in green buckwheat juice. A safety test demonstrated that FBS contained were safe functional food components, showing negative results in buckwheat allergy tests. Any buckwheat allergy substances might have been degraded during the fermentation process. PMID:21897039

Maejima, Yasunori; Nakatsugawa, Hiroki; Ichida, Daiki; Maejima, Mayumi; Aoyagi, Yasuo; Maoka, Takashi; Etoh, Hideo

2011-01-01

179

Vacuum Packaging for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Vacuum Packaging for MEMS Program focused on the development of an integrated set of packaging technologies which in totality provide a low cost, high volume product-neutral vacuum packaging capability which addresses all MEMS vacuum packaging require...

T. Schimert R. Howe M. Schmidt S. Montague

2002-01-01

180

Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae  

PubMed Central

Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume.

Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

2013-01-01

181

Precooler Ring Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect

The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

Moenich, J.

1980-10-02

182

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27

183

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01

184

NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

2005-10-07

185

Vacuum plasma spray coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1989-01-01

186

New quinoproteins in oxidative fermentation.  

PubMed

Several quinoproteins have been newly indicated in acetic acid bacteria, all of which can be applied to fermentative or enzymatic production of useful materials by means of oxidative fermentation. (1) D-Arabitol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 3257 was purified from the bacterial membrane and found to be a versatile enzyme for oxidation of various substrates to the corresponding oxidation products. It is worthy of notice that the enzyme catalyzes D-gluconate oxidation to 5-keto-D-gluconate, whereas 2-keto-D-gluconate is produced by a flavoprotein D-gluconate dehydrogenase. (2) Membrane-bound cyclic alcohol dehydrogenase was solubilized and purified for the first time from Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 9. When compared with the cytosolic NAD-dependent cyclic alcohol dehydrogenase crystallized from the same strain, the reaction rate in cyclic alcohol oxidation by the membrane enzyme was 100 times stronger than the cytosolic NAD-dependent enzyme. The NAD-dependent enzyme makes no contribution to cyclic alcohol oxidation but contributes to the reduction of cyclic ketones to cyclic alcohols. (3) Meso-erythritol dehydrogenase has been purified from the membrane fraction of G. frateurii CHM 43. The typical properties of quinoproteins were indicated in many respects with the enzyme. It was found that the enzyme, growing cells and also the resting cells of the organism are very effective in producing L-erythrulose. Dihydroxyacetone can be replaced by L-erythrulose for cosmetics for those who are sensitive to dihydroxyacetone. (4) Two different membrane-bound D-sorbitol dehydrogenases were indicated in acetic acid bacteria. One enzyme contributing to L-sorbose production has been identified to be a quinoprotein, while another FAD-containing D-sorbitol dehydrogenase catalyzes D-sorbitol oxidation to D-fructose. D-Fructose production by the oxidative fermentation would be possible by the latter enzyme and it is superior to the well-established D-glucose isomerase, because the oxidative fermentation catalyzes irreversible one-way oxidation of D-sorbitol to D-fructose without any reaction equilibrium, unlike D-glucose isomerase. (5) Quinate dehydrogenase was found in several Gluconobacter strains and other aerobic bacteria like Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter strains. It has become possible to produce dehydroquinate, dehydroshikimate, and shikimate by oxidative fermentation. Quinate dehydrogenase was readily solubilized from the membrane fraction by alkylglucoside in the presence of 0.1 M KCl. A simple purification by hydrophobic chromatography gave a highly purified quinate dehydrogenase that was monodispersed and showed sufficient purity. When quinate dehydrogenase purification was done with Acinetobacter calcoaceticus AC3, which is unable to synthesize PQQ, purified inactive apo-quinate dehydrogenase appeared to be a dimer and it was converted to the monomeric active holo-quinate dehydrogenase by the addition of PQQ. PMID:12686101

Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Shinagawa, E; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Matsushita, K

2003-04-11

187

Vacuum applications of metal foams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1980-01-01

188

Vacuum Function Operation and Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The understanding of vacuum function and systems is essential for students and employees working within the micro- and nanofabrication industry. This presentation/webinar highlights the use, construction, and examples of current vacuum technology systems today. Prepared by WHO, of the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center, this presentation provides material presented from the instructor/engineer viewpoint. Discussions include vacuum pump function, gauge use and ranges, applicable design considerations, as well as insight on cost and equipment training methodologies that have been utilized by the NACK Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

2009-10-06

189

Vacuum applications of metal foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several vacuum applications of copper foams in the density range 2-5% and pore sizes of 0.5-0.7 mm are discussed, such as a foreline hydrocarbon trap in a mechanical vacuum pump, a molecular-flow resistor, a diffuser, and a water injector. Other suggested applications include the use of foam copper in the form of an externally heated plug to remove traces of oxygen from inert gases bled into a vacuum system through a stainless steel line and the use of the porous surface for minimizing release of secondary electrons from electrodes in the path of charged particle beams.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1980-12-01

190

A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in

Chun Guang Yang; Lie Xu

2010-01-01

191

Food fermentations: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of foods by fermentation is a widely practiced and ancient technology. Fermentation ensures not only increased shelf life and microbiological safety of a food but also may also make some foods more digestible and in the case of cassava fermentation reduces toxicity of the substrate. Lactic acid bacteria because of their unique metabolic characteristics are involved in many fermentation

Elizabeth Caplice; Gerald F Fitzgerald

1999-01-01

192

Microbial growth kinetics of fed-batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch fermenters are generally operated with the addition of small doses of nutrients, therefore the volume of the fermentation broth increases with time. Batch fermenters generally contain and almost constant volume of broth and a logistic equation has been commonly employed to simulate microbial growth in them. Mass balances were determined with fed-batch fermentation to obtain expressions which account for

F. Özadali; M. Özilgen

1988-01-01

193

Microbial growth kinetics of fed-batch fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fed-batch fermenters are generally operated with the addition of small doses of nutrients, therefore the volume of the fermentation broth increases with time. Batch fermenters generally contain and almost constant volume of broth and a logistic equation has been commonly employed to simulate microbial growth in them. Mass balances were determined with fed-batch fermentation to obtain expressions which account

F. Özadali; M. Özilgen

1988-01-01

194

Process for enhanced fermentation of xylose to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for producing an enhanced ethanol yield by aerobically fermenting D-xylose in a fermentation medium with Pachysolen tannophilus having deposit accession numbers. The improvement comprises adding glucose to the fermentation medium after the fermentation has commenced and during the carrying forth of the fermentation with the adding being continuously or at intervals during each 24 hours of the carrying forth of the fermentation and being of an amount of the glucose providing a glucose concentration not exceeding one percent by weight of the fermentation medium until substantially all D-xylose is consumed.

Jeffries, T.W.

1987-05-05

195

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

196

Pollution prevention in vacuum processes  

SciTech Connect

The gaseous emissions from vacuum systems often contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--one or more of which may be regulated as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Typically, regulated emission sources will require greater than 98% control of using an end-of-pipe abatement or recovery technology. VOCs from vacuum generation are expensive to control and increase the investment and operating cost of the vacuum system. When noncondensibles or inerts are present, the amount of VOCs emitted to the environment will increase dramatically. This article discusses approaches which process and project engineers can apply to reduce or eliminate vacuum system emissions. Actual case histories are included which reflect the range of solutions that are being applied.

Mulholland, K.L.; Dyer, J.A. [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)] [E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Wilmington, DE (United States)

1999-05-01

197

APS storage ring vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

1990-01-01

198

Vacuum system pump down analysis  

SciTech Connect

My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

Rohrdanz, D.R.

1990-08-01

199

Simple vacuum pump exhaust filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple vacuum pump exhaust filter based upon an automotive air cleaner has been constructed and tested. The major virtues of the filter system are ease of coupling to an external exhaust and the availability of filter elements.

Richard A. Forman; Harvey D. Kratz

1984-01-01

200

Alumina barrier for vacuum brazing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heating platens of vacuum-brazing press will not stick to workpiece if aluminum oxide "paper" is interposed. Paper does not disintegrate in press, will not contaminate braze alloy, and helps form smoothly contoured, regular fillet at brazed edges.

Beuyukian, C. S.

1980-01-01

201

Vacuum Outgassing of Various Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of r...

E. D. Erikson T. G. Beat D. D. Berger B. A. Frazier

1983-01-01

202

Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part I—Batch fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different processes were investigated to produce acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) from wheat straw (WS) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. The five processes were fermentation of pretreated WS (Process I), separate hydrolysis and fermentation of WS to ABE without removing sediments (Process II), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of WS without agitation (Process III), simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation with additional sugar supplementation (Process IV),

Nasib Qureshi; Badal C. Saha; Ronald E. Hector; Stephen R. Hughes; Michael A. Cotta

2008-01-01

203

Control of KEKB vacuum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a vacuum system of the KEKB accelerator that is a two ring electron-positron collider, there are nearly 10,000 control points. A large number of vacuum related components should be controlled and\\/or monitored at the rings and the beam transport line from the linac. Those component hardwares are connected to their sub-interfaces such as ADC interfaced by devices of CAMAC,

S. Kato; K. Kanazawa; Y. Suetsugu; H. Hisamatsu; M. Shimamoto; M. Sato; M. Shirai; M. Takagi

2001-01-01

204

[Comparison vacuum extractor versus forceps].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to search for objective criteria witch might help us to make a choice between obstetrical forceps and vacuum extractor in front of such a clinical situation. In that purpose, we realised a medline research to compare those two obstetrical instruments in term of advantages, disadvantages and specific complications. Vacuum extractor is the most used in the industrialized countries, learning seems to be quickest, time from decision to extraction a little bit longer than with forceps (Level II-2). Vacuum extractor is recommended in case of low presentation with transversal or posterior variety (Level III) or when no analgesia is available (Level III). Forceps are more successful than vacuum (Level II-1), are recommended in case of prematurity and complete anesthesia (Level III). Immediate maternal complications (cervical tear, vaginal and perineal laceration, use of episiotomy) are less frequent with vacuum extractor (Level II-1). Long term effects on the pelvic floor and the bladder continence are comparable with natural delivery for both forceps and vacuum (Level II-1) but anal incontinence is increased, especially with forceps (Level II-1). Benign immediate neonatal morbidity is comparable for both instruments, but there are some specific complications (Level II-1). Thus, cephalhaematomas and potentially dramatic extensive subgaleal haematomas (even rare), retinal haemorrhage are more frequent with the use of vacuum extractor (Level II-1). Facial nerve paralysis, skull fracture (even rare) are more frequent with forceps (Level II-2). Neonatal convulsions frequency is comparable with both instruments (Level II-2), such are middle and long term complications (Level II-3). Finally, failure of forceps extraction needs a caesarean section but there is no clear evidence in the literature for the sequential use of forceps after failure of vacuum (Level III). PMID:19268200

Schaal, J-P; Equy, V; Hoffman, P

2008-12-01

205

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference\\u000a source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10?3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility\\u000a at the PTB in the field of

S. P. Morozova; N. A. Parfentiev; B. E. Lisiansky; U. A. Melenevsky; B. Gutschwager; C. Monte; J. Hollandt

2010-01-01

206

Extracting energies from the vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and study a possible mechanism of extracting energies from the\\u000avacuum by external classical fields. Taking a constant magnetic field as an\\u000aexample, we discuss why and how the vacuum energy can be released in the\\u000acontext of quantum field theories. In addition, we give a theoretical\\u000acomputation showing how much vacuum energies can be released. The possibilities

She-Sheng Xue

2000-01-01

207

Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

Toldrá, Fidel

208

Edge conduction in vacuum glazing  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum glazing is a form of low-conductance double glazing using in internal vacuum between the two glass sheets to eliminate heat transport by gas conduction and convection. An array of small support pillars separates the sheets; fused solder glass forms the edge seal. Heat transfer through the glazing occurs by radiation across the vacuum gap, conduction through the support pillars, and conduction through the bonded edge seal. Edge conduction is problematic because it affects stresses in the edge region, leading to possible failure of the glazing; in addition, excessive heat transfer because of thermal bridging in the edge region can lower overall window thermal performance and decrease resistance to condensation. Infrared thermography was used to analyze the thermal performance of prototype vacuum glazings, and, for comparison, atmospheric pressure superwindows. Research focused on mitigating the edge effects of vacuum glazings through the use of insulating trim, recessed edges, and framing materials. Experimentally validated finite-element and finite-difference modeling tools were used for thermal analysis of prototype vacuum glazing units and complete windows. Experimental measurements of edge conduction using infrared imaging were found to be in good agreement with finite-element modeling results for a given set of conditions. Finite-element modeling validates an analytic model developed for edge conduction.

Simko, T.M.; Collins, R.E. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Applied Physics; Beck, F.A.; Arasteh, D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

209

Cold cathode vacuum gauging system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

Denny, Edward C. (Knoxville, TN)

2004-03-09

210

The effect of microorganisms in molasses on its fermentability during Citric Acid Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microbiological analysis of 65 samples of molasses from various Czechoslovak sugar works revealed that the presence of thermophilic\\u000a anaerobic bacteria producing hydrogen sulphide affects the fermentability of molasses and thus their applicability to citric\\u000a acid production by fermentation. The fermentability of molasses containing bacteria of this group is not increased after pressure\\u000a sterilization. It was found that hydrogen sulphide inhibits

L. Seichert

1962-01-01

211

Fermentation with immobilized cell cultures.  

PubMed

For the production of monoclonal antibodies and complex recombinant human proteins or glycoproteins a number of immobilized cell culture systems have been developed. The advantages of such cell culture systems are that cells can be kept in small volumes of cell culture fluid and media can be changed continuously if necessary for induction of product synthesis or removal and harvest of metabolic products. Whereas the hollow fiber and the opticell culture systems can be limited in scaling up the microcarrier system, the fluidized bed bioreactor and the solid bed bioreactor are suitable for scaling up. In contrast to the other systems, the solid bed bioreactor requires no special manipulation for anchoring the cells to the wire springs. In situ cleaning is possible and the beads are reusable. With this cell culture fermentation system, production processes for interferon beta, monoclonal antibodies for interferon alfa and recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator were developed. PMID:3285839

Werner, R G; Merk, W; Walz, F

1988-02-01

212

Dry fermentation of agricultural residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

1981-09-01

213

Control of Phage Infections in Dairy Fermentations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication. Expert report on application of biotechnology in dairy products fermentation processes - covers (1) genetic engineering; manipulation of certain lactic acid microorganisms to combat contamination in milk, increase product safety and imp...

M. C. Chopin M. Gautier A. L. L. dos Santos

1985-01-01

214

Fermentation Level Cultivation of Bordetella Pertussis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is related to a method of culturing Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) on a large scale. More particularly, the present invention is related to a method of fermentation level cultivation of B. pertussis concurrently producing pertus...

R. D. Sekura

1986-01-01

215

Fermentation Sensor: Phase 1 Final Report,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the research was to develop an inexpensive and reliable electrochemical fermentation sensor for on-line process control. The approach involved the electrochemical adsorption and subsequent oxidation of specific products and reactants of an eth...

S. Sarangapani J. Giner

1985-01-01

216

Lactic Acid Fermentation of Banana Puree.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

UNIDO publication on lactic acid fermentation of banananas puree - covers (1) background; development potential of process in Central America (2) raw materials and methods; microorganisms; results of experimental research; discussion. Process statistics, ...

M. C. de Arriola E. de Porres R. Carcia C. Rolz

1985-01-01

217

Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganis...

J. D. McMillan

1993-01-01

218

Thermophilic Ethanol Fermentation: An Engineering Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report considers the engineering implications of utilizing thermophilic bacteria to produce ethanol by the anaerobic fermentation of selected feedstocks, and compares this route on the basis of the cost per litre of ethanol produced with that using y...

G. J. Slater W. S. Wakelin

1984-01-01

219

Liquid sourdough fermentation: Industrial application perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough fermentation is considered to play a key role to get improved flavour, texture, nutritional and shelf-life properties of bakery products. Since few years Barilla R&D has been focusing on liquid sourdough fermentation which may deserve several advantages with respect to traditional processes. The results showed that the micro-biota of sourdough markedly influences flavour and texture of bakery products. Particular

P. Carnevali; R. Ciati; A. Leporati; M. Paese

2007-01-01

220

The Fermentation of Lactulose by Colonic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-four strains of intestinal bacteria were cultured under anaerobic conditions in lactulose-containing media to assess their ability to ferment lactulose. Some organisms were unable to metabolize the disaccharide, while others, e.g. clostridia and lactobacilli, metabolized lactulose extensively. Quantitative analyses of the fermentation products indicated that the major non-gaseous metabolites were acetic, lactic and butyric acids. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide were

SURINDER S. SAHOTA; PETER M. BRAMLEY; IAN S. MENZIES

1982-01-01

221

Reduce costs with vacuum excavation  

SciTech Connect

Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

Vitale, S.A.

1983-09-01

222

Control of KEKB vacuum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a vacuum system of the KEKB accelerator that is a two ring electron-positron collider, there are nearly 10,000 control points. A large number of vacuum related components should be controlled and/or monitored at the rings and the beam transport line from the linac. Those component hardwares are connected to their sub-interfaces such as ADC interfaced by devices of CAMAC, RS-232C, GP-IB, and programmable logic controller (PLC) via GP-IB. The all device interfaces are controlled with newly developed softwares based on EPICS (experimental physics industrial control system) and single board equipment control computers through a high speed network using a UNIX-based workstation with X-terminals or emulators as operator consoles. The control points of the hardware for the vacuum system have been successfully implemented for monitor, control and data acquisition after the commissioning for 8 months utilizing EPICS software.

Kato, S.; Kanazawa, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Shimamoto, M.; Sato, M.; Shirai, M.; Takagi, M.

2001-01-01

223

Heavy ion microbeam vacuum requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of heavy ions through an ion microbeam focusing system can be affected by insufficient vacuum within the beam transport tube. Due to interactions of heavy ions with atoms of residual gas in the vacuum tube of a microbeam facility, the angular, lateral and energy spreading of an ion beam increases prior to focusing, creating a beam halo. This beam halo can produce undesirable effects in some applications of ion microbeam techniques. In order to model this effect, the ion beam angular spread in residual gas has been approximated by Sigmund's theoretical predictions for small-angle ion multiple scattering (MS), while ion energy loss straggling distributions have been applied for studying the energy spread. The extent of the beam halo has been estimated by combining the results of these calculations with ion optics calculations. Recommendations concerning microbeam focusing due to the vacuum conditions are given for different heavy ions in the MeV energy range.

Tadi?, T.; Jakši?, M.

2009-06-01

224

Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance  

SciTech Connect

It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, CEP 15980-900, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2010-04-23

225

Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.  

PubMed

It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications. PMID:20482039

Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T

2010-04-23

226

Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation  

PubMed Central

The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40°C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30°C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20°C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40°C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20°C and day 6 at 30°C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30°C but survived the entire test period at 20°C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20°C and day 2 at 30°C.

Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

1983-01-01

227

Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods  

PubMed Central

Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet.

2011-01-01

228

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

229

Relativistic invariance of the vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic invariance of the vacuum is (or follows from) one of the Wightman axioms, which is commonly believed to be true. Without these axioms, here we present a direct and general proof of continuous relativistic invariance of all real-time vacuum correlations of fields, not only scattering (forward in time), based on closed time path formalism. The only assumptions are basic principles of relativistic quantum field theories: the relativistic invariance of the Lagrangian, of the form including known interactions (electromagnetic, weak and strong), and standard rules of quantization. The proof is in principle perturbative leaving a possibility of spontaneous violation of invariance. Time symmetry is, however, manifestly violated.

Bednorz, Adam

2013-12-01

230

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01

231

Vacuum System of the Electron Storage Ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lecturer expects the students to know the fundamentals of vacuum physics and vacuum engineering, that is, kinetic theory of gases, pressure units, gas flow regimes, conductance for aperture and tubes, vacuum pumps, vacuum components, and vacuum system materials1, 2. This knowledge is helpful for the students at this school to understand the vacuum system for the electron storage ring. The lecture includes the following subjects. 1. Beam Lifetime and Vacuum Pressure in the Electron Storage Ring 2. Photon Generation and Gas Load by Photodesorption 3. Pumping Speed and Conductance of Vacuum Duct 4. Pressure Distribution along the Vacuum Duct 5. Practical System Design of the Electron Storage Ring 6. Example of an Electron Storage Ring; Antechamber Structure

Kobayashi, Masanori

2002-02-01

232

Microbial community dynamics during fermentation of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean.  

PubMed

Bacterial and fungal community dynamics, along with viable plate counts and water content, were investigated in the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean, during its fermentation process. Measurement of viable cells showed that the meju molding equipment might be an important source of bacterial cells (mostly Bacillus) during doenjang-meju fermentation, whereas fungi might be mostly derived from the fermentation environment including incubation shelves, air, and rice straws. Community analysis using rRNA-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that Bacillus among bacteria and Mucor among fungi were predominant in both the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju during the early fermentation period. Bacteria such as Ignatzschineria, Myroides, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Clostridium and fungi such as Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Monascus, Fusarium, and eventually Aspergillus were mainly detected as the fermentation progressed. Bacillus, an aerobic bacterial group, was predominant in the exterior regions during the entire fermentation period, while anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and microaerobic bacteria including Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Myroides, and Ignatzschineria were much more abundant in the interior regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the bacterial communities in the exterior and interior regions were clearly differentiated, suggesting that aeration might be an important factor in determining the bacterial communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. However, PCA showed that fungal communities were not separated in the exterior and interior regions and Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the major fungal taxa had significantly positive (Mucor and Geotrichum) or negative (Aspergillus) correlations with the water content during doenjang-meju fermentation, indicating that water content might be a significant factor in determining the fungal communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. PMID:24960292

Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

2014-08-18

233

Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons:•Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others).•Polymers are widely used as

Vladimir Skurat

2003-01-01

234

Hadrons in Vacuum and Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this thesis, we investigate the correlators and form factors of hadrons in vacuum viewed as a dilute gas of instantons and antiinstantons. Relying heavily on approximate bosonization techniques in four dimensions, we construct an effective action for constituent quarks in interaction with mesons and glueballs. The effective action is then used to study various meson,

Mourad Kacir

1995-01-01

235

Vacuum Head Removes Sanding Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum sander prevents sanding dust from entering a work area, since dust particles are drawn off as quickly as they are produced. Tool is useful where dust presents health hazards, interferes with such processes as semiconductor manufacture, or could destroy wet paint or varnish finishes. Could be used to sand such materials as lead paint.

Bengle, C. G.; Holt, J. W.

1982-01-01

236

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15

237

Vacuum insulating window and reflector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum insulating window and reflector is described for controlling the heat gain and loss efficiency of an enclosed space and structure, which consists of: (a) a visually transparent panel having a substantially evacuated hollow cavity; (b) at least one adjustable vane contained within the hollow cavity; (c) a highly reflective metallic nonferrous surface on the at least one adjustable

1986-01-01

238

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13

239

Vacuum forming of thermoplastic foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of thermoforming of foam sheet is analyzed using both finite element modeling and experiments. A simple constitutive model for finite tensile deformations of closed cellular material around its glass transition temperature is proposed, starting from well-known results from Gibson and Ashby (1988). The model is implemented in a finite element code and applied in isothermal vacuum forming simulations.

Remko Akkerman; Ruud Pronk

1999-01-01

240

SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. Normetex replacement) pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be ransported over distan...

B. Peters G. A. Morgan

2013-01-01

241

High Temperature Ultrahigh Vacuum Valves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All-metal valves heatable up to 300 to 400 C in closed and open position were developed for handling aggressive gases such as UF6 in high vacuum technology. Sealing aspects of valves with large nominal width, such as transfer valve NW 150 and corner valve...

W. Baechler G. Jokisch H. P. Kabelitz K. Teutenberg

1976-01-01

242

Plates for vacuum thermal fusion  

DOEpatents

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

243

Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids  

EPA Science Inventory

The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

244

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOEpatents

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01

245

Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

Moore, B. C.

1979-01-01

246

A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

1993-01-01

247

Vacuum arc remelting: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum arc remelting (VAR) is a casting process for producing uniform ingots. This paper discusses: arc physics and behavior, metal transfer and electrode gap measurement, boundary conditions on crucible wall, and pool dynamics and macrosegregation. Materials discussed are Inconel 718 and U-6% Nb alloy.

Zanner, F. J.; Bertram, L. A.

1985-08-01

248

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOEpatents

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

1992-01-01

249

Vacuum Cut-off Switch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vacuum cut-off switch is shown in a system including an evacuation chamber, a pump, an electric motor, a battery and conduits connecting the components. A pressure responsive detecting device is associated with the switch for controlling the operation...

J. E. Coyle

1964-01-01

250

Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1  

PubMed Central

The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive, pure culture fermentor which was suitable for gamma radiation, resistant to salt and acid, and which permitted repeated aseptic sampling of the fermenting brine, is illustrated and the specifications are given.

Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

1964-01-01

251

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

William S. McPhee

1999-05-31

252

Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains  

SciTech Connect

The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

1981-01-01

253

Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum.  

PubMed

A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20-40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production yield, fast cell growth, and rapid sugar consumption with xylose being consumed after glucose depletion, while P. stipitis was almost unable to utilize xylose under these conditions. It is further demonstrated that for S. passalidarum, the xylose conversion takes place by means of NADH-preferred xylose reductase (XR) and NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH). Thus, the capacity of S. passalidarum to utilize xylose under anaerobic conditions is possibly due to the balance between the cofactor's supply and demand through this XR-XDH pathway. Only few XRs with NADH preference have been reported so far. 2-Deoxy glucose completely inhibited the conversion of xylose by S. passalidarum under anaerobic conditions, but only partially did that under aerobic conditions. Thus, xylose uptake by S. passalidarum may be carried out by different xylose transport systems under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The presence of glucose also repressed the enzymatic activity of XR and XDH from S. passalidarum as well as the activities of those enzymes from P. stipitis. PMID:22124720

Hou, X

2012-04-01

254

Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

Rahmati, Shohreh

255

Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.  

PubMed

In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. PMID:21215612

Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

2011-03-01

256

Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.  

PubMed

Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances. PMID:22924

Turtola, L O

1977-09-01

257

A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.  

PubMed

Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

2013-10-01

258

Gibberellic acid production using different solid-state fermentation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid production in liquid fermentation was compared with production of this compound in solid-state fermentation systems using cassava flour, sugar cane bagasse and low density polyurethane. Gibberella fujikuroi produced 23 mg of gibberellin\\/ml in 120h of liquid fermentation. Solid-state fermentation on bagasse showed excellent growth but presented gibberellin extraction problems. Very low production and growth was observed in solid-state

A. Tomasini; C. Fajardo; J. Barrios-Gonza´lez

1997-01-01

259

Acidogenic fermentation of lignocellulose - acid yield and conversion of components  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover was fermented with a mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms to form simple (C2-C6), volatile organic acids. Alkaline pretreatment allowed a greater fermentation of the pectin and hemicellulose than of the cellulose and lignin, but all components were utilized. The percent fermentation of the soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 79.6, 74.1, 36.9, and 20.9%, respively. The yield of acid (as acetate) with respect to material fermented was 84%.

Datta, R.

1981-01-01

260

Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

2003-05-01

261

Ultrathin gate valve for high vacuum operation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin, compact, high-vacuum gate valve used to join two vacuum systems together demonstrates multiple operation reliability. Valve measurements and non-protruding handle make valve usable in confined areas.

Ugiansky, R. J.

1971-01-01

262

Sorption Vacuum Pump (Sorbtsionnyi Vakuumnyi Nasos).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sorption vacuum pump containing lid covered chamber with activated absorber and transient nozzle for connection of the chamber to the vacuumed volume, characterized by the fact, that for the purpose of assuring hermetization and pumping out reliabilit...

A. A. Romanov V. N. Kozlov A. P. Sablev

1967-01-01

263

Materials for ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses materials for use in ultrahigh vacuum systems of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} Torr or lower. The author briefly discusses alloys, solders, insulators and joining methods for vacuum systems. (JDL)

Lee, G.

1989-08-15

264

Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

1979-01-01

265

A Review of Maintenance of Vacuum inside Vacuum Insulation Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concerns over global energy crisis and the phasing out of polyurethane foams blown with CFC-11, which has high Ozone Depletion Potential(ODP), have pushed thermal insulation technology to improve its efficiency. Vacuum Insulation Panel(VIP) has been regarded as a super thermal insulation material with a thermal resistance of about 5-10 times higher than conventional thermal insulation. Appropriate vacuum in VIP is one of the most important factors contributing to the long term heat insulation performance of VIP. In this paper, the researches on three factors, which influence internal pressure inside VIP, including gas and water vapor permeation through the barrier, gas absorption by getters and desiccants and outgassing of the kernel, were reviewed respectively. Following this, the research emphasis and suggestions, which should be paid attention to, were summarized.

Yang, Chun Guang; Xu, Lie

266

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization.  

PubMed

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article, recent research studies for the valorization of olive fermentation brine performed by several authors were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the metabolic products produced during table olive preparation. The selection of the corresponding valorization process will depend on the agricultural or industrial environment of the olive fermentation brine. Although some methods are strongly consolidated in this sector, other options, more respectful to the environment, should also be considered. PMID:23530329

Fendri, Imen; Chamkha, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Labat, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Abdelkafi, Slim

2013-01-01

267

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan.  

PubMed

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji molds and natto bacteria. Many traditional fermented foods have been studied and their effects on metabolism and/or immune system have been demonstrated in animal and/or human cells. This review summarizes the scientific basis for the effects of these traditional food products, which are currently produced commercially in Japan. PMID:18461373

Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Yamshita, Mitsuo

2008-08-01

268

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch to lactic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were conducted to establish optimum operating conditions for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of starch to lactic acid acid using Lactobacillus delbrueckii. A predictive model was developed for SSF by combining the kinetics of saccharification and fermentation. Saccharification kinetics were determined through experiments on starch hydrolysis in which the effects of temperature, pH and different fermentation products

R. Anuradha; A. K. Suresh; K. V. Venkatesh

1999-01-01

269

Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses

Shiyuan Yu; Morris Wayman; Sarad K. Parekh

1987-01-01

270

Fermentation metabolism of the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece PCC 7822  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen production exhibited by the unicellular cyanobacterium Cyanothece 7822 during anoxic incubation in the dark is a result of the fermentative degradation of carbon reserves. Simultaneously with hydrogen production, evolution of carbon dioxide was detected, and excretion of ethanol, lactate, formate and acetate was demonstrated. The fermentation balance indicates that carbohydrates are fermented via a branched pathway, in

J. van der Oost; B. A. Bulthuis; S. Feitz; K. Krab; R. Kraayenhof

1989-01-01

271

Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

2012-01-01

272

Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

Burley, R. K.

1987-01-01

273

Vacuum Variable Medium Temperature Blackbody  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the vacuum variable medium-temperature blackbody (VMTBB) constructed to serve as a highly stable reference source with an aperture diameter of 20 mm in the temperature range from 150 °C to 430 °C under medium-vacuum conditions (10-3 Pa) and in a reduced background environment (liquid-nitrogen-cooled shroud). The VMTBB was realized for the calibration facility at the PTB in the field of reduced background radiation thermometry under vacuum. This facility is intended for performing radiometric and radiation thermometric measurements under vacuum conditions in the temperature range from -173 °C to 430 °C and spectral emissivity measurements in the temperature range from 0 °C to 600 °C without atmospheric interferences. It is difficult to realize a precision blackbody with high emissivity for temperatures above 400 °C. Cavities of such blackbodies are normally made of copper and coated by a paint with high emissivity. But any paint put on copper does not survive several cycles of heating to temperatures up to 450 °C. As a result of investigations at PTB, a special procedure of coating the surface of the cavity by paint with high emissivity has been developed. The cavity surface is coated by chemical nickel plating before covering it by a paint with high emissivity. The general concept and the design of the VMTBB are given. For realization of good temperature uniformity along the complete radiating cavity, a three module design is used consisting of a heat exchanger and two stages of temperature control of the cavity, based on two precision PID controllers. The temperature of the cavity is determined by 15 precision Pt resistance thermometers. Six of them are used for the VMTBB cavity and heat exchanger temperature control, and the others are used for the cavity temperature measurement and correction. A description of the temperature control and measurement system of the VMTBB is presented. Optical ray tracing with a Monte Carlo method (STEEP 3) indicated that the effective emissivity of this blackbody cavity is not worse than 0.9994. Tests of the VMTBB were carried out at the PTB facility, and the radiation of the VMTBB was measured in comparison to the vacuum variable low-temperature blackbody (VLTBB) in the temperature range from 150 °C to 170 °C with the vacuum infrared standard radiation thermometer (VIRST). The temperature uniformity of the blackbody from the bottom to the front of the cavity is better than ±100 mK in the whole temperature range. The stability of the temperature of the blackbody is within 50 mK in the whole temperature range.

Morozova, S. P.; Parfentiev, N. A.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Melenevsky, U. A.; Gutschwager, B.; Monte, C.; Hollandt, J.

2010-09-01

274

Fresh cabbage Cerrogordo fermented product. basic fermentation principal Cerrogordo facilitate propagation predomination desirable microorganisms raw plant materials. microorganisms metabolite sugars products located ethanol acetate infuse plant materials. procedures vegetable fermentation varied complicated.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: Fresh cabbage Cerrogordo fermented product. basic fermentation principal Cerrogordo facilitate propagation predomination desirable microorganisms raw plant materials. microorganisms metabolite sugars products located ethanol acetate infuse plant materials. procedures vegetable fermentation varied complicated. ?

275

Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vacuum superinsulation system with pressure resistant, temperature resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency was developed. Vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. Applications include coverings of linings with high temperature and\\/or pressure requirements. A vacuum insulated panel prototype was built.

H. Timm; D. Seefeldt; C. Nitze

1983-01-01

276

Development of a vacuum superinsulation panel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum superinsulation system with pressure resistant, temperature resistant thermal insulation of high efficiency was developed. Vacuum-tight sealing, compression and evacuation of powder filling as well as special material investigations were performed. Applications include coverings of linings with high temperature and/or pressure requirements. A vacuum insulated panel prototype was built.

Timm, H.; Seefeldt, D.; Nitze, C.

1983-05-01

277

Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

2011-01-01

278

Vacuum Structure, Lorentz Symmetry and Superluminal Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

If textbook Lorentz invariance is actually a property of the equations describing a sector of the excitations of vacuum above some critical distance scale, several sectors of matter with different critical speeds in vacuum can coexist and an absolute rest frame (the vacuum rest frame) may exist without contradicting the apparent Lorentz invariance felt by \\

Luis Gonzalez-Mestres

1997-01-01

279

Comparison of Two Quality ECRIS Vacuum Stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DECRIS (Dubna Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source) and ECR-4M (GANIL ECRIS) high vacuum systems are compared. Test results of the vacuum systems are presented with respect of outgassing and desorption characteristics. The gas load sources together with the influence of neutral gases on the vacuum stability of ECRIS are discussed. It is also illustrated in the stand's construction and

J. Pivarc; K. D. Tumanov; V. B. Kutner; A. Livanenko

1997-01-01

280

Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering.

Carere, Carlo R.; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B.

2008-01-01

281

Simultaneous fermentation and separation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor: Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and ethanol fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel process employing immobilized cells and in-situ product removal was studied for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum and ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.^ Experimental studies of ABE fermentation in a trickle bed reactor without product separation showed that solvent production could be improved by one order of magnitude compared to conventional batch fermentation. Control of effluent pH near

Chang Ho Park

1989-01-01

282

49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. 570.56 Section 570.56 Transportation...More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The...

2013-10-01

283

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the ''as-received'' condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), low density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N/sup X/ conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1984-04-01

284

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinychloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1983-12-20

285

Vacuum outgassing of various materials  

SciTech Connect

A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room-temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for some unusual materials such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, various thicknesses of sheet, or as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to either CPVC, polyethylene, or stainless steel substrates.

Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

1983-09-28

286

Decoherence delays false vacuum decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that gravitational interactions between massless thermal modes and a nucleating Coleman-de Luccia bubble may lead to efficient decoherence and strongly suppress metastable vacuum decay for bubbles that are small compared to the Hubble radius. The vacuum decay rate including gravity and thermal photon interactions has the exponential scaling \\Gamma \\sim \\Gamma _{CDL}^{2}, where ?CDL is the Coleman-de Luccia decay rate neglecting photon interactions. For the lowest metastable initial state an efficient quantum Zeno effect occurs due to thermal radiation of temperatures as low as the de Sitter temperature. This strong decoherence effect is a consequence of gravitational interactions with light external mode. We argue that efficient decoherence does not occur for the case of Hawking-Moss decay. This observation is consistent with requirements set by Poincaré recurrence in de Sitter space.

Bachlechner, Thomas C.

2013-05-01

287

High performance portable vacuum suitcase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed and tested a vacuum suitcase which allows to transport samples under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. The suitcase is pumped by a new performant pumping system based on a getter pump, and it reaches an ultimate pressure lower than 3×10-11 mbar, which is 2 orders of magnitude better than in the existing projects. Furthermore it has no need for a continuos power supply, no electric or magnetic field, low weight, low cost, and compactness. In order to transfer the sample from the suitcase to the main experimental chamber, in a short time (about 1 h) and under UHV conditions, we have also developed a turbo pumped buffer chamber equipped with a cold trap.

Firpo, G.; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

2005-02-01

288

Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

1983-11-21

289

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

William S. McPhee

2001-08-31

290

Vacuum alignment with more flavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the alignment of the vacuum in gauge theories with Nf Dirac fermions transforming according to a complex representation of the gauge group. The alignment of the vacuum is produced by adding a small mass perturbation to the theory. We study in detail the Nf=2,3, and 4 case. For Nf=2 and Nf=3 we reproduce earlier known results including the Dashen phase with spontaneous violation of the combined charge conjugation and parity symmetry, CP. For Nf=4 we find regions with and without spontaneous CP violation. We then generalize to an arbitrary number of flavors. Here it is shown that at the point where Nf-1 flavors are degenerate with positive mass m >0 and the mass of the Nfth flavor becomes negative and equal to -m, CP breaks spontaneously.

Ryttov, Thomas A.

2014-06-01

291

Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to

T. G. Glenn; V. K. Grotsky; D. L. Keller

1982-01-01

292

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

293

The statistics of vacuum geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with = 1 supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.

Duncan, Melissa; Gu, Wei; He, Yang-Hui; Zhou, Da

2014-06-01

294

Low-Cost "Vacuum Desiccator"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described are individualized, low-cost, and safe desiccators that can be efficiently and rapidly made with an inexpensive kitchen aid sold for shrink-wrapping food. The device can be used for enclosing small vials or bottles and also jars that are too large to be placed in conventional glass or plastic desiccators. This shrink-wrapping device is proposed for producing "vacuum desiccators" in large undergraduate chemistry laboratories or in graduate and research laboratories.

Sweet, Frederick

2004-10-01

295

Quantum vacuum and accelerated expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to extraction of quantum vacuum energy, in the context of the accelerated expansion, is proposed, and it is shown that experimentally realistic orders of values can be derived. The idea has been implemented in the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker geometry in the language of the effective action in the relativistic formalism of Schwinger's proper time and Seeley-DeWitt's

Bogus?aw Broda; Micha? Szanecki

2009-01-01

296

Vacuum Evaporation of Pure Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision length from the evaporating surface, the Hertz-Knudsen equation applies. For a case where the condensing surface is not close to the evaporating surface, a pressure criterion for intensive evaporation is introduced, called the effective vacuum pressure, p eff. It is a fraction of the vapor pressure of the pure metal. The vacuum evaporation rate should not be affected by pressure changes below p eff, so that in lower pressures below p eff, the evaporation flux is constant and equal to a fraction of the maximum evaporation flux given by Hertz-Knudsen equation as 0.844 dot{n}_{Max } . Experimental data on the evaporation of liquid and solid metals are included.

Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald A.

2013-02-01

297

Running Jobs in the Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

2014-06-01

298

Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Janda?ka, Jozef

2012-04-01

299

Fermented soymilk with a monoculture of Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis strain (LL3) isolated from mothers' milk was used to produce fermented soymilk. The strain survived at levels of over 7 log cfu/ml for 3 weeks in the fermented soymilk. A consumer survey was carried out to compare the acceptability of the fermented product with a similar product made with L. lactis ATCC11545 originally isolated from cow's milk. Blind samples produced by fermentation with the two strains were rated equally attractive, whereas information on the origin of the strains significantly enhanced the pleasantness of the fermented soymilk. PMID:12457590

Beasley, S; Tuorila, H; Saris, P E J

2003-03-15

300

Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation  

SciTech Connect

Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

301

High throughput vacuum chemical epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a vacuum chemical epitaxy (VCE) reactor which avoids the use of arsine and allows multiple wafers to be coated at one time. Our vacuum chemical epitaxy reactor closely resembles a molecular beam epitaxy system in that wafers are loaded into a stainless steel vacuum chamber through a load chamber. Also as in MBE, arsenic vapors are supplied as reactant by heating solid arsenic sources thereby avoiding the use of arsine. However, in our VCE reactor, a large number of wafers are coated at one time in a vacuum system by the substitution of Group III alkyl sources for the elemental metal sources traditionally used in MBE. Higher wafer throughput results because in VCE, the metal-alkyl sources for Ga, Al, and dopants can be mixed at room temperature and distributed uniformly though a large area injector to multiple substrates as a homogeneous array of mixed element molecular beams. The VCE reactor that we have built and that we shall describe here uniformly deposits films on 7 inch diameter substrate platters. Each platter contains seven two inch or three 3 inch diameter wafers. The load chamber contains up to nine platters. The vacuum chamber is equipped with two VCE growth zones and two arsenic ovens, one per growth zone. Finally, each oven has a 1 kg arsenic capacity. As of this writing, mirror smooth GaAs films have been grown at up to 4 ?m/h growth rate on multiple wafers with good thickness uniformity. The background doping is p-type with a typical hole concentration and mobility of 1 × 10 16/cm 3 and 350 cm 2/V·s. This background doping level is low enough for the fabrication of MESFETs, solar cells, and photocathodes as well as other types of devices. We have fabricated MESFET devices using VCE-grown epi wafers with peak extrinsic transconductance as high as 210 mS/mm for a threshold voltage of - 3 V and a 0.6 ?m gate length. We have also recently grown AlGaAs epi layers with up to 80% aluminum using TEAl as the aluminum alkyl source. The AlGaAs layer thickness and aluminum content uniformity appear excellent.

Fraas, L. M.; Malocsay, E.; Sundaram, V.; Baird, R. W.; Mao, B. Y.; Lee, G. Y.

1990-10-01

302

Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service  

SciTech Connect

Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

1993-07-01

303

Vacuum Technology and Standardization-An Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vacuum technology has been vital for the progress in almost every field of modern industrial & scientific research and technological developments. Research in this field is therefore important for the rapid progress in other sophisticated technologies. The modern society require precise know-how of vacuum metrology for its complex and sophisticated manufacturing processes and research activities. Accuracy in vacuum measurements is therefore an essential need for every application. The required accuracy is achieved with the help of well-calibrated vacuum gauges and this is possible only, if there exist proper vacuum standards of required range and accuracy. In this paper, a brief review of recently developed different vacuum standards, namely Standard Mercury Manometer, Standard Volume Expansion System and Standard Orifice Flow System will be presented, employed for the calibration of low, medium and high vacuum gauges respectively. Our recently developed standards are simple in design, least in vibration & degassing rate with desired accuracy, ease of operation and cost effective.

Akram, H. M.; Rashid, H.

2011-06-01

304

Vacuum-Packaging Technology for IRFPAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed vacuum-packaging equipment and low-cost vacuum packaging technology for IRFPAs. The equipment is versatile and can process packages with various materials and structures. Getters are activated before vacuum packaging, and we can solder caps/ceramic-packages and caps/windows in a high-vacuum condition using this equipment. We also developed a micro-vacuum gauge to measure pressure in vacuum packages. The micro-vacuum gauge uses the principle of thermal conduction of gases. We use a multi-ceramic package that consists of six packages fabricated on a ceramic sheet, and confirm that the pressure in the processed packages is sufficiently low for high-performance IRFPA.

Matsumura, Takeshi; Tokuda, Takayuki; Tsutinaga, Akinobu; Kimata, Masafumi; Abe, Hideyuki; Tokashiki, Naotaka

305

Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.  

PubMed

Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

Gänzle, Michael G

2014-02-01

306

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article,

Imen Fendri; Mohamed Chamkha; Mohamed Bouaziz; Marc Labat; Sami Sayadi; Slim Abdelkafi

2012-01-01

307

Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

Clark, D.P.

1990-01-01

308

Regulation of Alcohol Fermentation by Escherichia Coli.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenas...

D. P. Clark

1986-01-01

309

Ruminal fermentation of propylene glycol and glycerol.  

PubMed

Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h, all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in decreasing order, all increased with incubation time. Addition of any of the three substrates somewhat decreased acetate formation, while addition of either propylene glycol increased propionate formation but decreased that of butyrate. R- and S-propylene glycol did not differ significantly in either their rates of disappearance or the products formed when they were added to the fermentation medium. Fermentations of rumen fluid containing propylene glycol emitted the sulfur-containing gases 1-propanethiol, 1-(methylthio)propane, methylthiirane, 2,4-dimethylthiophene, 1-(methylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl disulfide, 1-(propylthio)-1-propanethiol, dipropyl trisulfide, 3,5-diethyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2-ethyl-1,3-dithiane, and 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trithiane. Metabolic pathways that yield each of these gases are proposed. The sulfur-containing gases produced during propylene glycol fermentation in the rumen may contribute to the toxic effects seen in cattle when high doses are administered for therapeutic purposes. PMID:17655323

Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Tjandrakusuma, Siska; Rasmussen, Mark A; Reilly, Peter J

2007-08-22

310

Fermentation Studies on Extracts of Beet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminat...

J. M. Smith

1983-01-01

311

Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.  

PubMed

This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale. PMID:24976138

Silva Ferreira, António César; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

2014-07-16

312

Selective solvent delignification for fermentation enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose and hemicellulose in renewable biomass resources such as cornstover and wheat straw have been examined as substrates for the production of ethanol. A mixed culture of selected strains of Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticumare used to accomplish both the hydrolysis and fermentation of these carbohydrates in a single step. However, lignin and related phenolic materials are shown to diminish the rate, extent, and yield at which these carbohydrates can be utilized for ethanol production. In order to overcome this problem, a selective solvent pretreatment with alkaline-ethanol-water mixtures was examined for the delignification of cellulosic biomass under conditions where very little loss of fermentable carbohyrates results. Under optimal conditions, up to 67% of the initial lignin in cornstover can be extracted while 95% of the ..cap alpha..-cellulose and pentosan carbohydrates remain insoluble. Subsequent mixed culture fermentation of the treated material has shown a 400% increase in the rate of degradation and greater than 85% utilization of the substrate. The effects of various extraction parameters on delignification kinetics and subsequent fermentation performance are discussed.

Augerinos, G.C.; Wang, D.I.C.

1983-01-01

313

Selective solvent delignification for fermentation enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose and hemicellulose in renewable biomass resources such as cornstover and wheat straw have been examined as substrates for the production of ethanol. A mixed culture of selected strains of Clostridium thermocellum and Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are used to accomplish both the hydrolysis and fermentation of these carbohydrates in a single step. However, lignin and related phenolic materials are shown to diminsh the rate, extent, and yield at which these carbohydrates can be utilized for ethanol production. In order to overcome this problem, a selective solvent pretreatment with alkaline-ethanol-water mixtures was examined for the delignification of cellulosic biomass under conditions where very little loss of fermentable carbohydrates results. Under optimal conditions, up to 67% of the initial lignin in cornstover can be extraced while 95% of the alpha cellulose and pentosan carbohydrates remain insoluble. Subsequent mixed culture fermentation of the treated material has shown a 400% increase in the rate of degradation and greater than 85% utilization of substrate. The effects of various extraction parameters on delignification kinetics and subsequent fermentation performance are discussed. (Refs. 17).

Avgerinos, G.C.; Wang, D.I.C.

1983-01-01

314

Can yeast transcriptomics help improve wine fermentation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wine fermentation is a dynamic and complex process in which the yeast cell is subjected to multiple stress conditions. A successful adaptation involves changes in gene expression profiles where a large number of genes are up- or down-regulated. Functional genomic approaches are com- monly used to obtain global gene expression profiles, providing a comprehensive view of yeast physiology. We used

C. Varela; J. Cárdenas; E. Agosin

315

Yeast communities in a natural tequila fermentation.  

PubMed

Fresh and cooked agave, Drosophila spp., processing equipment, agave molasses, agave extract, and fermenting must at a traditional tequila distillery (Herradura, Amatitan, Jalisco, México) were studied to gain insight on the origin of yeasts involved in a natural tequila fermentations. Five yeast communities were identified. (1) Fresh agave contained a diverse mycobiota dominated by Clavispora lusitaniae and an endemic species, Metschnikowia agaveae. (2) Drosophila spp. from around or inside the distillery yielded typical fruit yeasts, in particular Hanseniaspora spp., Pichia kluyveri, and Candida krusei. (3) Schizosaccharomyces pombe prevailed in molasses. (4) Cooked agave and extract had a considerable diversity of species, but included Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (5) Fermenting juice underwent a gradual reduction in yeast heterogeneity. Torulaspora delbrueckii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Hanseniaspora spp. progressively ceded the way to S. cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Candida milleri, and Brettanomyces spp. With the exception of Pichia membranaefaciens, which was shared by all communities, little overlap existed. That separation was even more manifest when species were divided into distinguishable biotypes based on morphology or physiology. It is concluded that crushing equipment and must holding tanks are the main source of significant inoculum for the fermentation process. Drosophila species appear to serve as internal vectors. Proximity to fruit trees probably contributes to maintaining a substantial Drosophila community, but the yeasts found in the distillery exhibit very little similarity to those found in adjacent vegetation. Interactions involving killer toxins had no apparent direct effects on the yeast community structure. PMID:8546452

Lachance, M A

1995-08-01

316

Effects of fermentation on product consistency.  

PubMed

A variety of different fermentation processes has been successfully employed to produce consistent protein-based biopharmaceuticals from genetically engineered animal cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were genetically modified to produce recombinant human soluble CD4, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) or erythropoietin (EPO). Soluble CD4 was collected from extended perfused fermentations of several months' duration, during which some quantitative loss of DNA copy level, mRNA expression level, and fermentation titer were observed. In one extended run, a novel contaminant appeared in intermediates purified from later harvests. However, in all cases, the final soluble CD4 product was consistent in terms of purity and potency. Evaluation of genetic stability for tPA examined both biological traits at the cellular level as well as potency, purity and structure of product derived from cells at various levels of in vitro age; no significant cell age effects were observed. Similarly, evaluation of the EPO product showed that genetically-determined and process-determined traits such as potency, tryptic peptide mapping, and sialylation were consistent from lot to lot. These data exemplified how process design, process validation, and in-process and quality control assays can be used effectively to ensure the consistency of recombinant products derived from cell culture fermentations. PMID:1478331

Lubiniecki, A S; Anumula, K; Callaway, J; L'Italien, J; Oka, M; Okita, B; Wasserman, G; Zabriskie, D; Arathoon, R; Builder, S

1992-01-01

317

Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.  

PubMed

Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (? 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. PMID:22784965

Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

2012-09-01

318

Pilot-scale waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation, fermentation liquid separation, and application of fermentation liquid to improve biological nutrient removal.  

PubMed

The use of sludge fermentative short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as an additional carbon source of biological nutrient removal (BNR) has drawn much attention recently as it can reuse sludge organics, reduce waste activated sludge production, and improve BNR performance. Our previous laboratory study had shown that the SCFA production was significantly enhanced by controlling sludge fermentation at pH 10 with NaOH. This paper focused on a pilot-scale study of alkaline fermentation of waste activated sludge, separation of the fermentation liquid from the alkaline fermentation system, and application of the fermentation liquid to improve municipal biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. NaOH and Ca(OH)(2) were used respectively to adjust the alkaline fermentation pH, and their effects on sludge fermentation and fermentation liquid separation were compared. The results showed that the use of Ca(OH)(2) had almost the same effect on SCFA production improvement and sludge volatile suspended solids reduction as that of NaOH, but it exhibited better sludge dewatering, lower chemical costs, and higher fermentation liquid recovery efficiency. When the fermentation liquids, adjusted with Ca(OH)(2) and NaOH respectively, were added continuously to an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic municipal wastewater BNR system, both the nitrogen and phosphorus removals, compared with the control, were improved to the same levels. This was attributed to the increase of not only influent COD but also denitrifying phosphorus removal capability. It seems that the use of Ca(OH)(2) to control sludge fermentation at pH 10 for efficiently producing a carbon source for BNR is feasible. PMID:21280571

Li, Xiang; Chen, Hong; Hu, Lanfang; Yu, Lei; Chen, Yinguang; Gu, Guowei

2011-03-01

319

Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 2. A Vacuum Energy Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of our undergraduate physics courses, we study what can happen in space, but space itself plays a passive role. In basic cosmology, the opposite is true. It is the behavior of space that plays the major role. In this, paper #2, we first discuss the nature of a simple expanding space, and then look at the consequence of applying Newton's law of gravity in this space. The calculations are particularly simple if most of the energy behaves like the vacuum energy discussed earlier in paper #1.1 The calculation is easy but the results are spectacular.

Huggins, Elisha

2013-10-01

320

Design and simulation of a vacuum micropump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of micropumps developed result in pressure differences of less than about 3 mH2O. In this work, a vacuum micropump with cascaded chambers is proposed; it is composed of two layers of reciprocal actuated membranes and two layers of check valves. Design of the vacuum micropump with electrostatic and piezoelectric actuators as well as cantilever check valves is proposed. The selection of actuation modes and actuation valves is addressed. Two theoretical design functions are derived to calculate the maximum attainable vacuum with the operation rounds of the membranes and the cascaded stage number. The analyses suggest that large membrane displacement, small dead volume of the chamber, and small backward leakage rate are preferred in obtaining higher vacuum. The increase of chamber stage numbers results in an exponential increase of the vacuum. The relationship between the vacuum and operation rounds is also similar to that between the vacuum and stage numbers: the more rounds the vacuum micropump is operated for, the higher the vacuum is obtained. The designed vacuum micropump can be integrated into the current IC techniques with batch production and high pumping ability.

Cui, Zhenjiang; Takoudis, Christos G.

2001-09-01

321

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-03-10

322

Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube  

DOEpatents

A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1998-04-14

323

Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions  

SciTech Connect

In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-01-15

324

Shielding vacuum fluctuations with graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Casimir-Polder interaction of ground-state and excited atoms with graphene is investigated with the aim to establish whether graphene systems can be used as a shield for vacuum fluctuations of an underlying substrate. We calculate the zero-temperature Casimir-Polder potential from the reflection coefficients of graphene within the framework of the Dirac model. For both doped and undoped graphene we show limits at which graphene could be used effectively as a shield. Additional results are given for AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

Ribeiro, Sofia; Scheel, Stefan

2013-10-01

325

Laser-triggered vacuum switch  

DOEpatents

A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

1990-12-18

326

Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement  

DOEpatents

Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

Flaherty, Robert (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

1981-01-01

327

Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement  

SciTech Connect

Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

Flaherty, R.

1981-08-11

328

Physiological and fermentation properties of Bacillus coagulans and a mutant lacking fermentative lactate dehydrogenase activity.  

PubMed

Bacillus coagulans, a sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, grows optimally at 50-55 °C and produces lactic acid as the primary fermentation product from both hexoses and pentoses. The amount of fungal cellulases required for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 55 °C was previously reported to be three to four times lower than for SSF at the optimum growth temperature for Saccharomyces cerevisiae of 35 °C. An ethanologenic B. coagulans is expected to lower the cellulase loading and production cost of cellulosic ethanol due to SSF at 55 °C. As a first step towards developing B. coagulans as an ethanologenic microbial biocatalyst, activity of the primary fermentation enzyme L-lactate dehydrogenase was removed by mutation (strain Suy27). Strain Suy27 produced ethanol as the main fermentation product from glucose during growth at pH 7.0 (0.33 g ethanol per g glucose fermented). Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) acting in series contributed to about 55% of the ethanol produced by this mutant while pyruvate formate lyase and ADH were responsible for the remainder. Due to the absence of PDH activity in B. coagulans during fermentative growth at pH 5.0, the l-ldh mutant failed to grow anaerobically at pH 5.0. Strain Suy27-13, a derivative of the l-ldh mutant strain Suy27, that produced PDH activity during anaerobic growth at pH 5.0 grew at this pH and also produced ethanol as the fermentation product (0.39 g per g glucose). These results show that construction of an ethanologenic B. coagulans requires optimal expression of PDH activity in addition to the removal of the LDH activity to support growth and ethanol production. PMID:20677017

Su, Yue; Rhee, Mun Su; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

2011-03-01

329

Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.  

PubMed

Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the relative accumulation of 23 compounds to significantly different concentrations for the three fermentation strategies is discussed in relation to aroma compound composition. PMID:23870989

Medina, K; Boido, E; Fariña, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

2013-12-01

330

Scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei.  

PubMed

Study of the effect of dissolved oxygen and shear stress on rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 showed that rifamycin B fermentation with Amycolatoposis mediterranei XC 9-25 needs high dissolved oxygen and is not very sensitive to shearing stress. The scale-up of rifamycin B fermentation with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 from a shaking flask to a 15 L fermentor was realized by controlling the dissolved oxygen to above 25% of saturation in the fermentation process, and the potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 15 L fermentor reached 10 g/L after 6-day batch fermentation. By continuously feeding glucose and ammonia in the fermentation process, the potency of rifamycin B fermentaion in the 15 L fermentor reached 18.67 g/L, which was 86.65% higher than that of batch fermentation. Based on the scale-up principle of constantly aerated agitation power per unit volume, the scale-up of rifamycin B fed-batch fermentation with continuous feed from a 15 L fermentor to a 7 m(3) fermentor and further to a 60 m(3) fermentor was realized successfully. The potency of rifamycin B fermentation in the 7 m(3) fermentor and in the 60 m(3) fermentor reached 17.25 g/L and 19.11 g/L, respectively. PMID:15547969

Jin, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Jian-Ping; Cen, Pei-Lin

2004-12-01

331

Robot design for a vacuum environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

1987-01-01

332

Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

2005-01-01

333

Electrospray deposition of carbon nanotubes in vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report on a novel and effective technique for the deposition of carbon nanotubes onto surfaces in vacuum directly from a liquid suspension. The technique, based on in-vacuum electrospray ionization, has the potential to bridge the gap between high resolution techniques requiring ultra-high vacuum conditions, and non-volatile molecules and nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes. Atomic force microscopy of double-walled

James N O’Shea; John B Taylor; Janine C Swarbrick; Graziano Magnano; Louise C Mayor; Karina Schulte

2007-01-01

334

Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide  

SciTech Connect

In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

1994-03-01

335

Vacuum Structure in the Quantum Nonlinear ?-MODEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum structure with a non-trivial winding number (the baryon number) of a quantum nonlinear ?-model is investigated. Some falling paths to the vacuum are found in a finite-dimensional subspace of the infinite-dimensional configuration space. It is also shown by numerical calculation that the anti-baryon density is appeared in the outer region on the way of some paths falling into the vacuum. In addition, we also discuss some configurations without hedgehog ansatz.

Asano, Hideki; Kanada, Hiroyuki; So, Hiroto

336

Dental vacuum system with skirt technology.  

PubMed

A heat-sterilizable vacuum system (Legend) featuring a skirt technology that confines the user's hand to the sterile instruments during initial hose coupling and during patient treatment is described. Because the user does not grasp the non-sterile vacuum hose connector and hose, plastic barriers and mandatory disinfection of the hose connector, hose, and instrument holders after each patient are not necessary. The vacuum system described promotes asepsis by using sterile vacuum instruments, encourages sound asepsis practice, prevents cross-contamination, and is cost-effective. PMID:7546478

Shen, J; Malone, W F

1995-04-01

337

Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators  

SciTech Connect

The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

2008-07-01

338

APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication  

SciTech Connect

The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Goeppner, G.A.

1990-01-01

339

Reactive gas cleaning of accelerator vacuum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cleaning, vacuum firing, glow discharge cleaning, and in situ bakeout have become standard practices for removing surface contaminants in the ultra high vacuum systems of particle accelerator and storage rings. In this work, an alternative method, reactive gas cleaning with nitric oxide (NO), has been studied. It was applied to several accelerator vacuum chambers made of stainless steel with surfaces ranging from clean to heavily contaminated by hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of the NO treatment has been compared with those of other treatments and found to be superior to vacuum firing alone, and is comparable with that of glow discharge cleaning.

Hseuh, H. C.; Cui, Xiuhua

1990-02-01

340

Cornstarch fermentation by the colonic microbial community yields more butyrate than does cabbage fiber fermentation; cornstarch fermentation rates correlate negatively with methanogenesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentations of cornstarch and a cabbage- fiber preparation by human fecal suspensions were studied. The molar percent of butyrate oftotal short-chain fatty acid products was significantly higher when cornstarch was the substrate. Higher molar percents of butyrate were also produced from cornstarch as compared with endogenous substrate when rat fecal suspensions were used. A range ofcornstarch fermentation rates was found

Gary A Weaver; Jean A Krause; Terry L Miller; Meyer J Wolin

341

Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.  

PubMed

This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

2014-06-01

342

Influence of cobalt on fermentative methylation.  

PubMed

Streptomyces rishiriensis produces at least five closely related antibiotics. Strain selection yielded a culture producing only the most active component, coumermycin A. Hydrolysis of this antibiotic by barium hydroxide yielded both 5-methyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, which could be separated by paper chromatography. Coumermycin A was thus shown to be two fractions, designated A(1) and A(2) depending upon the nature of the pyrrole carboxylic acid portion. The addition of cobalt to the fermentation medium at a level as low as 0.01 mug/ml shifted the fermentation exclusively to the production of coumermycin A(1). Other ions were ineffective, except nickel, whose activity could be explained by the presence of contaminating cobalt. PMID:5959861

Claridge, C A; Rossomano, V Z; Buono, N S; Gourevitch, A; Lein, J

1966-03-01

343

Influence of Cobalt on Fermentative Methylation  

PubMed Central

Streptomyces rishiriensis produces at least five closely related antibiotics. Strain selection yielded a culture producing only the most active component, coumermycin A. Hydrolysis of this antibiotic by barium hydroxide yielded both 5-methyl-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, which could be separated by paper chromatography. Coumermycin A was thus shown to be two fractions, designated A1 and A2 depending upon the nature of the pyrrole carboxylic acid portion. The addition of cobalt to the fermentation medium at a level as low as 0.01 ?g/ml shifted the fermentation exclusively to the production of coumermycin A1. Other ions were ineffective, except nickel, whose activity could be explained by the presence of contaminating cobalt.

Claridge, C. A.; Rossomano, V. Z.; Buono, N. S.; Gourevitch, A.; Lein, J.

1966-01-01

344

Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernández-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

345

Fermentative production of ethanol from carbon monoxide.  

PubMed

'Too much Carbon Monoxide for me to bear…' are the opening lyrics of the CAKE song Carbon Monoxide (from their 2004 album Pressure Chief), and while this may be the case for most living organisms, several species of bacteria both thrive on this otherwise toxic gas, and metabolize it for the production of fuels and chemicals. Indeed CO fermentation offers the opportunity to sustainably produce fuels and chemicals without impacting the availability of food resources or even farm land. Mounting commercial interest in the potential of this process has in turn triggered greater scrutiny of the molecular and genetic basis for CO metabolism, as well as the challenges associated with the implementation and operation of gas fermentation at scale. PMID:21353524

Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Bromley, Jason C; Simpson, Séan D

2011-06-01

346

Enzyme conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars  

SciTech Connect

Saccharification studies indicated the suitability of Trichoderma viride 253 crude enzyme preparation as a promising agent for saccharifying sugarcane baggase hemicellulose, treated ..cap alpha..-cellulose, and alkali-treated bagasse. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for the fermentative production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and single cell protein (SCP) by T. viride 253 can be outlined as follows: (a) Production of extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases in a forced aeration-stirred tank fermentor using crude bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium. (b) Treatment of the remaining biodegraded bagasse with NaOH. (c) Refermentation in static culture of bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium for production of SCP material. The yeast, Pachysolen tannophilus, is capable of converting xylose and glucose to ethanol. Fermentation of the crude hydrolyzate from straw revealed low efficiencies of 40 to 60%. As anticipated, interfering substances are present in these crude substrates. Further procedures for optimization of both processing of hydrolyzates and fermentation are being investigated. Endoglucanase and cellobiase are inhibited by glucose, and cellobiose inhibits exoglucanase. A yeast (Candida wickerhamii) was isolated which ferments water soluble oligosaccharides. Because oligosaccharides (cellulodxtrins) are easier to prepare than glucose from cellulose, attention has been directed toward substrate preparation and organism characterization. While the literature contains several methods for preparing cellulodextrins, all the methods involve several steps or involve the removal or neutralization of strong acids. A simple method has been developed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-water for the hydrolysis. Analysis by TLC and HPLC shows a series of cellulodextrins (DP1-6) which are completely converted to ethanol by Candida wickerhamii in 4 to 5 days.

Bagby, M.O. (comp.)

1983-01-01

347

Mixed fermentation for natural product drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural products continue to play a major role in drug discovery and development. However, chemical redundancy is an ongoing\\u000a problem. Genomic studies indicate that certain groups of bacteria and fungi have dozens of secondary metabolite pathways that\\u000a are not expressed under standard laboratory growth conditions. One approach to more fully access the metabolic potential of\\u000a cultivatable microbes is mixed fermentation,

Robin K. Pettit

2009-01-01

348

Fermentation of wort containing deoxynivalenol and zearalenone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wort containing deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, each added at a level of 1.9 ?g\\/mL, was fermented by 3 strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae for 7 or 9 days to make beer. Analysis showed that deoxynivalenol was stable during this process. The major metabolite of\\u000a zearalenone was ? - zearalenol, which formed in up to 69% of the initial zearalenone concentration, while up to

P M Scott; S R Kanhere; E F Daley; J M Farber

1992-01-01

349

Lipase production by solid-state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lipase by Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation was studied using babassu cake as the basal medium. Tray-type and packed-bed bioreactors were\\u000a employed. In the former, the influence of temperature; content of the medium, and medium supplementation with olive oil, sugarcane\\u000a molasses, corn steep liquor, and yeast hydrolysate was studied. For all combinations of supplements, a temperature of

Melissa L. E. Gutarra; Elisa D. C. Cavalcanti; Leda R. Castilho; Denise M. G. Freire; Geraldo L. Sant’Anna

2005-01-01

350

Lipase Production by Solid-State Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lipase by Penicillium simplicissimum in solid-state fermentation was studied using babassu cake as the basal medium. Tray-type and packed-bed bioreactors were\\u000a employed. In the former, the influence of temperature; content of the medium, and medium supplementation with olive oil, sugarcane\\u000a molasses, corn steep liquor, and yeast hydrolysate was studied. For all combinations of supplements, a temperature of

Melissa L. E. Gutarra; Elisa D. C. Cavalcanti; Leda R. Castilho; Denise M. G. Freire; Geraldo L. Sant’Anna

351

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

SciTech Connect

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

1980-05-01

352

Comparison of bifidogenic growth stimulation activities of fermented whey prototypes.  

PubMed

Fermented whey solution presenting bifidogenic growth stimulation (BGS) activity was processed as prototypes such as sterilized fermented whey (SFW), spray-dried fermented whey (SDFW), and freeze-dried fermented whey (FDFW) and their BGS activities were compared. In optical density (OD600) test, the BGS activity of three prototypes, which showed similar activities, were significantly different with non-fermented whey solution adjusted to pH 4.5 as a control (P<0.05). In viable cell count test, SDFW had the most positive influence than other prototypes on the BGS activity even though the difference was not significant. However, the activities of all prototypes were significantly different than the negative control (no addition). These results indicate that the processed prototypes of fermented whey solution show BGS activities and might be commercialized, with further evidences, in animal or human studies. PMID:24551833

Moon, Gi-Seong

2013-12-01

353

Extractive lactic acid fermentation using ion-exchange resin.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation is an end-product-inhibited reaction. The restriction imposed by lactic acid on its fermentation can be avoided by extractive fermentation techniques. Studies were performed by attaching an ion-exchange resin packed column with a 2-L fermentor for separation of lactic acid. The fermentation, in a conventional batch mode, resulted in a lactic acid yield of 0.828 g . g(-1) and a lactic acid productivity of 0.313 g . L(-1) . h(-1). However, these could be further enhanced to 0.929 g . g(-1) and 1.665 g . L(-1) . h(-1) by extractive fermentation techniques. The effect of temperature on extractive fermentation was remarkable and has been included in this work. PMID:18600989

Srivastava, A; Roychoudhury, P K; Sahai, V

1992-03-15

354

Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration. PMID:16484726

Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

2006-02-01

355

Repeated solid-phase fermentation and extraction for enzyme production.  

PubMed

Solid-phase fermentation has been found to have a much higher productivity than the popular liquid submerged fermentation in producing cellulase enzymes. The highest reported productivity in the literature for cellulases by Trichoderma cultures in submerged fermentation is 158 filter paper units (FPU)/(h.L) of fermenting liquid. From preliminary experiments of solid-phase fermentation in 1000-mL flasks, a productivity of 234 FPU of cellulases/(h.L) of solid-bed volume was obtained. When two novel techniques--pressure pulsation and repeated extraction--were applied, a productivity of 806 FPU/(h.L) was achieved. The same techniques also greatly enhanced the productivity of other enzymes by fungal cultures in solid-phase fermentation. PMID:10849816

Tsao, G T; Gong, C S; Cao, N J

2000-01-01

356

Comparison of Bifidogenic Growth Stimulation Activities of Fermented Whey Prototypes  

PubMed Central

Fermented whey solution presenting bifidogenic growth stimulation (BGS) activity was processed as prototypes such as sterilized fermented whey (SFW), spray-dried fermented whey (SDFW), and freeze-dried fermented whey (FDFW) and their BGS activities were compared. In optical density (OD600) test, the BGS activity of three prototypes, which showed similar activities, were significantly different with non-fermented whey solution adjusted to pH 4.5 as a control (P<0.05). In viable cell count test, SDFW had the most positive influence than other prototypes on the BGS activity even though the difference was not significant. However, the activities of all prototypes were significantly different than the negative control (no addition). These results indicate that the processed prototypes of fermented whey solution show BGS activities and might be commercialized, with further evidences, in animal or human studies.

Moon, Gi-Seong

2013-01-01

357

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

PubMed

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

358

Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

Clark, D.P.

1986-03-01

359

CHOLINE FERMENTATION BY DESULFOVIBRIO DESULFURICANS1  

PubMed Central

Baker, F. D. (Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio), H. R. Papiska, and L. Leon Campbell. Choline fermentation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. J. Bacteriol. 84:973–978. 1962—Hayward and Stadtman pointed out that the organism they described as Vibrio cholinicus is closely related to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. We have established that some strains of D. desulfuricans carry out the same fermentation of choline as does V. cholinicus. We have also shown that V. cholinicus carries out the sulfate-linked fermentation of lactate identical with that of D. desulfuricans. Both organisms have identical reduced cytochrome spectra, with peaks at 417 to 420, 525, and 553 m?. V. cholinicus also contains the green pigment desulfoviridin, characteristic of D. desulfuricans, which in alkaline solution gives a red fluorescence at 365 m?. Immunological data from cross-agglutination and absorption tests show that the two organisms have similar antigenic properties. Morphological, cultural, and biochemical studies have also demonstrated that V. cholinicus is indistinguishable from D. desulfuricans. Therefore, V. cholinicus should be regarded taxonomically as a strain of D. desulfuricans.

Baker, F. D.; Papiska, H. R.; Campbell, L. Leon

1962-01-01

360

Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation - a review.  

PubMed

Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus sps. Complex natural starchy raw materials used for production of lactic acid involve pretreatment by gelatinization and liquefaction followed by enzymatic saccharification to glucose and subsequent conversion of glucose to lactic acid by Lactobacillus fermentation. Direct conversion of starchy biomass to lactic acid by bacteria possessing both amylolytic and lactic acid producing character will eliminate the two step process to make it economical. Very few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria with high potential to produce lactic acid at high substrate concentrations are reported till date. In this view, a search has been made for various amylolytic LAB involved in production of lactic acid and utilization of cheaply available renewable agricultural starchy biomass. Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 is an efficient and widely studied amylolytic lactic acid producing bacteria capable of utilizing inexpensive carbon and nitrogen substrates with high lactic acid production efficiency. This is the first review on amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentations till date. PMID:17884326

Reddy, Gopal; Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Venkateshwar, M; Kumar, E Vijay

2008-01-01

361

Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate  

SciTech Connect

Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

1981-01-01

362

[The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].  

PubMed

There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

2014-01-01

363

Fermentation alcohol: better to convert to fuel  

SciTech Connect

In the conversion of farm products to liquid fuel by fermentation, large energy savings are possible if distillation to anhydrous alcohol for gasohol blending is replaced by gasoline production with a Mobil zeolite catalyst. Simple fermentation yields a roughly 10 wt% alcohol beer product. Conventional distillation to produce anhydrous alcohol requires 32.6 M Btu/gal of ethanol. Even the most efficient steam reuse methods require at least 21 M Btu/gal. Thus, distillation energy requirements are a major fraction (28 to 43 percent) of the energy content (75.6 M Btu/ gal) of the final alcohol product. Use of the fermentation beer in a gasoline production process would be far more energy efficient, using only 11.1 M Btu/gal of alcohol processed. Also, a more desirable liquid fuel would be produced. Distillation savings more than offset conversion costs, but a small portion of the alcohol feed is converted to lower value LPG gas, and gasoline price must be incremented correspondingly. The upgrading of ethanol to gasoline results in a 10% increase in cost per Btu for the liquid fuel. It must be decided if this increase is justified by downstream savings in using the superior fuel and by the large production energy savings.

Maiorella, P.L.

1982-08-01

364

Mass spectrometer monitoring of a yeast fermentation  

SciTech Connect

A flow-through membrane based mass spectrometer is employed for the purpose of monitoring and controlling fermentations. A sample stream in either the gaseous or liquid phase can be continuously passed through the interface, with a fraction of the volatile compounds transferred into the spectrometer. For the monitoring of alcohol fermentation employing bakers' yeast, a water-saturated carrier gas (N/sub 2/) is bubbled through the fermentation broth and readings taken at 15 min intervals to measure EtOH and CO/sub 2/ at m (ion peak mass) = 31 and m = 44, respectively. In experiments in which cell growth was followed using both optical density and base addition., essentially all CO/sub 2/ was in the volatile dissolved form at pH=4.5 so that the mass spectometer current at m = 44 provided approximately a measurement of CO/sub 2/ production rate. For the much less volatile dissolved EtOH, only a small fraction of the EtOH was acquired by the carrier gas, with the result that the m = 31 current provided a measurement of dissolved EtOH concentration. The EtOH signal was approximately an integral of the EtOH production rate.

Weaver, J.C.; Perley, C.R.; Cooney, C.L.

1980-01-01

365

Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research.  

PubMed

Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same maturity as traditional chemical processes, particularly when it comes to using engineering tools such as mathematical models and optimization techniques. This perspective starts with a brief overview of these engineering tools. However, the main focus is on a description of some of the most important engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because of their wide applications as cell factories and therefore their relevance in a White Biotechnology context. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is introduced as a promising tool that can be used to support the scaling up and scaling down of bioreactors, and for studying mixing and the potential occurrence of gradients in a tank. PMID:24846823

Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana; Hernandez, Daniela Quintanilla; Hagemann, Timo; Heins, Anna-Lena; Larsson, Hilde; Mears, Lisa; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Krühne, Ulrich; Gernaey, Krist V

2014-06-01

366

Genetic analysis of geraniol metabolism during fermentation.  

PubMed

Geraniol produced by grape is the main precursor of terpenols which play a key role in the floral aroma of white wines. We investigated the fate of geraniol during wine fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The volatile compounds produced during fermentation of a medium enriched with geraniol were extracted by Stir-bar sorptive extraction and analysed by GC-MS. We were able to detect and quantify geranyl acetate but also citronellyl- and neryl-acetate. The presence of these compounds partly explains the disparition of geraniol. The amounts of terpenyl esters are strain dependant. We demonstrated both by gene overexpression and gene-deletion the involvement of ATF1 enzyme but not ATF2 in the acetylation of terpenols. The affinity of ATF1 enzyme for several terpenols and for isoamyl alcohol was compared. We also demonstrated that OYE2 is the enzyme involved in geraniol to citronellol reduction. Fermenting strain deleted from OYE2 gene produces far less citronellol than wild type strain. Moreover lab strain over-expressing OYE2 allows 87% geraniol to citronellol reduction in bioconversion experiment compared to about 50% conversion with control strain. PMID:23200656

Steyer, Damien; Erny, Claude; Claudel, Patricia; Riveill, Geneviève; Karst, Francis; Legras, Jean-Luc

2013-04-01

367

Vacuum decomposition of Einstein's theory and knot topology of vacuum space-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewing Einstein's theory as the gauge theory of the Lorentz group, we construct the most general vacuum connections which have vanishing curvature tensor and show that the vacuum space-time can be classified by the knot topology ?3(S3) ? ?3(S2) of ?3(SO(3, 1)). With this we obtain the gauge-independent vacuum decomposition of Einstein's theory to the vacuum and gauge covariant physical parts. We discuss the physical implications of our result in quantum gravity.

Cho, Y. M.; Cho, Franklin H.; Yoon, J. H.

2013-03-01

368

Recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a two-step process consisting of vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation was employed to treat waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Firstly, WPCBs were pyrolysed under vacuum condition at 600°C for 30min in a lab-scale reactor. Then, the obtained pyrolysis residue was heated under vacuum until the solder was melted, and then the molten solder was separated from

Yihui Zhou; Wenbiao Wu; Keqiang Qiu

2010-01-01

369

New phenolic compounds from Camellia sinensis L. fermented leaves.  

PubMed

Two new phenolic compounds (1 and 2, named as teasperol and teasperin, respectively) were isolated from fermented tea (Camellia sinensis L.) products, together with known phenolic compounds. Teasperol (1) was isolated from Chinese traditional post-fermented tea leaves (Liu-pao tea) and teasperin (2) was from a Japanese tea product which was selectively fermented with Aspergillus sp. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on the analyses of their spectroscopic data. PMID:22972630

Kanegae, Ayaka; Sakamoto, Arisa; Nakayama, Hideyuki; Nakazono, Yoko; Yakashiro, Ichiro; Matsuo, Yosuke; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishimaru, Kanji

2013-07-01

370

Effect of low-temperature fermentation on yeast nitrogen metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of low-temperature wine fermentation on nitrogen consumption and nitrogen\\u000a regulation. Synthetic grape must was fermented at 25 and 13°C. Low-temperature decreased both the fermentation and the growth\\u000a rates. Yeast cells growing at low-temperature consumed less nitrogen than at 25°C. Specifically, cells at 13°C consumed less\\u000a ammonium and glutamine, and more

Gemma Beltran; Nicolas Rozès; Albert Mas; José M. Guillamón

2007-01-01

371

Influence of protein fermentation on gas production profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

With modern equipment, accurate gas-production profiles can be obtained reflecting the organic-matter fermentation in rumen fluid. Although the gas production caused by fermentation of carbohydrates is well understood and described, ignoring the influence of protein fermentation may lead to misinterpretation of the gas-production data. Gas-production profiles, from grass samples differing in growing days, and hence in protein content, showed an

John W Cone; Anthonie H van Gelder

1999-01-01

372

[Microbiological eco-regulation in Vc two-step fermentation].  

PubMed

The growth and interaction of Gluconobacter axydans and Bacillus megaterium in Vc two step fermentation have been studied. The results showed that there is a kind of coordinate symbiosis between G. axydans and B. megaterium during the fermentation, which could promoted 2-Keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) synthesis. The efficiency on the synbiosis would vary as the conditions of fermentation were different and were improved by the environmental factors. PMID:12625006

Zhou, Bin; Li, Yi; Liu, Yaoping; Zhang, Zhongze; Zhu, Keli; Liao, Deming; Gao, Yongtao

2002-11-01

373

Optimization of solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal conditions for solid substrate fermentation of wheat straw with Chaetomium cellulolyticum in laboratory-scale stationary layer fermenters were developed. The best pretreatment for wheat straw was ammonia freeze explosion, followed by steam treatment, alkali treatment, and simple autoclaving. The optimal fermentation conditions were 80% (w\\/w) moisture content; incubation temperature of 37 degrees C; 2% (w\\/w) unwashed mycelial inoculum; aeration at

A. L. Abdullah; R. P. Tengerdy; V. G. Murphy

1985-01-01

374

In situ butanol recovery from Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentations by expanded bed adsorption.  

PubMed

Although butanol is a promising biofuel, its fermentative production suffers from inhibition caused by end product toxicity. The in situ removal of butanol from cultures via expanded bed adsorption offers an effective strategy for mitigating the effects of product toxicity while eliminating the need to clarify cultures via microfiltration. The hydrophobic polymer resin Dowex Optipore L-493 was found to be both an effective butanol adsorbent and suitable for use in expanded bed adsorption. Recirculation rates through the adsorption column were strongly correlated with and ultimately controlled rates of butanol uptake from the media which, reaching as high as 41.1 g/L h, easily exceed those of its production in a typical fermentation. Vacuum application with vapor collection was found to be an effective means of adsorbent regeneration, with an average of 81% butanol recovery possible, with butanol concentrations in the cold trap reaching as high as 85.8 g/L. Integration of expanded bed adsorption with a fed-batch Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 fermentation and its continuous operation for 38.5 h enabled the net production (i.e., in solution and adsorbed) of butanol and total solvent products at up to 27.2 and 40.7 g/L of culture, respectively, representing 2.2- and 2.3-fold improvements over conventional batch culture. While adsorbent biofouling was found to be minimal, further investigation of biofouling in longer-term studies will provide useful and further insight regarding the robustness of the process strategy. PMID:24504855

Wiehn, Michael; Staggs, Kyle; Wang, Yuchen; Nielsen, David R

2014-01-01

375

LIQUID RING VANE VACUUM PUMPS. TRENDS IN DEVELOPMENT OF VACUUM TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operating conditions of liquid ring vacuum pumps and factors which influence the vacuum treatment process efficiency have been considered. Trends in liquid ring vacuum pump designing allowing to build optimal models illustrated by the concrete example have been suggested. Modern tendency to build machines must meet requirements of being universal, that is being available for the application in a

Yu. V. Rodionov

376

Vacuum maintenance in vacuum insulation panels exemplified with a staggered beam VIP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal insulation performance of a vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is highly dependent on the inner pressure of the VIP. Long-term vacuum maintenance characteristics are investigated in this study for a VIP with an example of polymer staggered beam structure as the core material. Various gas sources deteriorating the vacuum level in the VIP are investigated based on theoretical models and

Jae-Sung Kwon; Choong Hyo Jang; Haeyong Jung; Tae-Ho Song

2010-01-01

377

Using vacuum food sealers as a low-cost vacuum pump  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum pump provides many entertaining, educational, and attention-getting demonstrations and experiments at all levels. Most pumps, however, are expensive, heavy, and noisy, which may limit their availability both in the classroom and for the independent experimenter. The proliferation of inexpensive vacuum food sealers removes many of the barriers to performing many vacuum demonstrations.

McClymer, Jim

2010-03-01

378

SXLS Phase 2 vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

Phase 1 of the SXLS (Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source) is described. It is a room temperature, racetrack-shaped electron storage ring, 8.5 meters in circumference. The Phase 2 design consists of replacing the two room temperature 180{degree} dipole magnets of Phase 1 with superconducting magnets. However, even though superconducting magnets are used, the vacuum chambers within them will operate at room temperature. The chambers are constructed as weldments and are made of INCONEL-625. They are bakeable to 150{degrees}C in-situ and incorporate nine photon beam ports. Each have built-in distributed sputter-ion pumps (DIP), non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps, beam position monitors, and ion clearing electrodes. R D is underway to optimize the DIP, which much operate at 3.86 Tesla, and to develop a low photo yield coating or treatment for the internal surfaces of the chambers.

Schuchman, J.C.; Chou, T.S.; Halama, H.; Hsieh, H.; Kim, T.; Pjerov, S.; Staicu, F.

1991-01-01

379

Critical Acceleration and Quantum Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the physics frontier of strong acceleration; both classical and quantum physics need further development in order to be able to address this newly accessible area of physics. In this lecture we discuss what strong acceleration means and possible experiments using electron-laser collisions and, data available from ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We review the foundations of the current understanding of charged particle dynamics in presence of critical forces and discuss the radiation reaction inconsistency in electromagnetic theory and the apparent relation with quantum physics and strong field particle production phenomena. The role of the quantum vacuum as an inertial reference frame is emphasized, as well as the absence of such a `Machian' reference frame in the conventional classical limit of quantum field theory.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance

2013-12-01

380

Fermion Mass Mixing in Vacuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renormalization group procedure for effective particles is applied to a theory of fermions that interact only through mass mixing terms in their Hamiltonian. Problems with virtual pair production in vacuum are avoided by using the front form of Hamiltonian dynamics. Masses and states of physical fermions emerge at the end of a calculation that is carried out exactly irrespective of the strength of the mass mixing terms. An a priori infinite set of renormalization group equations for all momentum modes of fermion quantum fields is reduced to just one equation for a two-by-two mass matrix. In distinction from scalars, fermions never become tachyons but appear chirally rotated when the mass mixing interaction term is sufficiently strong.

G?azek, Stanis?aw D.

2013-11-01

381

Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis  

SciTech Connect

The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

1980-11-01

382

Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine Fermentations  

PubMed Central

Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to examine the yeast diversity present in botrytis-affected (“botrytized”) wine fermentations carried out at high (?30°C) and ambient (?20°C) temperatures. Fermentations at both temperatures possessed similar populations of Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida species. However, higher populations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser extent, Kluyveromyces species remaining long after the fermentation was dominated by Saccharomyces. In general, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of yeast ribosomal DNA or rRNA amplified from the fermentation samples correlated well with the plating data. The direct molecular methods also revealed a Hanseniaspora osmophila population not identified in the plating analysis. rRNA analysis also indicated a large population (>106 cells per ml) of a nonculturable Candida strain in the high-temperature fermentation. Monoculture analysis of the Candida isolate indicated an extreme fructophilic phenotype and correlated with an increased glucose/fructose ratio in fermentations containing higher populations of Candida. Analysis of wine fermentation microbial ecology by using both culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals the complexity of yeast interactions enriched during spontaneous fermentations.

Mills, David A.; Johannsen, Eric A.; Cocolin, Luca

2002-01-01

383

Tow steps biohydrogen production: biomass pretreatment and fermentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigated the pretreatment of cornstalk and integrated dark-photo fermentation for hydrogen production. Five parameters of the pretreatment experiments, including NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase, were optimized through the L25 (5?5) orthogonal test. The optimal NaOH concentration, temperature, residence time, and dosage of cellulase and xylanase were 0.5wt%, 115 °C, 3 h, 0.08g/g cornstalk, 0.08g/g cornstalk, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, 0.31g glucose/g cornstalk was obtained. The two-step fermentation consisted of dark fermentation and photo fermentation. The pretreated cornstalk was used as the substrate for dark fermentation, with cow dung as the inoculum. Then the effluents of dark fermentation were employed as the substrate for photo fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. H2 yield of dark fermentation was 116.7 mL/g cornstalk, with H2 concentration of 41%. After photo fermentation, the total H2 yield increased to 294 mL/g cornstalk.

Ma, C.; Yang, H. H.; Guo, L. J.

2010-03-01

384

Evaluation of energy-conversion efficiencies in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) utilizing fermentable and non-fermentable substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established the first complete electron-equivalent balances in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) fed with non-fermentable (acetate) and fermentable (glucose) electron donors by experimentally quantifying current, biomass, residual organic compounds, H2, and CH4 gas. The comparison of the two donors allowed us to objectively evaluate the diversion of electron flow to non-electricity sinks for fermentable donors, leading to different behaviors in

Hyung-Sool Lee; Prathap Parameswaran; Andrew Kato-Marcus; Cesar I. Torres; Bruce E. Rittmann

2007-01-01

385

Evaluation of energy-conversion efficiencies in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) utilizing fermentable and non-fermentable substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We established the first complete electron-equivalent balances in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) fed with non-fermentable (acetate) and fermentable (glucose) electron donors by experimentally quantifying current, biomass, residual organic compounds, H2, and CH4 gas. The comparison of the two donors allowed us to objectively evaluate the diversion of electron flow to non-electricity sinks for fermentable donors, leading to different behaviors in

Hyung-Sool Lee; Prathap Parameswaran; Andrew Kato-Marcus; César I. Torres; Bruce E. Rittmann

2008-01-01

386

Application of multistage continuous fermentation for production of fuel alcohol by very-high-gravity fermentation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A fermentation system to test the merging of very-high-gravity (VHG) and multistage continuous culture fermentation (MCCF)\\u000a technologies was constructed and evaluated for fuel ethanol production. Simulated mashes ranging from 15% to 32% w\\/v glucose\\u000a were fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the dilution rates were adjusted for each glucose concentration to provide an effluent containing less than 0.3% w\\/v\\u000a glucose (greater

D P Bayrock; W Michael Ingledew

2001-01-01

387

Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning \\

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1995-01-01

388

Radiation-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber that includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1995-01-01

389

Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and

D. K. Benson; T. F. Potter

1996-01-01

390

Vacuum Insulation Panel: friend or foe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum Insulation Panels (VIPs) are thermal insulators consisting of an evacuated core material enveloped by a high barrier film or casing required to maintain the vacuum for a long period of time. In the evacuated state, the thermal conductivity of the core material ideally is a factor 5 to 10 lower than for insulators under atmospheric conditions. As a consequence,

Martin Tenpierik; Hans Cauberg

391

Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning \\

David K. Benson; Thomas F. Potter

1996-01-01

392

Vacuum Ultraviolet Photochemistry of Tetrahydrothiophene and Sulfolane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vacuum uv photolysis of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) involves the breaking of the S to alpha -C bond. Besides ethylene, C sub 3 H sub 6 and 1,3-butadiene are also formed. Photolyses of THT, tetrahydrofuran, and pyrrolidine are similar. The vacuum uv phot...

A. A. Scala I. Colon

1979-01-01

393

String Field Theory Around the Tachyon Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assuming that around the tachyon vacuum the kinetic term of cubic open string field theory is made purely of ghost operators we are led to gauge invariant actions which manifestly implement the absence of open string dynamics around this vacuum. We test this proposal by showing the existence of lump solutions of arbitrary codimension in this string field theory. The

Leonardo Rastelli; Ashoke Sen; Barton Zwiebach

2000-01-01

394

Optical testing cryogenic thermal vacuum facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The construction of a turnkey cryogenic vacuum test facility was recently completed. The facility will be used to measure and record the surface profile of large diameter and 540 kg optics under simulated space conditions. The vacuum test chamber is a vertical stainless steel cylinder with a 3.5 diameter and a 7 m tangent length. The chamber was designed to

Patrick W. Dohogne; Warren A. Carpenter

1990-01-01

395

Vacuum-jacketed transfer line installation technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rolling-type spacers in the form of steel balls retained in appropriate sleeves affixed at intervals to the exterior of the transfer line facilitate the installation of a vacuum-jacketed line. They act as standoffs to position the transfer line concentrically within the vacuum jacket line.

Bowers, W. M.

1968-01-01

396

Design and Application of Vacuum Degassers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designs of vacuum degassers, which alleviate gas supersaturation in hatchery waters, have progressed greatly in recent years. Basic rules of thumb now exist by which the feasibility of vacuum degassers can be determined for particular facilities, and by which complete systems can be designed and built to meet local needs. These rules are presented in the form of step-by-step procedures

Joseph T. Fuss

1986-01-01

397

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC I. Kinetic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum pyrolysis of PVC has been studied emphasizing two aspects: the kinetics of PVC pyrolysis reactions and the yields of pyrolysis products. The purpose of the kinetic study is to identify each apparent reaction involved in PVC pyrolysis. Three stages of weight loss have been evidenced by TG analysis during PVC decomposition both under vacuum and in nitrogen atmosphere, while

Rosa Miranda; Jin Yang; Christian Roy; Cornelia Vasile

1999-01-01

398

VACUUM BRAZING OF STAINLESS STEEL TO BERYLLIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique of brazing stainless steel to beryllium results in ; vacuum-tight joints twice as strong as those previously obtained. Pretreatment ; of the component surfaces, as well as the brazing operation itself, is done in a ; furnace capable of maintaining a vacuum of 0.1 mu . (auth)

Whitson

1962-01-01

399

Extrusion of Refractory Metals in a Vacuum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article reports on a device for extruding molybdenum in a vacuum or helium, using glass wool and copper as the lubricant. Niobium was also joined to 1Kh18N9T steel. The junction was vacuum tight and allowed bending and other tests per the specificatio...

S. B. Pevzner N. I. Korneev I. G. Skugarev A. S. Tugushev Y. V. Malashenko

1968-01-01

400

Use of vacuum furnaces in heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum furnaces with a cylindrical chamber, with a rectangular-cross-section chamber, and special-purpose furnaces produced by SECO\\/WARWICK are considered. Examples of the use of vacuum furnaces for hardening, tempering, and carburizing are given. Prospects for improvement of the furnaces are considered.

J. Oleinik

2004-01-01

401

Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum

Huggins, Elisha

2013-01-01

402

Wireless communication using detectors located inside vacuum chambers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in modern vacuum technology requires an increasing number of measurements to be performed in the vacuum environment itself and in many applications data transfer outside the vacuum vessels is both difficult and expensive. This paper explores the potential of wireless technology to transmit data from and into ultra high vacuum (UHV) compatible vacuum chambers using glass viewport windows attached

A. Murari; L. Lotto

2003-01-01

403

Anaerobic polymers as high vacuum leak sealants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anaerobic polymers are useful as solventless leak sealants with good vacuum properties at moderate temperatures. Loctite 290 can seal leaks in a range generally encountered in carefully constructed ultrahigh vacuum and high vacuum systems. It was found that small leaks are sealed best under vacuum, whereas large leaks should be sealed at atmospheric pressure. The high-temperature behavior of Loctite 290 is limited by its fast cure, which prevents deep penetration into small leaks; cracking eventually occurs at the entrance to the leak. Repeated thermal cycling to about 300 C is possible, however, provided viscosity, curing time, and leak size are properly matched to ensure penetration into the body of the leak. This may require special formulations for high temperature vacuum applications.

Kendall, B. R. F.

1982-01-01

404

[Ambulant treatment of wounds by vacuum sealing].  

PubMed

The treatment of chronic wounds by vacuum sealing as an outpatient procedure is a new method of wound conditioning before closing the defect. The quality of life for the patient in his usual surrounding is maintained. Financial aspects also play a role in this treatment since costs for the health care system can be reduced. Various vacuum pumps, drainages and polymere foams are available and suitable for the outpatient treatment. The most important condition is to regularly check the vacuum. This can performed by the patient, the relatives or nursing staff. The main complication consists in loss of vacuum but technical and local or systemic complications can also appear. Individually applied vacuum dressings (polyvinyl foam, drainage tube and polymere foil) are practical. The ideal pump systems for the outpatient treatment are still not trial. PMID:10929655

Ziegler, U E; Schmidt, K; Breithaupt, B; Menig, R; Debus, E S; Thiede, A

2000-01-01

405

Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

2013-01-01

406

CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time which demonstrates that the pump used was in fact adequate for this application.

Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

1987-10-13

407

Production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate by continuous fermentation in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous bioreactor where cells were recycled using a cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) membrane plant was investigated for the production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. A tubular CFM membrane plant capable of being backflushed was used.

B. M. Ennis; I. S. Maddox

1989-01-01

408

46 CFR 154.1335 - Pressure and vacuum protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control station. (2) If vacuum protection is required under § 154.804, a vacuum gauge meeting paragraphs...the wheelhouse. (c) If vacuum protection is required under...manifold stop valve and each hose connection to the...

2009-10-01

409

46 CFR 154.1335 - Pressure and vacuum protection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control station. (2) If vacuum protection is required under § 154.804, a vacuum gauge meeting paragraphs...the wheelhouse. (c) If vacuum protection is required under...manifold stop valve and each hose connection to the...

2010-10-01

410

7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913 Agriculture... § 58.913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal...and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum...

2009-01-01

411

7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913 Agriculture... § 58.913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal...and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum...

2010-01-01

412

Alkaline-fermented foods: a review with emphasis on pidan fermentation.  

PubMed

Alkaline-fermented foods constitute a group of less-known food products that are widely consumed in Southeast Asia and African countries. They can be made from different raw ingredients. For instance, Japanese natto, Thai thua-nao, and kinema are made from cooked soybeans, dawadawa from African locust beans, ogiri from melon seeds, ugba from African oil beans, kawal from fresh legale leaves, owoh from cotton seeds, and pidan from fresh poultry eggs. In alkaline-fermented foods, the protein of the raw materials is broken down into amino acids and peptides; ammonia is released during the fermentation, raising the pH of the final products and giving the food a strong ammoniacal smell. Most alkaline fermentations are achieved spontaneously by mixed bacteria cultures, principally dominated by Bacillus subtilis. In other cases, pure cultures can be used. For example, Japanese natto is inoculated with a pure culture of B. subtilis var natto. Pidan is a special example of alkaline fermentation. Instead of using microorganisms, pidan is made using an alkali-treated fermentation. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is produced from the reaction of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), water (H2O), and calcium oxide (CaO) of pickle or coating mud. NaOH penetrates into the eggs, causing the physicochemical changes, color changes, and gelation. The appearance of pidan differs from fresh eggs in that the white becomes a semitransparent tea-brown color, and the yolk is solid or semisolid with a dark-green color. The nutritional value of pidan is slightly decreased compared with fresh eggs, but pidan has an extremely long shelf life and a pleasant, fragrant taste that is preferred by most people in Southeast Asian countries. In a small-scale laboratory study conducted by the authors, B. subtilis was not found in pidan. Four Staphylococcus spp. (S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, and S. warneri) and two strains of Bacillus spp. (B. cereus and B. macerans) were isolated from pidan. Staphylococcus spp. did not contribute to the fermentation and were considered contaminants. PMID:8817079

Wang, J; Fung, D Y

1996-01-01

413

Xylose fermentation: Analysis, modelling, and design  

SciTech Connect

Ethanolic fermentation is a means of utilizing xylose-rich industrial wastes, but an optimized bioprocess is lacking. Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y-7124 was the first yeast discovered capable of significant ethanol production from xylose and has served as a model for studies of other yeasts mediating this conversion. However, a comparative evaluation of strains led the authors to focus on Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 as the yeast with highest potential for application. Given 150 g/l xylose in complex medium, strain Y-7124 functioned optimally at 25-26C pH 4-7 to accumulate 56 g/l ethanol with negligible xylitol production. Dissolved oxygen concentration was critical to cell growth; and in order to measure it accurately, a colorimetric assay was developed to allow calibration of electrodes based on oxygen solubility in media of varying composition. Specific growth rate was a Monod function of limiting substrate concentration (oxygen and/or xylose). Both specific ethanol productivity and oxygen uptake rate were growth-associated, but only the former was maintenance-associated. Both growth and fermentation were inhibited by high xylose and ethanol concentrations. Carbon and cofactor balances supported modelling xylose metabolism as a combination of four processes: assimilation, pentose phosphate oxidation, respiration, and ethanolic fermentation. A mathematical model describing the stoichiometry and kinetics was constructed, and its predictive capacity was confirmed by comparing simulated and experimental batch cultures. Consideration of example processes indicated that this model constitutes an important tool for designing the optimum bioprocess for utilizing xylose-rich wastes.

Slininger, P.J.W.

1988-01-01

414

Method and bacterial compositions for fermenting meats  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and bacterial compositions are described for producing fermented meat by generating lactic acid using selected cultures of Pediococcus pentosaceus which have unique low temperature meat fermentation characteristics. The preferred Pediococcus pentosaceus is NRRL-B-11,465 which is unusually rapid in lowering the pH at low meat temperatures. A stimulatory, edible metal salt, preferably a manganese salt, is provided in the meat with the Pediococcus pentosaceus to reduce or eliminate preservative inhibition and/or to accelerate growth at meat temperatures between 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) to 26.7.degree. C. (80.degree. F.). Preservatives to prevent spoilage and rancidity can be used in the meat and can include hydroxyaryl antioxidants, particularly butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and/or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). BHT and/or BHA together with other meat preservatives, particularly sodium chloride, severely inhibit NRRL-B-11,465 at low meat temperatures between 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) and 26.7.degree. C. (80.degree. F.). Pediococcus pentosaceus compositions containing the stimulatory metal salt are also described. The method and compositions, particularly with a manganese salt, can produce a pH of less than about 5.0 in less than 30 hours at smokehouse temperatures above about 15.6.degree. C. (60.degree. F.) and at initial meat temperatures of 4.4.degree. C. to 10.degree. C. (40.degree. to 50.degree. F.) with standard casing diameters (up to about 100 mm). Pediococcus pentosaceus NRRL-B-11,465 is particularly adapted for low temperature meat fermentation and rapidly lowers the pH in the meat to about 4.3 under these conditions with sufficient added assimilable carbohydrate. The method is particularly useful for making dry and semi-dry sausage as well as for nitrite reduction in meats due to the lowering of the pH.

1981-12-01

415

Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

Miller, J.E. (Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA); Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

1982-01-01

416

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan Yoshikatsu Murooka ? Mitsuo Yamshita  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji

Mitsuo Yamashita

417

Proteome analysis of recombinant xylose-fermentingSaccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction of an active xylose utilization pathway into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which does not naturally ferment pentose sugars, is likely to have a major impact on the overall cellular metabolism as the carbon introduced to the cells will now flow through the pentose phosphate pathway. The metabolic responses in the recombinant xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae were studied at the proteome level by

Marjo Poutanen; Heini Koivistoinen; Aristos Aristidou; Nisse Kalkkinen; Laura Ruohonen

2003-01-01

418

Microflora of Boza, a traditional fermented Turkish beverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boza, a Turkish traditional beverage made by yeast and lactic acid fermentation of cooked maize, wheat and rice flours was prepared and the microbial characteristics were investigated. During the course of fermentation from 0 to 24 h, populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeast raised from 7.6 × 106 and 2.25 × 105 after inoculation to 4.6 × 108 and

Ömre Hancio?lu; Mehmet Karapinar

1997-01-01

419

Major Fermentative Organisms in Some Nigerian Soup Condiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of microorganism s were isolated from fermented products of locust bean seeds (Parkia biglobosa), castor bean seeds (Ricinus communis), African oil bean seeds (Pentaclethra macrophylla) and mesquite seeds (Prosopis africana) and characterized. The fermented products, namely, iru, ogiri, ugba and okpei, respectively, are mainly used as condiments in soups, sauces and porridges among consuming populations in Nigeria. The

Victor N. Enujiugha

2009-01-01

420

The microbial ecology of cocoa bean fermentations in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa beans are the principal raw material of chocolate manufacture. The beans are subject to a microbial fermentation as the first stage in chocolate production. The microbial ecology of bean fermentation (Forastero and Trinitario cultivars) was investigated at three commercial fermentaries in East Java, Indonesia by determining the populations of individual species at 12-h intervals throughout the process. The first

Made M. Ardhana; Graham H. Fleet

2003-01-01

421

Cocoa Fermentations Conducted with a Defined Microbial Cocktail Inoculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocoa fermentations were performed in wooden boxes under the following four experimental regimens: beans naturally fermented with wild microflora; aseptically prepared beans with no inoculum; and beans inoculated with a defined cocktail containing microorganisms at a suitable concentration either at zero time or by using phased additions at appropriate times. The cocktail used consisted of a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var.

ROSANE FREITAS SCHWAN

1998-01-01

422

Fermentation of Fructooligosaccharides by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria were screened of their ability to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on MRS agar. Of 28 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria examined, 12 of 16 Lactobacillus strains and 7 of 8 Bifidobacterium strains fermented FOS. Only strains that gave a positive reaction by the agar method reached high cell densities in broth containing FOS.

Handan Kaplan; Robert W. Hutkins

2000-01-01

423

Two-phase partitioning bioreactors in fermentation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-phase partitioning bioreactor concept appears to have a great potential in enhancing the productivity of many bioprocesses. The proper selection of an organic solvent is the key to successful application of this approach in industrial practice. The integration of fermentation and a primary product separation step has a positive impact on the productivity of many fermentation processes. The controlled

Janusz J Malinowski

2001-01-01

424

21 CFR 573.450 - Fermented ammoniated condensed whey.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.450 Fermented...component of free-choice liquid feeds, used to supplement the diets of cattle fed other sources of nutrients, fermented...

2013-04-01

425

Microbiological safety of kinema, a fermented soya bean food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinema is a fermented soya bean food of Nepal and the hilly regions of North-eastern States of India. Generally, the fermentation is dominated by Bacillus spp. that often cause alkalinity and desirable stickiness in the product. The present study was undertaken in a limited number of commercial (market) kinema samples to test for the presence of foodborne pathogens and their

M. J. R. Nout; D. Bakshi; P. K. Sarkar

1998-01-01

426

The Use of Fermentation Extracts in Animal Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermentation extracts are shown to have a significant effect on ruminant livestock performance demonstrating that a probiotic effect can be achieved with a non- viable product. Single doses of 3 ml of the fermentation extract product Rumen-Zyme resulted in daily weight gains in lambs between 21 and 131 grams per day extra over control in three trials. In an experiment

T. A. Jenkins

427

Solvent Fermentations of Pulp Streams and Their Constituents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of industrial solvents, including C sub 2 to C sub 5 mono- and di-hydric alcohols and corresponding ketones, can be made by bacterial fermentation of pulp streams and their constituent carbohydrates. Most of these fermentations are reported to ha...

W. L. Griffith A. L. Compere

1984-01-01

428

A study of cellobiose fermentation by a Dekkera strain.  

PubMed

The Dekkera intermedia strain studied has the ability to ferment cellobiose. The ethanol concentration obtained was 75 g/L from 180 g/L cellobiose (80% of theoretical yield). The fermentation of more concentrated solutions of cellobiose did not proceed well. PMID:18548497

Blondin, B; Ratomahenina, R; Arnaud, A; Galzy, P

1982-09-01

429

Interfacial interactions with microorganisms: Application in fermentation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implications of interfacial phenomena in fermentation processes are outlined, pointing out the relevance of recent data to basic aspects of bioadhesion. The surface properties of brewing yeasts (chemical composition, zeta potential, hydrophobicity) are related to the type of fermentation; cell flocculation involves both non specific and specific interactions. Adhesion of cells to surfaces, the first step of biofilm formation,

P. G. Rouxhet

1991-01-01

430

The impact of water quality on beer fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of water plays an important role beer of fermentation, effect on the color , taste, turbidity ,preservation of beer and so on, this paper analyzes the impact of metal ion and inorganic salt on beer of fermentation , and proposing purification approach of water. Water is the most important material of beer brewing, beer brewing water can be

Chunhai Zhao

2011-01-01

431

Fermented liquid feed reduces susceptibility of broilers for Salmonella enteriditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Salmonella in chickens is a problem because poultry meat is recognized as a source of human salmonellosis. Fermented feed has characteris- tics like a high number of lactobacilli and high concentra- tion of lactic acid, which could make chickens less suscep- tible for infection with Salmonella. Fermented feed might therefore prevent the colonization of chickens with Salmo-

L. Heres; B. Engel; F. van Knapen; M. C. M. de Jong; J. A. Wagenaar; B. A. P. Urlings

2003-01-01

432

Industrial yeast strain engineered to ferment ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain capable of fermenting ethanol from pretreated lignocellulosic material was engineered. Genes encoding cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase and ?-glucosidase) were integrated into the chromosomal ribosomal DNA and delta regions of a derivative of the K1-V1116 wine yeast strain. The engineered cellulolytic yeast produces ethanol in one step through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of

Nikolai Khramtsov; Luise McDade; Alexander Amerik; Esther Yu; Kunjan Divatia; Alexander Tikhonov; Michael Minto; Georges Kabongo-Mubalamate; Zdenek Markovic; Marie Ruiz-Martinez; Steven Henck

2011-01-01

433

Evidence for S. cerevisiae Fermentation in Ancient Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the principal yeast used in modern fermentation processes, including winemaking, breadmaking, and brewing. From residue present inside one of the earliest known wine jars from Egypt, we have extracted, amplified, and sequenced ribosomal DNA from S. cerevisiae. These results indicate that this organism was probably responsible for wine fermentation by at least 3150 B.C. This inference has

Duccio Cavalieri; Patrick E. McGovern; Daniel L. Hartl; Robert Mortimer; Mario Polsinelli

2003-01-01

434

High vacuum facility for hydrazine thruster testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ongoing modification is described of a large vacuum chamber to accommodate the ignition of an arcjet hydrazine thruster while maintaining a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less. The vacuum facility consists of a 20 ft stainless steel vacuum tank with an internal LN2 shroud, four 35 in. cryopumps and an 8 in. turbopump. To maintain a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less, 900 sq ft of liquid helium (LHe) shroud surface was installed to maintain the vacuum level and pumping requirements. A vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less will allow the hydrazine thrust to exit the thruster nozzle and radiate into a space type environment so that the plume flow field can be analyzed and compared to the analytical model density distribution profile. Some other arcjet thruster characteristics measured are the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and exhaust contamination. This data is used to evaluate if the arcjet thruster with its high specific impulse in comparison to current chemical propulsion thruster can be used for the next generation of communication satellites.

Neary, Patrick F.

1990-01-01

435

Vacuum brazing beryllium to Monel  

SciTech Connect

The tensile strength of beryllium to Monel vacuum furnace brazed joints was studied. The filler used was the 72% Ag-28%Cu(BAg-8) alloy. The strength of these joints, which require the use of a titanium hydride powder or physical vapor deposited titanium wetting agent on the beryllium, was found to approach the yield strength of the base metals. Strength was found to be reduced by the interaction of increased titanium hydride quantity and brazing time. Metallographic and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies correlated these effects with microstructure. The formation of the brittle copper-beryllium delta phase was found to require conditions of high brazing temperature and the presence of a reservoir of the copper-containing filler such as found in fillet areas. Two other filler metals: pure silver, and a 60% Ag-30% Cu-10%Sn (BAg-17) alloy were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the BAg-8 alloy in cases where the filler metal can be preplaced between the base metal surfaces.

Glenn, T.G.; Grotsky, V.K.; Keller, D.L.

1982-10-01

436

Preservation of hatchery waste by lactic acid fermentation. 1. Laboratory scale fermentation.  

PubMed

In Experiment 1, two types of hatchery wastes, including cockerel chicks (CC), and shell waste (SW) blended with CC (60:40 CC:SW), were ground and mixed with a by-product carbohydrate (5, 10, and 15% wt/wt) with or without a bacterial culture and fermented for a period of 21 d. Cockerel chicks fermented with 15% carbohydrate and the culture had a pleasant smell and little H2S production. Elevated H2S concentrations were recorded for CC:SW samples at all carbohydrate levels when the culture was not added. No NH3 was detected from any treatments during fermentation. The addition of culture to the CC and CC:SW by-products resulted in pH values lower (P < 0.05) than those without culture on Day 21, and the 15% carbohydrate treatment significantly reduced pH beyond the 5% carbohydrate. Final proximate composition of CC and CC:SW samples with culture were not significantly different from those without culture added. In Experiment 2, carbohydrate was added at 10.0, 13.3, 16.7, and 20.0% wt/wt to CC and CC:SW in the presence of the bacterial culture. Shell waste alone was fermented with 15, 20, and 25% carbohydrate and the culture. Moisture level in this experiment was adjusted to approximately 70% for all treatments. The lowest pH for the CC and CC:SW treatments was observed at the 16.7% carbohydrate level. Shell waste pH was better maintained at the 20 and 25% carbohydrate levels. After fermentation for 21 d CC, CC:SW and SW treatments from Experiments 1 and 2 contained negligible Escherichia coli, and no Salmonella were detected. PMID:9276882

Deshmukh, A C; Patterson, P H

1997-09-01

437

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50-CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric, homofermentative lactobacillus species, dominated by Lb. plantarum/pentosus, was found during fermentation. In total, 9% of the strains fermented starch and 19% fermented garlic, the two main carbohydrate components in som-fak. The ability to ferment garlic was paralleled by a capacity to ferment inulin. An increased percentage of garlic fermenting strains was found during fermentation of som-fak, from 8% at day 1 to 40% at day 5. No starch fermenting strains were isolated during fermentation. Three mixed LAB cultures, composed of either starch fermenting Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting LAB were unable to ferment som-fak and sensory spoilage occurred after three days. Fermentation with the combined mix of starch and garlic fermenting strains led to production of 2.5% acid and a decrease in pH to 4.5 in two days. The fermentation was slightly slower with the garlic fermenting strains alone. This is the first report describing the role of garlic as carbohydrate source for LAB in fermented fish products. PMID:10100902

Paludan-Müller, C; Huss, H H; Gram, L

1999-02-18

438

Fermentation of soluble cello-oligosaccharides by yeasts  

SciTech Connect

Yeast strains that ferment cellobiose were examined with respect to fermentation on soluble cellodextrin preparations. Hydrolysis of the fermentation products was followed using thin layer chromatography. Candida and Brettanomyces sp. hydrolyze cellobiose and, at a much lower rate, cellotriose, indicating the presence of ..beta..-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) activity. Enzyme assays conducted on B. clausenii fermentations indicated that the ..beta..-glucosidase remained cell-associated during fermentation. Torulopsis sp. hydrolyzed all of the cello-oligo-saccharides, indicating exoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.91) activity. The exogluconanase, a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 8.4 x 10/sup 4/ daltons, is exported into the culture medium.

Lastick, S.M.; Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.

1983-02-01

439

DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations.  

PubMed

Previous studies using traditional biochemical identification methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four species of lactic acid bacteria, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis, were the primary microorganisms in these fermentations. In this study, 686 isolates were collected from four commercial fermentations and analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. The results indicate that the species of lactic acid bacteria present in sauerkraut fermentations are more diverse than previously reported and include Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc argentinum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis, and Weissella sp. The newly identified species Leuconostoc fallax was also found. Unexpectedly, only two isolates of P. pentosaceus and 15 isolates of L. brevis were recovered during this study. A better understanding of the microbiota may aid in the development of low-salt fermentations, which may have altered microflora and altered sensory characteristics. PMID:17921264

Plengvidhya, Vethachai; Breidt, Fredrick; Lu, Zhongjing; Fleming, Henry P

2007-12-01

440

The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.  

PubMed

Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration. PMID:24748344

Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

2014-01-01

441

Sterilization of fermentation vessels by ethanol/water mixtures  

DOEpatents

A method for sterilizing process fermentation vessels with a concentrated alcohol and water mixture integrated in a fuel alcohol or other alcohol production facility. Hot, concentrated alcohol is drawn from a distillation or other purification stage and sprayed into the empty fermentation vessels. This sterilizing alcohol/water mixture should be of a sufficient concentration, preferably higher than 12% alcohol by volume, to be toxic to undesirable microorganisms. Following sterilization, this sterilizing alcohol/water mixture can be recovered back into the same distillation or other purification stage from which it was withdrawn. The process of this invention has its best application in, but is not limited to, batch fermentation processes, wherein the fermentation vessels must be emptied, cleaned, and sterilized following completion of each batch fermentation process.

Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

1999-02-09

442

Residual Antibiotics Disrupt Meat Fermentation and Increase Risk of Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat.

Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne

2012-01-01

443

Performance tests of large thin vacuum windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tests of thin composition vacuum windows of the type used for the Tagger in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility are described. Three different tests have been performed. These include: (1) measurement of the deformation and durability of a window under long term ( >8 years) almost continuous vacuum load, (2) measurement of the deformation as a function of flexing of the window as it is cycled between vacuum and atmosphere, and (3) measurement of the relative diffusion rate of gas through a variety of thin window membranes.

Crannell, Hall

2011-02-01

444

Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge.  

PubMed

Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a "universal" instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity. PMID:12006025

Hole, M J; Dallaqua, R S; Simpson, S W; Del Bosco, E

2002-04-01

445

Vacuum orientations in strong CP violation  

SciTech Connect

We study the QCD vacuum orientation angles in correlation with the strong CP phases. A vacuum alignment equation of the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is derived based on the anomalous Ward identity. It is emphasized that a chiral rotation of the quark field causes a change of the vacuum orientation and a change in the definition of the light pseudoscalar generators. As an illustration of the idea, {eta} {yields} 2{pi} decays are carefully studied in different chiral frames and shown to be independent of. chiral rotations.

Huang, Zheng; Viswanathan, K.S. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Wu, Dan-di [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1991-12-01

446

Operator product and vacuum instability (addendum)  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an addendum to our previous paper of the same title (Phys. Rev. D 26, 499 (1982)). We discuss an apparent scheme dependence of the results reported in a note added in proof. We find that, when the q/sup 2/ dependence of operators is carefully identified, the results are scheme independent. Thus, for any subtraction scheme, our conclusion is that the operator-product expansion gives different results at next-to-leading twist when made about the physical vacuum and when made about the unstable symmetric vacuum with nonvanishing vacuum expectation values allowed for nontrivial operators. We include also some errata for the original paper.

Quinn, H.R.; Gupta, S.

1983-02-15

447

Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop  

SciTech Connect

The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

Avery, R.T.

1984-06-01

448

Lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.  

PubMed

The souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. Four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. The microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) and 10(9) cfu/g at 0, 24 and 48 h in all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria during all types of fermentation accounting for 51% of 171 representative isolates taken from various stages of fermentation. Other major lactic acid bacteria found were Lactobacillus brevis, 16%, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 15% and some cocci including Streptococcus spp. whose numbers decreased with fermentation time. The lactic acid bacteria were responsible for the souring of agbelima through the production of lactic acid. All L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. mesenteroides isolates examined demonstrated linamarase as well as other enzymatic activities but did not possess tissue degrading enzymes like cellulase, pectin esterase and polygalacturonase. The aroma profile of agbelima did not vary with the type of inoculum used and in all samples the build-up of aroma compounds were dominated by a non-identified low molecular weight alcohol, 1-propanol, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, 3-methyl-1-butanol and acetoin. Substantial reductions occurred in the levels of cyanogenic compounds present in cassava during fermentation into agbelima and detoxification was enhanced by the use of inoculum. PMID:8880299

Amoa-Awua, W K; Appoh, F E; Jakobsen, M

1996-08-01

449

Effect of feeding fermented liquid feed and fermented grain on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance in piglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the microbial and nutri- tional characteristics of dry feed, liquid feed containing fermented liquid cereal grains, and fermented liquid feed, and their effect on gastrointestinal ecology and growth performance, 120 piglets from 40 litters were used and housed in pens with 5 animals in each. The 3 dietary treatments (all nonheated and nonpelleted diets) were: a dry meal

N. Canibe; O. Højberg; J. H. Badsberg; B. B. Jensen

2010-01-01

450

Autochthonous yeasts associated with mature pineapple fruits, freshly crushed juice and their ferments; and the chemical changes during natural fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated autochthonous yeasts and their functions in the spontaneous fermentation of freshly crushed pineapple juice samples collected from two different areas of both Thailand and Australia. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia guilliermondii were the main yeast species observed on the fruit skins of Thai samples, and also in the fresh juice and ferments of all samples from both countries.

On-ong Chanprasartsuk; Cheunjit Prakitchaiwattana; Romanee Sanguandeekul; Graham H. Fleet

2010-01-01

451

Human Chymotrypsinogen B Production with Pichia pastoris by Integrated Development of Fermentation and Downstream Processing. Part 1. Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on an integrated approach of genetic engineering, fermentation process development, and downstream processing, a fermentative chymotrypsinogen B produc- tion process using recombinant Pichia pastoris is presented. Making use of the P. pastoris AOX1-promotor, the demand for methanol as the single carbon source as well as an inducer of protein secretion enforced the use of an optimized feeding strategy by

Simon Curvers; Peter Brixius; Thomas Klauser; J. Thommes; D. Weuster-Botz; R. Takors; C. Wandrey

2001-01-01

452

SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification  

SciTech Connect

Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

2013-09-30

453

Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarily—which effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F González-Díaz

Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

2013-08-01

454

Surface mycobiota on Argentinean dry fermented sausages.  

PubMed

The diversity of the mycobiota community occurring on the surface of fermented dry sausages and in the environment of the processing plants was studied. The manufacturing plants (five in total) were located in three different areas of southern Buenos Aires province (Argentina). Samples were collected from two types of fermented sausages (short and long ripening time) at two times of the year (winter and summer) and at different types of plants (artisanal and industrial). A total of 342 samples were examined and 822 isolates belonging to six genera and 16 fungal species were identified. In most cases, Penicillium was the genus most frequently isolated. Penicillium nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. solitum and P. chrysogenum were the most abundant species. The characteristics of the plants and the season were the influencing factors on the composition of the mycobiota. Under conditions of high humidity and in ripening rooms with reduced ventilation, Mucor racemosus was most prevalent. Eurotium amstelodami and Aspergillus spp were detected mainly during the summer when the temperature was higher. A high number of species isolated from the surface of the sausage was also isolated from air samples. Geotrichum candidum, Alternaria infectoria and P. glabrum were found only in air samples. P. chrysogenum, P. nalgiovense and P. nordicum showed different levels of antibacterial activity in sensitive bioassay with Micrococcus luteus. PMID:20643490

Castellari, Claudia; Quadrelli, Ana María; Laich, Federico

2010-08-15

455

Coupled lactic acid fermentation and adsorption.  

PubMed

Polyvinylpyridine (PVP) and activated carbon were evaluated for coupled lactic acid fermentation and adsorption, to prevent the product concentration from reaching inhibitory levels. The lactic acid production doubled as a result of periodical circulation of the fermentation broth through a PVP adsorption column. The adsorbent was then regenerated and the adsorbed lactate harvested, by passing 0.1 N NaOH through the column. However, each adsorption-regeneration cycle caused about 14% loss of the adsorption capacity, thus limiting the practical use of this rather expensive adsorbent. Activated carbon was found much more effective than PVP in lactic acid and lactate adsorption. The cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii (LDD) also had strong tendency to adsorb on the carbon. A study was therefore conducted using an activated carbon column for simultaneous cell immobilization and lactate adsorption, in a semi-batch process with periodical medium replacement. The process produced lactate steadily at about 1.3 g l(-1)h(-1) when the replacement medium contained at least 2 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The production, however, stopped after switching to a medium without yeast extract. Active lactic acid production by LDD appeared to require yeast extract above a certain critical level (<2 g l(-1)). PMID:12111142

Chen, C; Ju, L-K

2002-07-01

456

Pressure pulsation in solid-phase fermentation.  

PubMed

Inadequate dissipation of heat generated by biologic activities has prevented the use of solid-phase fermentation in large-scale applications. This study deals with the cooling effects of pressure pulsation on solid, porous beds. Pressure pulsation also enhances evaporation of medium moisture, which is also described. Computer software has been developed for on-line control of heat accumulation and moisture loss involving automatic variation in pressure pulsation frequency and airflow direction as well as replenishment of water. Aspergillus niger NRRL3 was cultivated on a moist, solid medium made of wheat bran and ground corncobs to produce cellobiase. During 100 h of fermentation, the maximum temperature inside the solid bed was kept under 40 degrees C, and the medium water content was successfully maintained between 61 and 65%, which was optimal for cell growth. Cells grew heavily on the solid-phase substrate and distributed uniformly. With good on-line control of temperature and moisture, the 12-L fermentor provided a better environment for enzyme production than 250 mL flasks did. PMID:12018286

Yang, Xiaomin; Huang, Tom; Tsao, George T

2002-01-01

457

Restricting Fermentative Potential by Proteome Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis hinges on successful colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by pathogenic facultative anaerobes. The GI tract is a carbohydrate-limited environment with varying oxygen availability and oxidoreduction potential (ORP). How pathogenic bacteria are able to adapt and grow in these varying conditions remains a key fundamental question. Here, we designed a system biology-inspired approach to pinpoint the key regulators allowing Bacillus cereus to survive and grow efficiently under low ORP anoxic conditions mimicking those encountered in the intestinal lumen. We assessed the proteome components using high throughput nanoLC-MS/MS techniques, reconstituted the main metabolic circuits, constructed ?ohrA and ?ohrR mutants, and analyzed the impacts of ohrA and ohrR disruptions by a novel round of shotgun proteomics. Our study revealed that OhrR and OhrA are crucial to the successful adaptation of B. cereus to the GI tract environment. Specifically, we showed that B. cereus restricts its fermentative growth under low ORP anaerobiosis and sustains efficient aerobic respiratory metabolism, motility, and stress response via OhrRA-dependent proteome remodeling. Finally, our results introduced a new adaptive strategy where facultative anaerobes prefer to restrict their fermentative potential for a long term benefit.

Clair, Geremy; Armengaud, Jean; Duport, Catherine

2012-01-01

458

IAL Space Facilities for Thermal Vacuum Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal vacuum facilities of IAL Space Research Center of the University of Liege (Belgium) for testing of the ESA payloads are addressed. They progressively upgraded for cryogenic payloads including 4 K (liquid helium temperature) experiments. The th...

M. Henrist J. P. Macau I. Domken A. Cucchiaro

1990-01-01

459

Ultra-high-vacuum electrical feedthrough  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device for cathodic sputtering utilizes cathode dark-space region adjacent to high negative-potential surfaces. Feedthrough is made of metal and glass, is helium leaktight, and is bakeable; it can be incorporated into any vacuum apparatus.

Gavaler, J. R.; Janocko, M. A.

1976-01-01

460

Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition  

DOEpatents

A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

Hill, R.A.

1986-05-15

461

Synergism of Electroplating and Vacuum Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synergism can be obtained by combining electrodeposition and vacuum processes. In a number of cases, better coatings and improved adhesion can be obtained when the two processes are combined. Also, for some applications, parts that could not be fabricated...

J. W. Dini

1987-01-01

462

Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of cold molecular beams  

SciTech Connect

Experiments will be described which combine nonlinear optics, mass- and energy-resolved ion detection, energy-resolved electron detection, and a supersonic nozzle to study vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of ultracold molecules.

Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

1984-01-01

463

Re-circulating linac vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10{Mu}A recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10{Mu}A average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing.

Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

2003-05-09

464

Gravitational collapse and the vacuum energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To explain the accelerated expansion of the universe, models with interacting dark components (dark energy and dark matter) have been considered recently in the literature. Generally, the dark energy component is physically interpreted as the vacuum energy of the all fields that fill the universe. As the other side of the same coin, the influence of the vacuum energy on the gravitational collapse is of great interest. We study such collapse adopting different parameterizations for the evolution of the vacuum energy. We discuss the homogeneous collapsing star fluid, that interacts with a vacuum energy component, using the stiff matter case as example. We conclude this work with a discussion of the Cahill-McVittie mass for the collapsed object.

Campos, M.

2014-03-01

465

Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were completed for the...

D. L. Barclay J. E. Bell E. W. Brogren J. W. Straayer

1975-01-01

466

Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal...

S. D. Augustynowicz J. E. Fesmire

1999-01-01

467

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect

This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

Irwin, J.J.

1997-09-24

468

Invariant classification of vacuum pp-waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We solve the equivalence problem for vacuum pp-wave spacetimes by employing the Karlhede algorithm. Our main result is a suite of Cartan invariants that allows for the complete invariant classification of the vacuum pp-waves. In particular, we derive the invariant characterization of the G2 and G3 sub-classes in terms of these invariants. It is known [J. M. Collins, ``The Karlhede classification of type N vacuum spacetimes,'' Class. Quantum Grav. 8, 1859-1869 (1991)] that the invariant classification of vacuum pp-waves requires at most the fourth order covariant derivative of the curvature tensor, but no specific examples requiring the fourth order were known. Using our comprehensive classification, we prove that the q <= 4 bound is sharp and explicitly describe all such maximal order solutions.

Milson, R.; McNutt, D.; Coley, A.

2013-02-01

469

SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department  

ScienceCinema

The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

Hasse, Andy

2014-06-13

470

Vacuum thermal stability of explosives monitored electronically.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two innovations make the vacuum thermal stability (VTS) of explosives amenable to electronic monitoring. The first innovation is that the manometer tube is incorporated as a capacitance transducer into a circuit that generates a voltage proportional to th...

J. F. Baytos

1991-01-01

471

Facility for Vacuum Impregnation of Superconducting Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Facility for vacuum impregnation is developed specifically for the construction of superconducting magnets. Various methods of impregnation for superconducting magnet are described. This facility can be used for large coil of dimensions up to 45 cm. diago...

P. Kush A. Banerjee C. K. Ramachandran S. C. Bapna M. Thirumaleshwar

1986-01-01

472

Awaking the vacuum in relativistic stars.  

PubMed

Void of any inherent structure in classical physics, the vacuum has revealed to be incredibly crowded with all sorts of processes in relativistic quantum physics. Yet, its direct effects are usually so subtle that its structure remains almost as evasive as in classical physics. Here, in contrast, we report on the discovery of a novel effect according to which the vacuum is compelled to play an unexpected central role in an astrophysical context. We show that the formation of relativistic stars may lead the vacuum energy density of a quantum field to an exponential growth. The vacuum-driven evolution which would then follow may lead to unexpected implications for astrophysics, while the observation of stable neutron-star configurations may teach us much on the field content of our Universe. PMID:21230888

Lima, William C C; Matsas, George E A; Vanzella, Daniel A T

2010-10-01

473

Forging of Refractory Metals in a Vacuum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The creation of a vacuum or a neutral environment in the process of heating and processing ingots is the most progressive procedure for protecting refractory metals against oxidization and gas saturation. The advantages of this method are the creation of ...

S. B. Pevzner N. I. Korneev I. G. Skugarev A. S. Tugushev Y. V. Malashenko

1967-01-01

474

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA; Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA) [Oakley, CA; Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA) [Tracy, CA

1996-01-01

475

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOEpatents

A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

1996-07-23

476

Aircraft Quality High Temperature Vacuum Carburizing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of a high temperature vacuum carburizing procedure for 9310 gear steel was accomplished during this program. Use of this procedure significantly reduced processing time of gears, which can lead to a reduction in acquisition costs. The procedur...

R. J. Cunningham R. J. Drago

1990-01-01

477

Autochthonous yeasts associated with mature pineapple fruits, freshly crushed juice and their ferments; and the chemical changes during natural fermentation.  

PubMed

This study investigated autochthonous yeasts and their functions in the spontaneous fermentation of freshly crushed pineapple juice samples collected from two different areas of both Thailand and Australia. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia guilliermondii were the main yeast species observed on the fruit skins of Thai samples, and also in the fresh juice and ferments of all samples from both countries. P. guilliermondii was consistently present as the dominant species during the early stage of the fermentation, whereas H. uvarum became more prevalent towards the end of the six-day fermentation period, with populations increasing from an initial level of approximately 5 log CFU/mL to approximately 8 log CFU/mL at the end of fermentation. The ethanol levels in samples from both regions of Thailand were maximal at 2 days of fermentation, reaching approximately 1 to 2% (v/v) but then declined thereafter. In contrast, in the Australian samples ethanol levels continued to increase over the entire six-day fermentation period and reached approximately 3 to 4% (v/v). A significant decrease in citric acid and increase in lactic acid levels were observed throughout the fermentation period in the samples from Thailand, but not in those from Australia where the different acid contents (and pH) were relatively stable. The other wine yeasts and, in particular, Saccharomyces yeasts, were not found in any of sampled fermentation systems that is apparently different from the other fruit juices. These findings suggested that the freshly crushed pineapple juice may possibly have some effects on the other autochthonous yeasts having important role in alcoholic fermentation. PMID:20462752

Chanprasartsuk, On-ong; Prakitchaiwattana, Cheunjit; Sanguandeekul, Romanee; Fleet, Graham H

2010-10-01

478

Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.  

PubMed

Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

Hammes, Walter P

2012-04-01

479

Spinal vacuum phenomena: anatomical study and review.  

PubMed

"Vacuum" phenomena relate to the accumulation of gas, principally nitrogen, in crevices within the intervertebral disk or vertebra. Their appearance does not uniformly indicate "degenerative" disk disease (primary intervertebral osteochondrosis), as gaseous collections may accompany other processes (vertebral osteomyelitis, Schmorl node formation, spondylosis deformans, vertebral collapse with osteonecrosis) affecting the disk and adjacent vertebral bodies. The location and appearance of the "vacuum" phenomena are helpful indicators as to the precise nature of the spinal disorder. PMID:7220878

Resnick, D; Niwayama, G; Guerra, J; Vint, V; Usselman, J

1981-05-01

480

Refractories for vacuum degassing of steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

New equipment for outside-the-furnace vacuum degassing of steel includes argon-oxygen refining units, circulation flow vacuum degassing units, and units for steel degassing in the ladle with electric arc heating. The refractories developed for use in this equipment include magnesia, periclase-carbon, corundum, alumina, periclase-lime, magnesia-dolomite, forsterite, and unformed and vibrocompacted refractories. The refractories were selected for heat resisting and thermal insulation

A. N. Sokolov; G. I. Kuznetsov

1988-01-01

481

Methods for Measuring and Interpreting Milking Vacuum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for measuring the level of milking vacuum are presented and discussed with reference to the specifications given in ISO Standard 5707 and ASABE standard S518. Common measurement and interpretation errors are illustrated in this paper along. Milking-time tests of average claw vacuum were shown to compare well to wet-tests (done with a milk flow simulator). Knowledge of simultaneous milk

Douglas J. Reinemann; Norman Schuring; Robert D. Bade

482

LCLS EXTRUDED ALUMINUM VACUUM CHAMBER - NEW APPROACHES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) will be the world's first x-ray free electron laser when it becomes operational in 2009. Synchrotron radiation will be produced by 33 undulators, each 3.4 meters long, with a fixed gap of 6.8 mm. Vacuum chambers for these undulators should have the maximum possible vertical aperture. Multiple vacuum chambers for insertion devices with 1-mm

Emil Trakhtenberg; Patric DenHartog; Mark Erdmann; Greg Wiemerslage

483

Vacuum jacket for cryogenic insulation, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility is demonstrated of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials. Design and analytical studies were made on an orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were complete