Science.gov

Sample records for vacuum fermentation

  1. Assessment of in situ butanol recovery by vacuum during acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanol fermentation is product limiting due to butanol toxicity to microbial cells. Butanol (boiling point: 118 deg C) boils at a greater temperature than water (boiling point: 100 deg C) and application of vacuum technology to integrated acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and recovery may ...

  2. The effects of fermentation and/or vacuum flask storage on the presence of coliforms in complementary foods prepared for Ghanaian children.

    PubMed

    Kimmons, J E; Brown, K H; Lartey, A; Collison, E; Mensah, P P; Dewey, K G

    1999-05-01

    Microbial contamination of complementary foods is a major cause of childhood diarrhoea. In a community-based study in Ghana, we evaluated whether fermentation of maize porridge or storage of porridge in vacuum flasks reduces coliform contamination. The complementary food examined, Weanimix, consisted of, on a dry weight basis, toasted maize (75%), peanuts (10%), and soybeans (15%) milled into flour. The fermented food was Weanimix made with drum-dried, previously fermented maize. Fifty women with infants 6-18 months of age participated. A repeated measures cross-over design was used. Each mother participated in all four treatments (1 week per treatment, in random order): (a) non-fermented Weanimix (W), (b) fermented Weanimix (F), (c) non-fermented Weanimix stored in a vacuum flask (WV), and (d) fermented Weanimix stored in a vacuum flask (FV). Each week, mothers were supplied with the appropriate food, and asked to prepare a porridge each morning by boiling the dry mix in water. Samples were collected in the evenings and immediately plated onto 3 M Petrifilm. Contamination was defined as > or = 100 colony-forming units of coliforms per ml. Contamination rates (95% confidence intervals) were W = 48% (38-58%), F = 25% (17-34%), WV = 42% (32-52%), and FV = 13% (6-20%). All pairwise comparisons were significant (P < 0.05) except for W vs WV. Within the WV treatment, contamination rates were 85% when the sample temperature fell below 50 degrees C (N = 41) vs 12% when it remained > 50 degrees C (N = 59) (P < 0.001). These results indicate that contamination is reduced by fermentation, and further reduced by vacuum flask storage of fermented foods. For non-fermented foods, vacuum flask-storage was protective only when the temperature was maintained at > 50 degrees C; at < or = 50 degrees C vacuum flask storage increased the risk of contamination. PMID:10627835

  3. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  4. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  5. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  7. Fermented Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  8. Vacuum force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  9. What Fermenter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, John

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the feasibility of using fermenters in secondary school laboratories. Includes discussions of equipment, safety, and computer interfacing. Describes how a simple fermenter could be used to simulate large-scale processes. Concludes that, although teachers and technicians will require additional training, the prospects for biotechnology in

  10. Cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Humans have consumed fermented cucumber products since before the dawn of civilization. Although cucumber fermentation remains largely a traditional process, it has proven to be a consistently safe process by which raw cucumbers are transformed into high quality pickles that have a long shelf-life ...

  11. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  12. Vacuum Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Biltoft, P J

    2004-10-15

    The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

  13. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  14. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this

  15. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  16. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure and crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.; Robinson, S.

    1981-05-01

    Research on the feasibility of fermenting manure crop residue mixtures to methane, and on factors affecting the rate and extent of methane production is summarized. Experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and alkaline pretreatment on the rate and extent of hydrolysis of manure straw mixtures. The effects of mixing duration and vacuum fermenters on methane production rates from anaerobically fermented beef cattle wastes were also determined.

  17. Fermentation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Ruminal Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminal fermentation is an exergonic process that converts feedstuffs into short chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), CO2, CH4, NH3, and heat. Some of the free energy is trapped as ATP and this energy is used to drive the growth of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms. The ruminant animals absorb VFA and...

  19. Fermentation, fermented foods and lactose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W

    2002-12-01

    Lactose (milk sugar) is a fermentable substrate. It can be fermented outside of the body to produce cheeses, yoghurts and acidified milks. It can be fermented within the large intestine in those people who have insufficient expression of lactase enzyme on the intestinal mucosa to ferment this disaccharide to its absorbable, simple hexose sugars: glucose and galactose. In this way, the issues of lactose intolerance and of fermented foods are joined. It is only at the extremes of life, in infancy and old age, in which severe and life-threatening consequences from lactose maldigestion may occur. Fermentation as part of food processing can be used for preservation, for liberation of pre-digested nutrients, or to create ethanolic beverages. Almost all cultures and ethnic groups have developed some typical forms of fermented foods. Lessons from fermentation of non-dairy items may be applicable to fermentation of milk, and vice versa. PMID:12556948

  20. Ethanol production from food waste at high solids content with vacuum recovery technology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibo; Qureshi, Nasib; Chen, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Wei; Singh, Vijay

    2015-03-18

    Ethanol production from food wastes does not only solve environmental issues but also provides renewable biofuels. This study investigated the feasibility of producing ethanol from food wastes at high solids content (35%, w/w). A vacuum recovery system was developed and applied to remove ethanol from fermentation broth to reduce yeast ethanol inhibition. A high concentration of ethanol (144 g/L) was produced by the conventional fermentation of food waste without a vacuum recovery system. When the vacuum recovery is applied to the fermentation process, the ethanol concentration in the fermentation broth was controlled below 100 g/L, thus reducing yeast ethanol inhibition. At the end of the conventional fermentation, the residual glucose in the fermentation broth was 5.7 g/L, indicating incomplete utilization of glucose, while the vacuum fermentation allowed for complete utilization of glucose. The ethanol yield for the vacuum fermentation was found to be 358 g/kg of food waste (dry basis), higher than that for the conventional fermentation at 327 g/kg of food waste (dry basis). PMID:25706565

  1. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  2. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulfite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulfite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because of this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulfite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulfite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached over 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly.

  3. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  4. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO); Richard, Christopher J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  5. THE VACUUM/STEAM/VACUUM PROCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Vacuum/Steam/Vacuum surface intervention pilot plant process was developed. The process was developed for chicken, hot dogs, fruits and vegetables, and catfish. Optimum process conditions were determined as nominally, 138 C saturated steam, vacuum and steam times of 0.1 s except that the final...

  6. The Vacuum Bubble Nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo

    2009-07-10

    We study the nucleation of a vacuum bubble via the vacuum-to-vacuum tunneling transition in curved spacetime. We consider Coleman-de Luccia's semiclassical approximation at zero temperature in pure Einstein theory of gravity and the theory with nonminimal coupling. We discuss the dynamics of a nucleated vacuum bubble.

  7. Vacuum mechatronics. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinski, S. E.; Shirazi, M.; Hackwood, S.; Beni, G.

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is the design and development of vacuum-compatible, computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. Vacuum mechantronics is relevant to research engineers in integrated circuit manufacturing, surface physics, food processing, biotechnology, materials handling, space sciences and manufacturing.

  8. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-08-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  9. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  10. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  11. Kinetics of multiproduct fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, J.C.; Ollis, D.F.

    1981-07-01

    A simple model for biomass, product, and substrate evolution proposed previously for batch polysaccharide fermentations is extended to multiproduct fermentations. The examples involve Clostridium thermocellum (ATCC 27405) fermentations of glucose to four products (ethanol, acetic, formic, and lactic acid), of fructose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid), and of cellobiose to two products (ethanol and acetic acid). In all cases, parameter evaluation was carried out in a serial deterministic procedure.

  12. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  13. Ferment in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Janice

    1974-01-01

    A pollution-reducing and energy-saving alternative to petroleum use could be the fermentation industry and other technologies based on the use of renewable resources. Expansion of the fermentation industry could reduce our dependence on petroleum, reduce growing waste disposal problems, and help solve world food shortages. (BT)

  14. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of

  15. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder president, the late Professor D Y Phadke at the University of Mumbai. The prize is given every year to the student ranked top in the MSc (PHY.) examination conducted by the university. The IVS Kolkata Chapter has established the Dr A S Divatia Memorial Trust with the objective of organizing the Dr A S Divatia Memorial Lecture and a seminar once a year and to set up a vacuum testing and calibration facility. IVS has instituted an award in memory of the late Shri C Ambasankaran, its past president and pioneer of vacuum technology in India. This award is given to one of the best papers presented in the national symposium conducted by IVS. One more best paper award `Smt. Shakuntalabai Vyawahare Memorial Prize' is established from a donation given by Shri Mohan R Vyawahare, a life member and a present EC member of the society, in memory of his mother. During the symposia, IVS felicitates two of its members, one from Industry and one from an R & D Institution for their lifetime contribution to vacuum science and technology. Dr A K Gupta, Ex BARC, Ex Generla Manager, IBP, Head, Energy Group, Shapoorji Pallonji & Co Ltd (Industry), and Dr S R Gowariker, Ex BARC, Ex Director, CSIO, Chandigarh, Director, Tolani Education Foundation (R & D) are being honoured this year. T K Saha Geneneral Secretary, IVS

  16. Vacuum pump aids ejectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.E.

    1982-12-01

    The steam ejector/vacuum pump hybrid system has been operating satisfactorily since the summer of 1981. This system has essentially been as troublefree as the all-ejector system and, of course, has provided a substantial cost savings. Construction is currently under way to convert the vacuum system of another crude still which is equipped with steam ejectors and barometric condensers to the hybrid system of steam ejectors, surface condensers, and vacuum pumps. This current project is even more financially attractive because it allows a dirty water cooling tower which serves the barometric condensers to be shut down. Providing a vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers with this hybrid system is by no means the only application of this technique. Any vacuum system consisting of all steam ejectors would be a candidate for this hybrid system and the resulting savings in energy.

  17. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  18. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  19. Space vacuum processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Shih, H. D.; Daniels, M.; Sega, R.; Bonner, T.

    1991-01-01

    The unique ultra-vacuum environment of low-earth orbit space is to be utilized for vacuum processing of advanced semiconductor and superconductor materials through epitaxial thin-film growth. The quality of semiconductor single crystal (epitaxial) thin-films can be significantly enhanced in the space ultra-vacuum through the reduction of impurities. This will be accomplished by the development of the free-flying Wake Shield Facility presently being built by the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center in conjunction with industry and NASA under a low-cost, short time commercial approach to space hardware development.

  20. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)

  1. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  2. Vacuum tunneling in gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. M.; Pak, D. G.

    2011-08-01

    Topologically non-trivial vacuum structures in gravity models with Cartan variables (vielbein and contortion) are considered. We study the possibility of vacuum spacetime tunneling in Einstein gravity assuming that the vielbein may play a fundamental role in quantum gravitational phenomena. It has been shown that in the case of RP3 space topology, the tunneling between non-trivial topological vacuums can be realized by means of Eguchi-Hanson gravitational instanton. In the Riemann-Cartan geometric approach to quantum gravity, the vacuum tunneling can be provided by means of contortion quantum fluctuations. We define a double self-duality condition for the contortion and give explicit self-dual configurations which can contribute to vacuum tunneling amplitude.

  3. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  4. Solid state fermentation system for production of ethanol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    A solid state fermentation system for the production of ethanol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. The yields of ethanol varied from about 29 g to more than 40 g/kg of apple pomace, depending on the samples fermented. Separation of up to 99% of the ethanol from spent qpple pomace was achieved with a rotary vacuum evaporator. Alcohol fermentation of apple pomace might be an efficient method of alleviating waste disposal problems with the concomitant production of ethanol.

  5. Housing protects laser in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canali, V. G.

    1978-01-01

    Airtight housing encloses laser for easy alinement and operation in high-vacuum chamber. Beam is transmitted through window into vacuum chamber. Flexible line runs through vacuum chamber to outside, maintaining laser enclosure at atmospheric pressure.

  6. Hydrodynamics of the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. M.

    Hydrodynamics is the appropriate "effective theory" for describing any fluid medium at sufficiently long length scales. This paper treats the vacuum as such a medium and derives the corresponding hydrodynamic equations. Unlike a normal medium the vacuum has no linear sound-wave regime; disturbances always "propagate" nonlinearly. For an "empty vacuum" the hydrodynamic equations are familiar ones (shallow water-wave equations) and they describe an experimentally observed phenomenon the spreading of a clump of zero-temperature atoms into empty space. The "Higgs vacuum" case is much stranger; pressure and energy density, and hence time and space, exchange roles. The speed of sound is formally infinite, rather than zero as in the empty vacuum. Higher-derivative corrections to the vacuum hydrodynamic equations are also considered. In the empty-vacuum case the corrections are of quantum origin and the post-hydrodynamic description corresponds to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We conjecture the form of the post-hydrodynamic corrections in the Higgs case. In the (1+1)-dimensional case the equations possess remarkable "soliton" solutions and appear to constitute a new exactly integrable system.

  7. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  8. Thermophoretic vacuum wand

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

  9. Collapse of vacuum bubbles in a vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin-Wang; Wang, Shang-Yung

    2011-02-15

    We revisit the dynamics of a false vacuum bubble in a background de Sitter spacetime. We find that there exists a large parameter space that allows the bubble to collapse into a black hole or to form a wormhole. This may have interesting implications for the creation of a baby universe in the laboratory, the string landscape where the bubble nucleation takes place among a plenitude of metastable vacua, and the inflationary physics.

  10. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  11. Welding space vacuum technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to assist the EH 42 Division in putting together a vacuum system that could attain the desired pressure and be large enough to accommodate the gas-metal arc (GMA) welding fixture apparatus. A major accomplishment was the design and fabrication of the controller/annunciator for the 4' by 8' system. It contains many safety features such as thermocouple set point relays that will only allow inlet and exit gas and vacuum valves to be operated at pre-selected system pressures, and a fail safe mode for power interruptions and operator mistakes. It is felt that significant progress was made in this research effort to weld in a vacuum environment. With continued efforts to increase the pump speeds for vacuum chambers and further studies on weld fixtures and gas inlet pressures, the NASA program will be successful.

  12. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  13. FERMENTATION PROCESS FOR MANNITOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We selected Lactobacillus intermedius NRRL B...

  14. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  15. Vacuum self-magnetization?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Rojas, H.; Rodriguez Querts, E.

    2006-06-19

    We study vacuum properties in a strong magnetic field as the zero temperature and zero density limit of quantum statistics. For charged vector bosons (W bosons) the vacuum energy density diverges for B > B{sub c} = m{sub w}{sup 2}/e, leading to vacuum instability. A logarithmic divergence of vacuum magnetization is found for B = Bc, which suggests that if the magnetic field is large enough, it is self-consistently maintained, and this mechanism actually prevents B from reaching the critical value Bc. For virtual neutral vector bosons bearing an anomalous magnetic moment, the instability of the ground state for B > B{sub c}{sup '} = m{sub n}{sup 2}/q also leads to the vacuum energy density divergence for fields B > B{sub c}{sup '} and to the magnetization divergence for B B{sub c}{sup '}. The possibility of virtual electron-positron pairs bosonization in strong magnetic field and the applicability of the neutral bosons model to describe the virtual positronium behavior in a magnetic field are discussed. We conjecture that this could lead to vacuum self-magnetization in QED.

  16. ISABELLE vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Halama, H J

    1980-01-01

    The Intersecting Storage Accelerator (ISABELLE) consists of two rings having a circumference of 3.8 km each. In these rings superconducting magnets, held at 4 K, bend and focus the proton beam which is accelerated up to 400 GeV. Due to very different pressure requirements, ISABELLE has two completely independent vacuum systems. One, which operates at 1 x 10/sup -11/ Torr, provides a very clean environment for the circulating proton beam. Here only ion and titanium sublimation pumps are used to provide the vacuum. The other system maintains superconducting magnet vessels at a pressure below 1 x 10/sup -4/ Torr, since at this pressure the gas conduction becomes negligible. In this so-called insulating vacuum system, turbomolecular pumps pump the inadvertent small helium leaks. Other gases are cryocondensed on the cold surfaces of the cryogenic system. The basic element of ISABELLE known as Full Cell containing 45 meters of beam tube, 8 pumping stations, 8 superconducting magnets and complete instrumentation has been constructed, leak checked and tested. All design parameters have been achieved in both vacuum systems. The two vacuum systems are described with particular emphasis on the influence of superconducting magnets in the selection of materials and UHV components.

  17. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  18. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  19. Acidogenic fermentation of lactose

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaalita, W.S.; Pinder, K.L.; Lo, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Cheese whey is the main component of waste streams from cheese manufacturing plants. Whey is a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) effluent that must be reduced before the streams are sent to the sewer. It is proposed in this article that the production of methane by anaerobic fermentation would be the best use of this stream, especially for small plants. Single-stage fermentation of lactose, the main component of whey, results in a very low pH and a stalled process. Two-phase fermentation will eliminate this problem. The acidogenic stage of fermentation has been studied at pH of between 4 and 6.5. The nature of the main products of the reaction have been found to be pH dependent. Below a pH of 4.5 a gas (CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/) is produced along with ethanol, acetate, and butyrate. Above a pH of 4.5 no gas was produced and the liquid products included less ethanol and butyrate and more acetate. A separate study on the conditions for gas formation showed that if the pH dropped for a short time below 4.5 gases were formed at all subsequent pH. This would indicate a change in population distribution due to the period at a low pH. By assuming that the desired products from the acidogenic stage were butyrate, acetate, and no gases, the optimum pH range was found to be between 6.0 and 6.5.

  20. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  1. Recombinant zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K. (Golden, CO); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Eddy, Christina K. (Littleton, CO); Deanda, Kristine A. (Lakewood, CO); Finkelstein, Mark (Fort Collins, CO)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  2. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.

    1996-05-07

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment a pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment this pentose to produce ethanol. A representative example is Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with E. coli xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase and transketolase genes. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. This newly created microorganism is useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 2 figs.

  3. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  4. K-130 Cyclotron vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhole, R. B.; Roy, Anindya; Pal, Sarbajit; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The vacuum system for K-130 cyclotron has been operational since 1977. It consists of two sub-systems, main vacuum system and beam line vacuum system. The main vacuum system is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum of about 1 10-6 mbar inside the 23 m3 volume of acceleration chamber comprising the Resonator tank and the Dee tank. The beam line vacuum system is required for transporting the extracted beam with minimum loss. These vacuum systems consist of diffusion pumps backed by mechanical pumps like roots and rotary pumps. The large vacuum pumps and valves of the cyclotron vacuum system were operational for more than twenty five years. In recent times, problems of frequent failures and maintenance were occurring due to aging and lack of appropriate spares. Hence, modernisation of the vacuum systems was taken up in order to ensure a stable high voltage for radio frequency system and the extraction system. This is required for efficient acceleration and transportation of high intensity ion beam. The vacuum systems have been upgraded by replacing several pumps, valves, gauges and freon units. The relay based control system for main vacuum system has also been replaced by PLC based state of the art control system. The upgraded control system enables inclusion of additional operational logics and safety interlocks into the system. The paper presents the details of the vacuum system and describes the modifications carried out for improving the performance and reliability of the vacuum system.

  5. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  6. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Min Zhang; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.

    1998-03-10

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  7. Pentose fermentation by recombinant Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, S.K.; Zhang, M.; Eddy, C.K.; Deanda, K.A.; Finkelstein, M.; Mohagheghi, A.; Newman, M.M.; McMillan, J.D.

    1998-01-27

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol. 7 figs.

  8. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  9. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  10. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2012-06-15

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  11. The vacuum conservation theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-03-01

    A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

  12. Topics in vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Ali

    2013-12-01

    If a theory has more than one classically stable vacuum, quantum tunneling and thermal jumps make the transition between the vacua possible. The transition happens through a first order phase transition started by nucleation of a bubble of the new vacuum. The outward pressure of the truer vacuum makes the bubble expand and consequently eat away more of the old phase. In the presence of gravity this phenomenon gets more complicated and meanwhile more interesting. It can potentially have important cosmological consequences. Some aspects of this decay are studied in this thesis. Solutions with different symmetry than the generically used O(4) symmetry are studied and their actions calculated. Vacuum decay in a spatial vector field is studied and novel features like kinky domain walls are presented. The question of stability of vacua in a landscape of potentials is studied and the possible instability in large dimension of fields is shown. Finally a compactification of the Einstein-Maxwell theory is studied which can be a good lab to understand the decay rates in compactification models of arbitrary dimensions.

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, G. C.; Harris, S. E.; Young, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    The authors report the first demonstration of holographic techniques in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. Holograms were produced with coherent 1182 A radiation. The holograms were recorded in polymethyl methacrylate and read out with an electron microscope. A holographic grating with a fringe spacing of 836 A was produced and far-field Fraunhofer holograms of sub-micron particles were recorded.

  14. Vacuum Kundt waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, David; Milson, Robert; Coley, Alan

    2013-03-01

    We discuss the invariant classification of vacuum Kundt waves using the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm and determine the upper bound on the number of iterations of the Karlhede algorithm to classify the vacuum Kundt waves (Collins (1991 Class. Quantum Grav. 8 1859-69), Machado Ramos (1996 Class. Quantum Grav. 13 1589)). By choosing a particular coordinate system we partially construct the canonical coframe used in the classification to study the functional dependence of the invariants arising at each iteration of the algorithm. We provide a new upper bound, q ? 4, and show that this bound is sharp by analyzing the subclass of Kundt waves with invariant count beginning with (0, 1,) to show that the class with invariant count (0, 1, 3, 4, 4) exists. This class of vacuum Kundt waves is shown to be unique as the only set of metrics requiring the fourth covariant derivatives of the curvature. We conclude with an invariant classification of the vacuum Kundt waves using a suite of invariants.

  15. A vacuum chamber feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, V. D.

    1973-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive microwave feedthrough has been designed which transfers 130 ns, 5kV pulse into vacuum chamber. Feedthrough may be used over wide range and is adaptable to most coaxial cables, since either multistrand or single strand center conductor cable can be used.

  16. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg

  17. Tritium handling in vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Coffin, D.O.

    1986-10-01

    This report provides a course in Tritium handling in vacuum systems. Topics presented are: Properties of Tritium; Tritium compatibility of materials; Tritium-compatible vacuum equipment; and Tritium waste treatment.

  18. Bacteriophages and dairy fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Marcó, Mariángeles Briggiler; Moineau, Sylvain; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the main strategies available to control phage infection during large-scale milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. The topics that are emphasized include the factors influencing bacterial activities, the sources of phage contamination, the methods available to detect and quantify phages, as well as practical solutions to limit phage dispersion through an adapted factory design, the control of air flow, the use of adequate sanitizers, the restricted used of recycled products, and the selection and growth of bacterial cultures. PMID:23275866

  19. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  20. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  1. Surge-damping vacuum valve

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

  2. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

  3. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  4. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  5. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T. (3927 Almon Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  6. An automated vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, W.H. ); Vaughn, G.D. ); Bridgman, C. )

    1991-01-01

    Software tools available with the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) control system provide the capability to express a control problem as a finite state machine. System states and transitions are expressed in terms of accelerator parameters and actions are taken based on state transitions. This is particularly useful for sequencing operations which are modal in nature or are unwieldy when implemented with conventional programming. State diagrams are automatically translated into code which is executed by the control system. These tools have been applied to the vacuum system for the GTA accelerator to implement automatic sequencing of operations. With a single request, the operator may initiate a complete pump-down sequence. He can monitor the progress and is notified if an anomaly occurs requiring intervention. The operator is not required to have detailed knowledge of the vacuum system and is protected from taking inappropriate actions. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  7. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  8. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  9. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  10. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Mller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  11. Dry vacuum pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  12. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  14. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  15. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  16. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepora, Nathan F.; Kibble, Tom W. B.

    1999-04-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory.

  17. The LHC Vacuum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grbner, O.

    1997-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, involves two proton storage rings with colliding beams of 7 TeV. The machine will be housed in the existing LEP tunnel and requires 16 m long superconducting bending magnets. The vacuum chamber will be the inner wall of the cryostat and hence at the temperature of the magnet cold bore, i.e. at 1.9 K and therefore a very good cryo-pump. To reduce the cryogenic power consumption, the heat load from synchrotron radiation and from the image currents in the vacuum chamber will be absorbed on a 'beam screen', which operates between 5 and 20 K, inserted in the magnet cold bore. The design pressure necessary for operation must provide a lifetime of many days and a stringent requirement comes from the power deposition in the superconducting magnet coils due to protons scattered on the residual gas which could lead to a magnet quench. Cryo-pumping of gas on the cold surfaces provides the necessary low gas densities but it must be ensured that the vapour pressure of cryo-sorbed molecules, of which H2 and He would be the most critical species, remains within acceptable limits. The room temperature sections of the LHC, specifically in the experiments, the vacuum must be stable against ion induced desorption and ISR-type 'pressure bumps'.

  18. The ITER vacuum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, C.; Murdoch, D.

    2008-05-01

    ITER is a large vacuum facility which comprises many service, diagnostic and monitoring vacuum sub-systems as well as three large cryogenic pumping systems for evacuation and maintenance of the required pressure levels. Control of the gas throughput is one of the key issues affecting the performance and achievable burn time of a fusion reactor. The main pumping systems are the torus exhaust pumping, the cryopumps for the neutral beam injection systems for plasma heating, and the cryopumps for the ITER cryostat. All customized cryosorption pumps are force-cooled with supercritical helium and share a similar modular design of cryosorption pumping panels. For regeneration of the cryopumps as well as for roughing down the system volumes prior to operation, four identical sets of forepump trains are used. This paper will focus on the areas of the ITER vacuum systems which require customized developments and cannot rely on commercial solutions. The complex pumps have been tailored for the very specific applications and requirements at ITER, especially characterised by the need to be tritium compatible. An outline of the development path which was needed to come up with a sound design for the ITER cryopumps is given. The way of development is culminating in the manufacturing of 1:1 scale prototypes, which will be extensively tested in dedicated test facilities to ensure compatibility with all design requirements.

  19. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  20. Understand vacuum-system fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, G.R. ); Lines, J.R. ); Golden, S.W. )

    1994-10-01

    Crude vacuum unit heavy vacuum gas-oil (HVGO) yield is significantly impacted by ejector-system performance, especially at conditions below 20 mmHg absolute pressure. A deepcut vacuum unit, to reliably meet the yields, calls for proper design of all the major pieces of equipment. Ejector-system performance at deepcut vacuum column pressures may be independently or concurrently affected by: atmospheric column overflash, stripper performance or cutpoint; vacuum column top temperature and heat balance; light vacuum gas-oil (LVGO) pumparound entrainment to the ejector system; cooling-water temperature; motive steam pressure; non-condensible loading, either air leakage or cracked light-end hydrocarbons; condensible hydrocarbons; intercondenser or aftercondenser fouling ejector internal erosion or product build-up; and system vent back pressure. The paper discusses gas-oil yields; ejector-system fundamentals; condensers; vacuum-system troubleshooting; process operations; and a case study of deepcut operations.

  1. Bacteriophage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ec...

  2. Acidogenic fermentation of corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    Corn stover was fermentd by anaerobic acidogenic bacteria to produce volatile (C2-C6) organic acids. Mild pretreatment with dilute alkali solutions produced a two-fold increase in fermentability. A mixture of lime and sodium carbonate was found to be a better pretreatment agent than sodium hydroxide. Methane generation was inhibited by low temperature less than or equal to 25 degrees Celcius and high solids greater than or equal to 2.5% (w/v) fermentation. Volatile acid yields of 0.5-0.55 g acetic acid equivalent/g dry ash-free (DAF) stover could be obtained in batch fermentations. Several extractants and extraction solvents for organic acids were found to be nontoxic to acidogenic fermentation. The data show that acidogenic fermentation can produce useful volatile fatty acids in high yields from a complex lignocellulosic feedstock. These fermentation are nonsterile, need no stirring, and are easy to run. Moreover, cellulose, pentosans, and other carbohydrates are directly utilized by acidogenic bacteria. Hence, acidogenic fermentation could be useful in converting biomass to chemical feedstocks and fuel.

  3. Pervaporation of model acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation product solutions using polytetrafluoroethylene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Vrana, D.L.; Meagher, M.M.; Hutkins, R.W.; Duffield, B. )

    1993-10-01

    A pervaporation apparatus was designed and tested in an effort to develop an integrated fermentation and product recovery process for acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE) fermentation. A crossflow membrane module able to accommodate flat sheet hydrophobic membranes was used for the experiments. Permeate vapors were collected under vacuum and condensed in a dry ice/ethanol cold trap. The apparatus containing polytetrafluoroethylene membranes was tested using butanol-water and model solutions of ABE products. Parameters such as product concentration, component effect, temperature, and permeate side pressure were examined. 25 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Polymers in a Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, J. M.

    2007-12-07

    In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

  5. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  6. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  7. The vacuum arc centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, M.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    The separation of elements and isotopes by means of rotating magnetized plasma columns using a laser-triggered vacuum arc centrifuge is described. This vacuum arc centrifuge is sustained by the erosion and ionization of the cathode material, thus producing relatively pure, highly ionized, rotating plasma columns of the cathode material. Any solid metal, or mixture of metals, can be converted into plasma, and the constituent isotopes partially separated in the centrifuge, by fabricating the arc cathode out of the desired metals. The device also offers the possibility of operation with nonconducting solid elements or compounds by imbedding the desired substance in a conducting matrix. A wide variety of metals and combinations of metals were studied, ranging from C through Cu to Cd/Sn. Typical angular rotation frequencies of approx. 100,000 rad/sec were measured, with concomitant enrichments up to a factor of two for Cu 65. The device in its present form is not a viable source of partially enriched stable isotopes at a competitive cost.

  8. R&D ERL: Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.; Steszyn, A.; Todd, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL Vacuum systems are depicted in a figure. ERL has eight vacuum volumes with various sets of requirements. A summary of vacuum related requirements is provided in a table. Five of the eight volumes comprise the electron beamline. They are the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity, Superconducting e-gun, injection, loop and beam dump. Two vacuum regions are the individual cryostats insulating the 5-cell Superconducting RF Cavity and the Superconducting e-gun structures. The last ERL vacuum volume not shown in the schematic is the laser transport line. The beamline vacuum regions are separated by electropneumatic gate valves. The beam dump is common with loop beamline but is considered a separate volume due to geometry and requirements. Vacuum in the 5-cell SRF cavity is maintained in the {approx}10{sup -9} torr range at room temperature by two 20 l/s ion pumps and in the e-gun SRF cavity by one 60 l/s ion pump. Vacuum in the SRF cavities operated at 2{sup o}K is reduced to low 10{sup -11} torr via cryopumping of the cavity walls. The cathode of the e-gun must be protected from poisoning, which can occur if vacuum adjacent to the e-gun in the injection line exceeds 10-11 torr range in the injection warm beamline near the e-gun exit. The vacuum requirements for beam operation in the loop and beam dump are 10-9 torr range. The beamlines are evacuated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum level with a particulate free, oil free turbomolecular pumping cart. 25 l/s shielded ion pumps distributed throughout the beamlines maintain the vacuum requirement. Due to the more demanding vacuum requirement of the injection beamline proximate to the e-gun, a vacuum bakeout of the injection beamline is required. In addition, two 200 l/s diode ion pumps and supplemental pumping provided by titanium sublimation pumps are installed in the injection line just beyond the exit of the e-gun. Due to expected gas load a similar pumping arrangement is planned for the beam dump. The cryostat vacuum thermally insulating the SRF cavities need only reduce the convective heat load such that heat loss is primarily radiation through several layers of multi-layer insulation and conductive end-losses which are contained by 5{sup o}K thermal transitions. Prior to cool down rough vacuum {approx}10{sup -5} torr range is established and maintained by a dedicated turbomolecular pump station. Cryopumping by the cold mass and heat shields reduces the insulating vacuum to 10{sup -7} torr range after cool down.

  9. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  10. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system has been completed. Photographs of the various components of the system are presented, along with an operating procedure for the equipment.

  11. Portable vacuum object handling device

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, G.H.

    1983-08-09

    The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object. 1 fig.

  12. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  13. Low partial discharge vacuum feedthrough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benham, J. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively discharge free vacuum feedthrough uses silver-plated copper conductor jacketed by carbon filled silicon semiconductor to reduce concentrated electric fields and minimize occurrence of partial discharge.

  14. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David (7 Brown's La., Bellport, NY 11713)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  15. Vacuum stellarator: direct approach

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, D.

    2008-11-01

    It's well known that rotation transform {iota} produce a poloidal flux. Here I consider such {phi}, in the next paper the calculation of {iota}. In any toroidal vacuum field B = {delta}f. We call S{sub 1} the equipotential surfaces. In the axisimmetric case there are the S{sub 1} on the meridional half planes, the B-lines are circulars, and B is constant on each line. There is toroidal flux {phi}, but no poloidal flux {phi}{sub p}. It is supposed that a suitable toroidal arrangement of external coils generates inside a toroidal volume V{sub 1}, limited by a toroidal surface S{sub 3}(w{sub 1}) a magnetic field B having the following properties.

  16. Pseudoredundant vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Batra, Puneet; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Hui, Lam; Kabat, Daniel

    2008-08-15

    We discuss models that can account for today's dark energy. The underlying cosmological constant may be Planck scale but starts as a redundant coupling which can be eliminated by a field redefinition. The observed vacuum energy arises when the redundancy is explicitly broken, say by a nonminimal coupling to curvature. We give a recipe for constructing models, including R+1/R-type models, that realize this mechanism and satisfy all solar system constraints on gravity. A similar model, based on Gauss-Bonnet gravity, provides a technically natural explanation for dark energy and exhibits an interesting seesaw behavior: a large underlying cosmological constant gives rise to both low- and high-curvature solutions. Such models could be statistically favored in the string landscape.

  17. LIGO vacuum system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.; Moore, Boude C.

    1988-01-01

    A laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) is being developed with sensitivities which will have a high probability of detecting gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. A major component of LIGO is a total of 16 km of 1.2 m (48 inch) diameter tube at a pressure of less than 10 to the minus 8th power torr. It will be of 304L stainless steel procured directly from the steel mills with the initial hydrogen content specially reduced. Projections of the outgassing rates of hydrogen and of water vapor as a function of time are given and the uncertainties discussed. Based on these, a preliminary analysis of the vacuum system is presented.

  18. Abdominal intrauterine vacuum aspiration.

    PubMed

    Tjalma, W A A

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and "cleaning" of the uterine cavity is probably the most performed operation in women. It is done for several reasons: abortion, evaluation of irregular bleeding in premenopausal period, and postmenopausal bleeding. Abortion is undoubtedly the number one procedure with more than 44 million pregnancies terminated every year. This procedure should not be underestimated and a careful preoperative evaluation is needed. Ideally a sensitive pregnancy test should be done together with an ultrasound in order to confirm a uterine pregnancy, excluding extra-uterine pregnancy, and to detect genital and/or uterine malformations. Three out of four abortions are performed by surgical methods. Surgical methods include a sharp, blunt, and suction curettage. Suction curettage or vacuum aspiration is the preferred method. Despite the fact that it is a relative safe procedure with major complications in less than one percent of cases, it is still responsible for 13% of all maternal deaths. All the figures have not declined in the last decade. Trauma, perforation, and bleeding are a danger triage. When there is a perforation, a laparoscopy should be performed immediately, in order to detect intra-abdominal lacerations and bleeding. The bleeding should be stopped as soon as possible in order to not destabilize the patient. When there is a perforation in the uterus, this "entrance" can be used to perform the curettage. This is particularly useful if there is trauma of the isthmus and uterine wall, and it is difficult to identify the uterine canal. A curettage is a frequent performed procedure, which should not be underestimated. If there is a perforation in the uterus, then this opening can safely be used for vacuum aspiration. PMID:25134300

  19. Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

  20. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  1. Fermentations with new recombinant organisms.

    PubMed

    Bothast, R J; Nichols, N N; Dien, B S

    1999-01-01

    United States fuel ethanol production in 1998 exceeded the record production of 1.4 billion gallons set in 1995. Most of this ethanol was produced from over 550 million bushels of corn. Expanding fuel ethanol production will require developing lower-cost feedstocks, and only lignocellulosic feedstocks are available in sufficient quantities to substitute for corn starch. Major technical hurdles to converting lignocellulose to ethanol include the lack of low-cost efficient enzymes for saccharification of biomass to fermentable sugars and the development of microorganisms for the fermentation of these mixed sugars. To date, the most successful research approaches to develop novel biocatalysts that will efficiently ferment mixed sugar syrups include isolation of novel yeasts that ferment xylose, genetic engineering of Escherichia coli and other gram negative bacteria for ethanol production, and genetic engineering of Saccharoymces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis for pentose utilization. We have evaluated the fermentation of corn fiber hydrolyzates by the various strains developed. E. coli K011, E. coli SL40, E. coli FBR3, Zymomonas CP4 (pZB5), and Saccharomyces 1400 (pLNH32) fermented corn fiber hydrolyzates to ethanol in the range of 21-34 g/L with yields ranging from 0.41 to 0.50 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. Progress with new recombinant microorganisms has been rapid and will continue with the eventual development of organisms suitable for commercial ethanol production. Each research approach holds considerable promise, with the possibility existing that different "industrially hardened" strains may find separate applications in the fermentation of specific feedstocks. PMID:10514256

  2. Lactic acid bacterial population dynamics during fermentation and storage of Thai fermented sausage according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wanangkarn, Amornrat; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Jindaprasert, Aphacha; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chumnqoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2014-09-01

    This study applied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from "mum" Thai fermented sausages during fermentation and storage. A total of 630 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the sausages prepared using 2 methods. In Method 1, after stuffing, the sausages were stored at 30 C for 14 days. In Method 2, after stuffing and storage at 30 C for 3 days, the sausages were vacuum-packed and stored at 4 C until Day 28. The sausages were sampled on Days 0, 3, 14, and 28 for analyses. The 16S rDNA was amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Of the restriction enzymes evaluated, Dde I displayed the highest discrimination capacity. The LAB were classified and 7 species were identified For Methods 1 and 2, during fermentation, the Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus plantarum species were dominant. For Method 2, the proportion of Leuconostoc mesenteroides markedly increased during storage, until L. sakei and Ln. mesenteroides represented the dominant species. The identification of LAB in the sausage samples could facilitate the selection of appropriate microorganisms for candidate starter cultures for future controlled mum production. PMID:25005265

  3. A fatal case of CO(2) intoxication in a fermentation tank.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Ramsthaler, Frank; Juhnke, Christian; Bux, Roman; Schmidt, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is an odorless constituent of air. Higher concentrations can be detected in geothermal and automotive emissions, fermentation, and sublimation of dry ice. An unskilled worker entered a fermentation tank to clean it, which had not been done for about 5months allowing for high concentrations of CO2 to build up. A second worker entered the tank to rescue the first one. Shortly after both were found the first worker was rescued directly whereas the tank had to be rotated to pull the second worker out. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was successful only for the first worker. Medico-legal autopsy showed bruises, hematoma, myocardial hemorrhage, and edema of the lungs. The right lung was vacuum degassed in an argon atmosphere and quadrupole-mass-spectrometry showed an elevated CO2 content in lung gases. Thus, CO2 intoxication/asphyxia in a vitiated atmosphere due to fermentation of wine mash was established as the cause of death. PMID:23316776

  4. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  5. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph (St. Petersburg, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  6. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  7. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  8. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  9. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  10. Vacuum Enhanced Cutaneous Biopsy Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Joseph

    1999-06-25

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  11. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  12. Cosmology with decaying vacuum energy

    SciTech Connect

    Freese, K.; Adams, F.; Frieman, J.; Mottola, E.

    1987-09-01

    Motivated by recent attempts to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine the observational consequences of a vacuum energy density which decays in time. For all times later than t approx. 1 sec, the ratio of the vacuum to the total energy density of the universe must be small. Although the vacuum cannot provide the ''missing mass'' required to close the universe today, its presence earlier in the history of the universe could have important consequences. We discuss restrictions on the vacuum energy arising from primordial nucleosynthesis, the microwave and gamma ray background spectra, and galaxy formation. A small vacuum component at the era of nucleosynthesis, 0.01 < rho/sub vac//rho/sup rad/ < 0.1, increase the number of allowed neutino species to N/sup nu/ > 5, but in some cases would severely distort the microwave spectrum. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  13. The AGS Booster vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster is a synchrotron for the acceleration of both protons and heavy ions. The design pressure of low 10{sup {minus}11} mbar is required to minimize beam loss of the partially stripped heavy ions. To remove contaminants and to reduce outgassing, the vacuum chambers and the components located in them will be chemically cleaned, vacuum fired, baked then treated with nitric oxide. The vacuum sector will be insitu baked to a minimum of 200{degree}C and pumped by the combination of sputter ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. This paper describes the design and the processing of this ultra high vacuum system, and the performance of some half-cell vacuum chambers. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Vacuum requirements for LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.

    1984-08-01

    The LAMPF II accelerator will require sufficient vacuum to prevent beam loss or beam blowup within the time the beam is in the accelerator. Because this time is quite short (tau < 0.03 s), the vacuum requirements should be somewhat less strict than for the long-time storage machines, such as the ISR (tau greater than or equal to 10/sup 5/ s). In this note, we catalog various vacuum limitations for LAMPF II and outline vacuum-system parameters that meet these limitations. The pressure P less than or equal to 10/sup -7/ T should be adequate for LAMPF II, and a fairly simple vacuum system should obtain P less than or equal to 10/sup -8/ T.

  15. A Chinese fermented soybean food.

    PubMed

    Han, B Z; Rombouts, F M; Nout, M J

    2001-04-11

    Sufu or furu is a fermented soybean product originating in China. It is a cheese-like product with a spreadable creamy consistency and a pronounced flavour. Sufu is a popular side dish consumed mainly with breakfast rice or steamed bread. It has a long history and written records date back to the Wei Dynasty (220-265 AD). Sufu is made by fungal solid state fermentation of tofu (soybean curd) followed by aging in brine containing salt and alcohol. The present review is based on scientific data published in Chinese and international sources. Several types of sufu can be distinguished, according to processing method or according to colour and flavour. Choice of processing can result in mould fermented sufu, naturally fermented sufu, bacterial fermented sufu, or enzymatically ripened sufu. Depending on the choice of dressing mixture, red, white or grey sufu may be obtained. The stages of the process are discussed and include the preparation of tofu, the preparation of pehtze, salting and ripening. Fungal starters include Actinomucor spp., Mucor spp. and Rhizopus spp. The chemical composition is discussed with particular reference to the proximate composition, the amino acid content and profile, as well as the volatile flavour components of various types of sufu. PMID:11322691

  16. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin; Elander, Richard; Hennessey, Susan M.

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  17. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  18. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  19. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

  20. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  1. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  2. Diesel fuel by fermentation of wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, S.M.; Wayman, M.

    1983-01-11

    An improved diesel fuel which is entirely capable of preparation from renewable resources. The fuel comprises a blend of fermentation produced butanol and fermentation produced glycerides. The substrates useful for the butanol fermentation are conventional industrial waste products, such as cheese whey and low value carbohydrate containing waste materials such as corn cobs, wood chips, etc. Similar substrate materials are used in the fermentation or growth culture of glyceride producing microbes.

  3. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  4. Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sol, Joan

    2014-07-01

    An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant ? should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature R as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect ??RH2. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the ?CDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

  5. Ethanol fermentation using novel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1984-01-01

    Potato starch, sweet potato, and Jerusalem artichoke were hydrolyzed using high pressure extrusion and/or acid and the hydrolysates were utilized as substrates for ethanol fermentation. The first extrusion at 13,000 to 40,000 psi did not completely hydrolyze the starch solution to fermentable sugar. At elevated temperatures (79-97/sup 0/C) and in the presence of HCl, the high pressure extrusion (13,000 psi) effectively hydrolyzed starch into fermentable sugars to yield 12.1, 22.4, and 30.5 dextrose equivalent (DE) in 1, 2, and 3 N HCl, respectively. Maximal reducing sugar value of 84.2 DE and 0.056% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was achieved after heating 8% sweet potato slurry (SPS) in 1 N HCl at 110/sup 0/C for 15 min. The degraded SPS was then fermented at 37/sup 0/C using an alcohol-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to give 41.6 g of 200 proof ethanol from 400 g fresh Georgia Red Sweet potato tuber. A maximal reducing sugar value of 83.5 fructose equivalent and 0.004% HMF was formed from Jerusalem artichoke slurry (JAS) containing 8% total solid following heating in 0.1 N HCl at 97/sup 0/C for 10 min. The degraded JAS was then fermented at 37 C and 29.1 g 200 proof ethanol was produced from 320 g fresh tuber of Jerusalem artichoke. Continuous ethanol fermentation was successfully achieved using a bioreactor where cells were immobilized onto inorganic, channeled porous alumina beads. A maximum productivity (27.0/g ethanol/l.h) was achieved with the bioreactor at 35 C using malt yeast extract broth containing 10% glucose as the feedstock. The immobilized cell system showed good operational and storage stability, and could be stored for more than five months without loss of productivities.

  6. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  7. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  8. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  9. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  10. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  11. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  12. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  13. 27 CFR 19.296 - Fermented materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fermented materials. 19.296 Section 19.296 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Use, and Disposal of Materials § 19.296 Fermented materials. Fermented materials that a...

  14. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products. PMID:26152044

  15. Fermentation of raffinose by lactose-fermenting strains of Yersinia enterocolitica and by sucrose-fermenting strains of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, G; Luke, R K; Richmond, M H

    1978-01-01

    Introduction of plasmids carrying the lacY gene (lactose permease gene) into Yersinia enterocolitica results in cells being able to ferment both lactose and raffinose. Transfer of such plasmids into Escherichia coli C600 (lacY) confers ability to ferment lactose but not raffinose. Derivatives of C600 that ferment both lactose and sucrose (Lac+ Scr+ strains) are able to ferment raffinose, but do not grow well on raffinose minimal medium. Fermentation of raffinose by Lac+ strains of Y. enterocolitica, and by Lac+ Scr+ strains of E. coli, is explained in terms of transport of raffinose via the lac permease and subsequent breakdown catalyzed by invertase. PMID:344338

  16. User's guide to vacuum technology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hanlon, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of vacuum technology written for today's system users, i.e., students, technicians, engineers, managers, and scientists in volved in semiconductors, optics, and related areas. The emphasis is on the understanding, selection and operation of equipment for the production of process environments. Topics discussed include: residual gas analysis; interpretation of RGA data; material properties; pumping oxygen safely and properties of modern pump fluids; diffusion, ion, turbomolecular, and cryogenic pumps; suitability of the four pump types for high vacuum, ultra-high vacuum, and high gas flow applications; design for hazardous gas pumping - significant in several semiconductor processes; and economics of purchasing, owning, and operating vacuum equipment, and methods of conserving energy.

  17. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis. PMID:23430199

  18. Vacuum lamination of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Vacuum lamination of terrestrial photovoltaic modules is a new high volume process requiring new equipment and newly develop materials. Equipment development, materials research, and some research in related fields and testing methods are discussed.

  19. APS storage ring vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Vacuum system pump down analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rohrdanz, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    My assignment on the SP-100 Vacuum Vessel Vacuum System Team was to perform a transient pump down analysis for the vacuum vessel that will house the SP-100 reactor during testing. Pump down time was calculated for air and helium. For all cases the proposed vacuum system will be able to pump down the vessel within the required time. The use of a larger rotary piston pump (DUO250) improves the pump down time by 35 minutes and therefore should be considered. The 6-inch duct for the roughing line is optimal, however, because all cases are well below the 24 hour time frame, the 4-inch duct is sufficient. The use of the single turbomolecular pump during pump down is sufficient. A pump down with helium in the vessel and a helium inleakage delays the time to achieve the base pressure marginally and is acceptable.

  1. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol or sugar alcohol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine, and chemical industries. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production chemically. A number of lactic acid bacter...

  2. PRODUCTION OF MANNITOL BY FERMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannitol, a naturally occurring polyol, is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, medicine and chemical industry. The production of mannitol by fermentation has become attractive because of the problems associated with its production by chemical methods. We have selected Lactobacillus intermediu...

  3. African fermented foods and probiotics.

    PubMed

    Franz, Charles M A P; Huch, Melanie; Mathara, Julius Maina; Abriouel, Hikmate; Benomar, Nabil; Reid, Gregor; Galvez, Antonio; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-01

    Africa has an age old history of production of traditional fermented foods and is perhaps the continent with the richest variety of lactic acid fermented foods. These foods have a large impact on the nutrition, health and socio-economy of the people of the continent, often plagued by war, drought, famine and disease. Sub-Saharan Africa is the world's region with the highest percentage of chronically malnourished people and high child mortality. Further developing of traditional fermented foods with added probiotic health features would be an important contribution towards reaching the UN Millennium Development Goals of eradication of poverty and hunger, reduction in child mortality rates and improvement of maternal health. Specific probiotic strains with documented health benefits are sparsely available in Africa and not affordable to the majority of the population. Furthermore, they are not used in food fermentations. If such probiotic products could be developed especially for household food preparation, such as cereal or milk foods, it could make a profound impact on the health and well-being of adults and children. Suitable strains need to be chosen and efforts are needed to produce strains to make products which will be available for clinical studies. This can gauge the impact of probiotics on consumers' nutrition and health, and increase the number of people who can benefit. PMID:25203619

  4. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  5. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    1987-01-01

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing and designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)

  6. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. PMID:24462702

  7. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  8. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    PubMed

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles. PMID:15311436

  9. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.

    PubMed

    Mugula, J K; Nnko, S A M; Narvhus, J A; Srhaug, T

    2003-02-15

    Selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. The process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. The mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the Enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. The isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella confusa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pelliculosa and Candida tropicalis. The pH decreased from 5.24-5.52 to 3.10-3.34. Maltose increased initially and then decreased, fructose decreased and glucose levels increased during the first 12 h of fermentation. The organic acids detected during fermentation included DL-lactic, succinic, formic, pyruvic, citric, pyroglutamic and uric acid. Lactate was the predominant acid and increased significantly with time. The volatile organic compounds (VOC) detected included acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-propanal, 2-methyl-butanal, 3-methyl-butanal, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, diacetyl and acetoin. Ethanol was the predominant VOC and it increased significantly with time. PMID:12423921

  10. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  11. Reduce costs with vacuum excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Vitale, S.A.

    1983-09-01

    Although vacuum excavation equipment and methods are in their infancy, this developing technology offers tremendous promise for the future. The author explains Brooklyn Union Gas Co.'s experience with five vacuum trucks and the procedures that are used. In recent years, the higher cost of natural gas has increased the need for gas utilities to reduce their operating expenses. One way, which has been successful at Brooklyn Union Gas, is the use of vacuum excavation. Although vacuum excavation equipment and techniques are in their infancy, this developing technology offers substantial savings today and tremendous promise for the future. Brooklyn Union started its vacuum digging program by locating keyhole cutoffs--small surface openings ranging from 1 ft by 1 ft to 1 1/2 ft by 1 1/2 ft (0.3 m to 0.45 m square). It is no easy task to accurately locate a service that was installed 60 years ago. Reading the street indications, locating an existing curb valve or repair opening, gaining access to the building, making a physical lineup, and using an M-scope, plus any other tools available, have produced a high success rate.

  12. Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density

    SciTech Connect

    Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje; Glavan, Drazen

    2010-12-15

    As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

  13. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  14. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  15. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  16. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  17. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  18. D-Zero Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1986-04-07

    The system pumping speed was calculated by taking the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal pump speed and the reciprocal line conductances. The conductances of the pipe were calculated from the following formulas taken from the Varian vacuum manual. This report updates the original to reflect the pumping curves and basic vacuum system characteristics for the purchased components and installed piping of the D-Zero vacuum system. The system consists of two Edward's E2M275 two stage mechanical pumps, a Leybold-Heraeus WSU2000 Blower and three Varian 4' diffusion pumps (one for each cryostat). Individual pump and system pumping speed curves and a diagram of the system is included.

  19. Impedances of Laminated Vacuum Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, A.; Lebedev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-22

    First publications on impedance of laminated vacuum chambers are related to early 70s: those are of S. C. Snowdon [1] and of A. G. Ruggiero [2]; fifteen years later, a revision paper of R. Gluckstern appeared [3]. All the publications were presented as Fermilab preprints, and there is no surprise in that: the Fermilab Booster has its laminated magnets open to the beam. Being in a reasonable mutual agreement, these publications were all devoted to the longitudinal impedance of round vacuum chambers. The transverse impedance and the flat geometry case were addressed in more recent paper of K. Y. Ng [4]. The latest calculations of A. Macridin et al. [5] revealed some disagreement with Ref. [4]; this fact stimulated us to get our own results on that matter. Longitudinal and transverse impendances are derived for round and flat laminated vacuum chambers. Results of this paper agree with Ref. [5].

  20. Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.

    2010-04-23

    It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.

  1. Bacterial synthesis gas (syngas) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Straub, Melanie; Dürre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria employing the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway can be used as biocatalysts in syngas fermentation for the production ofbiofuels such as ethanol or butanol as well as biocommodities such as acetate, lactate, butyrate, 2,3 butanediol, and acetone. The potential of such processes can be projected by the global syngas output, which was 70,817 megawatts thermal in 2010 and is expected to increase up to 72% in 2016. To date, different acetogens are used as commercial production strains for industrial syngas fermentations in pilot or demonstration plants (Coskata, INEOS Bio, LanzaTech) and first commercial units are expected to launch operation in the near future (INEOS Bio, LanzaTech). Considerations on potential yields are quite promising for fermentative production. New methods for metabolic engineering were established to construct novel recombinant acetogenic biocatalysts. Synthetic biology will certainly play a major role in constructing strains for commercial operations. This way, a cheap and abundant carbon source most probably replace, processes based on crude oil or sugar in the near future. PMID:24350425

  2. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  3. QED vacuum loops and inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, H. M.; Gabellini, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A QED-based model of a new version of vacuum energy has recently been suggested, which leads to a simple, finite, one parameter representation of dark energy. An elementary, obvious, but perhaps radical generalization is then able to describe both dark energy and inflation in the same framework of vacuum energy. One further, obvious generalization then leads to a relation between inflation and the big bang, to the automatic inclusion of dark matter, and to a possible understanding of the birth (and death) of a universe.

  4. Infant salmonellosis and vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Haddock, R L; Nocon, F A

    1994-02-01

    Microbiological examination of the contents of vacuum cleaner bags collected from case and control homes demonstrated a statistically significant association (OR = 3.13, CL = 1.32-7.50) between infant salmonellosis cases and Salmonella contamination of the vacuums used in their homes. This suggests that some cases of infant salmonellosis may result from contact with contamination in the home environment and that steps taken to protect infants from potentially contaminated dust or dust aerosols may reduce the risk of contracting this infection. PMID:8182786

  5. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  6. Pilot-scale semisolid fermentation of straw.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, G A; Han, Y W; Anderson, A W

    1978-01-01

    Semisolid fermentation of ryegrass straw to increase its animal feed value was successfully performed on a pilot scale. The pilot plant, which could handle 100 kg of straw per batch, was designed so that all major operations could take place in one vessel. The straw was hydrolyzed at 121 degrees C for 30 min with 0.5 N H2SO4 (7:3 liquid:solid), treated with ammonia to raise the pH to 5.0, inoculated with Candida utilis, and fermented in a semisolid state (70% moisture). During fermentation the straw was held stationary with air blown up through it. Batch fermentation times were 12 to 29 h. Semisolid fermentation did not require agitation and supported abundant growth at 20 to 40 degrees C even at near zero oxygen tensions. Fermentation increased the protein content, crude fat content, and in vitro rumen digestibility of the straw. Images PMID:565187

  7. A novel downstream process for 1,3-propanediol from glycerol-based fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pinki; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar; Marwah, Ruchi G

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a downstream process for purification of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol-based fermentation broth was investigated. The purification of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth was achieved by a process combining microfiltration, charcoal treatment, vacuum distillation, and silica gel chromatography. The broth was first filtered through hollow fiber cartridge, wherein 98.7% of biomass was removed. Soluble proteins and other color impurities in the broth were removed by the use of activated charcoal at optimal concentration of 30 g?l(-1) where the soluble proteins in the broth decreased to 0.1 g?l(-1) (96.0% protein loss). The obtained broth when concentrated by vacuum distillation resulted in the crystallization of inorganic salts. Subsequently, 1,3-propanediol was purified by gradient chromatography using silica gel as a stationary phase and mixture of chloroform and methanol as a mobile phase. Finally, with the optimal flow rate of 10 ml min(-1) and loading amount of 80 ml, the yield of 1,3-propanediol achieved was 89%. The overall yield of 1,3-propanediol using the proposed procedure was 75.47%. The developed method was found to be a simple, rapid, and efficient procedure for the purification of 1,3-propanediol from fermentation broth. PMID:21360149

  8. Combining treatments to improve the fermentation of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY180.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Ryan; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory side products from dilute acid pretreatment is a major challenge for conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. Six strategies to detoxify sugarcane hydrolysates were investigated alone, and in combinations (vacuum evaporation of volatiles, high pH treatment with ammonia, laccase, bisulfite, microaeration, and inoculum size). High pH was the most beneficial single treatment, increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (measured by ethanol production) from 15% (control) to 70% hydrolysate. Combining treatments provided incremental improvements, consistent with different modes of action and multiple inhibitory compounds. Screening toxicity using tube cultures proved to be an excellent predictor of relative performance in pH-controlled fermenters. A combination of treatments (vacuum evaporation, laccase, high pH, bisulfite, microaeration) completely eliminated all inhibitory activity present in hydrolysate. With this combination, fermentation of hemicellulose sugars (90% hydrolysate) to ethanol was complete within 48 h, identical to the fermentation of laboratory xylose (50 g/L) in AM1 mineral salts medium (without hydrolysate). PMID:25864026

  9. Fermentation studies of stored cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Abdul Samah, O; Ibrahim, N; Alimon, H; Abdul Karim, M I

    1993-09-01

    Acetic and lactic acid bacteria on fermented cocoa beans were maximally 2.010(6) and 1.910(6) c.f.u./g wet wt, respectively. Acetic and lactic acids were detected on the second and fourth days of fermentation and were maximally 140 and 45 mg/10 g beans, respectively. There was a positive correlation between the sizes of the relevant microbial populations and the amounts of acids produced during fermentation. PMID:24420212

  10. Butanol toxicity in the butylic fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.R.; Ulmer, D.C.; Linden, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental study has been initiated, attempting to elucidate the mechanism for butanol toxicity in the acetone-butanol fermentation by C. acetobutylicum. The results obtained to date have shown that butanol, when added to the fermentation at concentrations equivalent to those observed in industrial fermentations (0.1 to 0.15M) causes 50% inhibition of both the cell growth and sugar uptake rates. Ethanol was found not to be inhibitory at typical fermentation levels. Preliminary data indicates that energy in the form of ATP is coupled to the transport of sugars across the cell membrane via ATPase.

  11. Fermentation of Philippine Vegetable Blends1

    PubMed Central

    Orillo, C. A.; Sison, E. C.; Luis, M.; Pederson, C. S.

    1969-01-01

    Seven blends of Philipphine vegetables, two of which contained soybeans and one mongo bean sprouts, were prepared for fermentation and study of microbiological and chemical changes. The fermentations were typical lactic acid bacterial fermentations, initiated by Leuconostoc mesenteroides and continued by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and L. plantarum. The combination of high acidity and low pH resembled other vegetable fermentations, such as sauerkraut. The procedure offers a method of preserving surplus vegetables, and, in addition, a method for incorporating and preserving the high-protein-containing soybeans. PMID:16349831

  12. New developments in oxidative fermentation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, O; Moonmangmee, D; Toyama, H; Yamada, M; Shinagawa, E; Matsushita, K

    2003-02-01

    Oxidative fermentations have been well established for a long time, especially in vinegar and in L-sorbose production. Recently, information on the enzyme systems involved in these oxidative fermentations has accumulated and new developments are possible based on these findings. We have recently isolated several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria, which also seem to be useful for new developments in oxidative fermentation. Two different types of membrane-bound enzymes, quinoproteins and flavoproteins, are involved in oxidative fermentation, and sometimes work with the same substrate but produce different oxidation products. Recently, there have been new developments in two different oxidative fermentations, D-gluconate and D-sorbitol oxidations. Flavoproteins, D-gluconate dehydrogenase, and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were isolated almost 2 decades ago, while the enzyme involved in the same oxidation reaction for D-gluconate and D-sorbitol has been recently isolated and shown to be a quinoprotein. Thus, these flavoproteins and a quinoprotein have been re-assessed for the oxidation reaction. Flavoprotein D-gluconate dehydrogenase and D-sorbitol dehydrogenase were shown to produce 2-keto- D-gluconate and D-fructose, respectively, whereas the quinoprotein was shown to produce 5-keto- D-gluconate and L-sorbose from D-gluconate and D-sorbitol, respectively. In addition to the quinoproteins described above, a new quinoprotein for quinate oxidation has been recently isolated from Gluconobacter strains. The quinate dehydrogenase is also a membrane-bound quinoprotein that produces 3-dehydroquinate. This enzyme can be useful for the production of shikimate, which is a convenient salvage synthesis system for many antibiotics, herbicides, and aromatic amino acids synthesis. In order to reduce energy costs of oxidative fermentation in industry, several thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria that can grow up to 40 degrees C have been isolated. Of such isolated strains, some thermotolerant Acetobacter species were found to be useful for vinegar fermentation at a high temperature such 38-40 degrees C, where mesophilic strains showed no growth. They oxidized higher concentrations of ethanol up to 9% without any appreciable lag time, while alcohol oxidation with mesophilic strains was delayed or became almost impossible under such conditions. Several useful Gluconobacter species of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria are also found, especially L-erythrulose-producing strains and cyclic alcohol-oxidizing strains. Gluconobacter frateurii CHM 43 is able to rapidly oxidize meso-erythritol at 37 degrees C leading to the accumulation of L-erythrulose, which may replace dihydroxyacetone in cosmetics. G. frateuriiCHM 9 is able to oxidize cyclic alcohols to their corresponding cyclic ketones or aliphatic ketones, which are known to be useful for preparing many different physiologically active compounds such as oxidized steroids or oxidized bicyclic ketones. The enzymes involved in these meso-erythritol and cyclic alcohol oxidations have been purified and shown to be a similar type of membrane-bound quinoproteins, consisting of a high molecular weight single peptide. This is completely different from another quinoprotein, alcohol dehydrogenase of acetic acid bacteria, which consists of three subunits including hemoproteins. PMID:12664142

  13. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  14. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  15. Safety and quality of ready-to-eat dry fermented sausages subjected to E-beam radiation.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, M C; de la Hoz, L; Velasco, R; Cambero, M I; Ordóñez, J A

    2009-10-01

    The inactivation kinetics in the death of Listeriainnocua NTC 11288 (more radioresistant than five different strains of Listeriamonocytogenes) and Salmonella Enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium by E-beam irradiation has been studied in two types of vacuum-packed RTE dry fermented sausages ("salchichon" and "chorizo") in order to optimize the sanitation treatment of these products. A treatment of 1.29kGy was calculated to reach the food safety objective (FSO) according to the "zero tolerance" criterion for the three strains. No irradiation treatment was necessary to meet the 10(2)c.f.u./g microbiological criterion for L. monocytogenes. Dry fermented sausages treated with ⩽2kGy had negligible sensory (appearance, odour and taste) modifications. Therefore, this treatment produces safe dry fermented sausages with similar sensory properties to the non-irradiated product. PMID:20416723

  16. Degassing procedure for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, B. C.

    1979-01-01

    Calculations based on diffusion coefficients and degassing rates for stainless-steel vacuum chambers indicate that baking at lower temperatures for longer periods give lower ultimate pressures than rapid baking at high temperatures. Process could reduce pressures in chambers for particle accelerators, fusion reactors, material research, and other applications.

  17. Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2011-12-05

    Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

  18. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  19. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F.; Keffer, Charles E.; Zukic, Muamer

    1993-01-01

    The development of a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometric system for measuring transmittance and reflectance at variable angles is presented. Using various detectors and sources, the spectrophotometric system has been used for wavelengths from 80 nm to 300 nm with optical components up to 80 mm in diameter. The capability exists to make measurements through the visible range.

  20. Vacuum-injection-molding processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved processing technique for the manufacture of glass or glass-ceramic headers has been developed. Vacuum-injection molding is a relatively easy processing technique that has been used successfully in the fabrication of several different advantages in certain applications over the present fabrication process which uses glass preforms.

  1. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, Roger P. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  2. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    DOEpatents

    Shurter, R.P.

    1992-09-15

    A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

  3. Vacuum pumping system for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    St. Onge, K.D.

    1995-12-31

    The design of the vacuum pumping system for is discussed, and progress in the research and development effort is summarized. The TPX vacuum system will use cryocondensation pumps for hydrogenic divertor pumping and turbomolecular pumps for torus evacuation, glow discharge cleaning, and deuterium-helium divertor pumping. A set of poloidally and toroidally symmetric vacuum ducts will connect the torus to the vacuum pumps; this symmetry will permit simultaneous equal pumping speed at the upper and lower divertors, and it will minimize toroidal variations in divertor pumping speed. At the divertor plena the total cryocondensation pumping speed for D{sub 2} at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 80 m{sup 3}/s and the total turbomolecular pumping speed for D{sub 2} or He at 65 C and 1 mTorr will be 18 m{sup 3}/s; the system will be compatible with upgrades to improve pumping speed, to operate continuously, or to operate with D-T fuel. The cryocondensation pumps will be custom units capable of completing a low temperature regeneration cycle in 1 hour.

  4. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  5. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M.A. Ebadian

    2000-01-13

    The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

  6. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  7. Vacuum Flushing of Sewer Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vacuum sewer and tank cleaning (flushing) technology removes sewer solids from urban drainage systems, such as storage tanks and pipes. This technology is both effective and inexpensive. In addition, it can be considered a true green technology. It operates under atmospheri...

  8. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    1999-05-31

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  9. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  10. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  11. Simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation coupled with adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqin; Li, Ming; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Low sugar concentration and the presence of various inhibitors are the major challenges associated with lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as a fermentation broth. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used to concentrate sugars and remove inhibitors (furans) efficiently, but it's not desirable for the removal of less volatile inhibitors such as acetic acid. In this study, a VMD-adsorption process was proposed to improve the removal of acetic acid, achieving simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by one step process. Results showed that sugars were concentrated with high rejections (>98%) and little sugar loss (<2%), with the significant reduction in nearly total furans (99.7%) and acetic acid (83.5%) under optimal operation conditions. Fermentation results showed the ethanol production of hydrolyzates concentrated and detoxified using the VMD-adsorption method were approximately 10-fold greater than from untreated hydrolyzates. PMID:26342339

  12. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  13. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin. PMID:24506010

  14. Ultra-high molecular sink vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Yager, S. P.

    1970-01-01

    Double-wall vacuum chamber can be separated from the remainder of the system and pumped by ultra-clean techniques. Ultrahigh vacuum is maintained by the cryogenic effect of a cold wall and titanium chemisorption.

  15. Ceramic-to-metal vacuum seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackerlotzky, O. H.

    1979-01-01

    Knife-edge sealing technique forms reliable, vacuum-tight bonds between materials having very different thermal-expansion characteristics. Seal is thin and flexible and absorb shear, hoop, and bonding stresses at joint so that seal remains vacuum tight.

  16. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  17. Ultrathin gate valve for high vacuum operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ugiansky, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Thin, compact, high-vacuum gate valve used to join two vacuum systems together demonstrates multiple operation reliability. Valve measurements and non-protruding handle make valve usable in confined areas.

  18. Gravitational vacuum polarization. II. Energy conditions in the Boulware vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, M.

    1996-10-01

    Building on techniques developed in the preceding paper, I investigate the various pointwise and averaged energy conditions for the quantum stress-energy tensor corresponding to a conformally coupled massless scalar field in the Boulware vacuum. I work in the test-field limit, restrict attention to the Schwarzschild geometry, and invoke a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques. In contradistinction to the case of the Hartle-Hawking vacuum, wherein violations of the energy conditions were confined to the region between the event horizon and the unstable photon orbit, I show that in the Boulware vacuum (1) all standard (pointwise and averaged) energy conditions are violated throughout the exterior region, all the way from spatial infinity down to the event horizon, and (2) outside the event horizon the standard pointwise energy conditions are violated in a maximal manner: They are violated at all points and for all null or timelike vectors. (The region inside the event horizon is considerably messier and of dubious physical relevance. Nevertheless, the standard pointwise energy conditions seem to be violated even inside the event horizon.) I argue that this is highly suggestive evidence, pointing to the fact that general self-consistent solutions of semiclassical quantum gravity might {ital not} satisfy the energy conditions and may in fact for certain quantum fields and certain quantum states violate {ital all} the energy conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. High pressure synthesis gas fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Construction of the high pressure gas phase fermentation system is nearing completion. All non-explosion proof components will be housed separately in a gas-monitored plexiglas cabinet. A gas-monitoring system has been designed to ensure the safety of the operations in case of small or large accidental gas releases. Preliminary experiments investigating the effects of high pressure on Clostridium 1jungdahlii have shown that growth and CO uptake are not negatively affected and CO uptake by an increased total pressure of 100 psig at a syngas partial pressure of 10 psig.

  20. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Methods and Results: Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucu...

  1. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  2. Anaerobic fermentations of cellulose to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, H.D. Jr.; Odom, M.

    1981-01-01

    A review with 54 references is presented. Subjects discussed include cellulose degradation in the presence of high sulfate, interspecies H transfer, cellulose fermentation to CH4 and CO2, cellulose fermentation in the rumen, interaction between primary and ancillary microorganisms, and H metabolism in desulfovibrio.

  3. Bacteriophage ecology in commercial sauerkraut fermentations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ecology of bacteriophages infecting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in commercial sauerkraut fermentations was investigated. Brine samples were taken from four commercial sauerkraut fermentation tanks over a 60- or 100-day period in 2000 and 2001. A total of 171 independent phage isolates, including ...

  4. Butanol production by fermentation: efficient bioreactors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy security, environmental concerns, and business opportunities in the emerging bio-economy have generated strong interest in the production of n-butanol by fermentation. Acetone butanol ethanol (ABE or solvent) batch fermentation process is product limiting because butanol even at low concentra...

  5. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  6. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  7. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...) Other vacuum air system components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant....

  8. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...) Other vacuum air system components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant....

  9. The APS beamline front end vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, R.W.

    1993-10-15

    This report discusses the design of the vacuum system for the advanced photon source beamline front ends. Included in this report are discussions on: vacuum calculations, the differential pump; front end vacuum set points; cleaning methods and agents; and continuing and completed research and development.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  11. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  12. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it

  13. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  15. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  17. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe....

  20. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes...

  1. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum protection. 154.804 Section 154.804 Shipping... Systems 154.804 Vacuum protection. (a) Except as allowed under paragraph (b) of this section, each cargo tank must have a vacuum protection system meeting paragraph (a)(1) of this section and either...

  2. Utilize Vacuum Forming to Make Interdisciplinary Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Tyler S.; Valenza, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The concept of vacuum forming has been around since the 19th century, despite not being fully utilized in industry until the 1950s. In the past, industrial arts classes have used vacuum-forming projects to concentrate solely on the manufacturing process and the final product. However, vacuum forming is not just an old industrial arts activity; it…

  3. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    William S. McPhee

    2001-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites.

  4. Mirror fusion vacuum technology developments

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1983-11-21

    Magnetic Mirror Fusion experiments, such as MFTF-B+T (Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B, Tritium Upgrade) and foreseeable follow-on devices, have operational and maintenance requirements that have not yet been fully demonstrated. Among those associated with vacuum technology are the very-high continuous-pumping speeds, 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ l/s for D/sub 2/, T/sub 2/ and, to a lesser extent, He; the early detection of water leaks from the very-high heat-flux neutral-beam dumps and the detection and location of leaks in the superconducting magnets not protected by guard vacuums. Possible solutions to these problems have been identified and considerable progress has been made toward successfully demonstrating their feasibility.

  5. Vacuum outgassing of various materials

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

    1983-12-20

    A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinychloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

  6. Vacuum outgassing of various materials

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

    1984-04-01

    A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the ''as-received'' condition at room temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for materials such as chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC), low density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, sheet of various thicknesses, and as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N/sup X/ conformal coatings applied to CPVC, polyethylene, and stainless steel substrates.

  7. Vacuum outgassing of various materials

    SciTech Connect

    Erikson, E.D.; Beat, T.G.; Berger, D.D.; Frazier, B.A.

    1983-09-28

    A gas analytical system for measuring the evolved gases from materials during vacuum degassing is discussed. The outgassing data are based upon the throughput measurement and a computer-controlled quadrupole mass spectrometer allows the determination of residual gas species. A variety of materials have been tested in the as received condition at room-temperature vacuum exposure. Test results are presented for some unusual materials such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), low-density carbon foam and Monel knitted wire mesh (both of which could be used for the attenuation of electromagnetic or radio frequency interference), polyethylene (in the form of black pipe, various thicknesses of sheet, or as an electrostatically applied coating to metal substrates), as well as Parylene-N conformal coatings applied to either CPVC, polyethylene, or stainless steel substrates.

  8. Radiation reaction in quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, Keita

    2015-02-01

    Since the development of the radiating electron theory by P. A. M. Dirac in 1938 [P. A. M. Dirac, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 167, 148 (1938)], many authors have tried to reformulate this model, called the "radiation reaction". Recently, this equation has become important for ultra-intense laser-electron (plasma) interactions. In our recent research, we found a stabilized model of the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum [K. Seto et al., Prog. Theor. Exp. Phys. 2014, 043A01 (2014)]. It led us to an updated Fletcher-Millikan charge-to-mass ratio including radiation. In this paper, I will discuss the generalization of our previous model and the new equation of motion with the radiation reaction in quantum vacuum via photon-photon scatterings and also introduce the new tensor d{E}^{? ? ? ? }/dm, as the anisotropy of the charge-to-mass ratio.

  9. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  10. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  11. Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shurter, R.P.

    1990-10-10

    This invention is comprised of a barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yearns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput.

  12. QCD Vacuum Topology and Glueballs

    SciTech Connect

    Forkel, Hilmar

    2004-12-02

    We outline a comprehensive study of spin-0 glueball properties which, in particular, keeps track of the topological gluon structure. Specifically, we implement (semi-hard) topological instanton physics as well as topological charge screening in the QCD vacuum into the operator product expansion (OPE) of the glueball correlators. A realistic instanton size distribution and the (gauge-invariant) renormalization of the instanton contributions are also implemented. Predictions for 0++ and 0-+ glueball properties are presented.

  13. The statistics of vacuum geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Melissa; Gu, Wei; He, Yang-Hui; Zhou, Da

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the vacuum moduli space of supersymmetric gauge theories en masse by probing the space of such vacua from a statistical standpoint. Using quiver gauge theories with = 1 supersymmetry as a testing ground, we sample over a large number of vacua as algebraic varieties, computing explicitly their dimension, degree and Hilbert series. We study the distribution of these geometrical quantities, and also address the question of how likely it is for the moduli space to be Calabi-Yau.

  14. Compound Walls For Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed compound-wall configuration enables construction of large high-vacuum chambers without having to use thick layers of expensive material to obtain necessary strength. Walls enclose chambers more than 1 m in diameter and several kilometers long. Compound wall made of strong outer layer of structural-steel culvert pipe welded to thin layer of high-quality, low-outgassing stainless steel.

  15. Improved Vacuum-Tight Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudin, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Simple reinforcing tube increases service life and improves seal. Short stainless-steel tube inserted in copper tube to reinforce against compression, preventing leaks due to thermal distortion or to collapse under squeeze of ferrule in compressure fitting. Several test specimens of improved connector constructed, tested, and evaluated. Fittings not only operated successfully at required operating conditions of vacuum and temperature but also consistently demonstrated high reliability after loosened and tightened many times.

  16. Fermentation metabolism and its evolution in algae

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Yang, Wenqiang; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation or anoxic metabolism allows unicellular organisms to colonize environments that become anoxic. Free-living unicellular algae capable of a photoautotrophic lifestyle can also use a range of metabolic circuitry associated with different branches of fermentation metabolism. While algae that perform mixed-acid fermentation are widespread, the use of anaerobic respiration is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs. The occurrence of a core set of fermentation pathways among the algae provides insights into the evolutionary origins of these pathways, which were likely derived from a common ancestral eukaryote. Based on genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism has been examined in more detail in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas) than in any other photosynthetic protist. This green alga is metabolically flexible and can sustain energy generation and maintain cellular redox balance under a variety of different environmental conditions. Fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas appears to be highly controlled, and the flexible use of the different branches of fermentation metabolism has been demonstrated in studies of various metabolic mutants. Additionally, when Chlamydomonas ferments polysaccharides, it has the ability to eliminate part of the reductant (to sustain glycolysis) through the production of H2, a molecule that can be developed as a source of renewable energy. To date, little is known about the specific role(s) of the different branches of fermentation metabolism, how photosynthetic eukaryotes sense changes in environmental O2 levels, and the mechanisms involved in controlling these responses, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we focus on fermentation metabolism in Chlamydomonas and other protists, with only a brief discussion of plant fermentation when relevant, since it is thoroughly discussed in other articles in this volume. PMID:23734158

  17. Xylooligosaccharide fermentation with Leuconostoc lactis.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hitomi; Owaki, Michiko; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2006-05-01

    Strains of Leuconostoc lactis SHO-47 and Le. lactis SHO-54, producing the clinically useful enzyme NAD-specific 6-phosphoglucanate dehydrogenase, were cultivated with a hydrolyzed birch wood xylan as the unique carbon source to produce D-lactic acid for poly(D-lactic acid). In addition to the strains SHO-47 and SHO-54, Lactococcus lactis IO-1, well known as a good xylose-utilizing lactic acid bacterium, was used as a control to confirm the extent of hemicellulose hydrolysis. The fermentation time for lactic acid of strains SHO-47 and SHO-54 was 12 h, and produced respectively 2.3 and 2.2 g/l lactic acid from 8.5 g/l hydrolyzed xylan, whereas the fermentation time of strain IO-1 was 21 h, and produced 1.3 g/l lactic acid. Xylooligosaccharides from xylobiose to xylohexose were utilized more rapidly than xylose in the cultures of strains SHO-47 and SHO-54. However, xylose concentration increased temporarily and then decreased in the culture of strain IO-1. On the other hand, xylooligosaccharides larger than xyloheptaose were not utilized by these three strains. The xylosidase activities of SHO-47, SHO-54, and IO-1 were induced by xylose or a mixture of xylobiose and xylotriose. The xylosidases of these three strains were localized in their cytoplasm. PMID:16781471

  18. Fermented foods, feeds and beverages.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, K H

    1983-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of books and papers dealing with the indigenous fermented foods/beverages of the world. It is anticipated that these foods/beverages will play an ever-increasingly important role in feeding both the developing and the developed world as population increases from approximately 4.5 billion to 6 billion by the year 2000 and to 8 to 12 billion people in the 21st century. The indigenous fermented foods consist of microbial protein grown on edible substrates. Microbial or single cell protein (SCP) per se continues to receive research and development attention. It is likely to play an important role in feeding animals in the future when it becomes competitive with soy protein. It may play a direct role in feeding humans in the future after its safety for feeding animals has been adequately demonstrated and it has been shown that it can be processed into foods acceptable to humans. At the present time, mushrooms, a form of microbial protein highly acceptable to humans, which can be grown readily on ligno-cellulosic and other agricultural and food processing wastes, offer considerable opportunity for expanding man's food supply. PMID:14544244

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of used tires

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Darmstadt, H.; Benallal, B.; Chaala, A.; Schwerdtfeger, A.E.

    1995-11-01

    The vacuum pyrolysis of used tires enables the recovery of useful products, such as pyrolytic oil and pyrolytic carbon black (CB{sub P}). The light part of the pyrolytic oil contains dl-limonene which has a high price on the market. The naphtha fraction can be used as a high octane number component for gasoline. The middle distillate demonstrated mechanical and lubricating properties similar to those of the commercial aromatic oil Dutrex R 729. The heavy oil was tested as a feedstock for the production of needle coke. It was found that the surface morphology of CB{sub P} produced by vacuum pyrolysis resembles that of commercial carbon black. The CB{sub P} contains a higher concentration of inorganic compounds (especially ZnO and S) than commercial carbon black. The pyrolysis process feasibility looks promising. One old tire can generate upon vacuum pyrolysis, incomes of at least $2.25 US with a potential of up to $4.83 US/tire upon further product improvement. The process has been licensed to McDermott Marketing Servicing Inc. (Houston) for its exploitation in the US.

  20. Running Jobs in the Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.; Stagni, F.; Ubeda Garcia, M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the operation of computing nodes at a site using Virtual Machines (VMs), in which VMs are created and contextualized for experiments by the site itself. For the experiment, these VMs appear to be produced spontaneously "in the vacuum" rather having to ask the site to create each one. This model takes advantage of the existing pilot job frameworks adopted by many experiments. In the Vacuum model, the contextualization process starts a job agent within the VM and real jobs are fetched from the central task queue as normal. An implementation of the Vacuum scheme, Vac, is presented in which a VM factory runs on each physical worker node to create and contextualize its set of VMs. With this system, each node's VM factory can decide which experiments' VMs to run, based on site-wide target shares and on a peer-to-peer protocol in which the site's VM factories query each other to discover which VM types they are running. A property of this system is that there is no gate keeper service, head node, or batch system accepting and then directing jobs to particular worker nodes, avoiding several central points of failure. Finally, we describe tests of the Vac system using jobs from the central LHCb task queue, using the same contextualization procedure for VMs developed by LHCb for Clouds.

  1. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  2. The Vacuum System of HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. T.; Zhang, J. H.; Meng, J.; You, Z. M.; Yang, W. S.; Guo, D. Z.; Ma, X. L.; Niu, Z. W.; Nie, Z. S.; Hu, Z. J.; Hou, S. J.; Hao, C. Y.; Zhao, Y. G.; Jia, Y. S.; Lou, M. L.

    The vacuum system of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is a large and complex system. HIRFL consists of two ECR ion sources, a sector focus cyclotron (SFC), a separate sector cyclotron (SSC) and a multi-purpose cooling storage ring system which has a main ring (CSRm) and an experiment ring (CSRe). Several beam lines connect these accelerators together and transfer various heavy ion beams to more than 10 experiment terminals. According to the requirements of the ion acceleration and ion lifetime, the working pressure in each accelerator is different. SFC is nearly 50 years old. After upgrade, the working pressure in SFC is improved from 10-6mbar to 10-8mbar. The pressure in SSC which was built in the 1980s reaches the same level. The cooling storage ring system with a length of 500m came into operation in 2007. The average pressures in CSRm and CSRe are 510-12mbar and 810-12mbar respectively. Different designs were adopt for vacuum system of a dozen beam lines to meet specific requirement of each experiment terminal. Along with the extensive development of the heavy ion researches and applications, new accelerators of HIRFL are under construction. The vacuum system of the new machines will be designed and constructed followed the overall schedule.

  3. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  4. Vacuum multilayer lamination of printed wiring boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkus, J. W.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment investigates vacuum multilayer lamination of rigid/flex, epoxy glass, polyimide glass, and polyimide quartz printed wiring boards. The effectiveness of the vacuum in removing entrapped air during the lamination cycle is demonstrated. The results of the experiment have also shown that vacuum lamination of epoxy glass multilayers improves the delamination resistance. Thus, epoxy glass multilayers that have been vacuum laminated will be able to withstand soldering temperatures longer without delaminating. Also, the experiment shows that vacuum multilayer lamination does not significantly change thickness, layer-to-layer registration, glass transition temperature, dielectric spacing between conductors, electrical resistance following thermal shock test, and other critical printed wiring board properties.

  5. Recent advances to improve fermentative butanol production: genetic engineering and fermentation technology.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Butanol has recently attracted attention as an alternative biofuel because of its various advantages over other biofuels. Many researchers have focused on butanol fermentation with renewable and sustainable resources, especially lignocellulosic materials, which has provided significant progress in butanol fermentation. However, there are still some drawbacks in butanol fermentation in terms of low butanol concentration and productivity, high cost of feedstock and product inhibition, which makes butanol fermentation less competitive than the production of other biofuels. These hurdles are being resolved in several ways. Genetic engineering is now available for improving butanol yield and butanol ratio through overexpression, knock out/down, and insertion of genes encoding key enzymes in the metabolic pathway of butanol fermentation. In addition, there are also many strategies to improve fermentation technology, such as multi-stage continuous fermentation, continuous fermentation integrated with immobilization and cell recycling, and the inclusion of additional organic acids or electron carriers to change metabolic flux. This review focuses on the most recent advances in butanol fermentation especially from the perspectives of genetic engineering and fermentation technology. PMID:25027723

  6. Rotary bayonets for cryogenic and vacuum service

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.A.; Dixon, K.D.; Krasa, R.; Krempetz, K.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; Trotter, G.R.; Urbin, J.B.

    1993-07-01

    Rotary bayonets were designed, tested, and installed for liquid nitrogen, liquid argon, and vacuum service. This paper will present the design, testing, and service record for two sizes of vacuum jacketed cryogenic rotary bayonets and two sizes of vacuum service rotary bayonets. Materials used in construction provide electrical isolation across the bayonet joint. The joint permits 360 degrees of rotation between the male and female pipe sections while maintaining integrity of service. Assemblies using three such joints were built to allow end connection points to be translated through at least 1 meter of horizontal travel while kept in service. Vacuum jacketed sizes built in-house at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are 1-1/2 in. inner pipe size, 3 in. vacuum jacket, and 4 in. inner pipe size, 6 in. vacuum jacket The single wall vacuum service bayonets are in 4 in. and 6 in. pipe sizes. The bayonets have successfully been in active service for over one year.

  7. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 2. A Vacuum Energy Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-10-01

    In most of our undergraduate physics courses, we study what can happen in space, but space itself plays a passive role. In basic cosmology, the opposite is true. It is the behavior of space that plays the major role. In this, paper #2, we first discuss the nature of a simple expanding space, and then look at the consequence of applying Newton's law of gravity in this space. The calculations are particularly simple if most of the energy behaves like the vacuum energy discussed earlier in paper #1. The calculation is easy but the results are spectacular.

  8. Characteristics of spoilage-associated secondary cucumber fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secondary fermentations during the bulk storage of fermented cucumbers can result in spoilage that causes a total loss of the fermented product, at an estimated cost of $6,000 to $15,000 per affected tank. Previous research has suggested that such fermentations are the result of microbiological util...

  9. Fermentation processes. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fermentation techniques, enzymes, and enzyme technology used in the production of alcohols and other products. Continuous fermentation processes, and the application of computer technology to fermentation control are also considered. Descriptions of specific materials and fermentation processes are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.197 Production by fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same...

  11. Relevance of protein fermentation to gut health.

    PubMed

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Verbeke, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that carbohydrate fermentation results in beneficial effects for the host because of the generation of short chain fatty acids, whereas protein fermentation is considered detrimental for the host's health. Protein fermentation mainly occurs in the distal colon, when carbohydrates get depleted and results in the production of potentially toxic metabolites such as ammonia, amines, phenols and sulfides. However, the effectivity of these metabolites has been established mainly in in vitro studies. In addition, some important bowel diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC) and ulcerative colitis appear most often in the distal colon, which is the primary site of protein fermentation. Finally, epidemiological studies revealed that diets rich in meat are associated with the prevalence of CRC, as is the case in Western society. Importantly, meat intake not only increases fermentation of proteins but also induces increased intake of fat, heme and heterocyclic amines, which may also play a role in the development of CRC. Despite these indications, the relationship between gut health and protein fermentation has not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, the existing evidence about the potential toxicity of protein fermentation from in vitro animal and human studies will be summarized. PMID:22121108

  12. Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozs, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    Tableolives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

  13. Fermentative Cyclohexane Carboxylate Formation in Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

    PubMed

    Boll, Matthias; Kung, Johannes W; Ermler, Ulrich; Martins, Berta M; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as acetic, propionic, butyric or lactic acids are typical primary fermentation products in the anaerobic feeding chain. Fifteen years ago, a novel fermentation type was discovered in the obligately anaerobic Deltaproteobacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus. During fermentative growth with crotonate and/or benzoate, acetate is formed in the oxidative branch and cyclohexane carboxylate in the reductive branch. In both cases cyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA (Ch1,5CoA) is a central intermediate that is either formed by a class II benzoyl-CoA reductase (fermentation of benzoate) or by reverse reactions of the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway (fermentation of crotonate). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the enzymology involved in fermentations yielding cyclohexane carboxylate as an excreted product. The characteristic enzymes involved are two acyl-CoA dehydrogenases specifically acting on Ch1,5CoA and cyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxyl-CoA. Both enzymes are also employed during the syntrophic growth of S. aciditrophicus with cyclohexane carboxylate as the carbon source in coculture with a methanogen. An investigation of anabolic pathways in S. aciditrophicus revealed a rather unusual pathway for glutamate synthesis involving a Re-citrate synthase. Future work has to address the unresolved question concerning which components are involved in reoxidation of the NADH formed in the oxidative branch of the unique cyclohexane carboxylate fermentation pathway in S. aciditrophicus. PMID:26959729

  14. Medium-sized ideal reactor for continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized microorganism

    SciTech Connect

    Skachova, H.; Gottvaldova, M.; Kucera, J.; Podrazky, V.

    1981-12-01

    Recently, alcohol fermentation has gained considerable attention with the aim of lowering its production cost in the production processes of both fuel ethanol and alcoholic beverages. The over-all cost is a summation of costs of various subsystems such as raw material (sugar, starch, and cellulosic substances) treatment, fermentation process, and alcohol separation from water solutions; lowering the cost of the fermentation process is very important in lowering the total cost. Several new techniques have been developed for economic continuous ethanol production. These include the slow growth of highly flocculent yeasts in a tower fermentor for beer production, use of a continuous wine fermentor with no mechanical stirring, cell recycle combined with continuous removal of ethanol under vacuum, a technique involving a bed of yeast admixed with an inert carrier, and use of immobilized yeast reactors in packed-bed column and in a three-stage double conical fluidized-bed bioreactor. All these techniques lead to increases, more or less, in reactor productivity, which in turn result in the reduction of the reactor size for a given production rate and a particular conversion. Since an improvement in the fermentation process often leads to a reduction of fermentor size and hence, a lowering of the initial construction cost, it is important to theoretically arrive at a solution to what is the minimum-size setup of ideal reactors from the viewpoint of liquid backmixing. In this short communication, the minimum-sized ideal reactor for a continuous alcohol fermentation using immobilized cells will be specifically discussed on the basis of a mathematical model. The solution will service for designing an optimal bioreactor. (Refs. 26).

  15. Clostridial fermentation of high-energy sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.

    1989-01-01

    Pretreatment of biomass has been shown to increase the efficiency of microbial conversion of lignocellulose to energy or chemicals. Most chemical and physical pretreatments, however, are too expensive for practical application. Biological pretreatment during ensilage storage offers the potential for a low cost pretreatment process for herbaceous biomass. A number of cellulolytic microorganisms occurring naturally in silages or inoculated into the biomass during ensiling could result in significant hydrolysis of lignocellulose during storage prior to conversion to the final end products. The overall objective of this research was to induce clostridial fermentation in sorghum during ensiling through either manipulation of environmental conditions or inoculation with clostridium bacteria. The first objective was to determine whether environmental conditions can influence the natural microorganisms population distribution during ensiling, thus leading to clostridial fermentation. The second objective was to determine whether cellulolytic clostridia can compete with lactic acid bacteria in the ensiling process, resulting in a clostridial fermentation. Two studies were conducted to investigate these two objectives. Three levels of water soluble sugars ranging from 180g/kg D.M. to 15g/Kg D.M. and five levels of moisture contents ranging from 58% to 81% were used in the first part of this investigation. The fermentation types were generally heterolactic acid fermentation though sporadic clostridial fermentations were observed. The major products from the fermentations were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol. Although the effects of water soluble sugar and moisture content were highly significant for the amount of lactic acid and total products in the fermentations, the two factors were not enough to induce cellulolytic clostridial fermentation.

  16. Bacteriophage Ecology in a Commercial Cucumber Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, I. M.; Hayes, J. S.; Breidt, F.

    2012-01-01

    To reduce high-salt waste from cucumber fermentations, low-salt fermentations are under development. These fermentations may require the use of starter cultures to ensure normal fermentations. Because potential phage infection can cause starter culture failure, it is important to understand phage ecology in the fermentations. This study investigated the phage ecology in a commercial cucumber fermentation. Brine samples taken from a fermentation tank over a 90-day period were plated onto deMan-Rogosa-Sharpe agar plates. A total of 576 lactic acid bacterial isolates were randomly selected to serve as potential hosts for phage isolation. Filtered brine served as a phage source. Fifty-seven independent phage isolates were obtained, indicating that 10% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to phage attack. Phage hosts include Lactobacillus brevis (67% of all hosts), Lactobacillus plantarum (21%), Weissella paramesenteroides, Weissella cibaria, and Pediococcus ethanolidurans. Nearly 50% of phages were isolated on day 14, and the majority of them attacked L. brevis. Some phages had a broad host range and were capable of infecting multiple hosts in two genera. Other phages were species specific or strain specific. About 30% of phage isolates produced turbid pinpoint plaques or only caused reduced cell growth on the bacterial lawns. Six phages with distinct host ranges were characterized. The data from this study showed that abundant and diverse phages were present in the commercial cucumber fermentation, which could cause significant mortality to the lactic acid bacteria population. Therefore, a phage control strategy may be needed in low-salt cucumber fermentations. PMID:23023756

  17. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toldr, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the back-slopping, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldr, 2002; Toldr & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldr, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  18. Computer Simulation of Fermentation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Koga, S.; Burg, C. R.; Humphrey, A. E.

    1967-01-01

    Results of batch fermentation of gluconic acid by Pseudomonas ovalis were graphically analyzed to obtain a kinetic model to represent the data. Since gluconic acid was produced by the hydrolysis of a lactone intermediate, the model was necessarily represented by a set of kinetic equations. A computer simulation technique involving the use of the MIDAS program was developed to solve the system of nonlinear equations and to check the appropriateness of the model. Since the maximal specific growth rate and the rate constant for the production of the lactone intermediate varied with time, function generators were used to simulate these system parameters. The merit of using the MIDAS program was considered in relation to analysis and model testing in microbiological processes of similar types. PMID:6049291

  19. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  20. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, R.

    1981-08-11

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation is claimed. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  1. Case study: Vacuuming for VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Das, A.; Mazowiecki, C.R.

    1996-06-01

    The soil-vapor extraction system, which draws VOC-laden vapors from the subsurface, has become a popular remediation tool. The soil-vapor extraction (SVE) system, also know as {open_quotes}venting,{close_quotes} has proven to be a popular and cost-effective choice to remediate sites contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose zone. The SVE system includes airflow in the subsurface by applying a vacuum through extraction wells. The system is described in this article, with a report on performance monitoring included.

  2. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  3. Vacuum Decay via Lorentzian Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, J. L.

    We speculate about the space-time description due to the presence of Lorentzian worm-holes (handles in space-time joining two distant regions or other universes) in quantum gravity. The semiclassical rate of production of these Lorentzian wormholes in Reissner-Nordstrm space-times is calculated as a result of the spontaneous decay of vacuum due to a real tunneling configuration. In the magnetic case it only depends on the value of the field theoretical fine structure constant. We predict that the quantum probability corresponding to the nucleation of such geodesically complete space-times should be acutally negligible in our physical Universe.

  4. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  5. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  6. Ultra high vacuum seal arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Flaherty, Robert (Mt. Lebanon, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Arrangement for demountably sealing two concentric metallic tubes in an ultra high vacuum system which facilitates remote actuation. A tubular seal includes integral spaced lips which circumferentially engage the metallic tubes. The lips plastically deform the metallic tubes by mechanical forces resulting from a martensite to austenite transformation of the tubular seal upon application of a predetermined temperature. The sealing force is released upon application of another temperature which causes a transformation from the stronger austenite to the weaker martensite. Use of a dual acting sealing ring and driving ring circumferentially contacting the sealing ring is particularly applicable to sealing larger diameter concentric metallic members.

  7. Shielding vacuum fluctuations with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Scheel, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The Casimir-Polder interaction of ground-state and excited atoms with graphene is investigated with the aim to establish whether graphene systems can be used as a shield for vacuum fluctuations of an underlying substrate. We calculate the zero-temperature Casimir-Polder potential from the reflection coefficients of graphene within the framework of the Dirac model. For both doped and undoped graphene we show limits at which graphene could be used effectively as a shield. Additional results are given for AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

  8. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowgill, Donald F. (Danville, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  9. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1990-12-18

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

  10. Extraordinary vacuum black string solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-01-15

    In addition to the boosted static solution there are two other classes of stationary stringlike solutions of the vacuum Einstein equation in (4+1) dimensions. Each class is characterized by three parameters of mass, tension, and momentum flow along the fifth coordinate. We analyze the metric properties of one of the two classes, which was previously assumed to be naked singular, and show that the solution spectrum contains black string and wormhole in addition to the known naked singularity as the momentum flow to mass ratio increases. Interestingly, there does not exist new zero momentum solution in these cases.

  11. Vacuum Friction in Rotating Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manjavacas, A.; Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

    2010-09-10

    We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

  12. Vacuum drying of oak wood

    SciTech Connect

    Fohr, J.P.; Chakir, A.; Arnaud, G.; Peuty, M.A. du

    1995-12-31

    Vacuum drying, i.e., drying under absolute gas pressure of about 10{sup 4} Pa, is an efficient means of reducing the process period and of producing good quality wood. The authors will examine here continuous vacuum drying where the plank surfaces are kept at a constant temperature, which remains above the boiling point, and moisture flowing to the surface is extracted from the kiln. They have carried out an experimental study of oak drying under such conditions. The drying rate and moisture content profile of the sample (40 mm thick) are recorded during the whole drying period. A model of continuous drying is established from general conservation equations with the main approximation that the air is rapidly extracted. The two constitutive equations of the model which describe temperature and water content fields are of a diffusive type and coupled through coefficients. The adequate boundary equation is not a convective one, but expresses a hygroscopic equilibrium between the vapor in the chamber and the wood surface. The mass diffusive coefficient can be adjusted to the drying rates through capillary pressure and bound water diffusion functions. The wood heterogeneity (seasonal growth) is the main factor of discrepancy in these functions. The simulated drying rates correspond with the experimental ones.

  13. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  14. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Gaykawad, Sushil S; Zha, Ying; Punt, Peter J; van Groenestijn, Johan W; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-02-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this. Pervaporation carried out with three different lignocellulosic fermentation broths reduced the membrane performance by 17-20% as compared to a base case containing only 3 wt.% ethanol in water. The membrane fouling caused by these fermentation broths was irreversible. Solutions containing model lignocellulosic components were tested during pervaporation at the same conditions. A total flux decrease of 12-15%, as compared to the base case, was observed for each component except for furfural. Catechol was found to be most fouling component whereas furfural permeated through the membrane and increased the total flux. The membrane selectivity increased in the presence of fermentation broth but remained unchanged for all selected components. PMID:23266848

  15. Changes in biochemical and nutritional qualities of aerobic and vacuum-packaged Thua Nao during shelf-life storage.

    PubMed

    Dajantaa, Katekan; Apishartsarangku, Arune; Chukeatirote, Ekachai

    2013-06-01

    Thai traditionally fermented soybean (Thua Nao) has been suggested as a good source of available amino acids and aglycone isoflavones. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes of biochemical and nutritional qualities in aerobic- and vacuum-packed thua Nao during the storage at 4 and 40 degrees C for 60 days. Three Thua Nao samples including Bacillus subtilis TN51-fermented Thua Nao (TNB51), spontaneously fermented Thua Nao (TNMX) and commercial product (MH) were used in this study. It was found that the storage of packed Thua Nao at 4 degrees C could prolong the product shelf-life up to 40 days. The moisture contents, pH values and colour L a* b* of these products were not different in both aerobic and vacuum-packaged products and remained stable throughout the experiment. The Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values of all storage Thua Nao were increased during storage; this is in particular for the aerobic packages of the TNMX and TNB51 products, indicating high oxidation of lipids. There was a slight decrease in DPPH radical scavenging effect (18%) and phenolic compounds (6%) of the vacuum-packaged product when stored at 4 degrees C. In contrast, the great losses in total phenolic content (44%), inhibitory activity of DPPH radicals (83%) and total antioxidant (41%) were observed when the products were stored aerobically at 40 degrees C. A reduction in total free amino acids was also found with the highest decrease of Arg in both aerobic- (69%) and vacuum-packages (68%). PMID:24498818

  16. Anaerobic fermentations--some new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Morris, J G

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentations start with the major advantage that, unlike aerobic processes, they do not incur the cost penalties associated with the need to sustain high rates of culture aeration, agitation and cooling. Even so, many of the more traditional fermentations that yield high volume, low value products (such as alcohols or fatty acids) are currently only economically viable if they utilize biological wastes and agricultural surpluses as substrates. To achieve maximum conversion efficiency it is necessary to select the appropriate species/strain of micro-organism which will perform best under the intended conditions of operation (which could include elevated temperatures and extremes of pH). Knowledge of the mechanisms whereby the fermentation is physiologically controlled can then suggest means, including genetically engineered strain improvements and/or the establishment of stable co-cultures with other microbes, whereby the yield of a desired product can be optimized. The biology of a fermentation process can thus be rendered sufficiently consistent and predictable for the biochemical engineer to be able to achieve optimal fermenter productivity. Anaerobic processes are particularly well suited to a continuous flow mode of operation (with cell retention) and new techniques for selective product removal and concentration can reduce the energy costs associated with 'downstream processing'. Hitherto, most interest has been centred on those anaerobic fermentations of renewable biomass which yield immediately useful products (fuel alcohols, methane). However, by combining biological and chemical procedures the profitability of even some superficially unpromising fermentations could be substantially enhanced. Collaborative research by microbial physiologists, geneticists and biochemical engineers is a prerequisite for marketable success in new applications of fermentative anaerobes and their enzymes. PMID:6400481

  17. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  18. Vacuum systems for the ILC helical undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Malyshev, O. B.; Scott, D. J.; Bailey, I. R.; Barber, D. P.; Baynham, E.; Bradshaw, T.; Brummitt, A.; Carr, S.; Clarke, J. A.; Cooke, P.; Dainton, J. B.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Malysheva, L. I.; Moortgat-Pick, G. A.; Rochford, J.; Department of Physics, University of Liverpool Oxford St. Liverpool L69 7ZE; Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD

    2007-07-15

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) positron source uses a helical undulator to generate polarized photons of {approx}10 MeV at the first harmonic. Unlike many undulators used in synchrotron radiation sources, the ILC helical undulator vacuum chamber will be bombarded by photons, generated by the undulator, with energies mostly below that of the first harmonic. Achieving the vacuum specification of {approx}100 nTorr in a narrow chamber of 4-6 mm inner diameter, with a long length of 100-200 m, makes the design of the vacuum system challenging. This article describes the vacuum specifications and calculations of the flux and energy of photons irradiating the undulator vacuum chamber and considers possible vacuum system design solutions for two cases: cryogenic and room temperature.

  19. Robot design for a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

    1987-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

  20. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  1. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD. PMID:26148916

  2. Fermented milks, probiotic cultures, and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Saikali, Joumana; Picard, Celine; Freitas, Miguel; Holt, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Approximately 70% of CRC is associated with environmental factors, probably mainly the diet. There is interest in the potential protective role of fermented milks containing probiotic cultures against CRC. This article analyzes the existing data from human, animal, and in vitro studies that explore whether consumption of milks fermented with probiotic cultures could play a role in colon cancer risk reduction. Cohort studies have failed to detect significant effects, but most case-control studies favor a protective role of fermented milks against colon cancer. Interventional studies have shown a shift of intermediate markers of CRC risk in human subjects from a high- to low-risk pattern after ingestion of fermented milks or probiotics. Animal studies consistently show a reduction in chemically induced colorectal tumor incidence and aberrant crypt formation accompanying probiotic administration. In vitro studies also provide evidence of protection, and permit a better understanding of active compounds involved, and of the mechanisms underlying their anticarcinogenic effects. Probiotics may beneficially modulate several major intestinal functions: detoxification, colonic fermentation, transit, and immune status, which may accompany the development of colon cancer. Although the evidence is not conclusive and much further research is required, the data reviewed constitute a promising body of evidence supporting the protective role of milks fermented with probiotic cultures in colon cancer risk reduction. PMID:15456631

  3. Maloalcoholic fermentation by immobilized Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Guo, L Y; Tsay, S S

    1989-11-01

    Cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe TMB 1138, which are capable of metabolizing-malate, was immobilized in calcium alginate gel to carry out maloalcoholic fermentation. Four milliliters of cell suspension containing about 2.0 X 10(7) cells were entrapped in 16 ml of sodium alginate solution in order to prepare 2% Na-alginate (w/v) gel bead. After activation by incubating at 28 degrees C for 24 h in grape juice, 300 beads of immobilized cells were inoculated into the fermentation medium. After fermentation was proceeded at 25 or 28 degrees C for 24 h by shaking, it could metabolize L-malate completely and the total acidity was also reduced. Under the same condition for batch fermentation, it was found that the utilization of L-malic acid was over 97% for the first 7 days in fermentation medium, 85% for the first 4 days in grape juice and 87% for the first 4 days in wine. Furthermore, for the continuous fermentation in wine, the conversion of L-malic acid reached 92% in 24 h and could be maintained at 75% in the following 9 days. PMID:2637104

  4. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  5. Attractor Explosions and Catalyzed Vacuum Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Silverstein, Eva; Starr, David

    2006-05-05

    We present a mechanism for catalyzed vacuum bubble production obtained by combining moduli stabilization with a generalized attractor phenomenon in which moduli are sourced by compact objects. This leads straightforwardly to a class of examples in which the Hawking decay process for black holes unveils a bubble of a different vacuum from the ambient one, generalizing the new endpoint for Hawking evaporation discovered recently by Horowitz. Catalyzed vacuum bubble production can occur for both charged and uncharged bodies, including Schwarzschild black holes for which massive particles produced in the Hawking process can trigger vacuum decay. We briefly discuss applications of this process to the population and stability of metastable vacua.

  6. APS Storage Ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Goeppner, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber design are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. APS storage ring vacuum chamber fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeppner, George A.

    1991-08-01

    The 1104-m circumference Advanced Photon Source Storage Ring Vacuum System is composed of 240 individual sections, which are fabricated from a combination of aluminum extrusions and machined components. The vacuum chambers will have 3800 weld joints, each subject to strict vacuum requirements, as well as a variety of related design criteria. The vacuum criteria and chamber deisgn are reviewed, including a discussion of the weld joint geometries. The critical fabrication process parameters for meeting the design requirements are discussed. The experiences of the prototype chamber fabrication program are presented. Finally, the required facilities preparation for construction activity is briefly described.

  8. Film holder for curved vacuum platen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciel, A., Jr.; Hauber, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    Vacuum apparatus for holding photographic film of various widths against cylindrically curved patens is discussed. Construction details and method of operation are explained. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  9. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics. PMID:12779491

  10. Electrical Strength of Multilayer Vacuum Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; Kendig, M; Poole, B; Sanders, D M; Caporaso, G J

    2008-07-01

    The electrical strength of vacuum insulators is a key constraint in the design of particle accelerators and pulsed power systems. Vacuum insulating structures assembled from alternating layers of metal and dielectric can result in improved performance compared to conventional insulators, but previous attempts to optimize their design have yielded seemingly inconsistent results. Here, we present two models for the electrical strength of these structures, one assuming failure by vacuum arcing between adjacent metal layers and the other assuming failure by vacuum surface flashover. These models predict scaling laws which are in agreement with the experimental data currently available.

  11. The Vacuum in Light Front Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Marc; Polyzou, Wayne

    2015-04-01

    In the light-front formulation of quantum field theory, one finds that the interacting vacuum and the free-field vacuum are both the same trivial Fock vacuum. This stands in contrast to the more usual equal time formulation, where the interacting vacuum and the free vacuum have a complicated relationship. To examine this apparent inconsistency, we first focus on free-fields with two distinct masses. The characterization of the vacuum by annihilation operators is incomplete, and leads to an apparent contradiction concerning the creation and annihilation operators of the two theories. Alternatively, the vacuum can be considered as a positive linear functional on an operator algebra generated by the field. In this characterization, the definition of the vacuum depends on the choice of algebra. The physically relevant algebra should be Poincare invariant and contain local observables. Extending the light-front algebra to this local algebra provides a resolution to the apparent inconsistency, but allows one to still use the Fock vacuum. These results can then be applied to interacting theories. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-86ER40286

  12. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation.

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  14. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    PubMed

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. PMID:25952856

  15. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation. PMID:25971198

  16. Viricidal Effects of Lactobacillus and Yeast Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeannine P.; Wooley, Richard E.; Shotts, Emmett B.; Dickens, J. Andra

    1983-01-01

    The survival of selected viruses in Lactobacillus- and yeast-fermented edible waste material was studied to determine the feasibility of using this material as a livestock feed ingredient. Five viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, a porcine picornavirus, frog virus 3, and bovine virus diarrhea, were inoculated into a mixture of ground food waste (collected from a school lunch program) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus. Mixtures were incubated at 20, 30, and 40C for 216 h. In a second trial, four viruses, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, frog virus 3, and a porcine picornavirus, were inoculated into similar edible waste material containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mixtures were incubated at 20 and 30C for 216 h. Samples were obtained daily for quantitative (trial 1) and qualitative (trial 2) virus isolation. Temperature, pH, and redox potential were monitored. Controlled pH and temperature studies were also done and compared with the inactivation rates in the fermentation processes. In trial 1 (Lactobacillus fermentation), infectious canine hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process but was inactivated below pH 4.5 in the controlled studies. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 8 in the fermentation process and appeared to be primarily heat sensitive and secondarily pH sensitive in the controlled studies. The porcine picornavirus survived the fermentation process for 8 days at 20C but was inactivated more rapidly at 30 and 40C. The controlled studies verified these findings. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 in the fermentation process and appeared to be sensitive to low pH in the controlled studies. Bovine virus diarrhea was rapidly inactivated in the fermentation process (less than 2 h) and was pH and temperature sensitive. In trial 2 (yeast fermentation), infectious hepatitis virus survived the entire test period in the fermentation process. Newcastle disease virus was inactivated by day 7 at 20C and day 6 at 30C. The porcine picornavirus was inactivated by day 7 at 30C but survived the entire test period at 20C. Frog virus 3 was inactivated by day 3 at 20C and day 2 at 30C. PMID:6414372

  17. Laser sealed vacuum insulating window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1985-08-19

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  18. Laser sealed vacuum insulation window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1987-01-01

    A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

  19. TRIUMF cyclotron vacuum system refurbishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekachev, I.

    2008-03-01

    The cyclotron at TRIUMF was commissioned to full energy in 1974. The volume of the cyclotron vacuum tank is about 100 m3 and it operates at 5×10-8 Torr pressure during beam production. The pumping is mainly based on a Phillips B-20 cryogenerator (Stirling cycle 4-cylinder engine). The cryogenerator supplies helium gas at 16 K and 70 K to cryopanels in the tank. The decreasing reliability of the B-20 and demanding maintenance requirements triggered the decision to completely overhaul or replace the cryogenerator. Replacement with the LINDE-1630 helium refrigerator was found to be the most attractive (technically and economically) option. The details of the proposal with installation of the helium refrigerator and with a continuous flow liquid nitrogen shield cooling system are presented.

  20. Entanglement in the Bogoliubov vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, U.V.; Meyer, T.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-06-15

    We analyze the entanglement properties of the Bogoliubov vacuum, which is obtained as a second-order approximation to the ground state of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate. We work on one- and two-dimensional lattices and study the entanglement between two groups of lattice sites as a function of the geometry of the configuration and the strength of the interactions. As our measure of entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity, supplemented by an algorithmic check [G. Giedke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 167904 (2001)] for bound entanglement where appropriate. The short-range entanglement is found to grow approximately linearly with the group sizes and to be favored by strong interactions. Conversely, long-range entanglement is favored by relatively weak interactions. No examples of bound entanglement are found.

  1. Advanced light source vacuum policy and vacuum guidelines for beamlines and experiment endstations

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Z.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to: (1) Explain the ALS vacuum policy and specifications for beamlines and experiment endstations. (2) Provide guidelines related to ALS vacuum policy to assist in designing beamlines which are in accordance with ALS vacuum policy. This document supersedes LSBL-116. The Advanced Light Source is a third generation synchrotron radiation source whose beam lifetime depends on the quality of the vacuum in the storage ring and the connecting beamlines. The storage ring and most of the beamlines share a common vacuum and are operated under ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) conditions. All endstations and beamline equipment must be operated so as to avoid contamination of beamline components, and must include proper safeguards to protect the storage ring vacuum from an accidental break in the beamline or endstation vacuum systems. The primary gas load during operation is due to thermal desorption and electron/photon induced desorption of contaminants from the interior of the vacuum vessel and its components. The desorption rates are considerably higher for hydrocarbon contamination, thus considerable emphasis is placed on eliminating these sources of contaminants. All vacuum components in a beamline and endstation must meet the ALS vacuum specifications. The vacuum design of both beamlines and endstations must be approved by the ALS Beamline Review Committee (BRC) before vacuum connections to the storage ring are made. The vacuum design is first checked during the Beamline Design Review (BDR) held before construction of the beamline equipment begins. Any deviation from the ALS vacuum specifications must be approved by the BRC prior to installation of the equipment on the ALS floor. Any modification that is incorporated into a vacuum assembly without the written approval of the BRC is done at the user`s risk and may lead to rejection of the whole assembly.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-08-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion under vacuum conditions. The energetic yield of erosion is intensity-dependent because of the limited rate of sublimation of polymer fragments.

  3. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer. PMID:26469215

  4. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sook Jong; Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  5. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet. PMID:21995342

  6. Microbial community dynamics during fermentation of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jeon, Che Ok

    2014-08-18

    Bacterial and fungal community dynamics, along with viable plate counts and water content, were investigated in the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju, traditional Korean fermented soybean, during its fermentation process. Measurement of viable cells showed that the meju molding equipment might be an important source of bacterial cells (mostly Bacillus) during doenjang-meju fermentation, whereas fungi might be mostly derived from the fermentation environment including incubation shelves, air, and rice straws. Community analysis using rRNA-targeted pyrosequencing revealed that Bacillus among bacteria and Mucor among fungi were predominant in both the exterior and interior regions of doenjang-meju during the early fermentation period. Bacteria such as Ignatzschineria, Myroides, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Clostridium and fungi such as Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Monascus, Fusarium, and eventually Aspergillus were mainly detected as the fermentation progressed. Bacillus, an aerobic bacterial group, was predominant in the exterior regions during the entire fermentation period, while anaerobic, facultative anaerobic, and microaerobic bacteria including Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Myroides, and Ignatzschineria were much more abundant in the interior regions. Principal component analysis (PCA) also indicated that the bacterial communities in the exterior and interior regions were clearly differentiated, suggesting that aeration might be an important factor in determining the bacterial communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. However, PCA showed that fungal communities were not separated in the exterior and interior regions and Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the major fungal taxa had significantly positive (Mucor and Geotrichum) or negative (Aspergillus) correlations with the water content during doenjang-meju fermentation, indicating that water content might be a significant factor in determining the fungal communities during doenjang-meju fermentation. PMID:24960292

  7. Intelligent control of vacuum aluminum brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, G.; Pai, D.M.; Badgley, S.

    1995-06-01

    Vacuum brazing is a versatile modern day metal joining method. It usually includes vacuum producing, heating and residual gas analyzing systems. When used to join aluminum parts, the quality of the brazed joint is highly dependent on the residual gases in the vacuum, especially the residual oxygen and water vapor in the vacuum chamber which affect the formation of oxides. These vacuum environment brazing contaminants are reduced during the out-gassing processes of degassing and desorption during heating under vacuum. Exceeding the boundary limits of these contaminants causes unacceptable flow of braze filler in the joints during the brazing process. Identification of the quality control boundary for vacuum brazing of aluminum alloy makes computer control of vacuum brazing quality for aluminum alloys possible. The present study utilizes a residual gas analyzer (RGA) to monitor the partial pressures of residual gases during brazing. These data are transported to computer through the RS-232 interface port on the RGA, and used in real time to monitor the brazing quality by an algorithm based on the quality control boundary. If the quality is bad, the computer will send a ``hold`` signal to the heating system via another Rs-232 port until the environment is reestablished within the acceptable boundary.

  8. Nonperturbative vacuum and hard scattering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, N.

    1980-08-01

    A number of interesting suggestions for the QCD nonperturbative vacuum have been advocated in recent years by a group of people in Copenhagen. Some of the main ideas are briefly reviewed. An attempt to obtain the physical effects of the nonperturbative vacuum by studying hard scattering processes such as e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. hadrons is also described. 2 figures.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems....

  10. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems....

  11. Elastic vacuum seal for cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kolenko, E.A.

    1988-06-01

    Cold-hardened silicone rubber is proposed as a vacuum seal in units that contain materials with vastly different expansion coefficients and which operate at cryogenic temperatures. The cold vulcanization process and the polymerization catalyst used to accelerate and stabilize the process are described. Test results obtained for vacuum tightness in liquid nitrogen are assessed.

  12. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  13. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  14. A new vacuum for loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2015-06-01

    We construct a new vacuum and representation for loop quantum gravity. Because the new vacuum is based on BF theory, it is physical for (2+1)-dimensional gravity, and much closer to the spirit of spin foam quantization in general. To construct this new vacuum and the associated representation of quantum observables, we introduce a modified holonomy-flux algebra that is cylindrically consistent with respect to the notion of refinement by time evolution suggested in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565). This supports the proposal for a construction of the physical vacuum made in Dittrich and Steinhaus (2013 arXiv:1311.7565) and Dittrich (2012 New J. Phys. 14 123004), and for (3+1)-dimensional gravity. We expect that the vacuum introduced here will facilitate the extraction of large scale physics and cosmological predictions from loop quantum gravity.

  15. Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.

    2011-06-15

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of 'white noise' fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the 'ground state' energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.

  16. Spallation Neutron Source ring vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, M.; Hseuh, H.C.; Rank, J.; Smart, L.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.

    2006-07-15

    The Spallation Neutron Source ring, which is presently being commissioned at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is designed to accumulate high-intensity protons. Ultrahigh vacuum of 10{sup -9} torr is required in the accumulator ring to minimize beam-residual gas ionization. To reduce the secondary-electron yield and the associated electron cloud instability, the ring vacuum chambers are coated with titanium nitride (TiN). In order to minimize radiation exposure, quick-disconnect chain clamp flanges are used in some areas where radiation levels are expected to be high. This article describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and vacuum processing of the ring and beam transport vacuum systems, as well as the associated vacuum instrumentation.

  17. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  18. In-vacuum target transfer facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiraj, D.; Mandal, Samit; Avasthi, D. K.

    1995-02-01

    In order to transfer highly oxidizing and hygroscopic targets in-vacuum or in controlled atmosphere and to change the target ladder without affecting the chamber vacuum, an in-vacuum target transfer system has been designed, fabricated and installed. It consists of a transfer body, compatible flanges with gate valves at the bell jar and the chamber. Ca, being a highly oxidizing element, was taken as a test case to stress the utility of the in-vacuum target transfer system. Using the elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) technique, we could see that there was only 11.5% of O 2 in the target when it was transferred from the bell jar to the scattering chamber using the in-vacuum target transfer facility. When the target was exposed to air for 35 min the O 2 content rose to 63.5 at.%

  19. Automobile flywheel energy storage: Practical vacuum requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Milleron, N.; Frank, D.N.

    1982-04-01

    For passenger automobiles with 1367 kg curb weight during typical driving conditions in city traffic, fuel efficiency improvements between 50 --100% (5--7 km/h) can be realized by proper utilization of a flywheel-energy storage unit (0.2 kW h) and a heat engine. A brief introduction is given concerning the pros and cons of flywheels compared to other energy storage options. How to provide a cost effective, quality vacuum environment and system for rotating, composite flywheels is discussed. To be practical, a vacuum system for such an environment must be reliable, safe, and economical (in energy resources and dollars) to manufacture, monitor, maintain, and repair. Each embodiment of flywheel energy storage may be sufficiently unique to require a vacuum environment tailored to suit it. A general discussion of the important vacuum parameters and practical vacuum systems is followed by an example of a candidate design which includes a fiber array pump.

  20. Laboratory comparison of modern vacuum extractors.

    PubMed

    Duchon, M A; DeMund, M A; Brown, R H

    1988-02-01

    The Malmstrm, Soft Cup, and Mity-Vac vacuum extractors were compared in the laboratory using a tensile strength tester and a fetal cephalic model. In the test system, a linear relationship emerged between applied vacuum and maximal tractive force for all of the vacuum extractors. At their recommended working pressures, they allowed a maximum of 18-20 kg of tractive force to assist in a delivery. Calculation of the distribution of this force per unit area would appear to favor the Soft Cup. At high vacuums, all showed large amounts of tractive force and high forces per unit area. The data clearly demonstrate that high vacuum would have potentially adverse effects on the fetus and thus should be avoided. PMID:3336548

  1. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cullulose (untreated BW-200 Solka Floc) to ethanol utilizing the cellulase enzyme complex of Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae QM 8226, has resulted in increased rates and longer times of hydrolysis when compared to simple saccharifications. Additionally, two schemes for ethanol removal during hydrolysis, nitrogen sparging and vacuum operation, have also shown increased rates and longer times of saccharification of cellulose when compared to the simple SSF. Both early and delayed yeast additions, different lengths of SSF operations, and different sparging techniques were investigated. The beta-glucosidase fraction of the T. ressei Rut C-30 cellulase enzyme system was able to convert cellobiose to glucose in the presence of ethyl alcohol eliminating the strong inhibition of celloboise on cellulase while the yeast converted glucose to ethanol by glucolysis eliminating the inhibition of glucose on beta-glucosidase. The hydrolysis curves did not fit either simple or competitive product inhibition Michaelis-Menten type kinetic analysis. An enzyme deactivation-inhibition model seems necessary to fit the data. The yield parameter for ethanol/substrate (Yp/s) varied from .42g/g to .47g/g (theoretical .51g/g) with the majority of glucose being converted to ethanol in less than 15 hours.

  2. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum

  3. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Costilow, R. N.; Anderson, T. E.; Bell, T. A.

    1964-01-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive, pure culture fermentor which was suitable for gamma radiation, resistant to salt and acid, and which permitted repeated aseptic sampling of the fermenting brine, is illustrated and the specifications are given. PMID:16349651

  4. Fermentation studies using Saccharomyces diastaticus yeast strains

    SciTech Connect

    Erratt, J.A.; Stewart, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    The yeast species, Saccharomyces diastaticus, has the ability to ferment starch and dextrin, because of the extracellular enzyme, glucoamylase, which hydrolyzes the starch/dextrin to glucose. A number of nonallelic genes--DEX 1, DEX 2, and dextrinase B which is allelic to STA 3--have been isolated, which impart to the yeast the ability to ferment dextrin. Various diploid yeast strains were constructed, each being either heterozygous or homozygous for the individual dextrinase genes. Using 12 (sup 0) plato hopped wort (30% corn adjunct) under agitated conditions, the fermentation rates of the various diploid yeast strains were monitored. A gene-dosage effect was exhibited by yeast strains containing DEX 1 or DEX 2, however, not with yeast strains containing dextrinase B (STA 3). The fermentation and growth rates and extents were determined under static conditions at 14.4 C and 21 C. With all yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes, both fermentation and growth were increased at the higher incubation temperature. Using 30-liter fermentors, beer was produced with the various yeast strains containing the dextrinase genes and the physical and organoleptic characteristics of the products were determined. The concentration of glucose in the beer was found to increase during a 3-mo storage period at 21 C, indicating that the glucoamylase from Saccharomyces diastaticus is not inactivated by pasteurization. (Refs. 36).

  5. One hundred years of clostridial butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeon Gi; Jang, Yu-Sin; Cho, Changhee; Lee, Joungmin; Binkley, Robert; Lee, Sang Yup

    2016-02-01

    Butanol has been widely used as an important industrial solvent and feedstock for chemical production. Also, its superior fuel properties compared with ethanol make butanol a good substitute for gasoline. Butanol can be efficiently produced by the genus Clostridium through the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation, one of the oldest industrial fermentation processes. Butanol production via industrial fermentation has recently gained renewed interests as a potential solution to increasing pressure of climate change and environmental problems by moving away from fossil fuel consumption and moving toward renewable raw materials. Great advances over the last 100 years are now reviving interest in bio-based butanol production. However, several challenges to industrial production of butanol still need to be overcome, such as overall cost competitiveness and development of higher performance strains with greater butanol tolerance. This minireview revisits the past 100 years of remarkable achievements made in fermentation technologies, product recovery processes, and strain development in clostridial butanol fermentation through overcoming major technical hurdles. PMID:26738754

  6. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation by microwave dielectric spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Olmi, Roberto; Meriakri, Viacheslav V; Ignesti, Amleto; Priori, Saverio; Riminesi, Cristiano

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric properties of water solutions of ethanol and sugar are investigated in the microwave region with the objective of setting up a method for the quality control of the fermentation process of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic fermentation is the process by which carbohydrates, in particular sugar, are converted by the yeast into alcohol. During that process several other by-product compounds are produced, including a significant amount of carbon dioxide. The fermentation stage is of fundamental importance in the production of alcoholic beverages because some of the by-products' components have a considerable effect on the flavour, aroma, and other characteristic properties of the beverages. The on-line monitoring of the fermentation process can thus be very useful for controlling the timing and the development of the process in order to correct it earlier if deviations from "normality" occur. Dielectric spectroscopy is shown to be suitable for such a task, being able to discriminate between the initial water-sugar mixture and the final water-alcohol solution and making it possible to detect the production of carbon dioxide during fermentation. A case-study consisting of the monitoring of the primary fermentqtion of beer by dielectric spectroscopy is presented and discussed. PMID:18351002

  7. Fermentation database mining by pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Stephanopoulos, G; Locher, G; Duff, M J; Kamimura, R; Stephanopoulos, G

    1997-03-01

    A large volume of data is routinely collected during the course of typical fermentation and other processes. Such data provide the required basis for process documentation and occasionally are also used for process analysis and improvement. The information density of these data is often low, and automatic condensing, analysis, and interpretation ("database mining") are highly desirable. In this article we present a methodology whereby process variables are processed to create a database of derivative process quantities representative of the global patterns, intermediate trends, and local characteristics of the process. A powerful search algorithm subsequently attempts to extract the specific process variables and their particular attributes that uniquely characterize a class of process outcomes such as high- or low-yield fermentations.The basic components of our pattern recognition methodology are described along with applications to the analysis of two sets of data from industrial fermentations. Results indicate that truly discriminating variables do exist in typical fermentation data and they can be useful in identifying the causes or symptoms of different process outcomes. The methodology has been implemented in a user-friendly software, named db-miner, which facilitates the application of the methodology for efficient and speedy analysis of fermentation process data. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 53: 443-452, 1997. PMID:18634039

  8. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for fermentation and anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its cloning sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting the ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  9. Continuous membrane fermentor separator for ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibiting effect of ethanol on yeast growth and ethanol production has been studied using the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL-Y-2034 under anaerobic conditions. Batch and continuous fermentation data were fitted to a kinetic model. The integration of continuous fermentation and separation of ethanol in the same unit has been proposed. Pervaporation with ethanol selective silicone rubber hollow fiber membranes was considered for separation. A laboratory scale Continuous Membrane Fermentor Separator (CMFS) unit utilizing a shell and tube configuration was designed and fabricated. Two types of continuous fermentation experiments were carried out: fermentation with dead membranes as the reference and fermentation with live membranes through which ethanol was continuously removed by pervaporation from the fermentor. Performance of the CMFS results in higher yeast cell densities, reduction of ethanol inhibition, longer residence time of substrate, more glucose consumption, and recovery of clean and concentrated ethanol. A mathematical model was developed and used to determine the effects of design and operation parameters of the CMFS, including dilution rate, dimensionless membrane volume, substrate concentration, membrane properties, etc. Computer simulation results indicated that the CMFS could provide significant improvements not only in ethanol productivity but also in glucose consumption for highly concentrated substrate when the dimensionless membrane volume and/or permeability of ethanol was increased.

  10. Xylose fermentation to ethanol. A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  11. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time which demonstrates that the pump used was in fact adequate for this application.

  12. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum-gauge measurements automatically and wirelessly, in near-real time - using a low-maintenance, lowpower sensor mesh network. The WIMVSS operates by using a self-configuring mesh network of wireless sensor units. Mesh networking is a type of networking where each sensor or node can capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay to receive and transmit data from other sensors. Each sensor node can synchronize with adjacent sensors, and propagate data from one sensor to the next, until the destination is reached. In this case, the destination is a Network Interface Unit (NIU). The WIMVSS sensors are mounted on the existing vacuum gauges. Information gathered by the sensors is sent to the NIU. Because of the mesh networking, if a sensor cannot directly send the data to the NIU, it can be propagated through the network of sensors. The NIU requires antenna access to the sensor units, AC power, and an Ethernet connection. The NIU bridges the sensor network to a WIMVSS server via an Ethernet connection. The server is configured with a database, a Web server, and proprietary interface software that makes it possible for the vacuum measurements from vacuum jacketed fluid lines to be saved, retrieved, and then displayed from any Web-enabled PC that has access to the Internet. Authorized users can then simply access the data from any PC with Internet connection. Commands can also be sent directly from the Web interface for control and maintenance of the sensor network. The technology enabled by the WIMVSS decreases labor required for gathering vacuum measurements, increases access to vacuum data by making it available on any computer with access to the Internet, increases the frequency with which data points can be acquired for evaluating the system, and decreases the recurring cost of the sensors by using off-the-shelf components and integrating these with heritage vacuum gauges.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing bacteriophage endolysins reduce Lactobacillus contamination during fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the challenges facing the fuel ethanol industry is the management of bacterial contamination during fermentation. Lactobacillus species are the predominant contaminants that decrease the profitability of biofuel production by reducing ethanol yields and causing stuck fermentations, which i...

  14. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  15. Generalised additive modelling approach to the fermentation process of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Bo; Li, Yun; Pan, Feng; Shi, Zhong-Ping

    2011-03-01

    In this work, generalised additive models (GAMs) were used for the first time to model the fermentation of glutamate (Glu). It was found that three fermentation parameters fermentation time (T), dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) could capture 97% variance of the production of Glu during the fermentation process through a GAM model calibrated using online data from 15 fermentation experiments. This model was applied to investigate the individual and combined effects of T, DO and OUR on the production of Glu. The conditions to optimize the fermentation process were proposed based on the simulation study from this model. Results suggested that the production of Glu can reach a high level by controlling concentration levels of DO and OUR to the proposed optimization conditions during the fermentation process. The GAM approach therefore provides an alternative way to model and optimize the fermentation process of Glu. PMID:21215612

  16. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  17. Enamel microhardness and fluoride uptake underneath fermenting and non-fermenting artificial plaque.

    PubMed

    Turtola, L O

    1977-09-01

    Washed cells of Streptococcus sanguis were used to form artificial plaque on the surface of bovine enamel and incubated underneath buffer solutions, initial pH 6, for 36 h at 37 degrees C. The decrease in the microhardness of the enamel surface under fermenting "plaque" could be prevented with fluoride. Enamel under a fermenting "plaque" took up significantly more (P less than 0.0u) fluoride than enamel under a non-fermenting "plaque" (initial F- in buffer: 10 parts/10(6)). The artificial plaque did not accumulate fluoride. Within fermenting "plaques/, the pH decreased significantly more without flouride (P less than 0.01) than with fluoride. Fluoride combined with sucrose more than negated the softening of the enamel caused by sucrose fermentation, i.e. it increased the hardness above the original values. The diffusion of fluoride through the fermenting artificial plaque was more rapid than through a non-fermenting plaque. These findings suggest that caries-conducive circumstances may promote fluoride uptake by enamel compared with non-caries-conducive circumstances. PMID:22924

  18. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2013-09-16

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

  19. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Gler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

  20. The vacuum system of KEKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazawa, K.; Kato, S.; Suetsugu, Y.; Hisamatsu, H.; Shimamoto, M.; Shirai, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the KEK B-factory, two rings with a circumference of 3016 m, mainly made of copper, were constructed. A gap between the flanges is filled using Helicoflex as a vacuum seal. The contact force of an RF finger in a bellows is assured by using a spring finger. Pumping slots are backed by crossing bars to prevent the penetration of beam-induced fields. To obtain a pressure of 10 -9 Torr with the beam when the photo-desorption coefficient reaches 10 -6, the design of pump layout is aimed to realize 100 ? s-1 m-1. NEG strips are used as the main pump. Chemical polishing is applied to clean the extruded surface of a copper chamber. Almost all chambers were baked before installation. Only ion pumps were baked in situ. The photo-desorption coefficient at the start of commissioning was slightly higher than expected, but a decrease of the coefficient is as expected on the whole. At high currents, some bellows were found to be warmed by the TE mode of beam induced fields. The effect of the electron cloud became evident, especially in the LER. Direct damage by the beam is seen at the surface of the movable mask.

  1. Vacuum arc plasma mass separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Lebedev, N. V.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Chernikch, A. A.

    2015-02-01

    The propagation of a metal plasma flow in a transport system with a curvilinear magnetic field was studied experimentally. The flow was generated by a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a composite (W+Fe) cathode. The ion energy measurements at the transport system output showed that all ion components were accelerated up to equal energies per charge unit, about 150 eV and 320 eV in the outer and inner areas of the curved plasma flow, respectively. The spatial separation of the atoms of the cathode material was measured at the system output by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ions of the lighter element (Fe) were concentrated in the inner part of the cathodic plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (W) was substantially shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The maximum mass separation efficiency reached 45, the effective value being 7.7. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for the separation of the heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

  2. Improvement of tea leaves fermentation through pectinases.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagriti; Gupta, Reena

    2012-09-01

    The pectinase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus niger, Byssochlamys fulva and Mucor circinelloides were used for fermentation of tea leaves from Camellia sinensis plant. The use of partially purified enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Mucor circinelloides resulted in significant (p < 0.001) increase in the phenolic compounds, hence, improvement in tea quality. Maximum increase in phenolic compounds was found in tea leaves treated with partially purified polygalacturonase (PGase) from Mucor circinelloides. Hence, purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was used to study its effect on the improvement of tea leaves fermentation. The partially purified polygalacturonase from Mucor circinelloides was found to be most effective in tea fermentation, whereas pectin lyase from Byssochlamys fulva had little role in improvement of tea quality. PMID:22982636

  3. Antimutagenicity of milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Belicov, A; Krajcovic, J; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L

    1999-01-01

    The diethyl ether extracts isolated from unfermented milk and milk fermented by Enterococcus faecium exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of mutagenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), nitrovin (NIT), 5-nitro-2-furylacrylic acid (NFA) and UV-irradiation on the Ames bacterial test (Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97 and TA100) and the unicellular flagellate Euglena gracilis. Overall, the fermented milk extract was the most active against UV-irradiation, less active against NIT and MNNG, and the least active against NFA on bacteria. The highest antibleaching effects were observed against MNNG. The differences between antimutagenic effects from fermented and unfermented milk extracts were determined to be statistically significant at the 0.95 CI level. PMID:10997133

  4. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  5. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  6. Apparatus For Metal/Inert-Gas Welding In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    Metal/inert-gas welding-torch assembly operates in vacuum. Plasma generated in interior chamber and focused onto workpiece in vacuum. Pinch rollers feed wire to weld puddle. Controlled flow of plasma reduces dispersal in vacuum, preventing extinction.

  7. High vacuum facility for hydrazine thruster testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, Patrick F.

    1990-01-01

    An ongoing modification is described of a large vacuum chamber to accommodate the ignition of an arcjet hydrazine thruster while maintaining a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less. The vacuum facility consists of a 20 ft stainless steel vacuum tank with an internal LN2 shroud, four 35 in. cryopumps and an 8 in. turbopump. To maintain a vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less, 900 sq ft of liquid helium (LHe) shroud surface was installed to maintain the vacuum level and pumping requirements. A vacuum level of 1 x 10(exp -5) torr or less will allow the hydrazine thrust to exit the thruster nozzle and radiate into a space type environment so that the plume flow field can be analyzed and compared to the analytical model density distribution profile. Some other arcjet thruster characteristics measured are the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and exhaust contamination. This data is used to evaluate if the arcjet thruster with its high specific impulse in comparison to current chemical propulsion thruster can be used for the next generation of communication satellites.

  8. Automated system for measuring vacuum outgassing rates

    SciTech Connect

    Dormido, R.; Ghiorso, W.G.; Schalz, L.; Rosenblum, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    Particle accelerators and particle physics detectors require large electrical insulators with metal embedments having vacuum on one side and an insulating fluid or gas on the other. For high vacuum requirements they may be fabricated out of sintered alumina using vacuum brazing to attach the metal pieces. Although this produces quite acceptable devices, it is very time-consuming and expensive, involving the pressing, firing and grinding-to-size of the alumina parts, the manufacture of a brazing fixture and the fabrication of the individual braze foils. After firing in a vacuum oven, if there are any vacuum leaks in the braze joints, the part usually must be rejected. For moderate vacuum service one can use cast or machined plastics which are glued together. Although this is a much less expensive fabrication method, the vacuum outgassing rates of these assemblies can be three orders of magnitude higher than the brazed alumina ones, which may be unacceptable for many applications. It was with these ideas in mind that the authors undertook a program at LBL to develop castable insulators using plastics filled with inorganic materials. The systems were selected mostly on the basis of manufacturer's data on the electrical and mechanical performance of the materials in electrical utility service. Very little data was available on vacuum outgassing. In the course of making the necessary vacuum outgassing measurements, it became clear that if data-taking were automated it could be easily done with a few hours labor per week per sample rather than about the 8 hours/sample required with manual data acquisition and analysis. The system that was developed is based on a Hewlett Packard HP-85 computer which controls the experiment and then evaluates the data and plots it. The measuring system uses the conductance of a fixed orifice and the readings of two Bayard-Alpert gauges to determine outgassing rates.

  9. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  10. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  11. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  12. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  13. 27 CFR 24.212 - High fermentation wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fermentation wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine 24.212 High fermentation wine. High fermentation wine is wine made with the addition of sugar within the limitations...

  14. REDUCING WASTEWATER FROM CUCUMBER PICKLING PROCESS BY CONTROLLED CULTURE FERMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a demonstration scale, the controlled culture fermentation process (CCF) developed by the U.S. Food Fermentation Laboratory was compared with the conventional natural fermentation process (NF) in regard to product quality and yield and volume and concentration of wastewaters. ...

  15. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  16. Method for extracting protein from a fermentation product

    DOEpatents

    Lawton, Jr., John Warren; Bootsma, Jason Alan; Lewis, Stephen Michael

    2014-02-18

    A method of producing bioproducts from a feedstock in a system configured to produce ethanol and distillers grains from a fermentation product is disclosed. A system configured to process feedstock into a fermentation product and bioproducts including ethanol and meal is disclosed. A bioproduct produced from a fermentation product produced from a feedstock in a biorefining system is disclosed.

  17. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  18. Third Generation Biofuels via Direct Cellulose Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Carere, Carlo R.; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a system in which cellulase production, substrate hydrolysis, and fermentation are accomplished in a single process step by cellulolytic microorganisms. CBP offers the potential for lower biofuel production costs due to simpler feedstock processing, lower energy inputs, and higher conversion efficiencies than separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, and is an economically attractive near-term goal for “third generation” biofuel production. In this review article, production of third generation biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks will be addressed in respect to the metabolism of cellulolytic bacteria and the development of strategies to increase biofuel yields through metabolic engineering. PMID:19325807

  19. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-01

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher d-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our data thus indicate that the microbial community structure and dynamics play an important role in the biochemistry of the fermentation of the beverage. We envisage that combined molecular and biochemical analyses like in our study will provide valuable insights for better understanding the role of the microbial community for the beneficial properties of the beverage. PMID:26796581

  20. Behavior of refractory materials in vacuum ladles

    SciTech Connect

    Haile, O.; Lauri, H.

    1998-12-31

    The use of vacuum treatment has strongly increased during the last decade the main purposes being to lower gas contents (H, N), to improve steel cleanliness and to achieve ultra low carbon contents. Tank degasing, DH, RH and RH-OB degassers are the main techniques for modern vacuum treatment. The purpose of this work was to study the behavior of refractory materials in vacuum ladles and vessels. Earlier common materials like silica, shamotte and alumina bricks have been replaced by high alumina and basic refractory materials, doloma and magnesia as well as spinel type refractories. Monolithic lining instead of bricks has become common practice for ladles.

  1. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 ?m, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  2. Transient Molecular Transfer During Vacuum Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Radford L.

    2011-01-01

    A common question in contamination budgeting involves the loss of collected volatiles during ambient I&T activity under vacuum and the resultant cross-contamination from outgassing. (1) How much of the material collected under ambient conditions evaporates under vacuum? (2) Why do pristine surfaces sometimes show increased molecular contamination after vacuum bakeout? (3) How much of the collected molecular contamination is transient (i.e. migratory) and how much is permanent? Measuring the transient deposition may be accomplished using a thermally passive QCM

  3. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-03-11

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone.

  4. Report of the Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.

    1984-06-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Vacuum Workshop was held to consider two vacuum-related problems that bear on the design of storage rings and beam lines for synchrotron radiation facilities. These problems are gas desorption from the vacuum chamber walls and carbon deposition on optical components. Participants surveyed existing knowledge on these topics and recommended studies that should be performed as soon as possible to provide more definitive experimental data on these topics. This data will permit optimization of the final design of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and its associated beam lines. It also should prove useful for other synchrotron radiation facilities as well.

  5. Vacuum resource provision for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laskey, Kenneth J.; Mordfin, Theodore G.; Russ, Thomas W.

    1989-01-01

    The use of vacuum resources is integral to a number of proposed concepts for gas disposal from Space Staton Freedom. These include both direct overboard venting and onboard collection and storage of waste gases. A methodology is presented for determining flowrates through proposed vacuum lines. The flowrates through overboard vents are used to calculate number column densities, which are compared with current Freedom program requirements. The results are combined with discussions about the relative merits of some proposed and alternate concepts for providing vacuum resources.

  6. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  7. Vacuum control subsystem for the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Zagel, J.R.; Chapman, L.J.

    1981-06-01

    The CAMAC 170 module and CIA crate provide a convenient, cost effective method of interfacing any system requiring a large number of simple devices to be multiplexed into the Accelerator Control System. The system is ideal for relatively slowly changing systems where ten bit analog to digital conversions are sufficiently accurate. Together with vacuum interface CIA cards and prom-based software resident in the 170, this system is used to provide intelligent local monitoring and control for the Tevatron vacuum subsystems. Although not implemented in the vacuum interface, digital to analog converters could be included on the plug in modules as well, providing a total digital and analog multiplexing scheme. 2 refs.

  8. Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, M. J.; Dallaqua, R. S.; Simpson, S. W.; del Bosco, E.

    2002-04-01

    Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a ``universal'' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity.

  9. Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Hole, M J; Dallaqua, R S; Simpson, S W; Del Bosco, E

    2002-04-01

    Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a "universal" instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity. PMID:12006025

  10. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

  11. Is there vacuum when there is mass? Vacuum and non-vacuum solutions for massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martn-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-08-01

    Massive gravity is a theory which has a tremendous amount of freedom to describe different cosmologies, but at the same time, the various solutions one encounters must fulfil some rather nontrivial constraints. Most of the freedom comes not from the Lagrangian, which contains only a small number of free parameters (typically three depending on counting conventions), but from the fact that one is in principle free to choose the reference metric almost arbitrarilywhich effectively introduces a non-denumerable infinity of free parameters. In the current paper, we stress that although changing the reference metric would lead to a different cosmological model, this does not mean that the dynamics of the universe can be entirely divorced from its matter content. That is, while the choice of reference metric certainly influences the evolution of the physically observable foreground metric, the effect of matter cannot be neglected. Indeed the interplay between matter and geometry can be significantly changed in some specific models; effectively since the graviton would be able to curve the spacetime by itself, without the need of matter. Thus, even the set of vacuum solutions for massive gravity can have significant structure. In some cases, the effect of the reference metric could be so strong that no conceivable material content would be able to drastically affect the cosmological evolution. Dedicated to the memory of Professor Pedro F Gonzlez-Daz

  12. Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2011-09-01

    Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-μm size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage requirements.

  13. Dust in Accelerator Vacuum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Darren R. C.

    1997-05-01

    Many accelerators of electron beams are susceptible to persistent beam lifetime disruptions, with correspondingly reduced performance. One distinguishes between three prevailing explanations of these disruptions: trapping of positive atomic ions in the negatively charged beam (2) trapping of small highly positively ionised micro-objects (``dust'') in the negatively charged beam (3) disruptions due to stray magnetic objects trapped in the magnetic field of undulators. The lifetime disruption of storage rings that employ ion-getter pump systems, such as HERA-e, PETRA, DORIS, TRISTAN etc., are attributed by most researchers to explanation (2), the trapped dust hypothesis. Systematic experimental studies of HERA, PETRA and DORIS reinforce the suspicion that specifically this type of pump system is the culprit. In contrast, machines operating with non-evaporative getter pumps -- such as LEP and ESRF -- do not display such lifetime disruptions at comparable beam current and energy. Although the extensive observations of beam lifetime disruptions in a number of accelerators are well described by the trapped dust hypothesis (as briefly summarised in this report), the formation or liberation of dust particles within the complicated environment of the ion-getter pump chamber is poorly understood. Relatively few direct observations of the processes within these pumps systems are available, whereas many observations of pump configurations and operating conditions conducive to the onset of beam lifetime disruptions have been performed, in particular with HERA, PETRA and DORIS. Models of the complicated interactions between electrons, ions, photons, metallic surfaces, magnetic fields, electric fields and arcs that might explain dust formation in ion-getter pump systems or the liberation of dust-like material from the surfaces of such pump systems are reviewed. Mechanisms for the passage of these particles from the pump chamber into the vacuum chamber are also examined.

  14. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of bacterial community and metabolites profiles in Korean traditional seafood fermentation: a flatfish-fermented seafood.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Jeon, Che Ok; Park, Woojun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial community and metabolites were analyzed in a flatfish jeotgal, a Korean fermented seafood. Inverse relationship of pH and 16S rRNA gene copy number was identified during fermentation. Lactobacillus was the predominant bacterial genus. Increase of Firmicutes was a common characteristic shared by other fermented seafood. Fructose, glucose, and maltose were the major metabolites. PMID:25035997

  15. SUCROSE CONCENTRATION ALTERS FERMENTATION KINETICS, PRODUCTS AND CARBON FATES IN IN VITRO FERMENTATIONS WITH MIXED RUMINAL MICROBES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three concentrations of sucrose (Suc) and one of isolated neutral detergent fiber from bermudagrass were fermented together in vitro with rumen inoculum to evaluate the effects of Suc concentration on fermentation products and on fermentation kinetics as assessed by gas production. In gas production...

  16. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences in sensory rankings. It was concluded that lactic acid bacteria may not be necessary for successful cocoa fermentation. PMID:25889523

  17. The Comparative Evaluation of Fermented and Non-fermented Soybean Extract on Antioxidation and Whitening.

    PubMed

    Chae, Ga Yeon; Ha, Bae Jin

    2011-12-01

    The present study was performed to compare the antioxidative and whitening activities of fermented soybean extract (FSB) and non-fermented soybean extract (SB). Antioxidative and whitening activities of FSB and SB were evaluated by the determination of DPPH, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, linoleic acid inhibition activity, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. FSB showed the higher effect than SB in the antioxidative activities. Also FSB showed the better effect than SB in whitening activity. These results demonstrated that the fermentation played a more excellent role than the non-fermentation in antioxidation and whitening. Therefore, this study suggested that FSB could be a useful cosmetic ingredient for antioxidation and skin whitening. PMID:24278573

  18. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  19. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  20. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  1. SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department

    ScienceCinema

    Haase, Andy

    2014-06-13

    The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

  2. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Cosmic vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, Artur D.

    2001-11-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered.

  3. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  4. Ultrahigh vacuum gauge having two collector electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torney, F. L., Jr. (inventor)

    1967-01-01

    A gauge for measuring ultrahigh vacuums with great accuracy is described. It provides a means for ionizing the gas whose pressure is being measured, and consists of a collector electrode, a suppressor, radiation shielding, and a second collector.

  5. APS storage ring vacuum system development

    SciTech Connect

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Ferry, R.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's materials research program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 sectors which contain vacuum, beam transport, control, rf and insertion device systems. The vacuum system will operate at a pressure of 1 nTorr and is fabricated from aluminum. The system includes distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. An overview of the vacuum system design and details of selected development program results are presented. 5 refs.

  6. Vacuum-and-pressure laminating polymer materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, D. R.; Riley, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Lamination setup is used to produce void-free bonds by first employing vacuum to outgas materials and adhesive at temperature below curing temperature and then subjecting assembly to pressure and temperature necessary to cure.

  7. Re-circulating linac vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Russell P.; Corlett, John N.; Zholents, Alexander A.

    2003-05-09

    The vacuum system for a proposed 2.5 GeV, 10{Mu}A recirculating linac synchrotron light source [1] is readily achievable with conventional vacuum hardware and established fabrication processes. Some of the difficult technical challenges associated with synchrotron light source storage rings are sidestepped by the relatively low beam current and short beam lifetime requirements of a re-circulating linac. This minimal lifetime requirement leads directly to relatively high limits on the background gas pressure through much of the facility. The 10{Mu}A average beam current produces very little synchrotron radiation induced gas desorption and thus the need for an ante-chamber in the vacuum chamber is eliminated. In the arc bend magnets, and the insertion devices, the vacuum chamber dimensions can be selected to balance the coherent synchrotron radiation and resistive wall wakefield effects, while maintaining the modest limits on the gas pressure and minimal outgassing.

  8. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of cold molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments will be described which combine nonlinear optics, mass- and energy-resolved ion detection, energy-resolved electron detection, and a supersonic nozzle to study vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy of ultracold molecules.

  10. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, Diane D. (Indian Hills, CO); Grohmann, Karel (Littleton, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  12. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512)

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1991-01-16

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol.

  13. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellobiose fermenting yeast Brettanomyces custersii

    DOEpatents

    Spindler, D.D.; Grohmann, K.; Wyman, C.E.

    1992-03-31

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the yeast Brettanomyces custersii (CBS 5512), which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and glucose to ethanol, is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this yeast, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. 2 figs.

  14. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilt, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Janda?ka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  15. Ethanol fermentation from biomass resources: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Tanaka, Shuzo

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, growing attention has been devoted to the conversion of biomass into fuel ethanol, considered the cleanest liquid fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Significant advances have been made towards the technology of ethanol fermentation. This review provides practical examples and gives a broad overview of the current status of ethanol fermentation including biomass resources, microorganisms, and technology. Also, the promising prospects of ethanol fermentation are especially introduced. The prospects included are fermentation technology converting xylose to ethanol, cellulase enzyme utilized in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, immobilization of the microorganism in large systems, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and sugar conversion into ethanol. PMID:16331454

  16. Fermentation of xylulose to ethanol using xylose isomerase and yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    In a survey of 35 organisms, predominantly yeasts, about 40% were capable of fermenting xylulose to ethanol. Two species, Candida tropicalis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, did so at good rates and without an initial lag. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that fermented glucose rapidly fermented xylulose at a slower rate. Ten yeasts and three strains of the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis were weak or negative for xylulose, even though they fermented glucose under the conditions employed. C. tropicalis was able to form 1.0 M ethanol from 1.0 M xylose if the fermentation broth was recycled over immobilized xylose isomerase.

  17. Ethanol production from xylose by enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, L.C.; Hsiao, H.Y.; Ueng, P.P.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    Repetitive enzymic isomerization of xylose followed by yeast fermentation of xylulose, and simultaneous enzymic isomerization and yeast fermentation were proven to be methods capable of converting xylose to ethanol. The fermentation product, ethanol, xylitol, or glycerol, has little inhibitory or deactivation effect on the activity of isomerase. In a comparison of the ability of yeasts to ferment xylulose to ethanol, Schizosaccharomyces pombe was found to be superior to industrial bakers' yeast. Under optimal conditions (pH 6, temperature 30/sup 0/C), a final ethanol concentration of 6.3 wt.% was obtained from simulated hemicellulose hydrolysate using a simultaneous fermentation process. The ethanol yield was over 80% of the theoretical value.

  18. Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentable sugar production from lignocellulosic biomass has become an important research focus in the production of renewable biofuels and other bio-products. It means conversion of the carbohydrates contained in the biomass, including cellulose, hemicellose, and/or pectin into their component sug...

  19. Monitoring alcoholic fermentation: an untargeted approach.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, António César Silva; Monforte, Ana Rita; Teixeira, Carla Silva; Martins, Rosa; Fairbairn, Samantha; Bauer, Florian F

    2014-07-16

    This work describes the utility and efficiency of a metabolic profiling pipeline that relies on an unsupervised and untargeted approach applied to a HS-SPME/GC-MS data. This noninvasive and high throughput methodology enables "real time" monitoring of the metabolic changes inherent to the biochemical dynamics of a perturbed complex biological system and the extraction of molecular candidates that are latter validated on its biochemical context. To evaluate the efficiency of the pipeline five different fermentations, carried on a synthetic media and whose perturbation was the nitrogen source, were performed in 5 and 500 mL. The smaller volume fermentations were monitored online by HS-SPME/GC-MS, allowing to obtain metabolic profiles and molecular candidates time expression. Nontarget analysis was applied using MS data in two ways: (i) one dimension (1D), where the total ion chromatogram per sample was used, (ii) two dimensions (2D), where the integrity time vs m/z per sample was used. Results indicate that the 2D procedure captured the relevant information more efficiently than the 1D. It was also seen that although there were differences in the fermentation performance in different scales, the metabolic pathways responsible for production of metabolites that impact the quality of the volatile fraction was unaffected, so the proposed pipeline is suitable for the study of different fermentation systems that can undergo subsequent sensory validation on a larger scale. PMID:24976138

  20. Fermentation and oxygen transfer in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlop, Eric H.

    1989-01-01

    The need for high rate oxygen transfer in microgravity for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) environment offers a number of difficulties and challenges. The use of a phase separated bioreactor appears to provide a way of overcoming these problems resulting in a system capable of providing high cell densities with rapid fermentation rates. Some of the key design elements are discussed.

  1. Enzymatic and bacterial conversions during sourdough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic and microbial conversion of flour components during bread making determines bread quality. Metabolism of sourdough microbiota and the activity of cereal enzymes are interdependent. Acidification, oxygen consumption, and thiols accumulation by microbial metabolism modulate the activity of cereal enzymes. In turn, cereal enzymes provide substrates for bacterial growth. This review highlights the role of cereal enzymes and the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds and lipids. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria prevailing in wheat and rye sourdoughs preferentially metabolise sucrose and maltose; the latter is released by cereal enzymes during fermentation. Sucrose supports formation of acetate by heterofermentative lactobacilli, and the formation of exopolysaccharides. The release of maltose and glucose by cereal enzymes during fermentation determines the exopolysaccharide yield in sourdough fermentations. Proteolysis is dependent on cereal proteases. Peptidase activities of sourdough lactic acid bacteria determine the accumulation of (bioactive) peptides, amino acids, and amino acid metabolites in dough and bread. Enzymatic conversion and microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds is relevant in sorghum and millet containing high levels of phenolic compounds. The presence of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity in sorghum selects for fermentation microbiota that are resistant to the phenolic compounds. PMID:24230468

  2. Removing Biostatic Agents From Fermentation Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide inexpensive solvent. Inexpensive process proposed for removing such poisons as furfural and related compounds from fermentation baths of biomass hydrolysates. New process based on use of liquid carbon dioxide as extraction solvent. Liquid CO2 preferable to such other liquid solvents as ether or methylene chloride.

  3. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  4. RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF PROPYLENE GLYCOL AND GLYCEROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rumen fluid was fermented anaerobically with 25 mM R-propylene glycol, S-propylene glycol, or glycerol added. After 24 h all of the propylene glycol enantiomers and approximately 80% of the glycerol were metabolized. Acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and caproate concentrations, in dec...

  5. New fermentation route cuts energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-08

    Alcon Biotechnology has built a containerized continuous-fermentation demonstration unit and claims a steam consumption of under 20 lb/gallon of alcohol. Crawford and Russell (Stamford, Conn.) is offering this new power-alcohol technology in the U.S. which is designed for a range of feeds including cane and beet sugar juice, molasses and cereal grains.

  6. Effect of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes the results of two continuous culture fermentor studies that evaluated the effects of molasses supplementation on ruminal fermentation of a pasture diet. The first study compared molasses with corn supplementation. Diets consisted of pasture only, molasses plus pasture, co...

  7. Fermentation process for production of Xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  8. Fermentation process for production of xanthan

    SciTech Connect

    Wernau, W.C.

    1981-08-04

    Xanthomonas polymers used in displacement of oil from partially depleted reservoirs are produced in higher concentrations and yields by the gradual addition of a source of assimilable carbon, preferably glucose, to the aqueous nutrient medium during the course of a Xanthomonas fermentation. The cost factors involved in secondary and tertiary oil recovery and the competitive use of diluted Xanthomonas whole broths in such recovery dictate increasing the fermentation concentration of the Xanthomonas polymers. Reduced shipping costs, broth storage facilities, and handling costs are some of the benefits derived. Furthermore, reduced volumes of solvent are needed for recovery when initial broth concentrations are high in those processes where Xanthomonas gums are recovered for oil recovery applications. Increasing the fermentation yield of a desired microbial product is accomplished by adding or feeding a nutrient or nutrients during the course of the fermentation cycle. The addition of glucose solution is started immediately after inoculation. The glucose is fed at an exponentially increasing rate up to 24 hr after inoculation and thereafter at a constant rate. Other nutrients may be fed with the source of assimilable carbon. (Also related to US 11/30/78 Appl. 964,951). 4 claims.

  9. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lpez-Garzn, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ. PMID:24751382

  10. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  11. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the synthesis of ethanol and related fermentation products are regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. We are also investigating the control of other genes required for anaerobic growth. We have isolated both structural and regulatory mutations affecting the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase, the enzyme responsible for the final step in alcohol synthesis. Some of these regulatory mutations also affect other anaerobically induced genes. The adh gene has been cloned and sequenced. The ADH protein is one of the largest highly expressed proteins in E. coli and requires approximately 2700bp of DNA for its coding sequence. We have also isolated mutations affecting the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase and have recently cloned the ldh gene. In consequence it is now possible to construct E. coli strains defective in the production of any one or more of their normal fermentation products (i.e. formate, acetate, lactate, ethanol and succinate). The factors affecting ratio of fermentation products are being investigated by in vivo NMR spectroscopy.

  12. FERMENTED BEVERAGES OF PRE- AND PROTOHISTORIC CHINA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery from the early Neolithic village of Jlahu in Henon province have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as the seventh millennium BC. This drink paved the way for unique grain beverag...

  13. Biotechnology, fermentation, foods and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Wesley, P.

    1981-02-01

    This article reviews the future of biotechnology in the food industry - the continuing development of methods for controlled fermentation and enzyme reaction, combined with the projected culturing of new and useful organisms through gene-splicing. At present, the largest enzyme market in the food industry is for glucose isomerase to convert glucose to high-fructose corn syrup.

  14. Effects of fermentation substrate conditions on corn-soy co-fermentation for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Yao, Linxing; Lee, Show-Ling; Wang, Tong; de Moura, Juliana M L N; Johnson, Lawrence A

    2012-09-01

    Soy skim, a protein-rich liquid co-product from the aqueous extraction of soybeans, was co-fermented with corn to produce ethanol. Effects of soy skim addition level, type of skim, corn particle size, water-to-solids ratio, and urea on co-fermentation were determined. The addition of 20-100% skim increased the fermentation rate by 18-27% and shortened the fermentation time by 5-7h without affecting ethanol yield. Finely ground corn or high water-to-solids ratio (≥ 3.0) in the mash gave higher fermentation rates, but did not increase the ethanol yield. When the water was completely replaced with soy skim, the addition of urea became unnecessary. Soy skim retentate that was concentrated by nanofiltration increased fermentation rate by 25%. The highest level of skim addition resulted in a finished beer with 16% solids, 47% protein (dwb) containing 3.6% lysine, and an ethanol yield of 39 g/100g dry corn. PMID:22784965

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  16. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  17. Physical vacuum properties and internal space dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, M. V.; Pushkin, A. V.

    2005-10-01

    The paper addresses matrix spaces, whose properties and dynamics are determined by Dirac matrices in Riemannian spaces of different dimension and signature. Among all Dirac matrix systems there are such ones, which nontrivial scalar, vector or other tensors cannot be made up from. These Dirac matrix systems are associated with the vacuum state of the matrix space. The simplest vacuum system realization can be ensured using the orthonormal basis in the internal matrix space. This vacuum system realization, however, is not unique. The case of 7-dimensional Riemannian space of signature 7(-) is considered in detail. In this case two basically different vacuum system realizations are possible: (1) with using the orthonormal basis; (2) with using the oblique-angled basis, whose base vectors coincide with the simple roots of the Lie algebra E 8. Considerations are presented, from which it follows that the least-dimen-si-on space bearing on physics is the Riemannian 11-dimensional space of signature 1(-)& 10(+). The considerations consist in the condition of maximum vacuum energy density and vacuum fluctuation energy density.

  18. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  19. Intracellular ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, T.; Panchal, C.J.; Stewart, G.G.

    1988-01-01

    An intracellular accumulation of ethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was observed during the early stages of fermentation (3 h). However, after 12 h of fermentation, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar. Increasing the osmotic pressure of the medium caused an increase in the ratio of intracellular to extracellular ethanol concentrations at 3 h of fermentation. As in the previous case, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations were similar after 12 h of fermentation. Increasing the osmotic pressure also caused a decease in yeast cell growth and fermentation activities. However, nutrient supplementation of the medium increased the extent of growth and fermentation, resulting in complete glucose utilization, even though intracellular ethanol concentrations were unaltered. These results suggest that nutrient limitation is a major factor responsible for the decreased growth and fermentation activities observed in yeast cells at higher osmotic pressures.

  20. Acoustical experiment of yogurt fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, H; Mizutani, K; Ohbuchi, T; Nakamura, T

    2006-12-22

    One of the important factors through food manufacturing is hygienic management. Thus, food manufactures prove their hygienic activities by taking certifications like a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP). This concept also applies to food monitoring. Acoustical measurements have advantage for other measurement in food monitoring because they make it possible to measure with noncontact and nondestructive. We tried to monitor lactic fermentation of yogurt by a probing sensor using a pair of acoustic transducers. Temperature of the solution changes by the reaction heat of fermentation. Consequently the sound velocity propagated through the solution also changes depending on the temperature. At the same time, the solution change its phase from liquid to gel. The transducers usage in the solution indicates the change of the temperature as the change of the phase difference between two transducers. The acoustic method has advantages of nondestructive measurement that reduces contamination of food product by measuring instrument. The sensor was inserted into milk with lactic acid bacterial stain of 19 degrees C and monitored phase retardation of propagated acoustic wave and its temperature with thermocouples in the mild. The monitoring result of fermentation from milk to Caspian Sea yogurt by the acoustic transducers with the frequency of 3.7 MHz started to show gradient change in temperature caused by reaction heat of fermentation but stop the gradient change at the end although the temperature still change. The gradient change stopped its change because of phase change from liquid to gel. The present method will be able to measure indirectly by setting transducers outside of the measuring object. This noncontact sensing method will have great advantage of reduces risk of food contamination from measuring instrument because the measurement probes are set out of fermentation reactor or food containers. Our proposed method will contribute to the hygienization for the food manufacture industry. PMID:16793107

  1. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Martnez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate. Values of efficiency of microbial growth were greater in fermenters compared with sheep for 70:30 diets, but they were lower for 30:70 diets. Differences between fermentation in sheep and fermenters can be mainly attributed to the lack of absorption in fermenters, differences in solid retention time, and compartmentalization in the Rusitec system. In general, the Rusitec system simulated more closely the in vivo fermentation of high-forage diets compared with high-concentrate diets. PMID:20655438

  2. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per hour) than for the conventional process (36 million BTUs per hour). Lower energy requirements result from improved process energy recovery. Data examined in this study indicate feasible use of eastern geothermal heated waters (150 F) to provide process heat for vacuum (130 mm Hg) ethanol distillation units. Data indicate additional heat sources are needed to raise geothermal temperatures to the 200 F level required by mash cooking. Data also indicate potential savings in overall process energy use through use of vacuum distillation technology. Further study is needed to confirm conclusions reached during this study. Additional work includes obtaining energy use data from vacuum ethanol distillation units currently operating in the 130 millimeter pressure range; economic analysis of different vacuum pressures to select an optimum; and operation of a pilot geothermally heated vacuum column to produce confirmatory process data.

  3. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum…

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  8. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  10. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  11. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  12. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  13. Superconducting cyclotron and its vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, A.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    A large superconducting cyclotron is under construction at this Centre and will be used to accelerate heavy ion beams to energy up to 80 MeV/A for light heavy ions and about 10 MeV/A for medium mass heavy ions. The vacuum system for this accelerator has several different aspects. The main acceleration chamber will be evacuated to a level of about 10-7 torr using both turbo molecular pumps and specially designed cryopanels. The surfaces exposed to this 'vacuum' are mostly made of OFE copper. The cryogenic transfer lines, to cool the cryopanels, are of several meters in length and they pass through RF resonators extending below the magnet. The cryostat that will house the superconducting coils has an annular vacuum chamber, which is evacuated to a level of approximately 10-5 torr using a turbo molecular pump. Cryopumping action starts once the coils are cooled to low temperatures. A differential pumping is provided below the RF liner that encloses the pole tip of the main magnet. The space that is pumped in this case contains epoxy-potted trim coils wound around the pole tips. Crucial interlocks are provided between the differential vacuum and the acceleration chamber vacuum to avoid distortion of the RF liner, which is made of thin copper sheets. The other important vacuum system provides thermal insulation for the liquid helium transfer lines. In this paper a brief description of the superconducting cyclotron will be given. Details of various vacuum aspects of the accelerator and the logistics of their operation will be presented. Introduction of some of the improved equipment now available and improved techniques are also discussed.

  14. Increased flavour diversity of Chardonnay wines by spontaneous fermentation and co-fermentation with Hanseniaspora vineae.

    PubMed

    Medina, K; Boido, E; Faria, L; Gioia, O; Gomez, M E; Barquet, M; Gaggero, C; Dellacassa, E; Carrau, F

    2013-12-01

    Discovery, characterisation and use of novel yeast strains for winemaking is increasingly regarded as a way for improving quality and to provide variation, including subtle characteristic differences in fine wines. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of a native apiculate strain, selected from grapes, Hanseniaspora vineae (H. vineae) 02/5A. Fermentations were done in triplicate, working with 225 L oak barrels, using a Chardonnay grape must. Three yeast fermentation strategies were compared: conventional inoculation with a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, ALG 804, sequential inoculation with H. vineae and then strain ALG 804 and spontaneous fermentation. Yeast strain identification was performed during fermentation, in which the apiculate strain was found to be active, until 9% of alcohol in volume, for the co-fermentation and the spontaneous fermentation was completed by three native S. cerevisiae strains. Basic winemaking parameters and some key chemical analysis, such as concentration of glycerol, biogenic amines, organic acids, and aroma compounds were analysed. Sensory analysis was done using a trained panel and further evaluated with professional winemakers. Sequential inoculation with H. vineae followed by S. cerevisiae resulted in relatively dry wines, with increased aroma and flavour diversity compared with wines resulting from inoculation with S. cerevisiae alone. Wines produced from sequential inoculations were considered, by a winemaker's panel, to have an increased palate length and body. Characteristics of wines derived from sequential inoculation could be explained due to significant increases in glycerol and acetyl and ethyl ester flavour compounds and relative decreases in alcohols and fatty acids. Aroma sensory analysis of wine character and flavour, attributed to winemaking using H. vineae, indicated a significant increase in fruit intensity described as banana, pear, apple, citric fruits and guava. GC analysis of the relative accumulation of 23 compounds to significantly different concentrations for the three fermentation strategies is discussed in relation to aroma compound composition. PMID:23870989

  15. Discharge Properties in Low Vacuum Region of Vacuum Interrupter Filled with SF6 Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarol, Mohamad; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Sakaki, Masayuki; Hikita, Masayuki

    This paper deals with the discharge properties in low vacuum region of practical vacuum interrupter filled with SF6 gas. In field, the vacuum interrupter inside the cubicle-gas insulated switchgear is surrounded by SF6 gas. If the leakages occur, the surrounding gas may invade the vacuum interrupter and increase the internal pressure. Thus, the pressures are set at 1.3 Pa to 2.6 kPa to simulate the leakage. The measurement of discharge occurring inside the vacuum interrupter was performed with a photomultiplier tube. From the result of the experiment, it is found that the pressure of vacuum interrupter below and above 50 Pa can be distinguished on the basis of the rise time, peak intensity and width of the discharge light pulse. The result reveals that the discharge pulses at pressures below 50 Pa have the relatively larger rise time of 100ns order, and larger pulse width of 2?s order. While, for pressures above 50 Pa, the rise time have relatively smaller value of 10 ns and pulse width of 0.1?s order. The result also shows significant difference in discharge characteristics compared with those in low vacuum of vacuum interrupter filled with air that we have investigated previously.

  16. Inactivation of Listeria on Frankfurter Surfaces Using UVC Radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters. Both Ultraviolet (254 nm) radiation and Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum (VSV) surface steam pasteurization are FDA approved technologies that can be u...

  17. USE OF VACUUM-STEAM-VACUUM AND IONIZING RADIATION TO ELIMINATE LISTERIA INNOCUA FROM HAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including ham. Vacuum-Steam-Vacuum (VSV) technology has been used successfully to eliminate the L. monocytogenes surrogate L. innocua from hot dogs. Ionizing radiation can eliminate L. monocytogenes fr...

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-09-04

    The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated, would result in a safety event. Specifically, actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO annulus on high Tempered Water (TW) inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge, the SCIC receives MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum), helium flow rate, bay high temperature switch status, seismic trip status, and time-under-vacuum trips signals. The SCIC system will isolate the MCO and start an SCHe system purge if any of the following occur. (1) Isolation and purge from one of the SCHe ''isolation'' and ''purge'' buttons is manually initiated (administratively controlled). (2) The first vacuum cycle exceeds 8 hours at vacuum, or any subsequent vacuum cycle exceeds 4 hours at vacuum without re-pressurizing the MCO for a minimum of 4 hours. (This is referred to as the 8/4/4 requirement and provides thermal equilibrium within the MCO.) (3) MCO is below atmospheric pressure and the helium flow is below the minimum required to keep hydrogen less than 4% by volume. (When MCO pressure is below 12 torr there is insufficient hydrogen to exceed the 4% level and therefore no purge is required. A five minute time delay on low flow allows flow to be stopped in order to reach < 12 torr.) (4) The duration for the transition from above atmospheric pressure to vacuum (time to reach pressure below -11.7 psig [{approx}155 torr]) exceeds 5 minutes. (5) The duration for the transition from vacuum (below -11.1 psig [{approx}185 torr]) back to pressure [greater than 0.5 psig] exceeds 5 minutes. (6) MCO reaches a vacuum state (<0.5 psig) without an adequate, verified purge volume. (The MCO must be maintained above atmospheric pressure (approximately 0.5 psig) to prevent oxygen ingress unless a purge of adequate volume has been completed. During bulk water draining, the MCO must remain above atmospheric pressure.) (7) Seismic event of sufficient magnitude is detected. (Trip point is below the Uniform Building Code levels). Setpoint determination is required for trips C through H. Sensor error determination for additional safety-significant sensors used by the HVAC system or the SCHe system are also required.

  19. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Yang Y; Xu RM; Song J; Wang WM

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry.

  20. High throughput biotechnology in traditional fermented food industry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Xu, Rong-man; Song, Jia; Wang, Wei-min

    2010-11-01

    Traditional fermented food is not only the staple food for most of developing countries but also the key healthy food for developed countries. As the healthy function of these foods are gradually discovered, more and more high throughput biotechnologies are being used to promote the old and new industry. As a result, the microflora, manufacturing processes and product healthy function of these foods were pushed forward either in the respect of profundity or extensiveness nowadays. The application and progress of the high throughput biotechnologies into traditional fermented food industries were different from each other, which was reviewed and detailed by the catalogues of fermented milk products (yogurt, cheese), fermented sausages, fermented vegetables (kimchi, sauerkraut), fermented cereals (sourdough) and fermented beans (tempeh, natto). Given the further promotion by high throughput biotechnologies, the middle and/or down-stream process of traditional fermented foods would be optimized and the process of industrialization of local traditional fermented food having many functional factors but in small quantity would be accelerated. The article presents some promising patents on traditional fermented food industry. PMID:20863273

  1. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  2. The durability of ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, J.; Sekiguchi, T.; Saeki, H.; Ishimaru, H.

    1989-10-01

    Recently an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been necessary to reduce impurities in the production of high-density integrated circuits. Generally, driving apparatuses used in ultrahigh vacuum environments are required. Ballscrews for ultrahigh vacuum are also required for those apparatuses. But the durability of ballscrews has not been confirmed. A test of the durability of ballscrews has been carried out on two sets of screws and nuts made of stainless steel. Electrochemical buffing was performed on the surfaces of the screws and nuts. On screw/nut pair was then coated with TiC and Ag, while the other pair was left uncoated. The stainless steel balls were coated with Ag. Each ballscrew was directly connected to an ultrahigh vacuum-compatible stepping motor. The test was carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum environment on the order of 10-10-10-11 Torr. The ballscrew coated with TiC and Ag was moved 21000 times with a reciprocating motion. However, the uncoated ballscrew moved only 1310 times before failure.

  3. A road map to extreme high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adderley, P.; Myneni, G.

    2008-05-01

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and procedures [1, 2]. Until now much attention has been paid to minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the vacuum chamber wall materials, however, procedures and processing deserve further scrutiny. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 110-12 Torr l/sec should be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This paper presents the current status of the CEBAF DC photogun. This state of the art technology is driving the need for Extreme High Vacuum (XHV). We also present sensitive helium leak detection techniques with RGA's, vacuum gauge and RGA calibration procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to XHV, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load and clean assembly procedures. Further, alternative backing pump systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps are also discussed.

  4. Osmotic pressure of matter and vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volovik, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The walls of the box which contains matter represent a membrane that allows the relativistic quantum vacuum to pass but not matter. That is why the pressure of matter in the box may be considered as the analog of the osmotic pressure. However, we demonstrate that the osmotic pressure of matter is modified due to interaction of matter with vacuum. This interaction induces the nonzero negative vacuum pressure inside the box, as a result the measured osmotic pressure becomes smaller than the matter pressure. As distinct from the Casimir effect, this induced vacuum pressure is the bulk effect and does not depend on the size of the box. This effect dominates in the thermodynamic limit of the infinite volume of the box. Analog of this effect has been observed in the dilute solution of 3He in liquid 4He, where the superfluid 4He plays the role of the non-relativistic quantum vacuum, and 3He atoms play the role of matter.

  5. APT/LEDA RFQ Vacuum Pumping System*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Stewart; Kishiyama, Keith; Parker, John; Wilson, Norman; Schrage, Dale

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a vacuum pumping system for the APT/LEDA(Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) RFQ(Radio Frequency Quadrupole linac. The over-riding requirement for the APT/LEDA RFQ vacuum pumping system is that it be capable of pumping the combined gas load from the lost proton beam, gas streaming from the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) and out-gassing from the surfaces of the RFQ cavity and vacuum plumbing. The total gas load will be on the order of 7.2 x 10-4 Torr-liters/sec. The main gas to be pumped will be the hydrogen from the beam loss in the front end of RFQ, and the system must be able to pump hydrogen on a continual basis. All vacuum pumps are to be completely oil-free and a single pump type must pump all species of gas (H2, O2, N2 and any outgassed mixture). Redundancy must be provided in the system pumping and gauging to ensure that the minimal "operating vacuum level" of 1 x 10-6 Torr is maintained even under abnormal conditions. Preliminary test results of the cryogenic pumping system will be presented.

  6. Vacuum-assisted delivery: a review.

    PubMed

    McQuivey, R W

    2004-09-01

    In 1992, the number of vacuum deliveries overtook the number of forceps deliveries performed in the USA. Most clinical experiences report that the vacuum is safe for both the fetus and the mother when used properly. Correct cup placement on the fetal head and knowing when to abandon the procedure, appear to be key components to conducting a safe and successful vacuum delivery. However, the focus and training that has been afforded forceps deliveries in the past has not been given to the vacuum, because of its perceived 'ease of use'. This apparent lack of understanding has led to increasing numbers of complications associated with its use. In addition, because forceps are being taught less in training programs, fewer and fewer physicians are being trained in the essential skills of operative vaginal delivery. This review is intended to emphasize the correct techniques and skills of vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery in an attempt to increase the success and decrease the complications associated with its use. PMID:15590444

  7. Treatment of vacuum residues in hydroconversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, A. Y.; Mendoza, D. L.; Espinosa, J. O.; Laverde, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper the use of a liquid homogeneous catalyst has been studied in reactivity vacuum residues by hydroconversion under different conditions. To cover a wide range of compositions, six (6) vacuum residues were selected from crude mixtures. Hydroconversion test were performed in batch reactor with hydrogen atmosphere at about 2000psi in a temperature range between 430 and 480°C. The results allowed to establish that the reactivity hydroconversion conditions about coke formation is higher in vacuum residues with higher content of resins and asphaltenes. The reaction conditions promote distillate formation, however, with increasing stringency conditions, the distillate yield decreases due to distillate transformation into temperature range 430 and 460°C compared to the tests performed without catalyst demonstrating that the use of homogeneous catalyst is an alternative to treating vacuum residues and results are satisfactory in the conversion processes. Finally, predictive expressions have been developed in the formation of products depending on the conditions of temperature and physicochemical properties of processed vacuum residue.

  8. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  9. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  10. Mechanical design of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Calderon, M.O.; Thomas, S.R.; Garner, D.R.

    1981-09-24

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) vacuum system uses most of the vacuum system from the original TMX and substantially increases its capabilities. The vacuum system provides the main structure for the experimental apparatus, as well as providing and maintaining the vacuum environment. The vacuum vessel provides the structure supporting all magnets, as they are contained inside the vacuum vessel, all of the neutral-beam injectors, and the various diagnostics. The vessel provides the main vacuum enclosure and the various access ports required by the magnet system, injector system, internal vacuum system, and plasma diagnostics. The vacuum environment is created and maintained by two systems, the external vacuum system and the internal vacuum system. The external system consists of mechanical pumps, turbopumps, and cryopumps, and creates a vacuum inside the vessel down to a minimum pressure of 10/sup -6/ Torr. The internal vacuum system further reduces the pressure into the 10/sup -8/ Torr range and provides the fast pumping required to handle the excess gas from the neutral-beam injector system during a plasma shot. The internal vacuum system consists of titanium sublimators and liquid nitrogen (LN) liners that separate the vacuum vessel into various pumping regions.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts involved in the fermentation ofamabere amaruranu, a Kenyan fermented milk.

    PubMed

    Nyambane, Bitutu; Thari, William M; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick M K

    2014-11-01

    Indigenous fermented milk products contain microbiota composed of technologically important species and strains which are gradually getting lost with new technologies. We investigated the microbial diversity inamabere amaruranu, a traditionally fermented milk product from Kenya. Sixteen samples of the product from different containers were obtained. One hundred and twenty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 67 strains of yeasts were identified using API 50 CH and API 20 C AUX identification kits, respectively. The average pH of all the traditional fermented samples was 4.000.93. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and molds as well asEnterobacteriaceae counts from the plastic containers were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those from gourd.Enterobacteriaceae were below 1.001.11log10cfu/mL in products from the gourds and 2.171.92log10cfu/mL from the plastic containers. The LAB species were identified asStreptococcus thermophilus (25%),Lactobacillus plantarum (20%), andLeuconostoc mesenteroides (20%). The predominant yeasts wereSaccharomyces cerevisiae (25%),Trichosporum mucoides (15%),Candida famata (10%), andCandida albicans (10%). The type of vessel used for fermentation had no significant influence on the type of isolated and identified species. The diverse mixture of LAB and yeasts microflora forms a potential consortium for further product innovation inamabere amaruranu and other fermented milk products. PMID:25493187

  12. Fermentation broth components influence droplet coalescence and hinder advanced biofuel recovery during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Heeres, Arjan S; Schron, Karin; Heijnen, Joseph J; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Cuellar, Maria C

    2015-08-01

    Developments in synthetic biology enabled the microbial production of long chain hydrocarbons, which can be used as advanced biofuels in aviation or transportation. Currently, these fuels are not economically competitive due to their production costs. The current process offers room for improvement: by utilizing lignocellulosic feedstock, increasing microbial yields, and using cheaper process technology. Gravity separation is an example of the latter, for which droplet growth by coalescence is crucial. The aim of this study was to study the effect of fermentation broth components on droplet coalescence. Droplet coalescence was measured using two setups: a microfluidic chip and regular laboratory scale stirred vessel (2 L). Some fermentation broth components had a large impact on droplet coalescence. Especially components present in hydrolysed cellulosic biomass and mannoproteins from the yeast cell wall retard coalescence. To achieve a technically feasible gravity separation that can be integrated with the fermentation, the negative effects of these components on coalescence should be minimized. This could be achieved by redesign of the fermentation medium or adjusting the fermentation conditions, aiming to minimize the release of surface active components by the microorganisms. This way, another step can be made towards economically feasible advanced biofuel production. PMID:26097113

  13. Optimizing scale-up fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Michel; Cingolani, Doriano

    2002-03-01

    There are many aims associated with the optimization of fermentation processes. Optimization is expected to increase the yield of the final product but the process must be compliant with good manufacturing practices, the available equipment and the expected final scale of operation. Dealing with genetically modified microorganisms that overproduce recombinant protein has the advantage that the vast majority of the processes use only three different species, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Standard processes for each organism are described in textbooks and serve as a basis for the development of a tailored process. This article outlines the general philosophy that we have devised to ensure an efficient approach of scaling up fermentation processes for biopharmaceutical purposes, in a multidisciplinary environment. PMID:11841860

  14. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  15. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  16. Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

  17. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Kertes, A S; King, C J

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. PMID:18555324

  18. Engineering the Escherichia coli Fermentative Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orencio-Trejo, M.; Utrilla, J.; Fernndez-Sandoval, M. T.; Huerta-Beristain, G.; Gosset, G.; Martinez, A.

    Fermentative metabolism constitutes a fundamental cellular capacity for industrial biocatalysis. Escherichia coli is an important microorganism in the field of metabolic engineering for its well-known molecular characteristics and its rapid growth. It can adapt to different growth conditions and is able to grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Through the use of metabolic pathway engineering and bioprocessing techniques, it is possible to explore the fundamental cellular properties and to exploit its capacity to be applied as industrial biocatalysts to produce a wide array of chemicals. The objective of this chapter is to review the metabolic engineering efforts carried out with E. coli by manipulating the central carbon metabolism and fermentative pathways to obtain strains that produce metabolites with high titers, such as ethanol, alanine, lactate and succinate.

  19. Vacuum birefringence in strong inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, Felix; Gies, Holger; Reuter, Maria; Zepf, Matt

    2015-10-01

    Birefringence is one of the fascinating properties of the vacuum of quantum electrodynamics (QED) in strong electromagnetic fields. The scattering of linearly polarized incident probe photons into a perpendicularly polarized mode provides a distinct signature of the optical activity of the quantum vacuum and thus offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of nonlinear QED. Precision tests require accurate predictions and thus a theoretical framework that is capable of taking the detailed experimental geometry into account. We derive analytical solutions for vacuum birefringence which include the spatio-temporal field structure of a strong optical pump laser field and an x-ray probe. We show that the angular distribution of the scattered photons depends strongly on the interaction geometry and find that scattering of the perpendicularly polarized scattered photons out of the cone of the incident probe x-ray beam is the key to making the phenomenon experimentally accessible with the current generation of FEL/high-field laser facilities.

  20. Extremal vacuum black holes in higher dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Rangamani, Mukund; Kunduri, Hari K.

    2008-08-15

    We consider extremal black hole solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations in dimensions greater than five. We prove that the near-horizon geometry of any such black hole must possess an SO(2,1) symmetry in a special case where one has an enhanced rotational symmetry group. We construct examples of vacuum near-horizon geometries using the extremal Myers-Perry black holes and boosted Myers-Perry strings. The latter lead to near-horizon geometries of black ring topology, which in odd spacetime dimensions have the correct number of rotational symmetries to describe an asymptotically flat black object. We argue that a subset of these correspond to the near-horizon limit of asymptotically flat extremal black rings. Using this identification we provide a conjecture for the exact 'phase diagram' of extremal vacuum black rings with a connected horizon in odd spacetime dimensions greater than five.

  1. Vacuum System for HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zeng; Cui, Chenghe; Liu, Dequan; Cai, Xiao; Gao, Xiaoyan

    2005-02-01

    The vacuum system for HL-2A was built in 2003. The test results indicated that this system is feasible. It consists of three main parts: A pumping system, a pumping divertor and a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) system. For the pumping system, there are three main functions: (1) evacuating the vacuum vessel thus to produce an ultra high vacuum, (2) removal of impurities released during baking and (3) pumping during GDC. The pumping divertor controls the particles at the plasma edge and the GDC system provides a clean wall conditioning. During the first campaign of physical trial experiment on HL-2A, the ultimate pressure reached 4.6 10-6 Pa, and the total leakage and outgassing rate in 12 hours was 1.8 10-5 Pam3/s, which is close to that of ASDEX.

  2. Gigawatt power microwave devices and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larour, J.

    2008-05-01

    Low pressure breakdown is a major concern for developing high power microwave (HPM) devices, especially when going to more compact designs and to extreme powers, typically cm-size gaps in the tube and GW level output. In connection with the vacuum quality, we will consider the general aspects which may contribute to limit the operation of a HPM device: high voltage arcing, electrode erosion and degassing, rf breakdown in the cavities, surface breakdown at the windows, repetition rate. Vacuum measurement and electromagnetic compatibility with vacuum equipment will be treated too. As an example, we will consider in details the development of a compact magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) operating successfully at the Gigawatt level in the S-band.

  3. Sequestering the standard model vacuum energy.

    PubMed

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    We propose a very simple reformulation of general relativity, which completely sequesters from gravity all of the vacuum energy from a matter sector, including all loop corrections and renders all contributions from phase transitions automatically small. The idea is to make the dimensional parameters in the matter sector functionals of the 4-volume element of the Universe. For them to be nonzero, the Universe should be finite in spacetime. If this matter is the standard model of particle physics, our mechanism prevents any of its vacuum energy, classical or quantum, from sourcing the curvature of the Universe. The mechanism is consistent with the large hierarchy between the Planck scale, electroweak scale, and curvature scale, and early Universe cosmology, including inflation. Consequences of our proposal are that the vacuum curvature of an old and large universe is not zero, but very small, that w(DE) ? -1 is a transient, and that the Universe will collapse in the future. PMID:24655240

  4. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines.

    PubMed

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-07-22

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  5. APT/LEDA RFQ vacuum pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S., LLNL

    1997-07-21

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a vacuum pumping system for the ATP/LEDA (Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator) RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac. Resulted from the lost proton beam, gas streaming from the LEBT (Low Energy Beam Transport) and out-gassing from the surfaces of the RFQ cavity and vacuum plumbing, the total gas load will be on the order of 7.2 x 10{sup -4} Torr-liters/sec, consisting mainly of hydrogen. The system is designed to pump on a continual basis with redundancy to ensure that the minimal operating vacuum level of 1 x 10{sup -6} Torr is maintained even under abnormal conditions. Details of the design, performance analysis and the preliminary test results of the cryogenic pumps are presented.

  6. A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2007-06-20

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

  7. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Raboin, P; McLean II, W

    2008-08-11

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368 K for a few hours prior to device assembly.

  8. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  9. Enzyme conversion of biomass to fermentable sugars

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1983-01-01

    Saccharification studies indicated the suitability of Trichoderma viride 253 crude enzyme preparation as a promising agent for saccharifying sugarcane baggase hemicellulose, treated ..cap alpha..-cellulose, and alkali-treated bagasse. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse for the fermentative production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and single cell protein (SCP) by T. viride 253 can be outlined as follows: (a) Production of extracellular cellulases and hemicellulases in a forced aeration-stirred tank fermentor using crude bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium. (b) Treatment of the remaining biodegraded bagasse with NaOH. (c) Refermentation in static culture of bagasse as the sole carbon source in Dox's culture medium for production of SCP material. The yeast, Pachysolen tannophilus, is capable of converting xylose and glucose to ethanol. Fermentation of the crude hydrolyzate from straw revealed low efficiencies of 40 to 60%. As anticipated, interfering substances are present in these crude substrates. Further procedures for optimization of both processing of hydrolyzates and fermentation are being investigated. Endoglucanase and cellobiase are inhibited by glucose, and cellobiose inhibits exoglucanase. A yeast (Candida wickerhamii) was isolated which ferments water soluble oligosaccharides. Because oligosaccharides (cellulodxtrins) are easier to prepare than glucose from cellulose, attention has been directed toward substrate preparation and organism characterization. While the literature contains several methods for preparing cellulodextrins, all the methods involve several steps or involve the removal or neutralization of strong acids. A simple method has been developed using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-water for the hydrolysis. Analysis by TLC and HPLC shows a series of cellulodextrins (DP1-6) which are completely converted to ethanol by Candida wickerhamii in 4 to 5 days.

  10. Butanol fermentation research: upstream and downstream manipulations.

    PubMed

    Ezeji, Thaddeus C; Qureshi, Nasib; Blaschek, Hans P

    2004-01-01

    An overview of advances in acetone-butanol fermentation research is presented with specific reference to the history of acetone-butanol fermentation, genetic manipulation of the butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, as well as upstream and downstream processing. Specific reference is made to the development of the hyperamylolytic, hyper-"butanolagenic" C. beijerinckii BA101 strain. Amylolytic enzyme production by C. beijerinckii BA101 was 1.8- and 2.5-fold greater than that of the C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 strain grown in starch and glucose, respectively. We confirmed the presence of a phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) associated with cell extracts of C. beijerinckii BA101 by glucose phosphorylation by PEP and ATP-dependent glucose phosphorylation. It was found that C. beijerinckii BA101 was defective in PTS activity and that it compensates for this defect with enhanced glucokinase activity, resulting in an ability to transport and utilize glucose during the solventogenic stage. The principal problem associated with acetone-butanol fermentation by C. beijerinckii or C. acetobutylicum is butanol toxicity/inhibition to the culture. To solve this problem, we have attempted various alternative in situ/online techniques of butanol removal including membrane-based systems such as pervaporation, liquid-liquid extraction, and gas stripping. We found that gas stripping and pervaporation appear to be the most promising of the in situ acetone-butanol fermentation and recovery techniques but, in terms of cost-effective industrial applications, gas stripping appears to be the most promising. PMID:15543610

  11. Influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration treatment on aroma compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in different industrial scale fermenters.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Lu, Lin; Lan, Yi-Bin; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2014-07-01

    The influence of pre-fermentation cold maceration (CM) on Cabernet Sauvignon wines fermented in two different industrial-scale fermenters was studied. CM treatment had different effects on wine aroma depending on the types of fermenter, being more effective for automatic pumping-over tank (PO-tank) than automatic punching-down tank (PD-tank). When PO-tank was used, CM-treated wine showed a decrease in some fusel alcohols (isobutanol and isopentanol) and an increase in some esters (especially acetate esters). However, no significant changes were detected in these compounds when PD-tank was used. Ethyl 2-hexenoate and diethyl succinate were decreased, while geranylacetone was increased by the CM treatment in both fermenters. ?-Damascenone was increased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines but decreased in PD-tank fermented wines. The fruity, caramel and floral aroma series were enhanced while chemical series were decreased by the CM treatment in PO-tank fermented wines. The content of (Z)-6-nonen-1-ol in the final wines was positively correlated to CM treatment. PMID:24518336

  12. Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.

    PubMed

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

  13. Citric acid fermentation in whey permeate

    SciTech Connect

    Somkuti, G.A.; Bencivengo, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acid-whey permeate was used for the production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger. The fermentation proceeded in 2 phases: a growth phase when citric acid was not accumulated, followed by an acidogenic phase when citric acid accumulated and mold growth was greatly reduced. Optimal production of citric acid occurred after 8-12 days at 30 degrees. Maximum citric acid yields were influenced by the initial lactose concentration and reached 10 g/l when the lactose concentration in the acid-whey permeate was adjusted to 15%. MeOH at 2-4% markedly increased the production of citric acid. Fermentation of acid-whey permeate by a mutant strain (A. niger 599-3) was more reproducible, and yields of citric acid were substantially improved. The amount of citric acid produced by A. niger 599-3 was 18-23 g/l after 12-14 days, depending on the lactose content of the whey permeate. Throughout the fermentation, galactose was apparently co-metabolized with glucose.

  14. [The antihypertensive effect of fermented milks].

    PubMed

    Domínguez González, Karina N; Cruz Guerrero, Alma E; Márquez, Humberto González; Gómez Ruiz, Lorena C; García-Garibay, Mariano; Rodríguez Serrano, Gabriela M

    2014-01-01

    There is a great variety of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria that present health-promoting properties. Milk proteins are hydrolyzed by the proteolytic system of these microorganisms producing peptides which may also perform other functions in vivo. These peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of proteins and can be released through food processing, either by milk fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis during gastrointestinal transit. They perform different activities, since they act in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, immune and nervous systems. Bioactive peptides that have an antihypertensive, antithrombotic, antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic effect on the cardiovascular system can reduce the risk factors for chronic disease manifestation and help improve human health. Most studied bioactive peptides are those which exert an antihypertensive effect by inhibiting the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Recently, the study of these peptides has focused on the implementation of tests to prove that they have an effect on health. This paper focuses on the production of ACEinhibitory antihypertensive peptides from fermented milks, its history, production and in vivo tests on rats and humans, on which its hypotensive effect has been shown. PMID:24721277

  15. Amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentation - a review.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gopal; Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Venkateshwar, M; Kumar, E Vijay

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid, an enigmatic chemical has wide applications in food, pharmaceutical, leather, textile industries and as chemical feed stock. Novel applications in synthesis of biodegradable plastics have increased the demand for lactic acid. Microbial fermentations are preferred over chemical synthesis of lactic acid due to various factors. Refined sugars, though costly, are the choice substrates for lactic acid production using Lactobacillus sps. Complex natural starchy raw materials used for production of lactic acid involve pretreatment by gelatinization and liquefaction followed by enzymatic saccharification to glucose and subsequent conversion of glucose to lactic acid by Lactobacillus fermentation. Direct conversion of starchy biomass to lactic acid by bacteria possessing both amylolytic and lactic acid producing character will eliminate the two step process to make it economical. Very few amylolytic lactic acid bacteria with high potential to produce lactic acid at high substrate concentrations are reported till date. In this view, a search has been made for various amylolytic LAB involved in production of lactic acid and utilization of cheaply available renewable agricultural starchy biomass. Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 is an efficient and widely studied amylolytic lactic acid producing bacteria capable of utilizing inexpensive carbon and nitrogen substrates with high lactic acid production efficiency. This is the first review on amylolytic bacterial lactic acid fermentations till date. PMID:17884326

  16. Simultaneous saccharification: fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, D.J.; Emert, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, an ethanol production process has been developed which utilizes Trichoderma reesei cellulase and Candida brassicae IFO 1664 in the simultaneous saccharification/fermentation (SSF) of cellulose to ethanol. The direct production of ethanol from cellulose in an SSF process alleviates the problem of end production inhibition. Glucose does not accumulate in this system, but rather is fermented to ethanol immediately following saccharification. The result is an increase in yield of 25% or greater as compared with separate processes of saccharification and fermentation. An alternative organisms which might be used in place of yeasts in ethanol production processes is Zymomonas mobilis. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis of cellulose by Trichoderma reesei cellulases is 50/sup 0/C. Since this hydrolysis is the rate limiting step in the SSF process, it is advantageous to utilize the most temperature tolerant ethanol producer available. Candida brassicae is currently the organism of choice due to its ability to produce ethanol efficiently at 40/sup 0/C. This investigation reports on the screening of Zymomonas strains and evaluating the feasibility of utilizing the most temperature tolerant strain in place of C. brassicae in SSF.

  17. Emerging fermentation technologies: development of novel sourdoughs.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, G; Wick, M; Cappelle, S

    2007-04-01

    The increasing knowledge of sourdough fermentation generates new opportunities for its use in the bakery field. New fermentation technologies emerged through in depth sourdough research. Dextrans are extracellular bacterial polysaccharides produced mainly by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). These bacteria convert sucrose thanks to an inducible enzyme called dextransucrase into dextran and fructose. The structure of dextran depends on the producing micro-organism and on culture conditions. Depending on its structure, dextran has specific properties which lead to several industrial applications in different domains. The use of dextran is not widely spread in the bakery field even if its impact on bread volume and texture was shown. A new process has been developed to obtain a sourdough rich in dextran using a specific LAB strain able to produce a sufficient amount of HMW dextran assuring a significant impact on bread volume. The sourdough obtained permits to improve freshness, crumb structure, mouthfeel and softness of all kinds of baked good from wheat rich dough products to rye sourdough breads. From fundamental research on dextran technology, a new fermentation process has been developed to produce an innovative functional ingredient for bakery industry. PMID:17008159

  18. Development of yeasts for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.; Yang, V.; Marks, J.; Amartey, S.; Kenealy, W.R.; Cho, J.Y.; Dahn, K.; Davis, B.P.

    1993-12-31

    Xylose is an abundant sugar in hardwoods and agricultural residues. Its use is essential for any economical conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. Only a few yeasts ferment xylose effectively. Our results show that the best strains are Candida shehatae ATCC 2984 and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Wild type strains of C. shehatae ATCC 22984 will produce 56 g/L of ethanol from xylose within 48 h in a fed batch fermentation. We have obtained improved mutants of P.stipitis by selecting for growth on L-xylose and L-arabinose. Mutant strains produce up to 55% more ethanol than the parent and exhibit higher specific fermentation rates. We have also developed an effective transformation system that enables the introduction and expression of heterologous DNA on integrating and autonomous vectors. The transformation system for P. stipitis is based on its URA3 gene as a selectable marker and an autonomous replication sequence (ARS) which we isolated from the parent. We are using integrating and ARS vectors to metabolically engineer P. stipitis by altering the regulation and expression of key enzymes. As model systems we are examining the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) that are present in limiting amounts or induced only under non-growth conditions.

  19. Regulation of alcohol fermentation by Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the way in which the fermentative synthesis of ethanol is regulated in the facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli. Focus is on the two final steps in alcohol synthesis, which are catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde CoA dehydrogenase. We have isolated a series of mutations affecting the expression of these enzymes. Some of these mutations are in the structural genes for these enzymes; others affect the regulation of the adh operon. We have recently cloned the genes coding for these enzymes and are now studying the effect of multiple copies of the adh gene on fermentative growth and its regulation. A recently invented technique, proton suicide has allowed the selection of a variety of novel mutants affecting fermentation which are presently being characterized. We have isolated a comprehensive collection of operon fusions in which the lacZ structural gene is fused to promoters that are inactive aerobically but active anaerobically. Although these genes (like adh) are only expressed under anaerobic conditions, the level of induction varies from two-fold to nearly 100-fold. The nitrogen source, medium pH, nature of the buffer, presence of alternative electron acceptors (e.g., nitrate), and other factors exert a great effect on the expression of many of these genes. In the near future we will investigate control mechanisms common to the adh operon and other anaerobically regulated genes.

  20. Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice

    PubMed Central

    Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820