These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Vacuum plasma spray coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, protective plasma spray coatings are applied to space shuttle main engine turbine blades of high-performance nickel alloys by an air plasma spray process. Originally, a ceramic coating of yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2.12Y2O3) was applied for thermal protection, but was removed because of severe spalling. In vacuum plasma spray coating, plasma coatings of nickel-chromium-aluminum-yttrium (NiCrAlY) are applied in a reduced atmosphere of argon/helium. These enhanced coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles between 927 C (1700 F) and -253 C (-423 F), while current coatings spalled during 5 to 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2.8Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first-stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the enhanced NiCrAlY bond-coating process. NiCrAlY bond coating is applied first, with ZrO2.8Y2O3 added sequentially in increasing amounts until a thermal barrier coating is obtained. The enchanced thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles.

Holmes, Richard R.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1989-01-01

2

Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

1992-01-01

3

Heavy-Workpiece Handler For Vacuum Plasma Spraying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Handling device manipulates heavy, hollow workpiece for plasma spraying in vacuum chamber. Rotates and tilts workpiece, keeping it approximately perpendicular to plasma-spray nozzle, so nozzle deposits uniform layer on interior surface of workpiece. Accommodates workpieces as heavy as 1,000 pounds and compatible with heat and vacuum of spraying process.

Myers, William N.

1991-01-01

4

Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

1993-01-01

5

Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

1994-01-01

6

Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z,

T. N. McKechnie; F. R. Zimmerman; M. A. Bryant

1992-01-01

7

Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

Mckechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

1992-01-01

8

Young's Moduli of Cold and Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic metallic copper alloy and NiCrAlY coatings were fabricated by either the cold spray (CS) or the vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition processes. Dynamic elastic modulus property measurements were conducted on these monolithic coating specimens between 300 K and 1273 K using the impulse excitation technique. The Young's moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing temperature at all temperatures except in the case of the CS Cu-23%Cr-5%Al and VPS NiCrAlY, where deviations from linearity were observed above a critical temperature. It was observed that the Young's moduli for VPS Cu-8%Cr were larger than literature data compiled for Cu. The addition of 1%Al to Cu- 8%Cr significantly increased its Young's modulus by 12 to 17% presumably due to a solid solution effect. Comparisons of the Young s moduli data between two different measurements on the same CS Cu- 23%Cr-5%Al specimen revealed that the values measured in the first run were about 10% higher than those in the second run. It is suggested that this observation is due to annealing of the initial cold work microstructure resulting form the cold spray deposition process.

Raj, S. V.; Pawlik, R.; Loewenthal, W.

2009-01-01

9

Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confirmed the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

2006-01-01

10

Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Material Applications for Thruster Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of vacuum plasma spray (VPS) material systems have been successfully applied to injector and thrust chamber components. VPS offers a versatile fabrication process with relatively low costs to produce near net shape parts. The materials available with VPS increase operating margins and improve component life by providing superior thermal and oxidation protection in specific engine environments. Functional gradient materials (FGM) formed with VPS allow thrust chamber liners to be fabricated with GRCop-84 (an alloy of copper, chrome, and niobium) and a protective layer of NiCrAlY on the hot wall. A variety of thrust chamber liner designs have been fabricated to demonstrate the versatility of the process. Hot-fire test results have confined the improved durability and high temperature performance of the material systems for thrust chamber liners. Similar FGM s have been applied to provide superior thermal protection on injector faceplates with NiCrAlY and zirconia coatings. The durability of the applied materials has been demonstrated with hot-fire cycle testing on injector faceplates in high temperature environments. The material systems can benefit the components used in booster and main engine propulsion systems. More recent VPS efforts are focused on producing rhenium based material systems for high temperature applications to benefit in-space engines like reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

Elam, Sandra; Holmes, Richard; Hickman, Robert

2006-01-01

11

Thermoelectric properties of magnesium silicide fabricated using vacuum plasma thermal spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric properties of magnesium silicide samples prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) are compared with those made from the conventional hot press method using the same feedstock powder. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit are characterized from room temperature to 700 K. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy of the samples are obtained to assess how phase and microstructure influence the thermoelectric properties. Carrier concentration and Hall mobility are obtained from Hall Effect measurements, which provide further insight into the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient mechanisms. Low-temperature electrical conductivity measurements suggest a 3D variable range hopping effect in the samples. VPS samples achieved a maximum ZT = 0.16 at 700 K, which is around 30% of the hot press sample ZT = 0.55 at 700 K using the same raw powder. The results suggest that thermal spray is a potential deposition technique for thermoelectric materials.

Fu, Gaosheng; Zuo, Lei; Longtin, Jon; Nie, Chao; Gambino, Richard

2013-10-01

12

Oxidation Resistance of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed CoNiCrAlY Coatings Modified by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc Deposition Aluminizing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coatings are modified by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition aluminizing. The microstructure and oxidation resistance of the coatings are investigated. The parabolic law is obeyed for the aluminized coatings after oxidation at 1100 °C for 100 h. Its parabolic kinetic constant is 0.080 mg2/cm4 h, which is lower than that of as-sprayed coatings. The continuous and dense Al2O3 scale is formed earlier due to the increase of Al concentration, and the spinels hardly exist. The oxidation resistance is improved obviously after filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition aluminizing.

Jiang, Jie; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

2013-02-01

13

Advanced Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) for a Robust, Longlife and Safe Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1984, the Vacuum Plasma Spray Lab was built at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center for applying durable, protective coatings to turbine blades for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) high pressure fuel turbopump. Existing turbine blades were cracking and breaking off after five hot fire tests while VPS coated turbine blades showed no wear or cracking after 40 hot fire tests. Following that, a major manufacturing problem of copper coatings peeling off the SSME Titanium Main Fuel Valve Housing was corrected with a tenacious VPS copper coating. A patented VPS process utilizing Functional Gradient Material (FGM) application was developed to build ceramic lined metallic cartridges for space furnace experiments, safely containing gallium arsenide at 1260 degrees centigrade. The VPS/FGM process was then translated to build robust, long life, liquid rocket combustion chambers for the space shuttle main engine. A 5K (5,000 Lb. thrust) thruster with the VPS/FGM protective coating experienced 220 hot firing tests in pristine condition with no wear compared to the SSME which showed blanching (surface pulverization) and cooling channel cracks in less than 30 of the same hot firing tests. After 35 of the hot firing tests, the injector face plates disintegrated. The VPS/FGM process was then applied to spraying protective thermal barrier coatings on the face plates which showed 50% cooler operating temperature, with no wear after 50 hot fire tests. Cooling channels were closed out in two weeks, compared to one year for the SSME. Working up the TRL (Technology Readiness Level) to establish the VPS/FGM process as viable technology, a 40K thruster was built and is currently being tested. Proposed is to build a J-2X size liquid rocket engine as the final step in establishing the VPS/FGM process TRL for space flight.

Holmes, Richard R.; Elam, Sandra K.; McKechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.

2010-01-01

14

Correlation of in vitro and in vivo results of vacuum plasma sprayed titanium implants with different surface topography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has proven that rough surfaces improve both biologic and biomechanical responses to titanium (Ti) implants. The purpose\\u000a of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the expression of bone cell-associated proteins to Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed\\u000a Titanium implants (VPS-Ti) with different surface textures in vitro and the bone integration in vivo. The biological performances\\u000a of the surfaces were evaluated over a period

Stefan Endres; Monika Wilke; Peter Knöll; Holger Frank; Marita Kratz; Axel Wilke

2008-01-01

15

High heat loading properties of vacuum plasma spray tungsten coatings on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High density W coatings on reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel (RAF/M) have been produced by Vacuum Plasma Spraying technique (VPS) and heat flux experiments on them have been carried out to evaluate their possibility as a plasma-facing armor in a fusion device. In addition, quantitative analyses of temperature profile and thermal stress have been carried out using the finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate its thermal properties. No cracks or exfoliation has been formed by steady state and cyclic heat loading experiments under heat loading at 700 °C of surface temperature. In addition, stress distribution and maximum stress between interface of VPS-W and RAF/M have been obtained by FEA. On the other hand, exfoliation has occurred at interlayer of VPS-W coatings near the interface between VPS-W and RAF/M at 1300 °C of surface temperature by cyclic heat loading.

Tokunaga, K.; Hotta, T.; Araki, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kasada, R.; Kimura, A.

2013-07-01

16

Comparison of the Properties of Cold-Sprayed Cu-0.5Cr-0.05Zr Alloys after Various Heat Treatments Versus Forged and Vacuum Plasma-Sprayed Alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Cu-0.5Cr-0.05Zr (wt.%) samples obtained by the cold spray process were studied regarding the microstructure and the mechanical properties versus several heat treatments. Ultimate tensile strength higher than 600 MPa, yield strength of 570 MPa and Vickers hardness HV0.2 of about 200 were obtained. Comparison of these results with those obtained by forging or vacuum plasma spraying highlighted the ability of the cold spray technique to produce dense Cu-Cr-Zr deposits with low oxygen content, low level of residual stresses and high mechanical properties.

Coddet, Pierre; Verdy, Christophe; Coddet, Christian; Lecouturier, Florence; Debray, François

2014-02-01

17

Porous Tantalum Coatings Prepared by Vacuum Plasma Spraying Enhance BMSCs Osteogenic Differentiation and Bone Regeneration In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

2013-01-01

18

Microstructure and failure mechanism in As-deposited, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ti-6Al-4V alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure, phase composition, and chemical composition of vacuum plasma-sprayed Ti-6Al-4V alloys were examined in detail using a variety of techniques, including x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The observed chemistry and structure were related to the conditions under which the deposit was formed and the phase equilibria in the Ti alloy system. The porosity of the deposit was in the range of 3 to 5%. A slight decrease in the Al content and a slight increase in the amount of oxygen and hydrogen was found relative to the starting powder. Within individual splats, a columnar solidification structure can be seen. However, the as-deposited material is ?90% ?? martensite that is present in the form of fine lathes on the order of 500 nm in width surrounded by residual ?-phase. This herringbone structure obscures to some extent the preexisting columnar structure of the as-solidified ?-phase. The material fails at low elongations (˜1%) when tested in tension, with a macroscopic stress-strain curve, which appears to be quite brittle. Examination of the fracture surface, however, reveals a ductile failure mode within individual splats, which is consistent with the structure described above. Sections perpendicular to the fracture surface show that failure occurs at the weak splat boundaries through the development and growth of voids between splats.

Salimijazi, H. R.; Coyle, T. W.; Mostaghimi, J.; Leblanc, L.

2005-06-01

19

Porous tantalum coatings prepared by vacuum plasma spraying enhance bmscs osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Tantalum, as a potential metallic implant biomaterial, is attracting more and more attention because of its excellent anticorrosion and biocompatibility. However, its significantly high elastic modulus and large mechanical incompatibility with bone tissue make it unsuitable for load-bearing implants. In this study, porous tantalum coatings were first successfully fabricated on titanium substrates by vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), which would exert the excellent biocompatibility of tantalum and alleviate the elastic modulus of tantalum for bone tissue. We evaluated cytocompatibility and osteogenesis activity of the porous tantalum coatings using human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and its ability to repair rabbit femur bone defects. The morphology and actin cytoskeletons of hBMSCs were observed via electron microscopy and confocal, and the cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of hBMSCs were examined quantitatively by PrestoBlue assay, Ki67 immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR technology and ALP staining. For in vivo detection, the repaired femur were evaluated by histomorphology and double fluorescence labeling 3 months postoperation. Porous tantalum coating surfaces promoted hBMSCs adhesion, proliferation, osteogenesis activity and had better osseointegration and faster new bone formation rate than titanium coating control. Our observation suggested that the porous tantalum coatings had good biocompatibility and could enhance osseoinductivity in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The porous tantalum coatings prepared by VPS is a promising strategy for bone regeneration. PMID:23776648

Tang, Ze; Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Huang, Yan; Wang, Chuandong; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Xuebin; Zhang, Xiaoling

2013-01-01

20

Plasma Spray System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer aided, fully-automatic TRW system sprays very hot plasma onto a turbine blade. Composed of gas into which metallic and ceramic powders have been injected, the plasma forms a two-layer coating which insulates the blade. Critical part of operation is controlling the thickness of the deposit which is measured in thousandths of an inch. This is accomplished by an optical detector which illuminates spots at various locations on the blade and determines thickness by measuring the light reflections. Optical sensor monitors spraying process until precise thickness is attained, then computer halts the spraying.

1980-01-01

21

Programable Plasma-Spray System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA-funded research led to development of automated plasma-spray system programable and reproducible. System utilizes standard plasma-spray equipment with noncoherent light-measuring system and microprocessor. System monitors and controls surface contours and coating thickness. Other advantages of system are consistant coating reproducibility, exact blending and feathering operations, ability to handle complex shapes and ease of changing spray parameters.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.; Toth, I.

1982-01-01

22

Process Sprays Uniforms Plasma Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite-powder processing procedure developed along with plasma-spray parameters to achieve homogeneous, well-bonded, low-porosity, self-lubricating coatings. Multicomponent plasma coatings are applied without segretation of components.

Sliney, H. E.; Jacobson, T. P.; Walther, G. C.; Nakamura, H. H.

1983-01-01

23

Mold manufacture with plasma spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process has been developed to produce molds or tooling using a steel or chrome- plated steel model. The investigation examined the effect of coating and model materials, model temperature and spray angle on the coating separation from the model surface, coating delamination, and surface quality. A polished model disk was heated and then plasma sprayed with iron, nickel, Ni- Al, or Ni- Cr- B- Si. It was found that the minimum temperature to facilitate entire coating removal was lower for steel models and varied be tween 200 and 450 °C depending on the material. However, at higher temperatures the higher bond strength produced by oxidation on the steel resulted in significant coating pullout. A chrome- plated model, heated to 600 to 700 °C, is required to produce a defect- free coating. The effect of substrate angle on open porosity is most critical for the Ni- Cr- B- Si alloy and least important for Ni- Al coatings. The sur face roughness of the plasma- sprayed molds is comparable to the corresponding models, permitting good surface detail reproducibility. Several molds and tools were produced for use in the glass, rubber, and plastics industries.

Grossand, K. A.; Kovalevskis, A.

1996-12-01

24

Vacuum application of thermal barrier plasma coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coatings are presently applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine blades for protection against the harsh environment realized in the engine during lift off-to-orbit. High performance nickel, chromium, aluminum, and yttrium (NiCrAlY) alloy coatings, which are applied by atmospheric plasma spraying, crack and spall off because of the severe thermal shock experienced during start-up and shut-down of the engine. Ceramic coatings of yttria stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-Y2O3) were applied initially as a thermal barrier over coating to the NiCrAlY but were removed because of even greater spalling. Utilizing a vacuum plasma spraying process, bond coatings of NiCrAlY were applied in a low pressure atmosphere of argon/helium, producing significantly improved coating-to-blade bonding. The improved coatings showed no spalling after 40 MSFC burner rig thermal shock cycles, cycling between 1700 and -423 F. The current atmospheric plasma NiCrAlY coatings spalled during 25 test cycles. Subsequently, a process was developed for applying a durable thermal barrier coating of ZrO2-Y2O3 to the turbine blades of first stage high-pressure fuel turbopumps utilizing the vacuum plasma process. The improved thermal barrier coating has successfully passed 40 burner rig thermal shock cycles without spalling. Hot firing in an SSME turbine engine is scheduled for the blades. Tooling was installed in preparation for vacuum plasma spray coating other SSME hardware, e.g., the titanium main fuel valve housing (MFVH) and the fuel turbopump nozzle/stator.

Holmes, R. R.; Mckechnie, T. N.

1988-01-01

25

Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

1992-01-01

26

Tailoring the Spray Conditions for Suspension Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma spray process using suspensions as liquid feedstock allows the deposition of finely structured coatings with improved properties compared to that of coatings deposited by the conventional plasma spray techniques. The evaporation of the solvent, acceleration, heating, and melting of the fine solid particles within the plasma jet take place in a shorter time, as the substrate is located closer to the plasma torch when a mono-cathode mono-anode plasma torch is used, while the liquid material processing globally consumes more energy than a powder material. Therefore, achieving a coating with the expected properties requires a broad understanding of the process. In this study, a large range of plasma spray conditions have been used to achieve yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by suspension plasma spraying. The properties of the plasma jet (velocity, enthalpy, and stability) as well as those of droplets (trajectories, number, and size) and particles (velocity) were measured and correlated to the coating microstructure. The operating conditions necessary for obtaining disk-shape splats and achieving homogeneous coatings are described including the plasma jet properties and substrate parameters.

Joulia, A.; Duarte, W.; Goutier, S.; Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Rossignol, S.

2015-01-01

27

Monitoring Coating Thickness During Plasma Spraying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-resolution video measures thickness accurately without interfering with process. Camera views cylindrical part through filter during plasma spraying. Lamp blacklights part, creating high-contrast silhouette on video monitor. Width analyzer counts number of lines in image of part after each pass of spray gun. Layer-by-layer measurements ensure adequate coat built up without danger of exceeding required thickness.

Miller, Robert A.

1990-01-01

28

Coanda-Assisted Spray Manipulation Collar for a Commercial Plasma Spray Gun  

E-print Network

Coanda-Assisted Spray Manipulation Collar for a Commercial Plasma Spray Gun K. Mabey, B.L. Smith, G-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) collar was retrofitted to a Praxair SG-100 plasma spray gun. The CSM device makes it possible to change the direction of (vector) the plasma jet and powder without moving the gun

Smith, Barton L.

29

Plasma-Sprayed Coatings on Porous Surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Need for combining benefits of duplex thermal-barrier coatings with film cooling on gas-turbine vanes and blades stimulated development of improved method for plasma spraying these coatings. Method reduces blocking of holes by plasma-sprayed material and at same time reduces base-metal oxidation during coating operation. Features provide potential for increased engine efficiency and power, reduced fuel consumption, use of less costly materials or construction procedures, and extended life and durability.

Leibert, C. H.

1986-01-01

30

Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure  

SciTech Connect

The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N. [Advanced Material Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Bhd, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/4, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim (Malaysia)

2010-03-11

31

Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets  

DOEpatents

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Scorey, Clive (Cheshire, CT); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01

32

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermophysical properties of plasma sprayed materials were determined for the following plasma sprayed materials: CaO - stabilized ZrO2, Y2O3 - stabilized ZerO2, Al2O3, HfO2 Mo, nichrome, NiAl, Mo-ZrO2, and MoAl2O3 mixtures. In all cases the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed materials was found to be considerably lower than that of the bulk material. The flash-laser thermal diffusivity technique was used both for diffusivity determination of single-layer materials and to determine the thermal contact resistance at the interface of two-layer specimens.

Wilkes, K. E.; Lagedrost, J. F.

1973-01-01

33

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

SciTech Connect

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of ``Plasma Spray Processing`` is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.

1991-12-31

34

Current problems in plasma spray processing  

SciTech Connect

This detailed report summarizes 8 contributions from a thermal spray conference that was held in late 1991 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Upton, Long Island, NY, USA). The subject of Plasma Spray Processing'' is presented under subject headings of Plasma-particle interactions, Deposit formation dynamics, Thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings, Mechanical properties of coatings, Feed stock materials, Porosity: An integrated approach, Manufacture of intermetallic coatings, and Synchrotron x-ray microtomographic methods for thermal spray materials. Each section is intended to present a concise statement of a specific practical and/or scientific problem, then describe current work that is being performed to investigate this area, and finally to suggest areas of research that may be fertile for future activity.

Berndt, C.C.; Brindley, W.; Goland, A.N.; Herman, H.; Houck, D.L.; Jones, K.; Miller, R.A.; Neiser, R.; Riggs, W.; Sampath, S.; Smith, M.; Spanne, P. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Thermal Spray Lab.)

1991-01-01

35

Influence of Plasma Instabilities in Ceramic Suspension Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct current Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) allows depositing finely structured coatings. This article presents an analysis of the influence of plasma instabilities on the yttria-stabilized suspension drops fragmentation. A particular attention is paid to the treatment of suspension jet or drops according to the importance of voltage fluctuations (linked to those of the arc root) and depending on the different spray parameters such as the plasma forming gas mixture composition and mass flow rate and the suspension momentum. By observing the suspension drops injection with a fast shutter camera and a laser flash sheet triggered by a defined transient voltage level of the plasma torch, the influence of plasma fluctuations on jet or drops fragmentation is studied through the deviation and dispersion trajectories of droplets within the plasma jet.

Etchart-Salas, R.; Rat, V.; Coudert, J. F.; Fauchais, P.; Caron, N.; Wittman, K.; Alexandre, S.

2007-12-01

36

Vacuum arc plasma mass separator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of a metal plasma flow in a transport system with a curvilinear magnetic field was studied experimentally. The flow was generated by a pulsed vacuum arc discharge with a composite (W+Fe) cathode. The ion energy measurements at the transport system output showed that all ion components were accelerated up to equal energies per charge unit, about 150 eV and 320 eV in the outer and inner areas of the curved plasma flow, respectively. The spatial separation of the atoms of the cathode material was measured at the system output by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The ions of the lighter element (Fe) were concentrated in the inner part of the cathodic plasma flow deflected by the magnetic field while the distribution of the heavy element (W) was substantially shifted toward the outer area of the flow. The maximum mass separation efficiency reached 45, the effective value being 7.7. Such a system is promising for use in plasma technology for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel, namely for the separation of the heavy radioactive fission product from nuclear waste.

Paperny, V. L.; Krasov, V. I.; Lebedev, N. V.; Astrakchantsev, N. V.; Chernikch, A. A.

2015-02-01

37

Plasma spray processing of TiC-based coatings for sliding wear resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium carbide-reinforced metallic coatings, produced by plasma spraying, can be used for sliding wear resistant applications. The sliding wear properties of such coatings are governed to a large extent by the strength, structure and stability of the bond interface between the carbide and the metallic phases. In the present investigation, the microstructure and sliding wear properties of plasma sprayed metal-bonded TiC coatings containing up to 90 v/o carbide have been studied. It was shown that alloying of the metallic phase improved carbide retention in TiC cermets due to better interface bonding, and increased wear resistance and lowered sliding coefficient of friction. TiC-based coatings were produced from both physically blended and synthesized feed powders. It was observed that the precursor TiC-based powder morphology and structure greatly affected the plasma sprayed coating microstructures and the resultant physical and mechanical characteristics. Physical blending of powders induced segregation during spraying, leading to somewhat lower deposit efficiencies and coating uniformity, while synthesized and alloyed titanium carbide/metal composite powders reduced problems of segregation and reactions associated with plasma spraying of physically blended powders where the TiC was in direct contact with the plasma jet. To understand oxidation effects of the environment, Ti and TiC-based coatings were produced under low pressure (VPS), air plasma (APS) and shrouded plasma sprayed conditions. APS Ti and TiC-based powders with reactive matrices suffered severe oxidation decomposition during flight, leading to poor deposition efficiencies and oxidized microstructures. High particle temperatures and cold air plasma spraying. Coating oxidation due to reactions of the particles with the surrounding air during spraying reduced coating hardness and wear resistance. TiC-with Ti or Ti-alloy matrix coatings with the highest hardness, density and wear resistance was achieved by spraying under vacuum plasma spray conditions. VPS coating microstructures of synthesized 40, 60 and 80 v/o TiC in Ti10Ni10Cr5Al and 80 v/o TiC in Fe30Cr alloy matrices exhibited fine and uniform distributions of spheroidal carbides. High volume fraction carbides were also obtained with no segregation effects. It was also shown that coatings produced from mechanically blended powders of 50, 70 and 90 vol. % TiC and commercially pure (C.P.) Ti, using low pressure plasma spray process (VPS), had densities >98% and were well bonded to steel, aluminum alloy or titanium alloy substrates. Reductions in jet oxygen contents by the use of an inert gas shroud enabled Ti and TiC-based coatings to be produced which were cleaner and denser than air plasma sprayed and comparable to vacuum plasma sprayed coatings. Direct oxygen concentration measurements in shrouded plasma jets made using an enthalpy probe and a gas analyzer also showed significant reductions in the entrainment of atmospheric oxygen. VPS and shrouded plasma spraying minimized carbide-matrix interface oxidation and improved coating wear resistance. The sliding wear resistance of synthesized coatings was very high and comparable with standard HVOF sprayed WC/Co and Crsb3Csb2/NiCr coatings. Shrouded plasma spray deposits of Crsb3Csb2/NiCr also performed much better than similar air plasma sprayed coatings, as result of reduced oxidation.

Mohanty, Mahesh

38

Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal barrier coatings to aircraft and stationary gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical positioning subsystem incorporating two interlaced six degree of freedom assemblies (one for coating deposition and one for coating thickness monitoring); a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem (for in process gaging of the coating thickness buildup at specified points on the specimen); a microprocessor based adaptive system controller (to achieve the desired overall thickness profile on the specimen); and commerical plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage aircraft turbine blade specimens, ten W501B utility turbine blade specimens and dozens of cylindrical specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary turbine blade specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of 53 micrometers (2.1 mils), much better than is achievable manually. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were performed. One of the preliminary turbine blade evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation. Some cylindrical specimens coated with the APS process survived up to 2000 cycles in subsequent burner rig testing.

Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

1981-01-01

39

The plasma spray forming of Astroloy  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this paper is part of a general study concerning new methods for the manufacturing of turbo-engine and turbo-pump parts. The presented results concern a VPS formed nickel-based alloy, the Astroloy (AFNOR NK17CDAT). In a first time are presented the metallographic microstructures of the as-sprayed and heat-treated deposits and secondly spray formed test pieces developed in order to characterize the mechanical properties of such materials. Then, the mechanical properties, including the tensile properties, the Low Cycle Fatigue life-time, the creep life-time and the adherence are presented. The results have been compared with those of sintered parts and the measured performances of such plasma formed free-standing shapes were found to be equivalent or superior. Such good results are attributed to the very fine grained, recrystallized microstructures and to the very low level of macroporosities in the deposit.

Montavon, G.; Roussel, E.; Coddet, C. [LERMPS-Institut Polytechnique de Sevenans, Belfort (France); Cornu, D.; Monicault, J.M. De [Societe Europeenne de Propulsion, Vernon (France); Fauvet, E.; Huchin, J.P. [Sochata, Chatellerault (France); Garcia, J.C.; Pellerin, F. [Turbomeca, Tarnos (France)

1994-12-31

40

Plasma Spraying of Ceramics with Particular Difficulties in Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging new applications and growing demands of plasma-sprayed coatings initiate the development of new materials. Regarding ceramics, often complex compositions are employed to achieve advanced material properties, e.g., high thermal stability, low thermal conductivity, high electronic and ionic conductivity as well as specific thermo-mechanical properties and microstructures. Such materials however, often involve particular difficulties in processing by plasma spraying. The inhomogeneous dissociation and evaporation behavior of individual constituents can lead to changes of the chemical composition and the formation of secondary phases in the deposited coatings. Hence, undesired effects on the coating characteristics are encountered. In this work, examples of such challenging materials are investigated, namely pyrochlores applied for thermal barrier coatings as well as perovskites for gas separation membranes. In particular, new plasma spray processes like suspension plasma spraying and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition are considered. In some cases, plasma diagnostics are applied to analyze the processing conditions.

Mauer, G.; Schlegel, N.; Guignard, A.; Jarligo, M. O.; Rezanka, S.; Hospach, A.; Vaßen, R.

2015-01-01

41

Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system  

SciTech Connect

The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

Haynes, J.A. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-04-01

42

Adhesion properties of plasma sprayed hydroxylapatite coatings for orthopaedic prostheses.  

PubMed

Using Air Plasma Spraying (APS) and Vacuum Plasma Spraying (VPS) techniques, hydroxylapatite (HA) and mixtures of HA and titanium (Ti) were deposited on a Ti6A14V alloy (and on an AISI 316L steel) subjected to different surface treatments. The deposits were investigated for their crystallinity, thickness, and adhesion properties. Higher adhesion values were obtained with VPS rather than with APS. By utilising VPS, the deposition conditions were selected in order to achieve crystallinity values between 70 and 90%. The adhesion results depend on the crystallinity (increasing with its decrease), on the thickness (decreasing slightly with its increase) and especially on the surface finish of the metallic substrate. A porous Ti precoat was more effective than either chemical etching in HCl or sandblasting; sandblasting being the least effective. In particular, the double deposits consisting of a porous Ti precoat and a successive layer of HA proved to be most interesting for their higher adhesion properties and for their capability of providing primary stability due to the presence of the HA and secondary stability, in the case of its reabsorption, due to the porous metal. PMID:8193564

Brossa, F; Cigada, A; Chiesa, R; Paracchini, L; Consonni, C

1993-01-01

43

Dynamics of Splat Formation in Plasma Spray Coating Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes recent developments in modeling formation of plasma spray coatings. Specific attention is paid to the three-dimensional simulation of droplet impact and solidification under plasma spraying conditions. It is shown that the extent of maximum spread is primarily determined by the Reynolds number and, to a lesser degree, by the Weber number. Splashing and break-up is shown to

Javad Mostaghimi; Mohammad Pasandideh-Fard; Sanjeev Chandra

2002-01-01

44

Adjustable Powder Injector For Vacuum Plasma Sprayer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attachment for plasma spray gun provides four degrees of freedom for adjustment of position and orientation at which powder injected externally into plasma flame. Manipulator provides for adjustment of pitch angle of injection tube: set to inject powder at any angle ranging from perpendicular to parallel to cylindrical axis. Scribed lines on extension bar and manipulator indicate pitch angle of extension tube. Collar changed to adapt injector to different gun.

Burns, D. H.; Woodford, W. H.; Mckechnie, T. N.; Mcferrin, D. C.; Davis, W. M.; Beason, G. P., Jr.

1993-01-01

45

Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge.  

PubMed

Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a "universal" instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity. PMID:12006025

Hole, M J; Dallaqua, R S; Simpson, S W; Del Bosco, E

2002-04-01

46

Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

1991-07-01

47

Solid oxide fuel cell processing using plasma arc spray deposition techniques. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, in conjunction with the Thermal Spray Laboratory of the State University of New York, Stony Brook, investigated the fabrication of a gas-tight interconnect layer on a tubular solid oxide fuel cell with plasma arc spray deposition. The principal objective was to determine the process variables for the plasma spray deposition of an interconnect with adequate electrical conductivity and other desired properties. Plasma arc spray deposition is a process where the coating material in powder form is heated to or above its melting temperature, while being accelerated by a carrier gas stream through a high power electric arc. The molten powder particles are directed at the substrate, and on impact, form a coating consisting of many layers of overlapping, thin, lenticular particles or splats. The variables investigated were gun power, spray distance, powder feed rate, plasma gas flow rates, number of gun passes, powder size distribution, injection angle of powder into the plasma plume, vacuum or atmospheric plasma spraying, and substrate heating. Typically, coatings produced by both systems showed bands of lanthanum rich material and cracking with the coating. Preheating the substrate reduced but did not eliminate internal coating cracking. A uniformly thick, dense, adherent interconnect of the desired chemistry was finally achieved with sufficient gas- tightness to allow fabrication of cells and samples for measurement of physical and electrical properties. A cell was tested successfully at 1000{degree}C for over 1,000 hours demonstrating the mechanical, electrical, and chemical stability of a plasma-arc sprayed interconnect layer.

Ray, E.R.; Spengler, C.J.; Herman, H.

1991-07-01

48

Solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes produced by a combination of suspension plasma spray and very low pressure plasma spray.  

SciTech Connect

Plasma spray coating techniques allow unique control of electrolyte microstructures and properties as well as facilitating deposition on complex surfaces. This can enable significantly improved solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), including non-planar designs. SOFCs are promising because they directly convert the oxidization of fuel into electrical energy. However, electrolytes deposited using conventional plasma spray are porous and often greater than 50 microns thick. One solution to form dense, thin electrolytes of ideal composition for SOFCs is to combine suspension plasma spray (SPS) with very low pressure plasma spray (VLPPS). Increased compositional control is achieved due to dissolved dopant compounds in the suspension that are incorporated into the coating during plasma spraying. Thus, it is possible to change the chemistry of the feed stock during deposition. In the work reported, suspensions of sub-micron diameter 8 mol.% Y2O3-ZrO2 (YSZ) powders were sprayed on NiO-YSZ anodes at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Thermal Spray Research Laboratory (TSRL). These coatings were compared to the same suspensions doped with scandium nitrate at 3 to 8 mol%. The pressure in the chamber was 2.4 torr and the plasma was formed from a combination of argon and hydrogen gases. The resultant electrolytes were well adhered to the anode substrates and were approximately 10 microns thick. The microstructure of the resultant electrolytes will be reported as well as the electrolyte performance as part of a SOFC system via potentiodynamic testing and impedance spectroscopy.

Slamovich, Elliot (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Fleetwood, James (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); McCloskey, James F.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Trice, Rodney Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

2010-07-01

49

Electromagnetic Acceleration Plasma Spraying Applied to Ceramic Coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic acceleration plasma generators, which are called Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic (MPD) arcjet generators, can produce higher-velocity, higher-temperature and higher-density plasmas than those of conventional thermal plasma torches, because MPD arcjet plasma is efficiently accelerated by electromagnetic body forces in MW-class input power operation. For applications of MPD arcjet generators to ceramic spray coatings, an MPD arcjet generator that has a continuous supply

Tetsuji Shibata; Hirokazu Tahara; Toshiaki Yasui; Yoichi Kagaya; Takao Yoshikawa

1998-01-01

50

Partial Evaporation of Strontium Zirconate During Atmospheric Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perovskite-type SrZrO3 has been investigated as a candidate material for thermal barrier coating application. During plasma spraying of SrZrO3, SrO volatilized more than ZrO2 and the coating composition deviates from initial stoichiometry. In this investigation, partial evaporation was investigated by spraying SrZrO3 powders into water. The influences of spraying current, distance and particle size of the powder on the partial evaporation were also investigated in a quantitative way. With optimized spraying parameters, stoichiometric SrZrO3 coating was produced by adding an excess amount of Sr in the precursors before plasma spraying to compensate for the volatilized component.

Zhang, Yanfei; Mack, Daniel Emil; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Cao, Xueqiang; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

2009-12-01

51

Plasma sprayed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study demonstrated that the plasma spray deposition method is an alternative process for producing Nd-Fe-B magnets in addition to the two existing principal processes: the powder metallurgy process for producing sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets and the melt spinning process for bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. Plasma spray is a potentially better process for producing magnetic parts with complicated shape, large area, thin thickness, small dimension, or unusual geometry. High intrinsic coercivity greater than 15 kOe was readily obtained for Nd16Dy1Fe76B7 even in the as-deposited condition when the substrate was preheated. The plasma spray process contains only three steps: melting, crushing, and plasma spray, which is much simpler than the powder metallurgy and melt spinning processes. Without preheating the substrate, the coercivity was usually very low (˜0.1 kOe) in the as-deposited condition and it increased to 10 to >15 kOe after anneal. Evidence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy was observed in plasma sprayed Nd15Dy1Fe77B7 magnets when the substrate was not preheated. It is believed that a crystal texture was developed during the plasma spray as a result of the existence of a temperature gradient in the solidifying melt.

Willson, M.; Bauser, S.; Liu, S.; Huang, M.

2003-05-01

52

The Microstructure and Properties of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure and properties of plasma-sprayed ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) have been investigated. Substrate-free deposits were fabricated by plasma spraying onto expendable graphite substrates. The deposits were evaluated in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used in conjunction with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to examine the phase content and transformation temperatures of plasma-sprayed Al2O3. Mechanical properties were measured using three-point flexural testing and density measurements were made for both the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions. Significant increases in modulus and strength were achieved as a result of post -spray heat treatment. Having established baseline properties with respect to the pure matrix material, the effect of incorporating a second phase was examined. Ceramic matrix composites were fabricated by plasma-spraying a mechanical mixture of Al2O3 and SiC particulate. Composites consisted of particulate SiC and resolidified inclusions in an Al2O3 matrix. Significant improvements in strength and modulus resulted from the incorporation of second phase combined with heat-treatment.

Lapierre, Kerry James

53

Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

Firestone, R.F.; Logan, W.R.; Adams, J.W.

1982-11-01

54

Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source  

SciTech Connect

In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper.

Xiang, W.; Li, M.; Chen, L. [Institute of Electric Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-518, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2012-02-15

55

Characteristic of a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.  

PubMed

In order to generate a better ion beam, a triple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source has been developed. Three plasma generators in the vacuum arc plasma source are equally located on a circle. Each generator initiated by means of a high-voltage breakdown between the cathode and the anode could be operated separately or simultaneously. The arc plasma expands from the cathode spot region in vacuum. In order to study the behaviors of expanding plasma plume generated in the vacuum arc plasma source, a Langmuir probe array is employed to measure the saturated ion current of the vacuum arc plasma source. The time-dependence profiles of the saturated current density of the triple vacuum arc plasma source operated separately and simultaneously are given. Furthermore, the plasma characteristic of this vacuum arc plasma source is also presented in the paper. PMID:22380209

Xiang, W; Li, M; Chen, L

2012-02-01

56

Process Design and Monitoring for Plasma Sprayed Abradable Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abradable coatings in compressor and high-pressure stages of gas turbines must provide specific hardness and porosity values\\u000a to achieve an optimal cut-in of the blade tips. A fractional factorial experimental plan was designed to investigate the influence\\u000a of the plasma spraying parameters argon flow rate, current, spraying distance and powder feed rate on these properties of\\u000a magnesia spinel. Based on

Tanja Steinke; Georg Mauer; Robert Vaßen; Detlev Stöver; Dan Roth-Fagaraseanu; Matthew Hancock

2010-01-01

57

Plasma-sprayed diopside coatings for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diopside coatings have been sprayed onto Ti–6Al–4V substrates using an atmospheric plasma spray system. The phase composition and microstructure of the powders and coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The thermal expansion coefficient of diopside coating was measured by a dilatometer in the temperature range of 20–600 °C, which adapted to that of titanium alloy. The

Weichang Xue; Xuanyong Liu; Xuebin Zheng; Chuanxian Ding

2004-01-01

58

Occurrence of tungsten plasma in plasma spraying of WC/Co  

SciTech Connect

The conditions under which tungsten is vaporized and ionized during plasma spraying of WC/Co powders are investigated spectroscopically. Overheating of the powder results in less cobalt and decarburization of WC in the sprayed coating. The plasma is dominated by ionized tungsten and the resulting coating has a substantial amount of tungsten metal. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Detering, B.A.; Knibloe, J.R.; Eddy, T.L.

1990-01-01

59

Properties of plasma-sprayed freestanding ceramic parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma spraying can be used for the production of freestanding parts, such as plates, pipes, and crucibles. However, published data on the properties of such freestanding bodies are scarce. White alumina, gray alumina, zircon, and their combinations were plasma sprayed on metallic mandrels using a water-stabi-lized plasma gun and then stripped off. The resulting tubes were tested for gas permeability, porosity, and elastic properties. Pipes also were made from a mixture of ceramic and aluminum metal powders, and from “sandwich” bodies consisting of ceramic/metal/ceramic layers. Comparison of as-sprayed samples and samples after various posttreatments showed that posttreatments (i.e., sealing with organic and in-organic compounds or with metals, sol-gel technique, calcination, etc.) generally decreases gas perme-ability and increases elastic properties.

Neufuss, K.; Chráska, P.; Kolman, B.; Sampath, S.; Trávnícek, Z.

1997-12-01

60

Characterization of plasma sprayed and explosively consolidated simulated lunar soil  

SciTech Connect

Two methods for the use of lunar materials for the construction of shelters on the Moon are being proposed: explosive consolidation of the soil into structural components and plasma spraying of the soil to join components. The plasma-sprayed coating would also provide protection from the intense radiation. In this work, a mare simulant was plasma-sprayed onto a stainless steel substrate. Deposition of a 0.020 inch coating using power inputs of 23, 25, 27 and 29 kW were compared. Hardness of the coatings increased with each increase of power to the system, while porosity at the interface decreased. All coatings exhibited good adhesion. Simultaneously, an explosively consolidated sample was similarly characterized to afford a comparison of structural features associated with each mode of proposed use.

Powell, S.J.; Inal, O.T. [New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM (United States); Smith, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01

61

Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phase analysis of plasma-sprayed 8 wt pct-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings and powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Step scanning was used for increased peak resolution. Plasma spraying of the YSZ powder into water or onto a steel substrate to form a coating reduced the cubic and monoclinic phases with a simultaneous increase in the tetragonal phase. Heat treatment of the coating at 1150 C for 10 h in an Ar atmosphere increased the amount of cubic and monoclinic phases. The implications of these transformations on coating performance and integrity are discussed.

Shankar, N. R.; Berndt, C. C.; Herman, H.

1983-01-01

62

Plasma Spray for Difficult-To-Braze Alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel plating on surfaces makes brazing easier for some alloys. Sometimes nickel plating may not be feasible because of manufacturing sequence, size of hardware, or lack of suitable source for nickel plating. Alternative surface preparation in such cases is to grit-blast surface lightly and then plasma-spray 1 1/2 to 2 mils of fine nickel powder or braze-alloy material directly on surface. Powder is sprayed from plasma gun, using argon as carrier gas to prevent oxidation of nickel or braze alloy.

Brennan, A.

1982-01-01

63

Improved Small-Particle Powders for Plasma Spraying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved small-particle powders and powder-processing conditions have been developed for use in plasma spray deposition of thermal-barrier and environmental barrier coatings. Heretofore, plasma-sprayed coatings have typically ranged in thickness from 125 to 1,800 micrometers. As explained below, the improved powders make it possible to ensure complete coverage of substrates at unprecedently small thicknesses of the order of 25 micrometers. Plasma spraying involves feeding a powder into a hot, high-velocity plasma jet. The individual powder particles melt in the plasma jet as they are propelled towards a substrate, upon which they splat to build up a coating. In some cases, multiple coating layers are required. The size range of the powder particles necessarily dictates the minimum thickness of a coating layer needed to obtain uniform or complete coverage. Heretofore, powder particle sizes have typically ranged from 40 to 70 micrometers; as a result, the minimum thickness of a coating layer for complete coverage has been about 75 micrometers. In some applications, thinner coatings or thinner coating layers are desirable. In principle, one can reduce the minimum complete-coverage thickness of a layer by using smaller powder particles. However, until now, when powder particle sizes have been reduced, the powders have exhibited a tendency to cake, clogging powder feeder mechanisms and feed lines. Hence, the main problem is one of synthesizing smaller-particle powders having desirable flow properties. The problem is solved by use of a process that begins with a spray-drying subprocess to produce spherical powder particles having diameters of less than 30 micrometers. (Spherical-particle powders have the best flow properties.) The powder is then passed several times through a commercial sifter with a mesh to separate particles having diameters less than 15 micrometers. The resulting fine, flowable powder is passed through a commercial fluidized bed powder feeder into a plasma spray jet.

Nguyen, QuynhGiao, N.; Miller, Robert A.; Leissler, George W.

2005-01-01

64

Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The

Kendall J Hollis; Maria I Pena

2010-01-01

65

Mechanical and physical properties of plasma-sprayed stabilized zirconia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical and mechanical properties were determined for plasma-sprayed MgO- or Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 thermal barrier coatings. Properties were determined for the ceramic coating in both the freestanding condition and as-bonded to a metal substrate. The properties of the NiCrAlY bond coating were also investigated.

Siemers, P. A.; Mehan, R. L.

1983-01-01

66

Crystallization behavior of plasma-sprayed lanthanide magnesium hexaaluminate coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LaMgAl11O19 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. The crystallization behavior of the coatings and the synthesis mechanism of LaMgAl11O19 powders were researched. The results showed that the plasma-sprayed coatings contained some amorphous phase, and LaMgAl11O19 powders were partially decomposed into Al2O3, LaAlO3, and MgAl2O4 in the plasma spraying process. The amorphous phase was recrystallized at a temperature of approximately 1174.9°C, at which level the decomposed Al2O3, LaAlO3, and MgAl2O4 reacted again. The resynthesis temperature of LaMgAl11O19 in the plasma-sprayed coatings was lower than that of LaMgAl11O19 in the original raw powders. The synthesis mechanism of LaMgAl11O19 powders can be summarized as follows: during the first part of the overall reaction, La2O3 reacts with Al2O3 to form LaAlO3 at approximately 900°C, and then LaAlO3 further reacts with Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 to produce LaMgAl11O19 at approximately 1200°C.

Huang, Liang-liang; Meng, Hui-min; Tang, Jing

2014-12-01

67

Multilayer refractory nozzles produced by plasma-spray process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multilayer rocket nozzles formed by plasma spraying have good thermal shock resistance and can be reheated in an oxidizing environment without loss of coating adherence. Suggested application of this process are for the production of refractory components, which can be formed as surfaces of revolution.

Bliton, J. L.; Rausch, J. L.

1966-01-01

68

The Stiffness of Plasma Sprayed Zirconia Top Coats in TBCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yttria-stabilised zirconia coatings have been deposited onto nickel superalloy substrates by air plasma spraying (APS). Free standing layers were then obtained by chemical dissolution techniques. The in-plane Young's modulus values exhibited by these layers were measured using the techniques of cantilever bending and ultrasonic resonant frequency testing during flexural vibration. Young's modulus data were also obtained by nanoindentation of regions

J. A. Thompson; T. W. Clyne

69

Thermal Plasma Spraying Applied on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), attractive for diverse applications in a broad range from small portable and auxiliary power units, up to central power systems, are conventionally produced by sintering methods. However, plasma spraying promises some advantages particularly for cells with metal support. In the present paper, research activities conducted in recent years at DLR as well as latest developments on plasma sprayed functional layers for SOFC as cathodes, electrolytes, and anodes are reported. Power densities of more than 800 mW/cm2 were achieved for plasma sprayed single cells of 12.56 cm2 size, and 300 mW/cm2, respectively, with a 250 W stack made of 10 cells. These values were attained at 0.7 V and 800 °C, with H2:N2 = 1:1 as fuel gas and air as oxidizing gas. Furthermore, continuous operation of more than 5000 h was attained with a plasma sprayed metal-supported SOFC stack which could also withstand more than 30 redox and thermal cycles.

Soysal, D.; Arnold, J.; Szabo, P.; Henne, R.; Ansar, S. A.

2013-06-01

70

Plasma tests of sprayed coatings for rocket thrust chambers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several plasma-sprayed coating systems were evaluated for structural stability in hydrogen plasma and in oxygen plasma mixed with hydrogen plasma. The principal test heat flux was 15 Btu per inch squared seconds. The system consisted of a number of thin 0.002 to 0.020 in. layers of metal oxides and/or metals. The principal materials included are molybdenum nichrome, alumina, and zirconia. The study identifies important factors in coating system fabrication and describes the durability of the coating systems in the test environments. Values of effective thermal conductivity for some of the systems are indicated.

Curren, A. N.; Love, W. K.

1974-01-01

71

Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

2007-01-01

72

Cathodic Vacuum Arc Plasma of Thallium  

SciTech Connect

Thallium arc plasma was investigated in a vacuum arc ionsource. As expected from previous consideration of cathode materials inthe Periodic Table of the Elements, thallium plasma shows lead-likebehavior. Its mean ion charge state exceeds 2.0 immediately after arctriggering, reaches the predicted 1.60 and 1.45 after about 100 microsecand 150 microsec, respectively. The most likely ion velocity is initially8000 m/s and decays to 6500 m/s and 6200 m/s after 100 microsec and 150microsec, respectively. Both ion charge states and ion velocities decayfurther towards steady state values, which are not reached within the 300microsec pulses used here. It is argued that the exceptionally high vaporpressure and charge exchange reactions are associated with theestablishment of steady state ion values.

Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

2006-10-02

73

Functionally Graded Materials using Plasma Spray with Nano Structured Ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, nano structured FGM was fabricated using DC plasma spray technique. Nano structured and micro structured powder were used as the feeding powder with steel substrate. The spray parameters was optimized and characterisation of nano-ceramic FGM and micro-ceramic FGM were done using bending test and micro-hardness test. Experimental results have shown that the nano-structured FGM exhibit 20% improvement flexure strength and 10% in hardness. A comparison was made between sintered micro ceramic tile and nano ceramic FGM using simple drop test method.

Sioh, E. L.; Tok, A. I. Y.

2013-03-01

74

Steel surface modification with plasma spraying electrothermal installation using a liquid electrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, much attention has been paid to different processes using low- temperature plasma, and in particular, the process of plasma spraying. Despite the fact that the plasma spraying method has been established for a relatively long time, there are several unsolved issues in this field that are associated with the choice of the optimal spraying modes. It is connected with the fact that the development of optimal spraying process modes is a rather difficult task, since the problem of creating an optimal design for the plasmatron is not solved yet. In this article the technological plasma plant with liquid electrode is discussed, which provides a plasma spray with a temperature up to 5000°C and lengths up to 100 mm. Engineered installation allows to carry out plasma spraying of steel surface. The process and parameters of plasma spraying optimal modes are examined in the article.

Khafizov, A. A.; Valiev, R. I.; Shakirov, Yu I.; Valiev, R. A.

2014-11-01

75

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-12-31

76

Surface decontamination using a teleoperated vehicle and Kelly spray/vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A commercial teleoperated wheeled vehicle was fitted with a modified commercial spray/vacuum decontamination system to allow floor and wall decontamination of an existing process room in one of the chemical separations areas at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Custom end-of-arm tooling was designed to provide sufficient compliance for routine cleaning operations. An operator console was designed to allow complete control of the vehicle base and are movements as well as viewing operations via multiple television monitors. 3 refs.

Zollinger, W.T.; Dyches, G.M.

1990-01-01

77

Synchronization of Suspension Plasma Spray Injection with the Arc Fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poorly controlled heat and momentum transfers between plasma and material, plasma instabilities are some of the difficulties encountered in suspension plasma spraying. The improvement of this method is usually attempted by means of the reduction of arc fluctuations. This paper presents a new approach to the injection of reactive material in an arc jet. The principle is to produce a pulsed laminar plasma jet combined with phased injection of liquid droplets. This is achieved by the particular design of the plasma torch that works at moderate power and following a resonant mode. The droplets are injected using a piezoelectric device, based on drop-on-demand method, triggered by the voltage signal sampled at the torch connections. The results are evaluated by time-resolved imaging technique that shows how the trajectories are influenced by the moment at which the droplets penetrate the plasma jet.

Krowka, J.; Rat, V.; Goutier, S.; Coudert, J. F.

2014-06-01

78

Microstructural characteristics of plasma sprayed nanostructured partially stabilized zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings have been extensively applied in the aerospace industry in turbines and rocket engines as an insulation system. Partially stabilized zirconia, due to its high thermal stability and low thermal conductivity at high temperatures has been traditionally employed as the ceramic element of the thermal barrier coating system. Different approaches have been taken in order to improve the performance of these coatings. Nanostructured materials are promising an interesting future in the beginning of the 21st century. Due to its enhanced strain to failure and superplasticity new applications may be accomplished or the limits of materials utilization may be placed at higher levels. Single nanostructured particles can not be thermal sprayed by conventional thermal spray equipment. Due to its low mass, they would be deviated to the periphery of the thermal spray jet. To overcome this characteristic, single nanostructured particles were successively agglomerated into large microscopic particles, with particle size distribution similar to the conventional feedstocks for thermal spray equipment. Agglomerated nanostructured particles of partially stabilized zirconia were plasma sprayed in air with different spray parameters. According to traditional thermal spray procedure, the feedstock has to be melted in the thermal spray jet in order to achieve the necessary conditions for adhesion and cohesion on the substrate. Due to the nature of the nanostructured particles, a new step has to be taken in the thermal spray processing; particle melting has to be avoided in order to preserve the feedstock nanostructure in the coating overall microstructure. In this work, the adhesion/cohesion system of nanostructured coatings is investigated and clarified. A percentage of molten particles will retain and hold the non-molten agglomerated nanostructured particles in the coating overall microstructure. Controlling the spray parameters it was possible to produce coatings with different levels of non-molten particles in the coating microstructure; from 25 to 50%. The presence of non-molten and molten phases in the coating microstructure, results in an unique mechanical behavior. The nanostructured coatings present a bimodal distribution with respect to the mechanical properties; each mode has origin from one of the phases. The phases were carefully mapped via scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. These results enabled us to create a model for mechanical properties prediction. This finding is considered one of the most important achievements of this work.

Lima, Rogerio Soares

79

Structure and properties of plasma sprayed BaTiO 3 coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma spraying enables to create layers with thickness in a millimeter range adhering on various substrates. This paper provides a study of electric and mechanical properties of BaTiO3 coatings prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying. The spraying was carried out by a direct current gas-stabilized plasma gun. BaTiO3 was fed into the plasma jet as a feedstock powder prepared by a

Pavel Ctibor; Helene Ageorges; Josef Sedlacek; Radim Ctvrtlik

2010-01-01

80

Phase distributions in plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distribution of phases in plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria has been determined over a range of yttria levels from 0 to 26.1 molpct YO(1.5) using room temperature X-ray diffractometry. Pure, plasma-sprayed zirconia is composed almost entirely of the monoclinic phase. At levels of yttria between 4 and 10 percent, a quenched-in tetragonal phase predominates, and at higher levels the cubic phase predominates. The phase distributions are compared with previously reported test lives of thermal barrier coatings formed from these materials. Regions of optimal lives were found to correlate with regions having high amounts of the tetragonal phase, small but nonzero amounts of the monoclinic phase, and little or none of the cubic phase. Possible relationships between phase composition and coating performance are discussed.

Miller, R. A.; Garlick, R. G.; Smialek, J. L.

1983-01-01

81

Effects of plasma spray parameters on two layer thermal barrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power level and the type of arc gas used during plasma spraying of a two layer thermal barrier system (TBS) were found to affect the life of the system. Life at 1095 C in a cyclic furnace test was improved by about 140 percent by increasing the power during plasma spray applications of the bond and thermal barrier coatings. This improvement is due to increases in the densities of the bond and thermal barrier coatings by 3 and 5 percent, respectively. These increases in densities are equivalent to about 45 and 30 percent reduction in mean porosities, respectively. The addition of hydrogen to the argon arc gas had the same effect as the reduction in power level and caused a reduction in TBS life.

Stecura, S.

1981-01-01

82

Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

2011-06-01

83

Laser remelting of plasma-sprayed coatings on nuclear valves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three kinds of plasma sprayed coatings on nuclear valves of FRAMATOME, which are the cobalt-based Stellite, the nickel-based Eutroloy, and the iron-based Cenium, were remelted with a 5 kW CO2 laser. The aim is to build-up a fine homogeneous metallurgical structure onto the hardface, with a uniform thickness and free of cracks in order to improve the wear and galling properties of the coatings. It was concluded from the experimental results that for plasma sprayed Stellite coating, satisfactory results can be obtained by carefully selecting the process parameters, preheating of the substrate is not needed; and for the Eutroloy coating, preheating of the substrate is necessary to get rid of cracking during laser remelting. Laser remelting is not an adequate process for Cerium coating because it is very difficult to avoid cracks on the remelted layer.

Li, Yangxiang; Steen, William M.; Sharkey, Sarah J.

1993-05-01

84

Electrochemical Evaluation of Pyrite Films Prepared by Plasma Spraying  

SciTech Connect

Thermally activated batteries use electrodes that are typically fabricated by cold pressing of powder. In the LiSi/FeS2 system, natural (mineral) pyrite is used for the cathode. In an effort to increase the energy density and specific energy of these batteries, flame and plasma spraying to form thin films of pyrite cathodes were evaluated. The films were deposited on a 304 stainless steel substrate (current collector) and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray dlfllaction. The films were electrochemically tested in single cells at 5000C and the petiormance compared to that of standard cells made with cold-pressed powders. The best results were obtained with material deposited by de-arc plasma spraying with a proprietq additive to suppress thermal decomposion of the pyrite.

Guidotti, R.A.; Reinhardt, F.W.

1998-10-30

85

Improvement of wear resistance of plasma-sprayed molybdenum blend coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wear resistance of plasma sprayed molybdenum blend coatings applicable to synchronizer rings or piston rings was investigated\\u000a in this study. Four spray powders, one of which was pure molybdenum and the others blended powders of bronze and aluminum-silicon\\u000a alloy powders mixed with molybdenum powders, were sprayed on a low-carbon steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying.\\u000a Microstructural analysis of the

Jeehoon Ahn; Byoungchul Hwang; Sunghak Lee

2005-01-01

86

In situ characterization of small-particle plasma sprayed powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various small-particle plasma spray powder injection parameters on the in situ particle position, velocity,\\u000a and temperature is measured for yttria-stabilized zirconia and yttrium-aluminum-garnet powder. Using full-factorial experiments\\u000a and multiple regression analysis, carrier gas flow, injector angle, and powder feeder disc speed were found to significantly\\u000a affect the particle properties. Temperature and velocity were inversely related; on average,

Y. J. Su; K. T. Faber; T. F. Bernecki

2002-01-01

87

dc-plasma-sprayed electronic-tube device  

DOEpatents

An electronic tube and associated circuitry which is produced by dc plasma arc spraying techniques is described. The process is carried out in a single step automated process whereby both active and passive devices are produced at very low cost. The circuitry is extremely reliable and is capable of functioning in both high radiation and high temperature environments. The size of the electronic tubes produced are more than an order of magnitude smaller than conventional electronic tubes.

Meek, T.T.

1982-01-29

88

A Proposed Process Control Chart for DC Plasma Spraying Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process control chart is proposed for DC plasma spraying process based on the in-flight simulation of the injected states of the particles determined by computational fluid dynamics analysis (via FLUENT V4.3). The chart consists of five regions, i.e., the unmelted, melted, vaporized, escaped, and rebounded, which represent the various states of the particles at impact on the substrate. The

C. B. Ang; H. W. Ng; S. C. M. Yu; Y. C. Lam

2000-01-01

89

Ultrasonic characterization of porous plasma-sprayed bioceramic coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultrasonic technique has been developed for measuring the elastic moduli of bioceramic coatings applied to titanium orthopaedic implants. The bioceramic material (hydroxyapatite) is plasma-sprayed onto titanium femoral implants. The thin layer of this material facilitates bone bonding to the implant. The objectives of the present study were to develop a nondestructive method to observe changes in the mechanical properties of the coatings in a physiologically simulated environment. (AIP)

Saffari, Nader; Ong, Chuon-Szen; Moreau, Benjamin

2000-05-01

90

Plasma spraying of alumina: Plasma and particle flow fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental examination of the interaction between a subsonic thermal plasma jet and injected alumine, particles is presented. Measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and entrained air were obtained from an enthalpy probe and mass spectrometer combination. A diffusive separation, or demixing, of the Ar and He plasma gas was observed. Centerline plasma velocities and temperatures ranged from 1501500 m\\/s

J. R. Fincke; W. D. Swank; D. C. Haggard

1993-01-01

91

Air plasma sprayed coatings of self-fluxing powder materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses the structural features of self-fluxing coatings obtained by plasma spraying air from entering the hub ring and the gas-dynamic focusing powder. It was shown that, unlike the unilateral spot powder inlet into the plasma jet, the use of the annular input node allows to increase heating efficiency and to accelerate the particles in the plasma stream. By optical and scanning electron microscopy that most of the particles forming the coating, in the plasma jet is in a molten or plasticized condition. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that high cooling rates of such particles contribute to the formation of ?-SMC supersaturated solid solution Ni-based average grain size of 80 nm.

Kornienko, E. E.; Lapushkina, E. J.; Kuzmin, V. I.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Gulyaev, I. P.; Kartaev, E. V.; Sergachev, D. S.; Kashapov, N.; Sharifullin, S.; Fayrushin, I.

2014-11-01

92

The Durability of Adhesively-Bonded Titanium: Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Polymeric Coating Pretreatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-solution and electrochemical treatments in preparation for adhesive bonding of titanium have been studied. Polymeric materials, LaRC TPI-2000, LaRC PETI-5, and Aurum polyimides were deposited onto titanium-6Al-4V surfaces via plasma spraying. The plasma-sprayed surfaces were characterized using infrared, solid state NMR, and surface-sensitive analytical methods. The chemical nature of plasma-sprayed polymers is equivalent to that for powdered materials. The durability

J. G. Dillard; F. R. Jackson; B. L. Holmes; L. Aartun; H. Parvatareddy; D. A. Dillard; R. Zatorski

1998-01-01

93

Processing-microstructure-properties relationships in small-particle plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine processing-microstructure-properties relationships for small-particle plasma-sprayed (SPPS) ceramic coatings. Plasma-sprayed yttria partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, which are used to protect superalloys from heat and the environment in turbine engines, and plasma-sprayed alumina coatings, which are being investigated as a potential replacement for chrome in corrosion protection applications, were fabricated using SPPS technology and

Jennifer Renee Mawdsley

2000-01-01

94

Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings for protection against molten metal.  

SciTech Connect

Molten metal environments pose a special demand on materials due to the high temperature corrosion effects and thermal expansion mismatch induced stress effects. A solution that has been successfully employed is the use of a base material for the mechanical strength and a coating material for the chemical compatibility with the molten metal. The work described here used such an approach coating tungsten rods with aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttrium oxide, and erbium oxide deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying. The ceramic materials were deposited under varying conditions to produce different structures. Measurement of particle characteristics was performed to correlate to material properties. The coatings were tested in a thermal cycling environment to simulate the metal melting cycle expected in service. Results of the testing indicate the effect of material composition and spray conditions on the thermal cycle crack resistance of the coatings.

Hollis, K. J. (Kendall J.); Peters, M. I. (Maria I.); Bartram, B. D. (Brian D.)

2002-01-01

95

Smart Coating Technology by Gas Tunnel Type Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-science & technology is one of the most important scientific fields, and the material processing using the nano-technology is now advanced towards more precise and controllable smart stage. Regarding thermal processing, an important key should be the the performance of the applied heat source. A plasma is fundamentally the most superior heat source, because of high temperature, high energy density, easy controllable, etc. Therefore more precious plasma system has been expected for smart thermal processing. The gas tunnel type plasma system developed by the author has high energy density and also high efficiency. The concept and the feature of this plasma system are explained and the applications to the various thermal processing are described in this report. One practical application is plasma spraying of ceramics such as Al_2O_3 and ZrO_2. The characteristics of these ceramic coatings were superior to the conventional ones. The ZrO_2 composite coating has the possibility of the development of high functionally graded TBC (thermal barrier coating). Another application of gas tunnel type plasma is surface modification of metals. For example the TiN films were formed in a very short time of 5 s. Now, advanced plasma application of spraying methods as a smart coating technology is expected to obtain the desired characteristics of ceramics such as corrosion resistance, thermal resistance, and wear resistance by reducing the porosity and increasing the coating density. One application of the smart coating technology is a formation of the metallic glass coating with high function, and another is Hydroxiapatite coating for bio-medical application. The formation process of those coatings and the coating characteristics were investigated in this study.

Kobayashi, A.

2008-07-01

96

Thermoelectric Properties of Magnesium Silicide Deposited by Use of an Atmospheric Plasma Thermal Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermoelectric properties of magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) samples prepared by use of an atmospheric plasma spray (APS) were compared with those of samples prepared from the same feedstock powder by use of the conventional hot-pressing method. The characterization performed included measurement of thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit, ZT. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to assess how phase and microstructure affected the thermoelectric properties of the samples. Hall effect measurements furnished carrier concentration, and measurement of Hall mobility provided further insight into electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Low temperature and high velocity APS using an internal-powder distribution system achieved a phase of composition similar to that of the feedstock powder. Thermal spraying was demonstrated in this work to be an effective means of reducing the thermal conductivity of Mg2Si; this may be because of pores and cracks in the sprayed sample. Vacuum-annealed APS samples were found to have very high Seebeck coefficients. To further improve the figure of merit, carrier concentration must be adjusted and carrier mobility must be enhanced.

Fu, Gaosheng; Zuo, Lei; Longtin, Jon; Nie, Chao; Chen, Yikai; Tewolde, Mahder; Sampath, Sanjay

2014-07-01

97

Cathode plasma in electrical breakdown of high voltage vacuum devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and subsequent motion of cathode plasma determine the characteristics of many high voltage vacuum devices. These devices include electron beam generators, ion beam generators, high speed switches, and a type of plasma recombination laser. A thorough understanding of the cathode plasma phenomenon is essential in designing these devices. In this thesis a detailed study is reported of the

Yen

1984-01-01

98

Front surface thermal property measurements of air plasma spray coatings  

SciTech Connect

A front-surface measurement for determining the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings has been applied to air plasma spray coatings. The measurement is used to determine all independent thermal properties of the coating simultaneously. Furthermore, with minimal requirements placed on the sample and zero sample preparation, measurements can be made under previously impossible conditions, such as on serviceable engine parts. Previous application of this technique was limited to relatively thin coatings, where a one-dimensional heat transfer model is applied. In this paper, the influence of heat spreading on the measurement of thicker coatings is investigated with the development of a two-dimensional heat transfer model.

Bennett, Ted; Kakuda, Tyler [University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5070 (United States); Kulkarni, Anand [Siemens Energy, Orlando, Florida 32826-2399 (United States)

2009-04-15

99

Plasma cleaning device. [designed for high vacuum environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High vacuum cleaning of contaminated surfaces such as hydrocarbon containment films can be accomplished by a plasma cleaning device which includes a plasma discharge housing to permit generation of a plasma in an environment having a higher pressure than the surface which is to be cleaned. A ground electrode and a radio frequency electrode partially surround a quartz plasma tube, for the introduction of an ionizable gas. These electrodes ionize the gas and help generate the plasma. This plasma flows through a non-constrictive aperture, through the plasma discharge housing and then on to the contaminated surface.

Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B. (inventors)

1978-01-01

100

Plasma expansion into vacuum with charge separation effect  

SciTech Connect

Plasma expansion into vacuum and resultant ion acceleration are studied theoretically. A new self-similar solution is found to describe free expansion of a finite plasma mass into vacuum with a full account of charge separation effects. It is argued that the normalized plasma size {lambda} R/{lambda}{sub D} plays the dominant role in determining the whole ion energy spectrum and thus the maximum ion kinetic energy, where R and {lambda}{sub D} are the plasma scale length and the Debye length, respectively. The analytical model is compared with experiments to show excellent agreement.

Murakami, Masakatsu [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2008-06-24

101

Rapidly solidified thick stainless cast iron alloy deposit with niobium carbide particles produced by plasma spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plasma spraying process, spray material is heated, melted and accelerated by a high temperature flame. Low-pressure plasma spraying can produce rapidly solidified thick materials because alloy droplets accumulate successively on the substrate, and solidify at a cooling rate in the range of 105–108ks?1. Depending on the cooling conditions of the substrate and on the alloy composition, deposits can be

Yasuhiro Hoshiyama; Tsutomu Miyazaki; Hidekazu Miyake

2011-01-01

102

New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with

Kang N. Lee; Robert A. Miller; Nathan S. Jacobson

1995-01-01

103

Fully plasma-sprayed compliant backed ceramic turbine seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seal with a high temperature abradable lining material which encircles the tips of turbine blades in turbomachinery was designed. The seal is directed to maintaining the minimum operating clearances between the blade tips and the lining of a high pressure turbine. A low temperature easily decomposable material in powder form is blended with a high temperature oxidation resistant metal powder. The two materials are simultaneously deposited on a substrate formed by the turbine casing. Alternately, the polymer powder may be added to the metal powder during plasma spraying. A ceramic layer is then deposited directly onto the metal-polymer composite. The polymer additive mixed with the metal is then completely volatilized to provide a porous layer between the ceramic layer and the substrate. Thermal stresses are reduced by the porous structure which gives a cushion effect. No brazing is required by using only plasma spraying for depositing both the powders of the metal and polymer material as well as the ceramic powder.

Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W. (inventors)

1981-01-01

104

Phase transformation and wear studies of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings containing various mol% of yttria  

SciTech Connect

Plasma sprayable grade zirconia powders doped with various mol% of yttria (0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12 mol%) were synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation route. The coprecipitation conditions were adjusted such that the powders possessed good flowability in the as calcined condition and thus avoiding the agglomeration step like spray drying. Identical plasma spray parameters were used for plasma spraying all the powders on stainless steel plates. The powders and plasma sprayed coatings were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Zirconia powders are susceptible to phase transformations when subjected to very high temperatures during plasma spraying and XRD is insensitive to the presence of some non crystalline phases and hence Raman spectroscopy was used as an important tool. The microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings showed a bimodal distribution containing fully melted and unmelted zones. The microhardness and wear resistance of the plasma sprayed coatings were determined. Among the plasma sprayed coatings, 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia coating containing pure tetragonal zirconia showed the highest wear resistance. - Research Highlights: {yields} Preparation plasma sprayable YSZ powders without any agglomeration process and plasma spraying {yields} Phase transformation studies of plasma sprayed YSZ coatings by XRD and Raman spectroscopy {yields} Microstructure of the plasma sprayed coatings exhibited bimodal distribution {yields} Plasma sprayed 3 mol% YSZ coating exhibited the highest wear resistance {yields} Higher wear resistance is due to the higher fracture toughness of tetragonal 3 mol% YSZ phase.

Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in; Balaji, N.; Rajam, K.S.

2011-07-15

105

Calcium phosphate coating on titanium using laser and plasma spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though calcium phosphate (CaP) coated implants are commercially available, its acceptance is still not wide spread due to challenges related to weaker interfacial bonding between metal and ceramic, and low crystallinity of hydroxyapatite (HA). The objectives of this research are to improve interfacial strength, crystallinity, phase purity and bioactivity of CaP coated metallic implants for orthopaedic applications. The rationale is that forming a diffuse and gradient metal-ceramic interface will improve the interfacial strength. Moreover, reducing CaP particles exposure to high temperature during coating preparation, can lead to improvement in both crystallinity and phase purity of CaP. In this study, laser engineered net shaping (LENS(TM)) was used to coat Ti metal with CaP. LENS(TM) processing enabled generation of Ti+TCP (tricalcium phosphate) composite coating with diffused interface, that also increased the coating hardness to 1049+/-112 Hv compared to a substrate hardness of 200+/-15 Hv. In vitro bone cell-material interaction studies confirmed the bioactivity of TCP coatings. Antimicrobial properties of the TCP coatings were improved by silver (Ag) electrodeposition. Along with LENS(TM), radio frequency induction plasma spray, equipped with supersonic plasma nozzle, was used to prepare HA coatings on Ti with improved crystallinity and phase purity. The coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ˜200 nm in size, which consisted of 15--20 nm HA grains. In vitro bone cell-material interaction and in vivo rat model studies confirmed the HA coatings to be bioactive. Furthermore, incorporation of Sr2+ improved bone cell of HA coatings interaction. A combination of LENS(TM) and plasma spray was used to fabricate a compositionally graded HA coatings on Ti where the microstructure varied from pure HA at the surface to pure Ti substrate with a diffused Ti+TCP composite region in between. The plasma spray system was used to synthesize spherical HA nano powder from HA sol, where the production rate was 20 g/h, which is only 16% of the total powder produced. The effects of Sr2+ and Mg2+ doping on bone cell-CaP interaction was further studied with osteoclast cells. Mg2+ doing was found to be an effective way of controlling osteoclast differentiation.

Roy, Mangal

106

Investigation of plasma flow in vacuum arc with hot cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the crucial problems which appear under development of plasma technology processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is the design of plasma source. The plasma source must use solid SNF as a raw material. This article is devoted to experimental study of vacuum arc with hot cathode made of gadolinium that may consider as the simple model of SNF. This vacuum discharge was investigated in wide range of parameters. During the experiments arc current and voltage, cathode temperature, and heat flux to the cathode were measured. The data on plasma spectrum and electron temperature were obtained. It was shown that external heating of the cathode allows change significantly the main parameters of plasma. It was established by spectral and probe methods that plasma jet in studied discharge may completely consist of single charged ions.

Amirov, R.; Vorona, N.; Gavrikov, A.; Lizyakin, G.; Polistchook, V.; Samoylov, I.; Smirnov, V.; Usmanov, R.; Yartsev, I.

2014-11-01

107

Wear and microstructural integrity of ceramic plasma sprayed coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work a series of ceramic plasma sprayed (PS) coatings, both alumina- and chromia-based, were sprayed according to a matrix of deposition parameters in order to produce a broad range of microstructures. To investigate the effect of splat size on the coating response, a series of mono-crystalline a -alumina powders with very narrow particle size ranges, nominally 5, 10 and 18 microns in diameter, was sprayed. The coatings were extensively characterized for a variety of microstructural features, including porosity, the angular distribution and density of microcracks as well as the lamellar, or splat, dimensions, using techniques of metallurgical analysis and electron microscopy. The coatings were then evaluated using a series of micromechanical techniques, including indentation, controlled scratch testing, abrasion and dry particle erosion, to investigate their response to different contact situations. It was found that the microstructural features with the most influence on the behaviour of ceramic PS coatings during contact, or wear, by hard particles include, in order of importance: (1) macro-porosity, (2) horizontal crack density, (3) degree of flattening of the splats and (4) volume of unmelted particles, which are all linked to the level and strength of interlamellar bonding in the coating. The major effect of the inter-lamellar bonding in ceramic PS coatings was seen in the wear mechanism transitions. As the level of inter-splat bonding in the coating decreases, the contact load at which the transition from plastic deformation to splat fracture and debonding occurs does as well. However, the load at which catastrophic brittle fracture and spalling occur is increased. All of the micromechanical and wear methods evaluated in the present work were sensitive to differences in the coating microstructures to varying degrees. The low load abrasion results showed the most sensitivity to the microstructural differences of the coatings, followed by controlled scratching.

Erickson, Lynn C.

1999-10-01

108

Vacuum lithography—A completely dry lithography using plasma processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to describe a thoroughly dry lithography using plasma polymerization and plasma etching. The new lithography is named vacuum lithography because all processes are performed at reduced pressures. Resist films were formed in bell-jar-type and argon-flow-type reactors. The controllability of plasma polymerization is discussed with respect to the type of reactor and gas mixture. A

Junji Tarnano; Shuzo Hattori; Shinzo Morita; Katsumi Yoneda

1981-01-01

109

Laser-induced plasma generation and evolution in a transient spray.  

PubMed

The behaviors of laser-induced plasma and fuel spray were investigated by visualizing images with an ultra-high-speed camera. Time-series images of laser-induced plasma in a transient spray were visualized using a high-speed color camera. The effects of a shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma on the evaporated spray behavior were investigated. The interaction between a single droplet and the laser-induced plasma was investigated using a single droplet levitated by an ultrasonic levitator. Two main conclusions were drawn from these experiments: (1) the fuel droplets in the spray were dispersed by the shockwave generated from the laser-induced plasma; and (2) the plasma position may have shifted due to breakdown of the droplet surface and the lens effect of droplets. PMID:24921999

Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuya; Tomita, Eiji

2014-01-13

110

Fully plasma-sprayed compliant backed ceramic turbine seal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A seal having a high temperature abradable lining material encircling the tips of turbine blades in turbomachinery is discussed. The minimum operating clearances between the blade tips and the lining of a high pressure turbine are maintained. A low temperature easily decomposable material, such as a polymer, in powder form is blended with a high temperature oxidation resistant metal powder. The two materials are simultaneously deposited on a substrate formed by the turbine casing. Alternately, the polymer powder may be added to the metal powder during plasma spraying. A ceramic layer is then deposited directly onto the metal polymer composite. The polymer additive mixed with the metal is then completely volatilized to provide a porous layer between the ceramic layer and the substrate.

Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W. (inventors)

1982-01-01

111

Vacuum arc plasma thrusters with inductive energy storage driver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for producing a vacuum arc plasma source device using a low mass, compact inductive energy storage circuit powered by a low voltage DC supply acts as a vacuum arc plasma thruster. An inductor is charged through a switch, subsequently the switch is opened and a voltage spike of Ldi/dt is produced initiating plasma across a resistive path separating anode and cathode. The plasma is subsequently maintained by energy stored in the inductor. Plasma is produced from cathode material, which allows for any electrically conductive material to be used. A planar structure, a tubular structure, and a coaxial structure allow for consumption of cathode material feed and thereby long lifetime of the thruster for long durations of time.

Schein, Jochen (Inventor); Gerhan, Andrew N. (Inventor); Woo, Robyn L. (Inventor); Au, Michael Y. (Inventor); Krishnan, Mahadevan (Inventor)

2004-01-01

112

A Proposed Process Control Chart for DC Plasma Spraying Process. Part II. Experimental Verification for Spraying Alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of particle injection velocity in influencing the nature of alumina coatings obtained by plasma spraying was studied. Previously reported process chart obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study on the particle states of alumina with respect to particle injection velocity and size was verified experimentally. For this purpose, alumina particles of three different size ranges with a mean

C. B. Ang; A. Devasenapathi; H. W. Ng; S. C. M. Yu; Y. C. Lam

2001-01-01

113

Thermal cycling behavior of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings with various MCrAlX bond coats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of bond coat composition on the spallation resistance of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on single-crystal René N5 substrates was assessed by furnace thermal cycle testing of TBCs with various vacuum plasma spray (VPS) or air plasma-spray (APS) MCrAlX (M=Ni and/or Co; and X=Y, Hf, and/or Si) bond coats. The TBC specimens with VPS bond coats were fabricated using identical parameters, with the exception of bond coat composition. The TBC lifetimes were compared with respect to MCrAlX composition (before and after oxidation testing) and MCrAlX properties (surface roughness, thermal expansion, hardness, and Young’s modulus). The average TBC spallation lifetimes varied significantly (from 174 to 344 1 h cycles at 1150 °C) as a function of bond coat composition. Results suggested a relationship between TBC durability and bond coat thermal expansion behavior below 900 °C. Although there were only slight differences in their relative rates of cyclic oxidation weight gain, VPS MCrAlX bond coats with better oxide scale adhesion provided superior TBC lifetimes.

Haynes, J. A.; Ferber, M. K.; Porter, W. D.

2000-03-01

114

Thermal contact resistance between plasma-sprayed particles and flat surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma-sprayed molybdenum and yttria-stabilized zirconia particles (38–63?m diameters) were sprayed onto glass and Inconel 625 held at either room temperature or 400°C. Samples of Inconel 625 were also preheated for 3h, and then air-cooled to room temperature before spraying. Photographs of the splats were captured by using a fast charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. A rapid two-color pyrometer was used to

André McDonald; Christian Moreau; Sanjeev Chandra

2007-01-01

115

Plasma resistant aluminum oxide coatings for semiconductor processing apparatus by atmospheric aerosol spray method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decrease the amount of contaminant particles generated during semiconductor manufacturing processes, coatings that can prevent erosion on the inner surfaces and parts of the chamber are required. In this study, plasma resistant dense Al2O3 film was formed on a silicon substrate through the atmospheric aerosol spray method (AAS). AAS is a novel powder spray method, which can form a

Hoomi Choi; Kwangsu Kim; Heesung Choi; Sangwoo Kang; Juyoung Yun; Yonghyeon Shin; Taesung Kim

2010-01-01

116

Correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of molybdenum blend coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation of microstructure and wear resistance of various molybdenum blend coatings applicable to automotive parts was investigated in this study. Five types of spray powders, one of which was pure molybdenum powder and the others were blends of brass, bronze, and aluminum alloy powders with molybdenum powder, were deposited on a low-carbon steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS).

Byoungchul Hwang; Sunghak Lee; Jeehoon Ahn

2004-01-01

117

Plasma-sprayed metal-glass fluoride coatings for lubrication to 1170 K (1650 F)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma spray of Nichrome matrix composite contains dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. Coatings can be applied to bearing journals and bearing bores. Coating was easily machinable and had excellent bond strength on substrate metal.

Sliney, H. E.

1974-01-01

118

The dependency of microstructure and properties of nanostructured coatings on plasma spray conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Al2O3-13 wt.% TiO2 coatings formed via a plasma spray approach using reconstituted nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 powder feeds are described. Effects of various plasma spray conditions on the microstructure, grain size, phase content and microhardness of the coatings have been evaluated. It is found that phase transformation of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 during heat treating, sintering and

Leon L. Shaw; Daniel Goberman; Ruiming Ren; Maurice Gell; Stephen Jiang; You Wang; T. Danny Xiao; Peter R. Strutt

2000-01-01

119

Understanding the Heat Transfer and Solidification of Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Partially Stabilized Zirconia Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of microstructures have been observed in plasma-sprayed yttria-partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings. Control of the coating microstructures requires a good understanding of the heat transfer and solidification during the process. This article presents a quantitative analysis of heat transfer and solidification of plasma-sprayed YSZ splats. The analysis is based on a simple heat transfer and solidification

G.-X. Wang; R. Goswami; S. Sampath; V. Prasad

2004-01-01

120

Improved uniformity of multiphase ceramic-metal plasma-sprayed coats  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Processing-technology development of a multiphase, self-lubricating, plasma-spray powder resulted in greater uniformity and reproducibility of plasma-sprayed coats. The effect of particle-size variation, binder concentration, and reproducible processing parameters are reported. Greater adhesive strengths of coats to substrates were achieved by particle-size variation, use of an intermediate bond coat such as Ni-Cr, or heat treatment. Quantitative analyses of polished, coated specimens are also given.

Nakamura, H. H.; Logan, W. R.; Harada, Y.; Jacobson, T. P.; Sliney, H. E.

1982-01-01

121

The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.  

PubMed

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal. PMID:25281254

Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

2014-11-01

122

Electrocatalytically Active Nickel-Based Electrode Coatings Formed by Atmospheric and Suspension Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni-based electrode coatings with enhanced surface areas, for hydrogen production, were developed using atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and suspension plasma spray (SPS) processes. The results revealed a larger electrochemical active surface area for the coatings produced by SPS compared to those produced by APS process. SEM micrographs showed that the surface microstructure of the sample with the largest surface area was composed of a large number of small cauliflower-like aggregates with an average diameter of 10 ?m.

Aghasibeig, M.; Mousavi, M.; Ben Ettouill, F.; Moreau, C.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

2014-01-01

123

Making NiTi intermetallic compound coating using laser plasma complex spraying  

SciTech Connect

To improve the erosion resistance of the Ti-alloys, surface modification technique using complex spraying system coupled with a high power CO{sub 2} laser and a DC plasma gun was applied. The laser plasma complex spraying system (LPCS) was constructed with 5kW CO{sub 2} laser and low pressure DC plasma spraying unit. In this system, the plasma spray coated layer was remelted and rapidly solidified by the CO{sub 2} laser irradiation. So, it is possible to synthesize intermetallic compound coatings from the simply mixed powder. NiTi intermetallic compound is known as a high cavitation erosion resistant material. In a case of only plasma spraying process, Ti and Ni layer were separated mutually in the coatings, but by the laser plasma complex spraying, NiTi, NiTi{sub 2}, and Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallic compounds were formed in the coatings. And the coatings were joined metallurgically with substrate and contained few defect. The ratio of phases such as NiTi, NiTi{sub 2}, and Ni{sub 3}Ti was varied with the laser irradiation conditions and powder mixed ratio. To evaluate the erosion resistance of the coatings, vibratory cavitation erosion tests were carried out. The cavitation erosion resistance of the coatings were about 20 times as much as Ti6Al4V substrate due to NiTi phase.

Hiraga, Hitoshi; Inoue, Takashi [Applied Laser Engineering Research Institute, Niigata (Japan); Matsunawa, Akira [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31

124

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a {sup 7}Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10{sup 12} charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications.

Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, N283 ESC, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

2010-01-15

125

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source.  

PubMed

A simplified vacuum arc design [based on metal vapor vacuum arc (MeVVA) concepts] is employed as a plasma source for a study of a (7)Be non-neutral plasma. The design includes a mechanism for interchanging the cathode source. Testing of the plasma source showed that it is capable of producing on the order of 10(12) charges at confinable energies using a boron-carbide disk as the cathode target. The design is simplified from typical designs for lower energy and lower density applications by using only the trigger spark rather than the full vacuum arc in high current ion beam designs. The interchangeability of the cathode design gives the source the ability to replace only the source sample, simplifying use of radioactive materials in the plasma source. The sample can also be replaced with a completely different conductive material. The design can be easily modified for use in other plasma confinement or full MeVVA applications. PMID:20113100

Olson, David K; Peterson, Bryan G; Hart, Grant W

2010-01-01

126

Deuterium retention in plasma spray tungsten coatings exposed to low-energy, high flux D plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of porous plasma spray tungsten coatings deposited onto stainless steel and graphite substrates were exposed to low-energy (76 eV D2+), high-flux (10 22 D/m 2 s) D plasma to ion fluences of (3-4) × 10 26 D/m 2 at various temperatures. Deuterium retention in the W coatings was examined by thermal desorption spectroscopy and the D( 3He,p) 4He nuclear reaction, allowing determination of the D concentration at depths up to 7 ?m. The relatively high D concentration (above 0.1 at.%) at depths of several micrometers observed after D plasma exposure at 340-560 K can be related to accumulation of D 2 molecules in pores, while at temperatures above 600 K deuterium is accumulated mainly in the form of D atoms chemisorbed on the inner pore surfaces. At exposure temperatures above 500 K, the D retention in the plasma spray W coating on graphite substrate increases significantly due to trapping of diffusing D atoms at carbon dangling bonds located at the edge of a graphite crystallite.

Alimov, V. Kh.; Nakamura, H.; Tyburska-Püschel, B.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Roth, J.; Isobe, K.; Yamanishi, T.

2011-07-01

127

Plasma sprayed coatings as surface treatments of aluminum adherends  

SciTech Connect

Plasma sprayed coatings have been evaluated as surface treatments for aluminum substrates being prepared for adhesive bonding. Blends of an aluminum-silicon alloy and polyester give the best performance. To establish durability performance, wedge tests were done using four common epoxy adhesives without primers. In all cases, the 60%Al-Si/40%polyester coating gave results superior to those of FPL-etched specimens and, in some cases, performance equivalent to PAA specimens. This roughness provides excellent opportunity for mechanical interlocking or physical bonding and allows a complex interphase to be formed as the adhesive penetrates into the coating. Crack growth measurements and subsequent failure analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicate that crack propagation occurs within this complex interphase. The results also show that the aluminum and polyester components are synergistic and blends of the two give better performance than either component by itself The aluminum gives strength to the coating while the polyester provides toughness and improves moisture resistance.

Davis, G.D.; Whisnant, P.L.; Groff, G.B.; Shaffer, D.K. [Lockheed Martin, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

128

Destination of titanium particles detached from titanium plasma sprayed implants.  

PubMed

Small titanium particles may detach from titanium plasma sprayed (TPS) implants during implant insertion, when no preliminary tapping is used, probably for the frictional force between titanium coating and host bone. Aim of this study was to investigate the destination of these titanium particles observed in the peri-implant environment. Twenty-four TPS screws were implanted in tibiae of two sheep. Fourteen and 90 days after implantation the implants with the surrounding bone were removed and processed to be analyzed by light microscope and scanning electron microscope (secondary electron and back-scattered electron probes). Small titanium particles detached from the unloaded TPS implants were observed both in the newly-formed bone matrix and in marrow tissue. Histomorphometric analysis showed that both at 14 and 90 days after implantation the titanium particles appeared more concentrated in marrow tissue than in calcified bone matrix, decreasing by 66.4% over time. In particular, smaller particles (<250 microm(2)) decreased by 81.5%, whereas the larger ones (250-2000 microm(2)) did not show any significant variations over time, suggesting that most of the smaller particles may undergo to ionic dissolution, probably migrating into the peri-implant marrow lacunae. A slight migration of titanium particles from the implant surface towards the more distant peri-implant tissues was also demonstrated over time. PMID:17084088

Franchi, M; Orsini, E; Martini, D; Ottani, V; Fini, M; Giavaresi, G; Giardino, R; Ruggeri, A

2007-01-01

129

Evaluation of the mechanical properties of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical behaviour of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings was evaluated using Vickers hardness measurements on the cross-section as well as on the top surface of coatings. The effects of applied load, measurement direction and indent location on the microhardness were investigated. Indentation was performed on dense and porous areas of the coatings. After Vickers indentation on the polished cross-section, the surface roughness on the indenter horizontal impression was measured to establish any influence on local surface tropology. The data was statistically analysed using the Weibull distribution to examine their variability and distribution within the coatings. It was found that the effect of lower applied loads (50 and 100 gf) and higher applied loads (300 and 500 gf) showed two distinct trends concerning the microhardness, indent roughness, and Weibull modulus of microhardness throughout the coating thicknesses in the dense area. Top surface microhardness was higher compared to the cross-section microhardness for 100, 300 and 500 gf whereas equal for 50 gf. The statistical analyses showed that the Weibull modulus of microhardness was related to the applied load and indent position. The Weibull moduli of microhardness were high on the dense areas of the coatings.

Hasan, Md Fahad; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher

2014-06-01

130

A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic turbine seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is shown that the application of sputtered Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) primer in plasma-sprayed YSZ ceramic-coated turbine blades results in an improvement, by a factor of 5-6, in the thermal shock life of specimens with a sprayed, porous, Ni-Cr-Al-Y intermediate layer. Species with and without the primer were found to be able to survive 1000 cycles when the intermediate layer was used, but reduced laminar cracking was observed in the specimen with the primer. It is suggested that the sputtered YZS primer-induced properties are due to (1) more effective wetting and adherence of the plasma-sprayed YZS particles to the primer, and (2) the primer's retardation of impinging, molten plasma sprayed particles solidification rates, which result in a less detrimental residual stress distribution.

Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

1981-01-01

131

Angular distribution of plasma in the vacuum arc ion source.  

PubMed

This paper presents measurements of the angular distribution of the plasma components and different charge states of metal ions generated by a MEVVA-type ion source and measured by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer. The experiments were performed for different cathode materials (Al, Cu, and Ti) and for different parameters of the vacuum arc discharge. The results are compared with prior results reported by other authors. The influence of different discharge parameters on the angular distribution in a vacuum arc source is discussed. PMID:22380199

Nikolaev, A G; Yushkov, G Yu; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M

2012-02-01

132

Angular distribution of plasma in the vacuum arc ion sourcea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents measurements of the angular distribution of the plasma components and different charge states of metal ions generated by a MEVVA-type ion source and measured by a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer. The experiments were performed for different cathode materials (Al, Cu, and Ti) and for different parameters of the vacuum arc discharge. The results are compared with prior results reported by other authors. The influence of different discharge parameters on the angular distribution in a vacuum arc source is discussed.

Nikolaev, A. G.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.

2012-02-01

133

Reactive Plasma Nitriding of AL2O3 Powder in Thermal Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among advanced ceramics, aluminum nitride (AlN) had attracted much attention in the field of electrical and structural applications due to its outstanding properties. However, it is difficult to fabricate AlN coating by conventional thermal spray processes directly. Due to the thermal decomposition of feedstock AlN powder during spraying without a stable melting phase (which is required for deposition in thermal spray). Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of AlN thermally sprayed coatings. In this study the possibility of fabrication of AlN coating by reactive plasma nitriding of alumina (Al2O3) powder using N2/H2 plasma was investigated. It was possible to fabricate a cubic-AlN (c-AlN) based coating and the fabricated coating consists of c-AlN, ?-Al2O3, Al5O6N and ?-Al2O3. It was difficult to understand the nitriding process from the fabricated coatings. Therefore, the Al2O3 powders were sprayed and collected in water. The microstructure observation of the collected powder and its cross section indicate that the reaction started from the surface. Thus, the sprayed particles were melted and reacted in high temperature reactive plasma and formed aluminum oxynitride which has cubic structure and easily nitride to c-AlN. During the coatings process the particles collide, flatten, and rapidly solidified on a substrate surface. The rapid solidification on the substrate surface due to the high quenching rate of the plasma flame prevents AlN crystal growth to form the hexagonal phase. Therefore, it was possible to fabricate c-AlN/Al2O3 based coatings through reactive plasma nitriding reaction of Al2O3 powder in thermal spray.

Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

134

Modeling of evaporation and oxidation phenomena in plasma spraying of metal powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma spraying of metals in air is usually accompanied by evaporation and oxidation of the sprayed material. Optimization of the spraying process must ensure that the particles are fully molten during their short residence time in the plasma jet and prior to hitting the substrate, but not overheated to minimize evaporation losses. In atmospheric plasma spraying (ASP), it is also clearly desirable to be able to control the extent of oxide formation. The objective of this work to develop an overall mathematical model of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena involved in the plasma-spraying of metallic particles in air atmosphere. Four models were developed to simulate the following aspects of the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process: (a) the particle trajectories and the velocity and temperature profiles in an Ar-H 2 plasma jet, (b) the heat and mass transfer between particles and plasma jet, (c) the interaction between the evaporation and oxidation phenomena, and (d) the oxidation of liquid metal droplets. The resulting overall model was generated by adapting the computational fluid dynamics code FIDAP and was validated by experimental measurements carried out at the collaborating plasma laboratory of the University of Limoges. The thesis also examined the environmental implications of the oxidization and volatilization phenomena in the plasma spraying of metals. The modeling results showed that the combination of the standard k-s model of turbulence and the Boussinesq eddy-viscosity model provided a more accurate prediction of plasma gas behavior. The estimated NOx generation levels from APS were lower than the U.S.E.P.A. emission standard. Either enhanced evaporation or oxidation can occur on the surface of the metal particles and the relative extent is determined by the process parameters. Comparatively, the particle size has the greatest impact on both evaporation and oxidation. The extent of particle oxidation depends principally on gas-liquid oxidation. The convection due to recirculating flow of liquid within the metal droplet (Hill's vortex) dominates the mass transfer of oxygen after the metal particles become molten. This study showed that the behavior of evaporation and oxidation of metal particles in atmospheric plasma spraying can be predicted and the process parameters can be optimized to reduce the evaporation and/or oxidation of metal particles in industrial applications of plasma spraying.

Zhang, Hanwei

135

In-situ particle temperature, velocity, and size measurements in DC Arc plasma thermal sprays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle temperature, velocity, and size measurements in DC arc plasma thermal sprays are reported in this article. Experiments\\u000a were performed using a conventional DC are argon-hydrogen plasma with two 7 wt % yttria-stabilized zirconia powders injected\\u000a transversely into the plasma jet. Measurements were performed along the axis of the plasma jet as well as at a number of radial\\u000a locations

B. M. Cetegen; W. Yu

1999-01-01

136

Plasma-spraying synthesis of high-performance photocatalytic TiO2 coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anatase (A-) TiO2 is a photocatalytic material that can decompose air-pollutants, acetaldehyde, bacteria, and so on. In this study, three kinds of powder (A-TiO2 without HAp, TiO2 + 10mass%HAp, and TiO2+30mass%HAp, where HAp is hydroxyapatite and PBS is polybutylene succinate) were plasma sprayed on biodegradable PBS substrates. HAp powder was mixed with A-TiO2 powder by spray granulation in order to facilitate adsorption of acetaldehyde and bacteria. The crystal structure was almost completely maintained during the plasma spray process. HAp enhanced the decomposition of acetaldehyde and bacteria by promoting adsorption. A 10mass% HAp content was the most effective for decomposing acetaldehyde when plasma preheating of the PBS was not carried out before the plasma spraying. The plasma preheating of PBS increased the yield rate of the spray process and facilitated the decomposition of acetaldehyde by A-TiO2 coatings without HAp. HAp addition improved photocatalytic sterilization when plasma preheating of the PBS was performed.

Takahashi, Yasuo; Shibata, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Masakatsu; Miyano, Yasuyuki; Murai, Kensuke; Ohmori, Akira

2014-08-01

137

T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housing refurbishment-plasma spray project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the feasibility of reclaiming T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings with an 88 wt percent aluminum to 12 wt percent silicon alloy applied by a plasma spray process. Tensile strength testing was conducted on as-sprayed and thermally cycled test specimens which were plasma sprayed with 0.020 to 0.100 in. coating thicknesses. Satisfactory tensile strength values were observed in the as-sprayed tensile specimens. There was essentially no decrease in tensile strength after thermally cycling the tensile specimens. Furthermore, compressor housings were plasma sprayed and thermally cycled in a 150-hr engine test and a 200-hr actual flight test during which the turbine engine was operated at a variety of loads, speeds and torques. The plasma sprayed coating system showed no evidence of degradation or delamination from the compressor housings. As a result of these tests, a procedure was designed and developed for the application of an aluminum-silicon alloy in order to reclaim T55-L-712 turbine engine compressor housings.

Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

1988-01-01

138

Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10-2 mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

Chekh, Yu.; Zhirkov, I. S.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P.

2010-02-01

139

Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source.  

PubMed

A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10(-2) mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance. PMID:20192494

Chekh, Yu; Zhirkov, I S; Delplancke-Ogletree, M P

2010-02-01

140

Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source  

SciTech Connect

A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10{sup -2} mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

Chekh, Yu. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universite libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Institute of Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Zhirkov, I. S. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universite libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Institute of High Current Electronics, SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universite libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

2010-02-15

141

Mullite coatings on ceramic substrates: Stabilisation of Al 2O 3–SiO 2 suspensions for spray drying of composite granules suitable for reactive plasma spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the preparation of stable alumina+silica suspensions with high solid loading for the production of spray-dried composite powders. These composite powders are to be used for reactive plasma spraying whereby the formation of mullite and the coating on a ceramic substrate are achieved in a single step process. Electrostatic stabilisation of alumina and silica suspensions has

A. Schrijnemakers; S. André; G. Lumay; N. Vandewalle; F. Boschini; R. Cloots; B. Vertruyen

2009-01-01

142

Influence of Spraying Parameters on the Microstructure and Properties of Plasma-sprayed Al2O3/40%TiO2 Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the influences of parameters such as spraying voltage, spraying current, primary gas feed rate and spraying distance on the properties of plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 composite ceramic coating were studied by using orthogonal experimental design. The influence sequences of the parameters on the properties of plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 coating are: spraying distance, spraying voltage, spraying current, argon gas flow rate. The optimum parameters were determined: spraying distance 100 mm, spraying current 440 A, spraying voltage 120 V, and argon gas flow rate 3.0 m3/h. Scanning electronic microscope was used to observe the surface and cross-section morphologies of the Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 coating prepared by using the optimum parameters. The phase structure was analyzed by X ray diffraction. The through-thickness microhardness was measured by microhardness instrument. The bonding strength between the coating and substrate was determined by dual tensile test method. The porosity was measured by image analysis method. The results showed that the plasma-sprayed Al2O3-40 wt.%TiO2 composite ceramic coating has a dense structure with the porosity of 1.5%. In addition, the coating has typical layered structure. Al2O3-rich area and TiO2-rich area exhibiting different colors have homogeneous distribution and good combination. Due to the function of NiAl/AlSi bond coating, the bonding strength between the Al2O3- 40 wt.% TiO2 coating and substrate reaches 45 MPa. The coating is mainly composed of ?-Al2O3 metastable phase, ?-Al2O3 stable phase, Ti8O15 and Al2TiO5.

Kang, J. J.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wang, C. B.

143

Nanocomposite Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coating Deposited by Suspension Plasma Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work seeks to develop an innovative nanocomposite thermal barrier coating (TBC) exhibiting low thermal conductivity and high durability compared with that of current TBCs. To achieve this objective, nanosized lanthanum zirconate particles were selected for the topcoat of the TBC system, and a new process—suspension plasma spray—was employed to produce desirable microstructural features: the nanocomposite lanthanum zirconate TBC contains ultrafine splats and high volume porosity, for lower thermal conductivity, and better durability. The parameters of plasma spray experiment included two main variables: (i) spray distance varying from 40 to 80 mm and (ii) the concentration of suspension 20, 25, and 30 wt.%, respectively. The microstructure of obtained coatings was characterized with scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction. The porosity of coatings is in the range of 6-10%, and the single phase in the as-sprayed coatings was pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate.

Wang, Chaohui; Wang, You; Wang, Liang; Hao, Guangzhao; Sun, Xiaoguang; Shan, Fan; Zou, Zhiwei

2014-10-01

144

Developing empirical relationships to estimate porosity and Young's modulus of plasma sprayed YSZ coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma spraying process is an effective thermal spray process to deposit thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) on the components of propulsion and land based gas turbines to enhance its performance. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to estimate TBCs performance characteristics (porosity and Young's modulus) of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, standoff distance and powder feed rate) using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the standoff distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the coating quality characteristics among the three investigated process parameters. Further, correlating the spray parameters with coating properties enables identification of characteristics regime to achieve desired quality of YSZ coatings.

Karthikeyan, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Rajendran, R.

2014-03-01

145

Tribological properties of TiC-Fe coatings obtained by plasma spraying reactive powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium carbide-based coatings have been considered for use in sliding wear resistance applications. Carbides embedded in\\u000a a metal matrix would improve wear properties, providing a noncontinuous ceramic surface. TiC-Fe coatings obtained by plasma\\u000a spraying of spray-dried TiC-Fe composite powders containing large and angular TiC particles are not expected to be as resistant\\u000a as those containing TiC particles formed upon spraying.

S. Dallaire; G. Cliche

1993-01-01

146

Salt spray corrosion test of micro-plasma oxidation ceramic coatings on Ti alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ceramic coatings were prepared on Ti-6A1–4V alloy in NaAlO2 solution by micro-plasma oxidation (MPO). The salt spray tests of the coated samples and the substrates were carried out in a salt spray test machine. The phase composition and surface morphology of the coatings were investigated by XRD and SEM. Severe corrosion occurred on the substrate surface, while there were no

Guodong HAO; Zhongping YAO; Zhaohua JIANG

2007-01-01

147

An in vitro investigation of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings produced with flame-spheroidized feedstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro behaviour and characteristics of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using flame-spheroidized HA feedstock powder on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) substrates were investigated in a simulated physiological environment as an attempt to reflect the actual incubational condition of an implant in a human body system. As-sprayed and heat-treated HA coatings were immersed in a simulated body fluid with ionic

S. W. K Kweh; K. A Khor; P Cheang

2002-01-01

148

Improvement in the properties of plasma-sprayed chromium carbide coatings using nickel-clad powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, electroless plating was used to prepare Ni-clad Cr3C2 powders with different nickel contents, and plasma spraying was carried out to deposit the corresponding coatings. The deposited coatings were then compared with coatings sprayed using mechanically blended Cr3C2–NiCr powders in terms of microstructure, phase composition, mechanical and tribological properties. The results obtained indicated that the elemental nickel in

Jianfeng Li; Chuanxian Ding

2000-01-01

149

Plasma spraying of zirconia–titania–silica bio-ceramic composite coating for implant application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconia–titania–silica (ZTS) bio-ceramic composite coating was deposited on titanium surface via plasma spray process. The original feedstock was prepared by mixing equal amounts (wt.%) of each powder in ceramic pot followed by stirring with ceramic ball. The resulting composite powder was sprayed at two different stand-off distances (SOD: 45 and 50mm). Silica particles are distributed uniformly in the coating matrix.

M. F. Morks

2010-01-01

150

Use of plasma sprayed coatings as surface treatments for aluminum adherends  

SciTech Connect

Surface treatments for metal adherends prior to adhesive bonding typically use chromates and/or strong acids and bases. Such materials are hazardous to personnel and harmful to the environment following disposal. To reduce release of these substances into the environment and lower disposal costs, plasma spray treatments are being developed as surface treatments for aluminum adherends. These treatments eliminate liquid and gaseous wastes and provide bond strength and durability comparable to that provided by the conventional chemical treatments. They have other potential advantages of being more suited for repair/refurbishment and less sensitive to metallurgical differences from alloy to alloy. Plasma sprayed coatings are used in a variety of applications where a coating tailored for specific properties is needed that may or may not be chemically or structurally similar to the base substrate. Plasma spraying has been shown to provide excellent high-temperature bond performance with titanium (unlike conventional oxidation treatments) and durability approaching that of phosphoric acid anodization for aluminum. Success has also been reported using other coatings on aluminum, titanium, and steel. Plasma spraying has the important advantage of versatility. A wide range of coatings (metals, ceramics, and polymers) can be deposited onto an equally wide range of substrates, and the coating properties can be optimized for a given application, independent of the substrate. Because of this versatility, plasma-sprayed coatings have been used for wear resistance, thermal barriers, EMI/RF shielding, corrosion resistance, slip/slide resistance, and biocompatibility in addition to adhesion.

Davis, G.D. [DACCO SCI, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Whisnant, P.L. [National Semiconductor, Annapolis Junction, MD (United States); Groff, G.B. [ISPA, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

151

Mechanical and chemical consequences of the residual stresses in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings.  

PubMed

The residual stresses in thick hydroxyapatite coatings, deposited by plasma spraying, have been determined experimentally using Raman piezo-spectroscopy. The stress dependence of the centre position of the 980 cm 1 Raman band, owing to the symmetric stretching of the phosphate ion, PO3(4), has been established and found to be 2.47 cm 3 GPa 1. Using this calibration, the residual stresses in hydroxyapatite coatings deposited onto Ti-6A1-4V substrates in air have been found to be 100 MPa (tensile), whereas those deposited in a vacuum have been found to be 60 MPa (compressive). Although desirable from a mechanical point of view, it is shown that coating under residual compression are thermodynamically more stable and, hence, the dissolution of the ionic species, necessary in the exchange between bone and hydroxyapatite coating, can be impeded. It is calculated that for the coating under examination the stresses have an effect comparable with almost an order of magnitude change of the [OH] concentration. The analysis explains the dissolution behaviour of hydroxyapatite coatings subject to cyclic stress reported previously. PMID:9111951

Sergo, V; Sbaizero, O; Clarke, D R

1997-03-01

152

Plasma diagnostic by emission spectroscopy during vacuum arc remelting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma produced during vacuum arc remelting of a Zircaloy4 electrode has been investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. Spatial variations of plasma emission along the arc axis has been measured with a specific apparatus consisting of nine aligned optic fibres. The plasma consists of zirconium atoms, of singly and doubly charged zirconium ions and of chromium atoms. The non-observation of emissions of tin and iron particles, which are, with chromium, the three main alloy components of Zircaloy4, suggests that the concentrations of these two species in the plasma are negligibly small. Distribution temperatures of atomic and ionic species of the order of 1 eV and high ionization degree of the plasma (greater than 70%) have been determined. The similar decay of the line intensities of the various species with increasing axial distance from the cathode surface indicates that the plasma composition remains approximately unchanged within the interelectrode region. Synthesis of the spectroscopic results has shown that the emission of vapour into the plasma cannot be accounted for by a mechanism of metal volatilization from the cathodic and anodic liquid surfaces only. It also involves emission mechanisms occurring in the cathode spot region, like the expulsion of metal droplets which volatilize or the ejection of particles.

Chapelle, P.; Czerwiec, T.; Bellot, J. P.; Jardy, A.; Lasalmonie, D.; Senevat, J.; Ablitzer, D.

2002-08-01

153

Structural, Mechanical and Erosion Properties of Yttrium Oxide Coatings by Axial Suspension Plasma Spraying for Electronics Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) coatings have been prepared by axial suspension plasma spraying with fine powders. It is clarified that the coatings have high hardness, low porosity, high erosion resistance against CF4 -containing plasma and retention of smooth eroded surface. This suggests that the axial suspension plasma spraying of Y2O3 is applicable to fabricating equipment for electronic devices, such as dry etching. Surface morphologies of the slurry coatings with splats are similar to conventional plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coatings, identified from microstructural analysis. Dense coating structures with no lamellar boundaries have been seen, which is apparently different from the conventional coatings. It has also been found that crystal structure of the suspension coatings mainly composed of metastable monoclinic phase, whereas the powders and the conventional plasma spray coatings have stable cubic phase. Mechanism of coating formation by plasma spraying with fine powder slurries is discussed based on the results.

Kitamura, Junya; Tang, Zhaolin; Mizuno, Hiroaki; Sato, Kazuto; Burgess, Alan

2011-01-01

154

Bond Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Zirconium on Uranium Alloy by Microcantilever Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future production of low enriched uranium nuclear fuel for test reactors requires a well-adhered diffusion barrier coating of zirconium (Zr) on the uranium/molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy fuel. In this study, the interfacial bond between plasma sprayed Zr coatings and U-Mo fuel was characterized by microcantilever beam testing. Test results revealed the effect of specific flaws such as cracks and pores on the bonding of interfaces with a sampling area of approximately 20 ?m2. TEM examination showed the Zr/U-Mo interface to contain rows of very fine grains (5-30 nm) with the Zr in contact with UO2. Bond characteristics of plasma sprayed samples were measured that are similar to those of roll bonded samples showing the potential for plasma sprayed Zr coatings to have high bond strength.

Hollis, K. J.; Mara, N. A.; Field, R. D.; Wynn, T. A.; Crapps, J. M.; Dickerson, P. O.

2013-03-01

155

In Situ Synthesis of FeAl Dense Coatings by Very Low Pressure Reactive Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the purpose of elaborating high-quality FeAl coatings, a so-called very low pressure reactive plasma spray technique that combines very low pressure plasma spray and self-propagation high-temperature synthesis processes was used in the present study. A dense and homogeneous FeAl coating was thus successfully in situ synthesized by reactive plasma spraying of an Al/Fe2O3 composite powder under 1 mbar. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coating were characterized by XRD and SEM. Results indicated that the B2 ordered FeAl phase was synthesized, and the coating featured a dense and defect-free microstructure. The fracture mechanism of the coating remains mainly a brittle failure but the appearance of some dimples in local zones suggested some unexpected toughness.

Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Nannan; Zhang, Baicheng; Bolot, Rodolphe; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2013-03-01

156

Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Plasma Sprayed Ni-Based Metallic Glass Coating  

SciTech Connect

Various developmental research works on the metallic glass have been conducted in order to broaden its application field. Thermal spraying method is one of the potential techniques to enhance the excellent properties such as high toughness and corrosion resistance of the metallic glass material. The gas tunnel type plasma spraying is useful to obtain high quality ceramic coatings such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ZrO{sub 2} coatings. In this study, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings were produced by the gas tunnel type plasma spraying under various experimental conditions, and their microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. At the plasma current of 200-300 A, the Ni-based metallic glass coatings of more than 200 {mu}m in thickness were formed densely with Vickers hardness of about Hv = 600.

Kobayashi, Akira; Kuroda, Toshio [Joining and Welding Res. Inst., Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kimura, Hisamichi; Inoue, Akihisa [Inst. for Materials Res., Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2010-10-13

157

Tribological behavior of plasma spray coatings for marine diesel engine piston ring and cylinder liner  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature wear characteristics between plasma spray coated piston rings and cylinder liners were investigated to find\\u000a the optimum combination of coating materials using the disc-on-plate reciprocating wear test in dry conditions. The disc and\\u000a plate represented the piston ring and the cylinder liner, respectively. Coating materials studied were Cr2O3-NiCr, Cr2O3-NiCr-Mo, and Cr3C2-NiCr-Mo. Plasma spray conditions for the coating materials were

Jong-Hyun Hwang; Myoung-Seoup Han; Dae-Young Kim; Joong-Geun Youn

2006-01-01

158

Isothermal and cyclic oxidation of an air plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system  

SciTech Connect

Thermogravimetric methods for evaluating bond coat oxidation in plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were assessed by high-temperature testing of TBC systems with air plasma-sprayed (APS) Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and yttria-stabilized zirconia top coatings. High-mass thermogravimetric analysis (at 1150{sup degrees}C) was used to measure bond coat oxidation kinetics. Furnace cycling was used to evaluate APS TBC durability. This paper describes the experimental methods and relative oxidation kinetics of the various specimen types. Characterization of the APS TBCs and their reaction products is discussed.

Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rigney, E.D. [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (United States). Dept. of Materials and Mechanical Engineering

1996-08-01

159

Effect of plasma spray parameters on porosity of fly ash deposited coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents on a study of atmospheric plasma spray parameters using fly ash as a feedstock material to spray onto the mild steel substrates. The experiments were carried out using two level fractional factorial design with four variables namely the primary and carrier gas pressures, powder feed rate and plasma power. The evaluation of response was performed on porosity by using image analysis. The results obtained show that primary gas pressure, powder feed rate and interaction primary gas pressure and carrier gas pressure are most significant factors in affecting the porosity of fly ash deposited coatings.

Muhammad, M. M.; Jalar, A.; Shamsudin, R.; Isa, M. C.

2014-09-01

160

The Tribological Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Al-Si Composite Coatings Reinforced with Nanodiamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al-Si composite coatings reinforced with 0 vol.%, 0.5 vol.%, and 2 vol.% nanodiamond were synthesized by plasma spraying. The effect of the addition of nanodiamond on the microstructure, hardness, and tribological performance of the composite coatings is investigated. The addition of 2 vol.% nanodiamond results in 45% improvement in the wear resistance of Al-Si coating. Al-Si coating with 0.5 vol.% nanodiamond exhibited lower coefficient of friction (0.45) with a 12% improvement in the wear resistance. Plasma-sprayed AlSi coatings with nanodiamond have excellent potential as wear-resistant coatings in automotive applications.

Bao, Mingdong; Zhang, Cheng; Lahiri, Debrupa; Agarwal, Arvind

2012-06-01

161

Development of a plasma sprayed ceramic gas path seal for high pressure turbine application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of the plasma sprayed graded, layered ZRO2/CoCrAlY seal system for gas turbine engine blade tip seal applications up to 1589 K (2400 F) surface temperature was continued. The effect of changing ZRO2/CoCrAlY ratios in the intermediate layers on thermal stresses was evaluated analytically with the goal of identifying the materials combinations which would minimize thermal stresses in the seal system. Three methods of inducing compressive residual stresses in the sprayed seal materials to offset tensile thermal stresses were analyzed. The most promising method, thermal prestraining, was selected based upon potential, feasibility and complexity considerations. The plasma spray equipment was modified to heat, control and monitor the substrate temperature during spraying. Specimens were fabricated and experimentally evaluated to: (1) substantiate the capability of the thermal prestrain method to develop compressive residual stresses in the sprayed structure and (2) define the effect of spraying on a heated substate on abradability, erosion and thermal shock characteristics of the seal system. Thermal stress analysis, including residual stresses and material properties variations, was performed and correlated with thermal shock test results. Seal system performance was assessed and recommendations for further development were made.

Shiembob, L. T.

1978-01-01

162

Behavior of plasma-sprayed TiC coatings under electron beam thermal shocks  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of a research program on materials for fusion machine, plasma-sprayed TiC coatings over Inconel 625 substrates were investigated. In order to evaluate the potential of these coatings in fusion environment, the existing thermal flux conditions on limiters of tokamaks are simulated with an electron beam thermal shock experiment. TiC coatings sprayed in air show severe damages when exposed to 2.5 kW cm/sup -2/, 1.0 s, heat pulses. Coatings sprayed in an inert gas enclosure withstood 3.0 kW cm/sup -2/, 1.0 s, heat pulses without melting. Surface melting and subsurface crystal growth are observed in the case of coatings sprayed in air.

Brunet, C.; Dallaire, S.; St-Jacques, R.G.

1985-11-01

163

Mechanical, In Vitro Antimicrobial and Biological Properties of Plasma Sprayed Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Coating  

PubMed Central

Implant related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. In order to reduce bacterial adhesion, silver (Ag) / silver oxide (Ag2O) doping was used in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 wt% Ag, heat treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/Dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Present results suggest that the plasma sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A.; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2012-01-01

164

Mechanical, in vitro antimicrobial, and biological properties of plasma-sprayed silver-doped hydroxyapatite coating.  

PubMed

Implant-related infection is one of the key concerns in total joint hip arthroplasties. To reduce bacterial adhesion, we used silver (Ag)/silver oxide (Ag(2)O) doping in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium substrate. HA powder was doped with 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 wt % Ag, heat-treated at 800 °C and used for plasma spray coating using a 30 kW plasma spray system, equipped with supersonic nozzle. Application of supersonic plasma nozzle significantly reduced phase decomposition and amorphous phase formation in the HA coatings as evident by X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis. Adhesive bond strength of more than 15 MPa ensured the mechanical integrity of the coatings. Resistance against bacterial adhesion of the coatings was determined by challenging them against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). Live/dead staining of the adherent bacteria on the coating surfaces indicated a significant reduction in bacterial adhesion due to the presence of Ag. In vitro cell-material interactions and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) protein expressions were evaluated by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB). Our results suggest that the plasma-sprayed HA coatings doped with an optimum amount of Ag can have excellent antimicrobial property without altering mechanical property of the Ag-doped HA coatings. PMID:22313742

Roy, Mangal; Fielding, Gary A; Beyenal, Haluk; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2012-03-01

165

Modeling of Micro- and Nanoparticle Characteristics in DC Suspension Plasma Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension plasma spray is a promising technology for surface coatings. In this work, a comprehensive numerical model was developed to investigate the multiphase flow of suspension droplets and nanoparticles in direct-current (DC) plasma spraying. A three-dimensional computational model was developed to describe the plasma jet flow fields coupled with the axial injection of suspension droplets in which the zirconia micro- and nanoparticles were dispersed. The suspension droplets were tracked using Lagrangian coordinates, considering particle heating, melting, and evaporation. After evaporation of the solvent surrounding the particle, the nanoparticles were discharged into the plasma flow. In addition to the viscous force exerted by the flow on the micrometer-sized particles, the Brownian force and the Saffman lift force were taken into account. The effects of the noncontinuum on particle momentum transfer and evaporation on heat transfer were also considered. The numerical predictions of gas flow temperature were compared with experimental data and numerical data obtained with a different computational fluid dynamics code. The agreement was reasonable. The trajectories, velocity, and temperature of nanoparticles were calculated, and compared with those of microparticles. The results showed that the Brownian force plays a major role in acceleration and heating of nanoparticles. Compared with the conventional plasma spray process with micrometer-sized feedstock, the nanoparticles in suspension plasma spraying were found to have a wider spatial distribution and higher temperature. The effects of operating parameters, such as the power input to the plasma gas and plasma gas composition, on the gas velocity and temperature were investigated. The parameters that have a significant effect on the heat and momentum transfer to the particles injected in the plasma jet were identified.

Shao, Xue-ming; Zhang, Kai; Xiong, Hong-bing

2015-02-01

166

Microstructures of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings by Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a novel processing technology, plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) has exhibited potential capability to shape the sprayed coating microstructures. In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were produced at spray distances in the range of 450-1400 mm by PS-PVD. The morphologies of the coatings, going from a denser type of layer to the columnar structure, along the axial and radial directions of the plasma plume were studied. Along the axial direction, five YSZ coating microstructures including "dense lamellar structure," "closely packed columnar structure," "quasi-columnar structure with more nanoparticles," "EB-PVD-like columnar structure," and "quasi-columnar structure with less nanoparticles" were achieved, respectively. Along the radial direction, similar microstructures of coatings were obtained. A simple structure spatial distribution model was developed for demonstrating the mapping of various YSZ coating microstructures.

Li, Chenyi; Guo, Hongbo; Gao, Lihua; Wei, Liangliang; Gong, Shengkai; Xu, Huibin

2014-12-01

167

Origin of darkening in 8 wt% yttria-zirconia plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the origins of darkening of 8 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} air plasma-sprayed (APS) and low-pressure plasma-sprayed (LPPS) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The change of valence states of zirconium, due to the reduction of ZrO{sub 2} to Zr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was responsible for darkening of TBC. Quantification of Zr{sup 3+} oxide was related both to the black color of TBC and to the spraying technologies and parameters. Furthermore, impurity (Fe, Al, Si, and Na) segregation and exsolution phenomena were monitored as a function of the air thermal treatment (up to 1473 K) and it was demonstrated not to be the origin of darkening.

Ingo, G.M. (Inst. di Teoria e Struttura Elettronica del CNR, CP 10, 00016 Monterotondo Stazione, Roma (IT))

1991-02-01

168

Microstructures of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings by Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a novel processing technology, plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) has exhibited potential capability to shape the sprayed coating microstructures. In this paper, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings were produced at spray distances in the range of 450-1400 mm by PS-PVD. The morphologies of the coatings, going from a denser type of layer to the columnar structure, along the axial and radial directions of the plasma plume were studied. Along the axial direction, five YSZ coating microstructures including "dense lamellar structure," "closely packed columnar structure," "quasi-columnar structure with more nanoparticles," "EB-PVD-like columnar structure," and "quasi-columnar structure with less nanoparticles" were achieved, respectively. Along the radial direction, similar microstructures of coatings were obtained. A simple structure spatial distribution model was developed for demonstrating the mapping of various YSZ coating microstructures.

Li, Chenyi; Guo, Hongbo; Gao, Lihua; Wei, Liangliang; Gong, Shengkai; Xu, Huibin

2015-02-01

169

Plasma spraying of hard magnetic coatings based on Sm-Co alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research is focused on the formation of hard magnetic coatings by plasma spraying an arc-melted Sm-Co powder. We have studied basic magnetic characteristics depending on the components ratio in the alloy. A sample with a 40 wt.% Sm coating exhibits the highest coercive force (63 kOe) as compared to near-to-zero coercive force in the starting powder. X-ray structure analysis of the starting alloy and the coating reveals that the amount of SmCo5 phase in the sprayed coating increases occupying up to 2/3 of the sample. We have also studied temperature dependence of the coating and have been able to obtain plasma sprayed permanent magnets operating within the temperature range from -100 to +500 °C. The technique used does not involve any additional thermal treatment and allows a coating to be formed right on the magnetic conductor surface irrespective of the conductor geometry.

Saunin, V. N.; Telegin, S. V.

2015-01-01

170

A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed ceramic turbine seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic turbine blade tip seal components is discussed. The YSZ layers are quite thick (0.040 to 0.090 in.). The service potential of seal components with such thick ceramic layers is cyclic thermal shock limited. The most usual failure mode is ceramic layer delamination at or very near the interface between the plasma sprayed YSZ layer and the NiCrAlY bondcoat. Deposition of a thin RF sputtered YSZ primer to the bondcoat prior to deposition of the thick plasma sprayed YSZ layer was found to reduce laminar cracking in cyclic thermal shock testing. The cyclic thermal shock life of one ceramic seal design was increased by a factor of 5 to 6 when the sputtered YSZ primer was incorporated. A model based on thermal response of plasma sprayed YSZ particles impinging on the bondcoat surface with and without the sputtered YSZ primer provides a basis for understanding the function of the primer.

Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

1981-01-01

171

Manufacturing methods and technology measure arc plasma for sprayed phase shifter elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmagnetic Li-Ti ferrite dielectrics have been processed, fired and ground to final dimensions in preparation for arc plasma spraying (APS). Thermal expansion data are given on a series of compositions with variations in alumina content. The ferrite powder to be used for APS coating has been examined by SEM and X-ray fluorescent analysis. We report data on microwave and other

H. J. Vanhook; L. Lesensky; H. Miller

1975-01-01

172

Manufacturing methods and technology measure for arc plasma sprayed phase shifter elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical property data are given on a series of nonmagnetic Li-Ti ferrite dielectrics which have been used in arc plasma spraying of phase shifter samples. Thermal expansion data are given on a new series of compositions with variations in Li-Ti and Al content. A new fully reacted ferrite powder has been characterized in terms of particle size and magnetic properties.

H. J. Vanhook; D. Masse; J. Saunders

1976-01-01

173

Study on plasma sprayed coating of bioactive ceramics onto silicon nitride as implant biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of implants depends on the properties of the material used. It is important for dental implantology to study and produce implant biomaterials with excellent properties. In this study the relation between heat treatment for 1 hour at 580°C after plasma spraying and the crystallinity and solubility of different calcium phosphate coatings is reported. The surface of the coatings

Dong Xudong; Shi Shujun; Xu Lianlai

1995-01-01

174

Effect of Plasma Nitriding and Nitrocarburizing on HVOF-Sprayed Stainless Steel Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the effects of plasma nitriding (PN) and nitrocarburizing on HVOF-sprayed stainless steel nitride layers were investigated. 316 (austenitic), 17-4PH (precipitation hardening), and 410 (martensitic) stainless steels were plasma-nitrided and nitrocarburized using a N2 + H2 gas mixture and the gas mixture containing C2H2, respectively, at 550 °C. The results showed that the PN and nitrocarburizing produced a relatively thick nitrided layer consisting of a compound layer and an adjacent nitrogen diffusion layer depending on the crystal structures of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings. Also, the diffusion depth of nitrogen increased when a small amount of C2H2 (plasma nitrocarburizing process) was added. The PN and nitrocarburizing resulted in not only an increase of the surface hardness, but also improvement of the load bearing capacity of the HVOF-sprayed stainless steel coatings because of the formation of CrN, Fe3N, and Fe4N phases. Also, the plasma-nitrocarburized HVOF-sprayed 410 stainless steel had a superior surface microhardness and load bearing capacity due to the formation of Cr23C6 on the surface.

Park, Gayoung; Bae, Gyuyeol; Moon, Kyungil; Lee, Changhee

2013-12-01

175

Comment on ''High coercivity, isotropic plasma sprayed samarium-cobalt magnets''  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the experimental results obtained by Kumar et al. on plasma-sprayed Sm-Co alloys, which seem to refute the existence of a eutectoid decomposition of SmCo5, can actually be taken as further experimental evidence in favor of the presence of the decomposition reaction.

Buschow, K. H. J.; den Broeder, F. J. A.

1980-03-01

176

Different approaches to produce coatings with bioactive glasses: Enamelling vs plasma spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alternative approaches, enamelling and plasma spraying, were tested to deposit coatings made with two different bioactive glasses: the established Bioglass® 45S5, which is considered as a term of comparison, and the experimental BioK. The strong points and weaknesses of the two methods were highlighted. From the analysed samples, it resulted that the enamelling approach works well on thermally stable

V. Cannillo; A. Sola

2010-01-01

177

Optimization of Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process by Statistical Design of Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process, in which a solution precursor of the desired resultant material is fed\\u000a into a plasma jet by atomizing gas or high pressure, was developed in the 1990s and has been studied extensively since then.\\u000a Recently, it has been shown that the SPPS process is suitable for deposition of porous electrodes for solid oxide

Y. Wang; T. W. Coyle

2008-01-01

178

Improvement of wear resistance of plasma-sprayed molybdenum blend coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wear resistance of plasma sprayed molybdenum blend coatings applicable to synchronizer rings or piston rings was investigated in this study. Four spray powders, one of which was pure molybdenum and the others blended powders of bronze and aluminum-silicon alloy powders mixed with molybdenum powders, were sprayed on a low-carbon steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. Microstructural analysis of the coatings showed that the phases formed during spraying were relatively homogeneously distributed in the molybdenum matrix. The wear test results revealed that the wear rate of all the coatings increased with increasing wear load and that the blended coatings exhibited better wear resistance than the pure molybdenum coating, although the hardness was lower. In the pure molybdenum coatings, splats were readily fractured, or cracks were initiated between splats under high wear loads, thereby leading to the decrease in wear resistance. On the other hand, the molybdenum coating blended with bronze and aluminum-silicon alloy powders exhibited excellent wear resistance because hard phases such as CuAl2 and Cu9Al4 formed inside the coating.

Ahn, Jeehoon; Hwang, Byoungchul; Lee, Sunghak

2005-06-01

179

Improving the thermal shock resistance of plasma sprayed CYSZ thermal barrier coatings by laser surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, substrates of Inconel 738 LC superalloy coupons were first sprayed with a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat and then with a ceria and yttria stabilized zirconia (CYSZ) topcoat by air plasma spraying (APS). After that, the plasma sprayed CYSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were treated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The effects of laser glazing on the microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the coatings were evaluated. Thermal shock test was administered by holding specimens at 950 °C for 5 min and then water quenching. More than 20% of the spalled region of the surface of the topcoat was adopted as the criterion for the failure of samples. The microstructures of both the as processed and the tested TBCs were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phases of the coatings were analyzed with X-ray diffractometry (XRD). XRD analysis revealed that both as sprayed and laser glazed topcoats consisted of nonequilibrium tetragonal (T') phase. The results showed that the life times of the as sprayed TBCs were enhanced around fourfold by the formation of a continuous network of segmented cracks perpendicular to the surface and the increase in strain accommodation.

Ahmadi-Pidani, Raheleh; Shoja-Razavi, Reza; Mozafarinia, Reza; Jamali, Hossein

2012-05-01

180

Compositional Development as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma-Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. Part 2 of this article series investigated the effect of spray distance on the compositional development in Cr3C2-NiCr coatings during high-energy plasma spraying. The coating compositions were analyzed in detail and quantified through Rietveld fitting of the coating XRD patterns. Coating microstructural features were correlated with the observed variations in composition. The effect of the spray parameters and spray distance on the equilibrium coating compositions is discussed.

Matthews, S.

2015-02-01

181

Experiments of new plasma concepts for enhanced microwave vacuum electronics  

SciTech Connect

Recently new schemes have been proposed for plasma based microwave sources that could lead to output power increases by orders of magnitude, as well as offer new possibilities such as broad band tuning and frequency chirping, ultra-short pulse generation, pulse design, etc. In the first scheme, the static field of an alternatively biased capacitor is directly converted into short pulses of turnable electromagnetic (em) radiation upon transmission through a relativistic; under dense ionization front. The structure presently under investigation consists of pin pairs (capacitors) inserted into an X-band waveguide through its narrow sidewall and separated by 1.134 cm. The generated frequency is in the X-band frequency range (8.4--12.4 GHz) when operated with plasma densities between 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}. The output power is in the 100 W range with an applied voltage of 6 kV and is limited by high voltage (HV) breakdown inside the structure. Much higher output power levels are expected with the new, shorter pulse, HV pulser, since the output power is proportional to the square of the applied voltage. At larger plasma densities, generation of a higher order mode traveling in the backward direction is also observed. In the second scheme, a fraction of the large amplitude electrostatic (es) wave generated in a plasma beat wave acceleration (PBWA) experiment (up to 3 GeV/m) is converted into em radiation by applying a static magnetic field perpendicularly to the driving laser beam. The two-frequency CO{sub 2} laser beam resonantly drives the es wave, and couples to the L branch of the XO mode of the magnetized plasma through Cherenkov radiation. The radiation is emitted predominantly in the forward direction (direction of the laser beam), and is at the plasma frequency (n{sub c} {approximately}10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}, f{approximately}1 THz). With an applied magnetic field of 6 kG the output power is calculated to be in the megawatt range (for a sharp plasma/vacuum boundary). The parameters of the emitted radiation will also be used as a diagnostic for the plasma wave of a PBWA experiment, measuring its amplitude, phase, lifetime, etc. Design and experimental results are presented.

Muggli, P.; Hoffman, J.R.; Yampolsky, J.; Cordell, J.F.; Gundersen, M.A.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

1999-07-01

182

The durability of adhesively bonded titanium: Performance of plasma-sprayed polymeric coating pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The role of a surface treatment of an adherend is to promote highly stable adhesive-adherend interactions; high stability is accomplished by making the chemistry of the adherend and adhesive compatible. The common surface preparations used to enhance durability include grit blasting, chromic acid or sodium hydroxide anodization, and other chemical treatments for titanium. As interest has grown in the development of environmentally benign surface treatments, other methods have been explored. In this study, plasma-sprayed polymeric materials have been evaluated as a surface coating pretreatment for adhesively bonding titanium alloy. Polyimide and polyether powders were plasm-sprayed onto grit-blasted titanium-6Al-4V. The alloy was adhesively bonded using a high performance polyimide adhesive. The coating was characterized using surface sensitive analytical measurements. The durability performance of the plasma-sprayed adherends was compared to the performance for chromic acid anodized titanium. Among the plasma-sprayed coatings, a LaRC-TPI polyimide-based coating exhibited performance comparable to that for chromic acid anodized specimens.

Jackson, F.; Dillard, J.; Dillard, D. [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

183

Progress on Searching Optimal Thermal Spray Parameters for Magnesium Silicide Gaosheng Fu1  

E-print Network

coatings prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spray (APS), and Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) are presented. Seebeck higher Seebeck coefficient than APS which may due to lower level of oxidization. Key words S is the Seebeck coefficient; is the electrical conductivity; k is the thermal conductivity; and T is the absolute

Zuo, Lei

184

Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations ?L?80fs is found, while this is not the case when a hot Maxwellian electron distribution is assumed.

Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor; Kaluza, Malte C.

2013-04-01

185

Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution.  

PubMed

The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations ?(L)

Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor; Kaluza, Malte C

2013-04-01

186

Study of atmospheric plasma spray process with the emphasis on gas-shrouded nozzles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An atmospheric plasma spraying process is investigated in this work by using experimental approach and mathematical modelling. Emphasis was put on the gas shrouded nozzles, their design, and the protection against the mixing with the surrounding air, which they give to the plasma jet. First part of the thesis is dedicated to the analysis of enthalpy probe method, as a major diagnostic tool in this work. Systematic error in measuring the stagnation pressure, due to a big temperature difference between the plasma and the water-cooled probe, is investigated here. Parallel measurements with the enthalpy probe and an uncooled ceramic probe were performed. Also, numerical experiments were conducted, using the k-? model of turbulence. Based on the obtained results, a compensating algorithm for the above error is suggested. Major objective of the thesis was to study the plasma spraying process, and potential benefits from using the gas shrouded nozzles. Mathematical modelling was used to perform the parametric study on the flow pattern inside these nozzles. Two nozzles were used: a commercial conical nozzle, and a custom-made curvilinear nozzle. The later is aimed towards elimination of the cold air entrainment, recorded for the conical nozzle. Also, parametric study on the shrouding gas and its interaction with the plasma jet was carried out. Two modes of the shrouding gas injection were tested: through sixteen injection ports, and through a continuous slot, surrounding the plasma jet. Both nozzles and both injection modes were thoroughly tested, experimentally and numerically. The curvilinear nozzle completely eliminates the cold air entrainment and yields significantly higher plasma temperature. Also, injection through the continuous slot resulted in a much better protection of the plasma jet. Both nozzles were used to perform the spraying tests. Obtained coatings were tested on porosity, adhesion strength, and micro- structure. These tests indicated better micro-structure of the coatings sprayed by the curvilinear nozzle. Also, their porosity was significantly lower, and the adhesion strength was higher for more than 25%. The overall results suggest that the curvilinear nozzles represent a much better solution for the gas shrouded plasma spraying.

Jankovic, Miodrag M.

187

Plasma Spray Synthesis Of Nanostructured V2O5 Films For Electrical Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate for the first time, the synthesis of nanostructured vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) films and coatings using plasma spray technique. V2O5 has been used in several applications such as catalysts, super-capacitors and also as an electrode material in lithium ion batteries. In the present studies, V2O5 films were synthesized using liquid precursors (vanadium oxychloride and ammonium metavanadate) and powder suspension. In our approach, the precursors were atomized and injected radially into the plasma gun for deposition on the substrates. During the flight towards the substrate, the high temperature of the plasma plume pyrolyzes the precursor particles resulting into the desired film coatings. These coatings were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Among the precursors, vanadium oxychloride gave the best results in terms of nanocrystalline and monophasic films. Spraying of commercial powder suspension yielded multi-phasic mixture in the films. Our approach enables deposition of large area coatings of high quality nanocrystalline films of V2O5 with controllable particle morphology. This has been optimized by means of control over precursor composition and plasma spray conditions. Initial electrochemical studies of V2O5 film electrodes show potential for energy storage studies.

Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL

2011-01-01

188

Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

2012-06-01

189

Fabrication and Characterization of Amorphous Alumina-Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings by Air Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost fully amorphous coatings of near-eutectic alumina-yttria-stabilized zirconia (Al2O3-YSZ) were prepared by air plasma spraying using Al2O3 and 8 mol.% YSZ crystalline-mixed powders. The coatings consist of mostly an amorphous phase with a small amount of nanocrystals. Various characterization techniques were used to understand coating formation and the origins of the different phases within the coatings. The formation of the mostly amorphous structure is attributed to the high glass-forming ability of Al2O3-YSZ and the appropriate plasma spraying conditions. A small number of nanocrystals are produced during crystallization of the incoming molten droplets or by recrystallization of the solidified splats by accumulated heat. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the coatings have a dense, layered structure with low porosity, and bright-field transmission electron microscopy images indicate sharp interface rather than grit-blasted wavy surface between splats and substrates in the coatings. The as-sprayed amorphous coatings crystallized at around 920 °C and micro-hardness of the as-sprayed amorphous coatings was 8.12 GPa.

Song, Xuemei; Suhonen, Tomi; Varis, Tommi; Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin; Zeng, Yi

2014-12-01

190

MCrAlY Bondcoats by High-Velocity Atmospheric Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MCrAlY bondcoats (M = Co, Ni) are used to protect metallic substrates from oxidation and to improve adhesion of ceramic thermal barrier coatings for high temperature applications, such as in land-based and aviation turbines. Since MCrAlYs are prone to take up oxygen during thermal spraying, bondcoats often are manufactured under inert gas conditions at low pressure. Plasma spraying at atmospheric conditions is a cost-effective alternative if it would be possible to limit the oxygen uptake as well as to obtain sufficiently dense microstructures. In the present work, high-velocity spray parameters were developed for the TriplexPro 210 three-cathode plasma torch using MCrAlY powders of different particle size fractions to achieve these objectives. The aims are conflictive since the former requires cold conditions, whereas the latter is obtained by more elevated particle temperatures. High particle velocities can solve this divergence as they imply shorter time for oxidation during flight and contribute to coating densification by kinetic rather than thermal energy. Further aims of the experimental work were high deposition efficiencies as well as sufficient surface roughness. The oxidation behavior of the sprayed coatings was characterized by thermal gravimetric analyses and isothermal heat treatments.

Mauer, G.; Sebold, D.; Vaßen, R.

2014-01-01

191

The evolution of ion charge states in cathodic vacuum arc plasmas: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cathodic vacuum arc plasmas are known to contain multiply charged ions. Twenty years after ‘Pressure ionization: its role in metal vapour vacuum arc plasmas and ion sources’ appeared in volume 1 of Plasma Sources Science and Technology, this is a great opportunity to re-visit the issue of pressure ionization, a non-ideal plasma effect, and put it in perspective to the many other factors that influence observable charge state distributions, such as the role of the cathode material, the path in the density-temperature phase diagram, the ‘noise’ in vacuum arc plasma as described by a fractal model approach, the effects of external magnetic fields and charge exchange collisions with neutrals. A much more complex image of the vacuum arc plasma emerges, putting decades of experimentation and modeling in perspective.

Anders, André

2012-06-01

192

Plasma-sprayed boron carbide coatings for first-wall protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-sprayed boron carbide coatings have been manufactured by different suppliers onto substrates of type 316L stainless steel. The coating thickness ranges from 0.3 to 2.0 mm. The larger thicknesses could only be achieved by application of an adaptive or gradient bond-layer between substrate and the boron carbide top coating. Measurements of the thermal diffusivity of coating materials are reported. Several high heat flux facilities have been used to study the thermal shock and erosion behaviour of the coated samples. A supporting numerical analysis of the thermal behaviour of the coating under normal and off-normal heat loads is presented, focussing on the differences between electron beam and laser beam tests due to volumetric energy deposition. Some aspects of the applicability of plasma sprayed B 4C coatings for first-wall protection in a next step device are discussed.

van der Laan, J. G.; Schnedecker, G.; van Osch, E. V.; Duwe, R.; Linke, J.

1994-08-01

193

Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying  

SciTech Connect

The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

Helminiak, M. A. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yanar, N. M. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Pettit, F. S. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Taylor, T. A. [Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc., Indianapolis, IN (United States); Meier, G. H. [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2012-10-01

194

Deposition and Characteristics of Submicrometer-Structured Thermal Barrier Coatings by Suspension Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbines, suspension plasma sprayed (SPS) submicrometer-structured coatings often show unique mechanical, thermal, and optical properties compared to conventional atmospheric plasma sprayed ones. They have thus the potential of providing increased TBC performances under severe thermo-mechanical loading. Experimental results showed the capability of SPS to obtain yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with very fine porosity and high density of vertical segmentation cracks, yielding high strain tolerance, and low Young's modulus. The evolution of the coating microstructure and properties during thermal cycling test at very high surface temperature (1400 °C) in our burner rigs and under isothermal annealing was investigated. Results showed that, while segmentation cracks survive, sintering occurs quickly during the first hours of exposure, leading to pore coarsening and stiffening of the coating. In-situ measurements at 1400 °C of the elastic modulus were performed to investigate in more detail the sintering-related stiffening.

Guignard, Alexandre; Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev

2012-06-01

195

Hybrid Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Powder and Solution Precursor Feedstock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel approach of hybridizing the conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) technique with the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) route to achieve thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with tailored configurations is presented. Such a hybrid process can be conveniently adopted for forming composite, multi-layered and graded coatings employing simultaneous and/or sequential feeding of solution precursor as well as powder feedstock, yielding distinct TBC microstructures that bear promise to further extend coating durability. TBC specimens generated using conventional APS technique, the SPPS method and through APS-SPPS hybrid processing have been comprehensively characterized for microstructure, phase constitution, hardness and thermal cycling life, and the results were compared to demonstrate the advantages that can ensue from hybrid processing.

Joshi, S. V.; Sivakumar, G.; Raghuveer, T.; Dusane, R. O.

2014-04-01

196

Behavior of porosity and copper oxidation in W/Cu composite produced by plasma spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spherical tungsten (W)/copper (Cu) composite powder was plasma-sprayed onto a boron-nitride-coated graphite substrate to produce heat sink material for the electronic packaging by atmospheric plasma spray using different input powers. At the surface of the deposited layer, Cu became oxidized to cuprite (Cu2O). The degree of oxidation at the surface layer did not vary significantly with input power. Very little Cu2O was detected at the inner layers after grinding off the 70 µm from the surface. The input powers had a strong effect on the porosity in the deposit layers. The porosity in the deposit layers at 25 kW was very small, about 3 vol%. The microstructures of W/Cu composite were discussed.

Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

2004-06-01

197

Self-lubricating plasma-sprayed composites for sliding contact bearings to 900 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-sprayed composites which have good oxidation-resistance and self-lubricating characteristics to 900 C were developed. The composites are a Nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. They are applied to bearing surfaces in layers about 0.050 cm thick by plasma-spraying; the layers are then machined to a thickness of 0.025 cm. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 3.5 times 10 to the 7th power Newtons per square meter (5000 psi) and a thrust load of 1960 Newtons (440 lb). Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated bearing temperature cycles between 25 and 900 C.

Sliney, H. E.

1974-01-01

198

Plasma-Etching of Spray-Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films for Biointerfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an effective method for the batch fabrication of miniaturized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film electrodes using oxygen plasma etching. We adopted the approach of spray-coating for good adhesion of the SWCNT film onto a pre-patterned Pt support and used O2 plasma patterning of the coated films to realize efficient biointerfaces between SWCNT surfaces and biomolecules. By these approaches, the SWCNT film can be easily integrated into miniaturized electrode systems. To demonstrate the effectiveness of plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes as biointerfaces, Legionella antibody was selected as analysis model owing to its considerable importance to electrochemical biosensors and was detected using plasma-etched SWCNT film electrodes and a 3,3',5,5'-tetramethyl-benzidine dihydrochloride/horseradish peroxidase (TMB/HRP) catalytic system. The response currents increased with increasing concentration of Legionella antibody. This result indicates that antibodies were effectively immobilized on plasma-etched and activated SWCNT surfaces.

Hyub Kim, Joon; Lee, Jun-Yong; Min, Nam Ki

2012-08-01

199

Abrasive wear resistance of plasma-sprayed tungsten carbide–cobalt coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma-sprayed coatings were produced by both air (APS) and low-pressure (VPS) methods from powders containing tungsten carbide with 9, 12 and 17wt% Co. Abrasive wear tests under conditions of low stress (with a rubber wheel) and high stress (steel wheel) were performed with 100–150-?m abrasive silica sand on the coatings as well as on low-carbon steel control samples at loads

H Chen; I. M Hutchings

1998-01-01

200

Microstructural study of aluminum phosphate-sealed, plasma-sprayed chromium oxide coating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructural characterization of aluminum phosphate-sealed, plasma-sprayed chromium oxide coating was carried out in order\\u000a to study the strengthening mechanisms of the aluminum phosphate sealant in the coating. Characterization was performed using\\u000a x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The structure of the\\u000a sealed coating was lamellar with columnar ?-Cr2O3 grains extending through the lamella thickness. Amorphous aluminum

Minnamari Vippola; Samppa Ahmaniemi; Petri Vuoristo; Toivo Lepistö; Tapio Mäntylä; Eva Olsson

2002-01-01

201

Phase composition and in-vitro bioactivity of plasma sprayed calcia stabilized zirconia coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconia coatings stabilized with different calcia content (12.8 mol%, 16 mol% and 30 mol%) were fabricated on titanium alloy substrates using atmospheric plasma spraying technology. The in-vitro bioactivity of coatings was evaluated by simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test. The morphology and phase composition of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro Raman spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry

Guocheng Wang; Xuanyong Liu; Chuanxian Ding

2008-01-01

202

Monitoring Delamination of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings by Reflectance-Enhanced Luminescence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly scattering plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) present a challenge for optical diagnostic methods to monitor TBC delamination because scattering attenuates light transmitted through the TBC and usually degrades contrast between attached and delaminated regions of the TBC. This paper presents a new approach where reflectance-enhanced luminescence from a luminescent sublayer incorporated along the bottom of the TBC is used to identify regions of TBC delamination. Because of the higher survival rate of luminescence reflecting off the back surface of a delaminated TBC, the strong scattering exhibited by plasma-sprayed TBCs actually accentuates contrast between attached and delaminated regions by making it more likely that multiple reflections of luminescence off the back surface occur before exiting the top surface of the TBC. A freestanding coating containing sections designed to model an attached or delaminated TBC was prepared by depositing a luminescent Eu-doped or Er-doped yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) luminescent layer below a plasma-sprayed undoped YSZ layer and utilizing a NiCr backing layer to represent an attached substrate. For specimens with a Eu-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer, luminescence intensity maps showed excellent contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections even at a plasma-sprayed overlayer thickness of 300 m. Discernable contrast between unbacked and NiCr-backed sections was not observed for specimens with a Er-doped YSZ luminescent sublayer because luminescence from Er impurities in the undoped YSZ layer overwhelmed luminescence originating form the Er-doped YSZ sublayer.

Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Bencic, Timothy J.

2006-01-01

203

Wear behaviour of laser cladded and plasma sprayed WC?Co coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of WC?Co cermets as wear resistant material for coatings is determined by the cladding technique employed. This paper compares the features of an 83% WC?Co coating on an AISI 1043 steel substrate using two different application techniques: plasma spraying and laser cladding. Results show significantly less porosity, improved coating hardness and better layer-substrate adherence in laser cladded than

M. Cadenas; R. Vijande; H. J. Montes; J. M. Sierra

1997-01-01

204

Effect of Coating Process Condition on High-Temperature Oxidation and Mechanical Failure Behavior for Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to clarify the thermal and/or mechanical failure behavior of the plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) system in connection with their coating characteristics depending on the coating process condition, two kinds of the failure analytical tests were conducted for TBC systems processed under different conditions. One was the high-temperature oxidation test, which was conducted at 1100°C under both the isothermal and thermal cycle conditions. The other was the in-situ observation of mechanical failure behavior, which was conducted under the static loadings at ambient temperature; as the most fundamental aspect, by means of an optical microscopy. It was found that the thermal and mechanical failure behavior of TBC system depends strongly on the top-coat (TC)/bond-coat (BC) interfacial condition, the reheat-treatment (RHT) after spraying and so on. For the TBC system with vacuum plasma sprayed (VPS) BC as well as for that with atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) BC, in particular, the RHT at an appropriate temperature in Ar atmosphere was found to be effective for improving the oxidation property. For the TBC system with APS-BC, however, it was impossible to prevent the crack growth into the BC interior under the tensile loading in spite of conducting the RHT, since the microdefects such as oxides within the APS-BC tend to provide an easy crack propagation path. Furthermore, it was clarified that the smoothening process on the BC surface is able to prevent perfectly the occurrence of the wart-like oxide during oxidation, but at the same time increases also the risk of the TC spalling under the mechanical loading.

Takahashi, Satoru; Yoshiba, Masayuki; Harada, Yoshio

205

Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

2014-08-01

206

On characterisation of wire-arc-plasma-sprayed Ni on alumina substrate  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out on metal-ceramic bonding produced by the technique of wire-arc-plasma spraying of Ni on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate. The Ni layer and the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface were characterised using optical and electro-optic techniques. The plasma-deposited Ni layer shows a uniform lamellar microstructure throughout the cross-section. The metal-ceramic interface was found to be well bonded with no pores, flaws or cracks in the as-sprayed condition. The optical metallography and concentration profiles established with the help of an electron probe microanalyser confirmed the absence of any intermediate phase at the interface. An annealing treatment at 1273 K for 24 h on the plasma-coated samples did not result in formation of any intermetallic compound or spinel at the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface. This indicates that the oxygen picked up by Ni during the spraying operation is less than the threshold value required to form the spinel NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

Laik, A. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chakravarthy, D.P. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kale, G.B. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)]. E-mail: gbkale@apsara.barc.ernet.in

2005-08-15

207

Columnar-Structured Mg-Al-Spinel Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process has been developed to permit the feeding of sub-micrometer-sized powder into the plasma plume. In contrast to electron beam-physical vapor deposition and plasma spray-physical vapor deposition, SPS enables the cost-efficient deposition of columnar-structured coatings. Due to their strain tolerance, these coatings play an important role in the field of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). In addition to the cost-efficient process, attention was turned to the TBC material. Nowadays, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as standard TBC material. However, its long-term application at temperatures higher than 1200 °C is problematic. At these high temperatures, phase transitions and sintering effects lead to the degradation of the TBC system. To overcome those deficits of YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel was chosen as TBC material. Even though it has a lower melting point (~2135 °C) and a higher thermal conductivity (~2.5 W/m/K) than YSZ, Mg-Al-spinel provides phase stability at high temperatures in contrast to YSZ. The Mg-Al-spinel deposition by SPS resulted in columnar-structured coatings, which have been tested for their thermal cycling lifetime. Furthermore, the influence of substrate cooling during the spraying process on thermal cycling behavior, phase composition, and stoichiometry of the Mg-Al-spinel has been investigated.

Schlegel, N.; Ebert, S.; Mauer, G.; Vaßen, R.

2015-01-01

208

Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of Ni(Al)-Reinforced Nanocomposite Plasma Spray Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical and tribological behavior and microstructural evolutions of the Ni(Al)-reinforced nanocomposite plasma spray coatings were studied. At first, the feedstock Ni(Al)-15 wt.% (Al2O3-13% TiO2) nanocomposite powders were prepared using low-energy mechanical milling of the pure Ni and Al powders as well as Al2O3-13% TiO2 nanoparticle mixtures. The characteristics of the powder particles and the prepared coatings depending on their microstructures were examined in detail. The results showed that the feedstock powders after milling contained only ?-Ni solid solution with no trace of the intermetallic phase. However, under the air plasma spraying conditions, the NiAl intermetallic phase in the ?-Ni solid solution matrix appeared. The lack of nickel aluminide formation during low-energy ball milling is beneficial hence, the exothermic reaction can occur between Ni and Al during plasma spraying, improving the adhesive strength of the nanocomposite coatings. The results also indicated that the microhardness of the ?-Ni phase was 3.91 ± 0.23 GPa and the NiAl intermetallic phase had a mean microhardness of 5.69 ± 0.12 GPa. The high microhardness of the nanocomposite coatings must be due to the presence of the reinforcing nanoparticles. Due to the improvement in mechanical properties, the Ni(Al) nanocomposite coatings showed significant modifications in wear resistance with low frictional coefficient.

Movahedi, B.

2014-02-01

209

Plasma mass-charge composition of a vacuum arc with deuterium saturated zirconium cathode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study of the mass-charge composition of a vacuum arc plasma with zirconium cathode saturated with deuterium is carried out. It is shown that this system provides effective generation of deuterium ions with an integral fraction of about 60% per pulse of an arc current. The deuterium content in a vacuum arc plasma is maximum in the initial stage of discharge burning and considerably decreases during the first 150 ?s of an arc current pulse. The cathode deuteration also leads to decreasing average ion charge of metallic substrate in the plasma of a vacuum arc discharge.

Yushkov, G. Yu.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Frolova, V. P.; Oks, E. M.; Rumyantsev, G. S.; Barengolts, S. A.

2014-12-01

210

Mechanical Behavior of Air Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Functionally Graded Mullite Coatings Investigated via Instrumented Indentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-mullite multilayer architectures with compositional grading between the bond coat and YSZ top coat are envisioned as solutions to ease their coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch induced stress. In this work, two different types of mullite powder (spray-dried and freeze-granulated) and a mullite-YSZ 75/25 vol.% mixture spray-dried powder were employed. Using instrumented indentation with loads between 10 and 500 mN, the role of the powder characteristics on the mechanical behavior of air plasma-sprayed mullite bond coats deposited on SiC substrates was investigated. Hardness ( H) and elastic modulus ( E) were measured for the as-sprayed coatings and for coatings heat-treated at 1300 °C, in water vapor environment, for periods up to 500 h. Both H and E values of the coatings are found to be highly dependent on the size distribution of the starting powders. It is aimed the fabrication of an efficient and cost-effective EBC prototype based on YSZ compositionally graded mullite.

Cojocaru, C. V.; Wang, Y.; Moreau, C.; Lima, R. S.; Mesquita-Guimarães, J.; Garcia, E.; Miranzo, P.; Osendi, M. I.

2011-01-01

211

Carbide Dissolution/Carbon Loss as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. In Part 1 of this two-part article series, the effect of spray distance on the extent of carbide dissolution and carbon loss during high energy plasma spraying was investigated. The effectiveness of solid shield and gas shrouding is contrasted, and the mechanisms by which they influence the degree of decarburization discussed.

Matthews, S.

2015-02-01

212

Carbide Dissolution/Carbon Loss as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. In Part 1 of this two-part article series, the effect of spray distance on the extent of carbide dissolution and carbon loss during high energy plasma spraying was investigated. The effectiveness of solid shield and gas shrouding is contrasted, and the mechanisms by which they influence the degree of decarburization discussed.

Matthews, S.

2015-01-01

213

Direct current plasma spraying of mechanofused alumina-steel particles M. Bouneder, H. Ageorges, M. El Ganaoui, B. Pateyron, P. Fauchais,  

E-print Network

to modeling of the plasma jet and its fluctuations, the cold air engulfment[1-4] , the particle injection[5 and manufactured by mechanofusion) were sprayed with an Ar-H2 (53-7 slm) d.c. plasma jet (I = 500 A, P = 28 kW, th, heat propagation, phase changes 1. Introduction In atmospheric plasma spraying, many parameters can

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

214

Neutron and X-ray diffraction of plasma-sprayed zirconia-yttria thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ZrO2-7.8mol. pct. YO1.5, a fused powder, and ZrO2-8.7mol. pct. YO1.5, a prereacted powder, were plasma-sprayed onto steel substrates. Neutron diffraction and X-ray diffraction of the as-received powder, the powder plasma sprayed into water, as-sprayed coatings, and coatings heat-treated for 10 and 100 h were carried out to study phase transformations and ordering of the oxygen ions on the oxygen sublattice. The as-received fused powder has a much lower monoclinic percentage than does the pre-reacted powder, this resulting in a much lower monoclinic percentage in the coating. Heat treatment increases the percentages of the cubic and monoclinic phases, while decreasing the tetragonal content. An ordered tetragonal phase is detected by the presence of extra neutron diffraction peaks. These phase transformations and ordering will result in volume changes. The implications of these transformations on the performance of partially stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings is discussed.

Shankar, N. R.; Herman, H.; Singhal, S. P.; Berndt, C. C.

1984-01-01

215

Column Formation in Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatings and Resultant Thermal Properties  

SciTech Connect

The suspension plasma spray (SPS) process was used to produce coatings from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders with median diameters of 15 {micro}m and 80 nm. The powder-ethanol suspensions made with 15-{micro}m diameter YSZ particles formed coatings with microstructures typical of the air plasma spray (APS) process, while suspensions made with 80-nm diameter YSZ powder yielded a coarse columnar microstructure not observed in APS coatings. To explain the formation mechanisms of these different microstructures, a hypothesis is presented which relates the dependence of YSZ droplet flight paths on droplet diameter to variations in deposition behavior. The thermal conductivity (k{sub th}) of columnar SPS coatings was measured as a function of temperature in the as-sprayed condition and after a 50 h, 1200 C heat treatment. Coatings produced from suspensions containing 80 nm YSZ particles at powder concentrations of 2, 8, and 11 wt.% exhibited significantly different k{sub th} values. These differences are connected to microstructural variations between the SPS coatings produced by the three suspension formulations. Heat treatment increased the k{sub th} of the coatings generated from suspensions containing 2 and 11 wt.% of 80 nm YSZ powder, but this k{sub th} increase was less than has been observed in APS coatings.

VanEvery, Kent; Krane, Matthew J.M.; Trice, Rodney W; Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace; Besser, Matthew; Sordelet, Daniel; Ilavsky, Jan; Almer, Jonathan

2012-03-19

216

Nano Structured Plasma Spray Coating for Wear and High Temperature Corrosion Resistance Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nano structured coating is a major challenge today to improve the different mechanical properties, wear and high temperature corrosion resistance behaviour of different industrial alloys. This paper is a review on synthesis of nano powder, plasma spraying methods, techniques of nano structured coating by plasma spray method, mechanical properties, tribological properties and high temperature corrosion behaviour of nano structured coating. Nano structured coatings of ceramic powders/composites are being developed for wide variety of applications like boiler, turbine and aerospace industries, which requires the resistance against wear, corrosion, erosion etc. The nano sized powders are subjected to agglomeration by spray drying, after which nano structured coating can be successfully applied over the substrate. Nano structured coating shows improved mechanical wear resistance and high temperature corrosion resistance. The significant improvement of wear and corrosion resistance is mainly attributed to formation of semi molten nano zones in case of nano structured coatings. The future scope of application of nano structured coating has also been highlighted in this paper.

Ghosh, D.; Shukla, A. K.; Roy, H.

2014-04-01

217

Atmosphere Plasma-Sprayed Carbon Nanotubes/Cordierite Nanocomposite Coatings for Microwave Absorption Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/cordierite (MAS) nanocomposite coatings with different MWCNT contents were prepared via atmosphere plasma spraying method. The characteristics of the MWCNTs/MAS powders and as-sprayed coatings, such as microstructure and phase constitution, were observed and measured. The dielectric properties and microwave absorption properties of MWCNTs/MAS powders and nanocomposite coatings have been investigated at the frequency of 8.2-12.4 GHz with different MWCNT contents and sample thicknesses. When the MWCNT content increased to 7%, the nanocomposite coating revealed the highest dielectric constant and optimal microwave absorption property. Further increase in MWCNT content led to severe oxidation of MWCNTs during the plasma spray process, which resulted in lower dielectric constants and poor microwave absorption property. Moreover, the sample thickness has a noticeable influence on the reflection loss (RL) of the MWCNTs/MAS coatings, and the coating of 2.4-mm thickness shows optical microwave absorption with a minimum RL of -15.61 dB and bandwidth of 2.35 GHz.

Su, Jinbu; Zhou, Wancheng; Liu, Yi; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

2014-10-01

218

Fabrication of gas turbine water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware employing plasma spray process  

DOEpatents

In the method for fabrication of water-cooled composite nozzle and bucket hardware for high temperature gas turbines, a high thermal conductivity copper alloy is applied, employing a high velocity/low pressure (HV/LP) plasma arc spraying process, to an assembly comprising a structural framework of copper alloy or a nickel-based super alloy, or combination of the two, and overlying cooling tubes. The copper alloy is plamsa sprayed to a coating thickness sufficient to completely cover the cooling tubes, and to allow for machining back of the copper alloy to create a smooth surface having a thickness of from 0.010 inch (0.254 mm) to 0.150 inch (3.18 mm) or more. The layer of copper applied by the plasma spraying has no continuous porosity, and advantageously may readily be employed to sustain a pressure differential during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding of the overall structure to enhance bonding by solid state diffusion between the component parts of the structure.

Schilke, Peter W. (4 Hempshire Ct., Scotia, NY 12302); Muth, Myron C. (R.D. #3, Western Ave., Amsterdam, NY 12010); Schilling, William F. (301 Garnsey Rd., Rexford, NY 12148); Rairden, III, John R. (6 Coronet Ct., Schenectady, NY 12309)

1983-01-01

219

High-power hybrid plasma spraying of large yttria-stabilized zirconia powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To testify to the advantage of large ceramic powder spraying, numerical simulations and experimental studies on the behavior of large yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder in a high-power hybrid plasma spraying process have been carried out. Numeric predictions and experimental results showed that, with the high radio frequency (RF) input power of 100 kW, the most refractory YSZ powder with particle sizes as large as 88 ?m could be fully melted and well-flattened splats could be formed. A large degree of flattening (?) of 4.7 has been achieved. The improved adhesive strength between the large splat and the substrate was confirmed based on the measurement of the crack density inside of the splats. A thick YSZ coating >300 ?m was successfully deposited on a large CoNiCrAlY-coated Inconel substrate (50×50×4 mm in size). The ultradense microstructure without clear boundaries between the splats and the clean and crack-free interface between the top-coat and the bond-coat also indicate the good adhesion. These results showed that highpower hybrid plasma spraying of large ceramic powder is a very promising process for deposition of highquality coatings, especially in the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

Huang, Heji; Eguchi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Toyonobu

2006-03-01

220

Column formation in suspension plasma-sprayed coatings and resultant thermal properties.  

SciTech Connect

The suspension plasma spray (SPS) process was used to produce coatings from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders with median diameters of 15 {micro}m and 80 nm. The powder-ethanol suspensions made with 15-{micro}m diameter YSZ particles formed coatings with microstructures typical of the air plasma spray (APS) process, while suspensions made with 80-nm diameter YSZ powder yielded a coarse columnar microstructure not observed in APS coatings. To explain the formation mechanisms of these different microstructures, a hypothesis is presented which relates the dependence of YSZ droplet flight paths on droplet diameter to variations in deposition behavior. The thermal conductivity (k th) of columnar SPS coatings was measured as a function of temperature in the as-sprayed condition and after a 50 h, 1200 C heat treatment. Coatings produced from suspensions containing 80 nm YSZ particles at powder concentrations of 2, 8, and 11 wt.% exhibited significantly different k th values. These differences are connected to microstructural variations between the SPS coatings produced by the three suspension formulations. Heat treatment increased the k th of the coatings generated from suspensions containing 2 and 11 wt.% of 80 nm YSZ powder, but this k th increase was less than has been observed in APS coatings.

Van Every, K.; Krane, M. J. M.; Trice, R. W.; Wang, H.; Porter, W.; Besser, M.; Sordelet, D.; Ilavsky, J.; Almer, J. (Purdue Univ.); (ORNL); (Ames Lab.)

2011-06-01

221

Column Formation in Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coatings and Resultant Thermal Properties  

SciTech Connect

The suspension plasma spray (SPS) process was used to produce coatings from yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powders with median diameters of 15 {micro}m and 80 nm. The powder-ethanol suspensions made with 15-{micro}m diameter YSZ particles formed coatings with microstructures typical of the air plasma spray (APS) process, while suspensions made with 80-nm diameter YSZ powder yielded a coarse columnar microstructure not observed in APS coatings. To explain the formation mechanisms of these different microstructures, a hypothesis is presented which relates the dependence of YSZ droplet flight paths on droplet diameter to variations in deposition behavior. The thermal conductivity (k th) of columnar SPS coatings was measured as a function of temperature in the as-sprayed condition and after a 50 h, 1200 C heat treatment. Coatings produced from suspensions containing 80 nm YSZ particles at powder concentrations of 2, 8, and 11 wt.% exhibited significantly different k th values. These differences are connected to microstructural variations between the SPS coatings produced by the three suspension formulations. Heat treatment increased the k th of the coatings generated from suspensions containing 2 and 11 wt.% of 80 nm YSZ powder, but this k th increase was less than has been observed in APS coatings.

Van Every, Kent [Purdue University; Krane, Matthew [Purdue University; Trice, Rodney [Purdue University; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Besser, Matthew [Ames Laboratory; Sordelet, Daniel [Ames Laboratory; Ilavsky, Dr. Jan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Almer, Jon [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

2011-01-01

222

A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Suspension Plasma Spray Impinging on a Flat Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension feedstock in plasma spraying is an emerging process for producing coatings with enhanced characteristics. Sub-micron up to few micron-sized particles are suspended in a liquid and injected into the plasma plume. After suspension's breakup and evaporation, molten and semi-molten fine particles are deposited on a substrate. Particle conditions upon impact (i.e., trajectory, velocity, and temperature) as well as substrate location and shape have key influences on the adhesion and quality of the coatings. In the current study, a three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the plasma jet, droplet/particle trajectory, velocity, and temperature. To model the turbulence and the effect of substrate on the flow field, Reynolds Stress Model is used. In addition, Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor breakup model is employed to predict the secondary breakup of the suspension. The focus of this work is on the particles behavior near the substrate. Flat substrates placed at standoff distances ranging from 40 to 60 mm are modeled to provide detailed information on the coating particles upon impact using suspension plasma spraying.

Jadidi, M.; Mousavi, M.; Moghtadernejad, S.; Dolatabadi, A.

2014-10-01

223

A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Suspension Plasma Spray Impinging on a Flat Substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension feedstock in plasma spraying is an emerging process for producing coatings with enhanced characteristics. Sub-micron up to few micron-sized particles are suspended in a liquid and injected into the plasma plume. After suspension's breakup and evaporation, molten and semi-molten fine particles are deposited on a substrate. Particle conditions upon impact (i.e., trajectory, velocity, and temperature) as well as substrate location and shape have key influences on the adhesion and quality of the coatings. In the current study, a three-dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the plasma jet, droplet/particle trajectory, velocity, and temperature. To model the turbulence and the effect of substrate on the flow field, Reynolds Stress Model is used. In addition, Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor breakup model is employed to predict the secondary breakup of the suspension. The focus of this work is on the particles behavior near the substrate. Flat substrates placed at standoff distances ranging from 40 to 60 mm are modeled to provide detailed information on the coating particles upon impact using suspension plasma spraying.

Jadidi, M.; Mousavi, M.; Moghtadernejad, S.; Dolatabadi, A.

2015-01-01

224

Vapors and Droplets Mixture Deposition of Metallic Coatings by Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the very low pressure plasma-spraying (VLPPS) process has been intensely developed and implemented to manufacture thin, dense and finely structured ceramic coatings for various applications, such as Y2O3 for diffusion barriers, among other examples. This paper aims at presenting developments carried out on metallic coatings. Aluminum was chosen as a demonstrative material due to its "moderate" vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 38.23 KJ cm-3) compared to the one of copper (i.e., 55.33 KJ cm-3), cobalt (i.e., 75.03 KJ cm-3), or even tantalum (i.e., 87.18 KJ cm-3). The objective of this work is primarily to better understand the behavior of a solid precursor injected into the plasma jet leading to the formation of vapors and to better control the factors affecting the coating structure. Nearly dense aluminum coatings were successfully deposited by VLPPS at 100 Pa with an intermediate power plasma torch (i.e., Sulzer Metco F4 type gun with maximum power of 45 kW). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to study and analyze the vapor behavior into the plasma jet. Simplified CFD modeling allowed better understanding of some of the thermo-physical mechanisms. The effect of powder-size distribution, substrate temperature and spray distance were studied. The phase composition and microstructural features of the coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. Moreover, Vickers microhardness measurements were implemented.

Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Bolot, R.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

2014-04-01

225

Method for minimizing decarburization and other high temperature oxygen reactions in a plasma sprayed material  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for spray coating material which employs a plasma gun that has a cathode, an anode, an arc gas inlet, a first powder injection port, and a second powder injection port. A suitable arc gas is introduced through the arc gas inlet, and ionization of the arc gas between the cathode and the anode forms a plasma. The plasma is directed to emenate from an open-ended chamber defined by the boundary of the anode. A coating is deposited upon a base metal part by suspending a binder powder within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the first powder injection port; a material subject to degradation by high temperature oxygen reactions is suspended within a carrier gas that is fed into the plasma through the second injection port. The material fed through the second injection port experiences a cooler portion of the plasma and has a shorter dwell time within the plasma to minimize high temperature oxygen reactions. The material of the first port and the material of the second port intermingle within the plasma to form a uniform coating having constituent percentages related to the powder-feed rates of the materials through the respective ports.

Lenling, William J. (Madison, WI); Henfling, Joseph A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Smith, Mark F. (Albuquerque, NM)

1993-06-08

226

Controlling of Nitriding Process on Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) has been considered as a promising technology for in-situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. To fabricate thick A lN coatings in RPS process, controlling and improving the in-flight nitriding reaction of Al particles is required. In this study, it was possible to control the nitriding reaction by using ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) powders. Thick and dense AlN coating (more than 300 ?m thickness) was successfully fabricated with small addition of NH4Cl powders. Thus, addition of NH4Cl prevented the Al aggregation by changing the reaction pathway to a mild way with no explosive mode (relatively low heating rates) and it acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source and diluent agent.

Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

2011-10-01

227

Microwave absorption property of plasma spray W-type hexagonal ferrite coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the adhesion strength of microwave absorbing materials, W-type hexagonal ferrite coating is fabricated by plasma spray. The feedstock of ferrite powders is synthesized by solid-state reaction and spray dried process. Microstructures of the coating are analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectra (EDS). Hexagonal ferrite coating is successfully deposited on the substrate with adhesion strength of 28 MPa. The magnetic property of ferrite samples is measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Saturation magnetization of the ferrite coating is lower than ferrite powder. Reflection loss of the hexagonal ferrite coating is measured in frequency of 2-18 GHz. The result shows that the coating is suitable for electromagnetic wave absorbers in Ku-band.

Wei, Shicheng; Liu, Yi; Tian, Haoliang; Tong, Hui; Liu, Yuxin; Xu, Binshi

2015-03-01

228

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source David K. Olson,a  

E-print Network

An interchangeable-cathode vacuum arc plasma source David K. Olson,a Bryan G. Peterson, and Grant W. Hart Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, N283 ESC, Provo, Utah 84602, USA

Hart, Gus

229

Limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

A detailed design of a limiter/vacuum system for plasma impurity control and exhaust has been developed for the STARFIRE tokamak power plant. It is shown that the limiter/vacuum concept is a very attractive option for power reactors. It is relatively simple and inexpensive and deserves serious experimental verification.

Abdou, M.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.

1980-01-01

230

A Numerical Study of Suspension Injection in Plasma-Spraying Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Suspension feedstock in plasma spraying opened a new chapter in coating process with enhanced characteristics. The suspension carrying sub-micron up to few micron-sized particles is radially injected into an atmospheric plasma plume. Understanding the trajectory, velocity, and temperature of these small particles upon impacting on the substrate is a key factor to produce repeatable and controllable coatings. A three dimensional two-way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian scheme is utilized to simulate the flow field of the plasma plume as well as the interactions between the evaporative suspension droplets with the gas phase. To model the breakup of droplets, Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor breakup model is used. After the breakup and evaporation of suspension is complete, the solid suspended particles are tracked through the domain to determine the characteristics of the coating particles. The numerical results are validated against experiments using high-speed imaging.

Jabbari, F.; Jadidi, M.; Wuthrich, R.; Dolatabadi, A.

2014-01-01

231

An investigation of environmental influence on the creep behavior of a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low pressure sprayed MCrAlY overlay coatings are currently being used on advanced single crystal superalloy blades for gas turbine engines. Many studies were made on the influence of coatings on the mechanical properties of superalloys in oxidizing or hot-corroding environments, but very few on the properties of the bulk coating alloy itself. The creep behavior of a typical NiCoCrAlY alloyd (PWA 276) was studied in air and vacuum. The as-received low pressure plasma sprayed NiCoCrAlY plates were heat treated for 4 h at 1080 C followed by 32 h at 870 C, the heat treatment applied to coated superalloy parts. Standard creep specimens 12.7 mm long and 3.2 mm in diameter were then machined. Constant load creep-rupture tests were performed in air and vacuum at 650, 850, and 1050 C and various initial stresses. In addition, some specimens were preoxidized at 1050 C for 100 h prior to testing. Results are briefly discussed.

Hebsur, M. G.; Miner, R. V.

1985-01-01

232

Effect of Powder Injection on the Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive strength of the plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating is one of the most important parameters which influence their durability and reliability during service. While many methods exist to measure the adhesive strength, in general, they require cumbersome and time-consuming specimen preparation. Furthermore, considerations of the adhesion strength from the point-of-view of fracture toughness or for that matter, their systematic correlation to both processing variances are limited. Consequently, there is an opportunity to both simplify the measurement procedure and establish correlations among methods and linkages between processing parameters and interfacial fracture toughness. In this paper, we report results on adhesion strength of plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on aluminum substrates based on both interfacial indentation test (to measure interfacial fracture toughness) and the modified tensile adhesive test. Carrier gas flow for powder injection into the plasma torch was systematically varied to introduce variances in particle melting with concomitant impact on the measured adhesive strength. The results indicate the correlation between the particle melting index and the measured interfacial fracture toughness.

Okajima, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay

2013-03-01

233

Measuring Substrate Temperature Variation During Application of Plasma-Sprayed Zirconia Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Substrate temperature variation was measured during plasma spraying of ZrO2 7% Y2O3 powder using fast-response thermocouples embedded in the stainless steel surface. Coatings were deposited with both stationary and moving torches. The substrate was either kept at room temperature at the start of coating deposition or pre-heated to 270-300 °C. Peak temperature during spraying reached 450 °C for a surface initially at room temperature, and 680 °C for a surface preheated to 300 °C before coating deposition. Preheating the substrate reduced coating porosity by approximately 40%. The porosity at the center of the deposit was significantly lower than that at its periphery since particle temperature and velocity were lower at the edges of the plasma plume than along its axis. When a coating was applied with a moving torch the substrate temperature did not increase above 450 °C, at which temperature heat losses to the ambient equalled the heat supplied by the plasma plume and particles. Coating porosity decreased with distance from the substrate. As sequential layers of coating are applied surface temperature increases and roughness decreases. Both of these factors suppress break-up of particles landing on the substrate and thereby reduce coating porosity.

Salimijazi, H. R.; Pershin, L.; Coyle, T. W.; Mostaghimi, J.; Chandra, S.; Lau, Y. C.; Rosenzweig, L.; Moran, E.

2007-12-01

234

Survivorship of 2000 Tapered Titanium Porous Plasma-sprayed Femoral Components  

PubMed Central

Tapered titanium porous plasma-sprayed components have performed well in primary THA. To confirm the literature at longer followup we retrospectively reviewed all 1639 patients who underwent 2000 THAs in which a specific porous femoral component was used. One hundred fourteen patients (134 hips) were lost to followup leaving a cohort of 1525 patients (1866 THAs). The component is a tapered titanium plasma spray-coated design that remained relatively unchanged since its first implantation except for circumferential proximal porous coating added in 1986 and an offset option added in 1999. Minimum followup was 24 months (average, 119 months; range, 24 to 275 months). To date there have been 39 femoral revisions for an implant survival of 98%. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, cumulative survival with any stem revision as the end point was 98.6% at 5 years, 98.4% at 10 years, 97.1% at 15 years, and 95.5% at 20 years. Using aseptic revision for failure of ingrowth as the endpoint, stem survival was 99.1%. Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival with aseptic revision for failure of ingrowth as the endpoint was 99.4% at 5 years, 99.3% at 10, 15 and 20 years. Harris hip pain and total scores improved. This titanium, porous plasma spray-coated femoral component continues to demonstrate high long-term survival with a low rate of component revision for any reason or aseptic failure of ingrowth. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study (case series). See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18975042

Berend, Keith R.; Mallory, Thomas H.; Skeels, Michael D.; Adams, Joanne B.

2008-01-01

235

Recent Developments in Suspension Plasma Sprayed Titanium Oxide and Hydroxyapatite Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims at reviewing of the recent studies related to the development of suspension plasma sprayed TiO2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH (hydroxyapatite, HA) coatings as well as their multilayer composites obtained onto stainless steel, titanium and aluminum substrates. The total thickness of the coatings was in the range 10 to 150 ?m. The suspensions on the base of distilled water, ethanol and their mixtures were formulated with the use of fine commercial TiO2 pigment crystallized as rutile and HA milled from commercial spray-dried powder or synthesized from calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate in an optimized reaction. The powder was crystallized as hydroxyapatite. Pneumatic and peristaltic pump liquid feeders were applied. The injection of suspension to the plasma jet was studied carefully with the use of an atomizer injector or a continuous stream one. The injectors were placed outside or inside of the anode-nozzle of the SG-100 plasma torch. The stream of liquid was tested under angle right or slightly backwards with regard to the torch axis. The sprayed deposits were submitted to the phase analysis by the use of x-ray diffraction. The content of anatase and rutile was calculated in the titanium oxide deposits as well as the content of the decomposition phases in the hydroxyapatite ones. The micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to visualize the area of appearance of some phases. Scratch test enabled to characterize the adhesion of the deposits, their microhardness and friction coefficient. The electric properties including electron emission, impedance spectroscopy, and dielectric properties of some coatings were equally tested.

Jaworski, R.; Pawlowski, L.; Pierlot, C.; Roudet, F.; Kozerski, S.; Petit, F.

2010-01-01

236

The influence of pore formers on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed NiO-YSZ anodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four types of pore formers: high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK), mesocarbon-microbead (MCMB) carbon powder, and baking flour, are processed and characterized, then incorporated with NiO-YSZ nano-agglomerate powder to produce plasma sprayed SOFC anode coatings. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the coating microstructure, gas permeability measurements, and porosity determinations by image analysis are used to evaluate the effectiveness of each potential pore former powder. Under the spray conditions studied, the flour and MCMB pore former powders are effective as plasma sprayed pore formers, increasing the permeability of the coatings by factors of four and two, respectively, compared to a similarly sprayed NiO-YSZ coating without pore formers. The HDPE powder is unable to survive the plasma spray process and does not contribute to the final coating porosity. The PEEK pore former, though ineffective with the current powder characteristics and spray parameters, exhibits the highest relative deposition efficiency and the most favorable thermal characteristics.

Poon, Michael; Kesler, Olivera

2012-07-01

237

In vitro biological response of plasma electrolytically oxidized and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy.  

PubMed

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a relatively new surface modification process that may be used as an alternative to plasma spraying methods to confer bioactivity to Ti alloy implants. The aim of this study was to compare physical, chemical and biological surface characteristics of two coatings applied by PEO processes, containing different calcium phosphate (CaP) and titanium dioxide phases, with a plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. Coating characteristics were examined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface profilometry, and wettability tests. The biological properties were determined using the human osteoblastic cell line MG-63 to assess cell viability, calcium and collagen synthesis. The tests showed that PEO coatings are significantly more hydrophilic (6%) and have 78% lower surface roughness (Ra) than the plasma-sprayed coatings. Cell behavior was demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the phase composition and surface distribution of elements in the PEO coating. MG-63 viability for the TiO2 -based PEO coating containing amorphous CaPs was significantly lower than that for the PEO coating containing crystalline HA and the plasma-sprayed coating. However, collagen synthesis on both the CaP and the TiO2 PEO coatings was significantly higher (92% and 71%, respectively) than on the plasma-sprayed coating after 14 days. PEO has been demonstrated to be a promising method for coating of orthopedic implant surfaces. PMID:23529912

Yeung, Wing Kiu; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Matthews, Allan; Yerokhin, Aleksey

2013-08-01

238

Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines require materials that can meet high temperatures while resisting the corrosive oxidation-reduction reaction of combustion known as blanching, the main cause of engine failure. A project was initiated at NASA-Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) to combine three existing technologies to build and demonstrate an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber that would provide a 100 mission life. Technology developed in microgravity research to build cartridges for space furnaces was utilized to vacuum plasma spray (VPS) a functional gradient coating on the hot wall of the combustion liner as one continuous operation, eliminating any bondline between the coating and the liner. The coating was NiCrAlY, developed previously as durable protective coatings on space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) turbine blades. A thermal model showed that 0.03 in. NiCrAlY applied to the hot wall of the combustion liner would reduce the hot wall temperature 200 F, a 20% reduction, for longer life. Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy, which was developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), and which possesses excellent high temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability, was utilized as the liner material in place of NARloy-Z. The Cu-8Cr-4Nb material exhibits better mechanical properties at 650 C (1200 F) than NARloy-Z does at 538 C (1000 F). VPS formed Cu-8Cr-4Nb combustion chamber liners with a protective NiCrAlY functional gradient coating have been hot fire tested, successfully demonstrating a durable coating for the first time. Hot fire tests along with tensile and low cycle fatigue properties of the VPS formed combustion chamber liners and witness panel specimens are discussed.

Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

239

Robust Low Cost Aerospike/RLV Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. At the same time, fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of a shrinking NASA budget. In recent years, combustion chambers of equivalent size to the Aerospike chamber have been fabricated at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using innovative, relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Typically, such combustion chambers are made of the copper alloy NARloy-Z. However, current research and development conducted by NASA-Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has identified a Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. In fact, researchers at NASA-LeRC have demonstrated that powder metallurgy (P/M) Cu-8Cr-4Nb exhibits better mechanical properties at 1,200 F than NARloy-Z does at 1,000 F. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost, VPS process to deposit Cu-8Cr-4Nb with mechanical properties that match or exceed those of P/M Cu-8Cr-4Nb. In addition, oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings can be incorporated as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. Tensile properties of Cu-8Cr-4Nb material produced by VPS are reviewed and compared to material produced previously by extrusion. VPS formed combustion chamber liners have also been prepared and will be reported on following scheduled hot firing tests at NASA-Lewis.

Holmes, Richard; Ellis, David; McKechnie

1999-01-01

240

Robust Low Cost Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber by Advanced Vacuum Plasma Process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Next-generation, regeneratively cooled rocket engines will require materials that can withstand high temperatures while retaining high thermal conductivity. Fabrication techniques must be cost efficient so that engine components can be manufactured within the constraints of shrinking budgets. Three technologies have been combined to produce an advanced liquid rocket engine combustion chamber at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using relatively low-cost, vacuum-plasma-spray (VPS) techniques. Copper alloy NARloy-Z was replaced with a new high performance Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center (GRC), which possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance, and low cycle fatigue behavior combined with exceptional thermal stability. Functional gradient technology, developed building composite cartridges for space furnaces was incorporated to add oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings as an integral part of the hot wall of the liner during the VPS process. NiCrAlY, utilized to produce durable protective coating for the space shuttle high pressure fuel turbopump (BPFTP) turbine blades, was used as the functional gradient material coating (FGM). The FGM not only serves as a protection from oxidation or blanching, the main cause of engine failure, but also serves as a thermal barrier because of its lower thermal conductivity, reducing the temperature of the combustion liner 200 F, from 1000 F to 800 F producing longer life. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate the technology to fabricate high-performance, robust, inexpensive combustion chambers for advanced propulsion systems (such as Lockheed-Martin's VentureStar and NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle, RLV) using the low-cost VPS process. VPS formed combustion chamber test articles have been formed with the FGM hot wall built in and hot fire tested, demonstrating for the first time a coating that will remain intact through the hot firing test, and with no apparent wear. Material physical properties and the hot firing tests are reviewed.

Holmes, Richard; Elam, Sandra; Ellis, David L.; McKechnie, Timothy; Hickman, Robert; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

241

Plasma-sprayed zirconia gas path seal technology: A state-of-the-art review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits derived from application of ceramic materials to high pressure turbine gas path seal components are described and the developmental backgrounds of various approaches are reviewed. The most fully developed approaches are those employing plasma sprayed zirconium oxide as the ceramic material. Prevention of cracking and spalling of the zirconium oxide under cyclic thermal shock conditions imposed by the engine operating cycle is the most immediate problem to be solved before implementation is undertaken. Three promising approaches to improving cyclic thermal shock resistance are described and comparative rig performance of each are reviewed. Advanced concepts showing potential for performance improvements are described.

Bill, R. C.

1979-01-01

242

Characterization of plasma-sprayed coatings using nondestructive evaluation techniques: Round-robin test results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A round-robin test was implemented where nine European research institutions and universities applied different thermal, ultrasonic, and magnetic methods for measuring the thickness of plasma-sprayed coatings. The coatings, which had thicknesses ranging from 50 to 500 µm, were applied on substrates of AISI 316, a standard industrial structural material, and on Armco iron in order to have a material of known thermal properties. Destructive testing was performed after the other methods had been applied, resulting in detailed information on the coating thickness, rugosity, and uniformity. The results obtained with the applied methods on the two unknown samples for each substrate type agreed within 20% with the destructive testing data.

Fabbri, L.; Oksanen, M.

1999-06-01

243

Sliding wear behavior of plasma sprayed Fe 3Al–Al 2O 3 graded coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fe3Al–Al2O3 double-layer coatings (DC), Fe3Al–Fe3Al\\/50%Al2O3–Al2O3 triple-layer coatings (TC) and Fe3Al–Al2O3 graded coatings (GC) were produced from a series of Fe3Al\\/Al2O3 composite powders with different compositions on low carbon steel substrate using PLAXAIR plasma spraying equipment. Friction behaviors and wear resistance of the three kinds of coatings have been investigated under different loads. Tests were carried out using an MRH-3 standard

Jingde Zhang; Kangning Sun; Jiangting Wang; Baoyan Tian; Hongsheng Wang; Yansheng Yin

2008-01-01

244

Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings: New Materials, Processing Issues, and Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing demands on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for gas turbines regarding their temperature and cyclic capabilities, corrosion resistance, and erosion performance have instigated the development of new materials and coating systems. Different pyrochlores, perovskites, doped yttria-stabilized zirconia, and hexaaluminates have been identified as promising candidates. However, processing these novel TBC materials by plasma spraying is often challenging. During the deposition process, stoichiometric changes, formation of undesired secondary phases or non-optimum amorphous contents, as well as detrimental microstructural effects can occur in particular. This article describes these difficulties and the development of process-related solutions by employing diagnostic tools.

Mauer, Georg; Jarligo, Maria Ophelia; Mack, Daniel Emil; Vaßen, Robert

2013-06-01

245

Dry Sliding Behavior of Sub-Micrometer-Sized Suspension Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Oxide Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost half of the energy produced by an automotive engine is dissipated by friction in the cylinders, the clutch, etc. In the context of reduction of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to mitigate climate global warming (CGW), reduction of energy losses due to friction is a critical issue. Surface treatments appear in such a context, as never than before, to be able to provide pertinent solutions to improve sliding behavior of mechanical parts. Numerous studies have clearly shown that decreasing the scale of coating structure below the micrometer scale was leading to an improvement of its tribological behavior in terms of friction coefficient and wear rate thanks to improved mechanical properties, the toughness in particular. Suspension Plasma Spraying (SPS) appears as a thermal spray process to be able to manufacture thick (i.e., a few tens of micrometers) coatings exhibiting a sub-micrometer-sized or even a nanometer-sized architecture, while keeping the versatility and flexibility of the thermal spray routes: i.e., the ability to process a wide range of material natures onto a wide range of substrate materials of various geometries. This article aims at studying the tribological behavior of several ceramic oxide composite coatings under dry conditions. The structural scale and the effect of composition are considered in particular.

Darut, Geoffrey; Ben-Ettouil, Fadhel; Denoirjean, Alain; Montavon, Ghislain; Ageorges, Hélène; Fauchais, Pierre

2010-01-01

246

Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Fe/Mo composite amorphous coatings prepared by air plasma spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe/Mo composite coatings were prepared by air plasma spraying (APS) using Fe-based and Mo-based amorphous and nanocrystalline mixed powders. Microstructural studies show that the composite coatings present a layered structure with low porosity due to adding the self-bonded Mo-based alloy. Corrosion behaviors of the composite coatings, the Fe-based coatings and the Mo-based coatings were investigated by electrochemical measurements and salt spray tests. Electrochemical results show that the composite coatings exhibit a lower polarization current density and higher corrosion potentials than the Fe-based coating when tested in 3.5wt% NaCl solutions, indicating superior corrosion resistance compared with the Fe-based coating. Also with the increase in addition of the Mo-based alloy, a raised corrosion resistance, inferred by an increase in corrosion potential and a decrease in polarization current density, can be found. The results of salt spray tests again show that the corrosion resistance is enhanced by adding the Mo-based alloy, which helps to reduce the porosity of the composite coatings and enhance the stability of the passive films.

Jiang, Chao-ping; Xing, Ya-zhe; Zhang, Feng-ying; Hao, Jian-min

2012-07-01

247

High Temperature Multilayer Environmental Barrier Coatings Deposited Via Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Si-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments to avoid rapid material loss. Candidate EBC materials have use temperatures only marginally above current technology, but the addition of a columnar oxide topcoat can substantially increase the durability. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) allows application of these multilayer EBCs in a single process. The PS-PVD technique is a unique method that combines conventional thermal spray and vapor phase methods, allowing for tailoring of thin, dense layers or columnar microstructures by varying deposition conditions. Multilayer coatings were deposited on CMC specimens and assessed for durability under high heat flux and load. Coated samples with surface temperatures ranging from 2400-2700F and 10 ksi loads using the high heat flux laser rigs at NASA Glenn. Coating morphology was characterized in the as-sprayed condition and after thermomechanical loading using electron microscopy and the phase structure was tracked using X-ray diffraction.

Harder, Bryan James; Zhu, Dongming; Schmitt, Michael P.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

2014-01-01

248

Effect of the thickness on properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings deposited by plasma spraying  

SciTech Connect

Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings with different thicknesses (160, 320, 480 and 640 {mu}m) were deposited on stainless steel substrate by plasma spraying. The variation in microstructural characteristics and properties of coatings with various thicknesses was investigated. Powders morphology and the microstructure of as-sprayed coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The microhardness was measured using a Vickers' indentor. The corrosion behaviour of plasma-sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings in 1 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at a temperature of 25 deg. C was evaluated by electrochemistry method. Experimental results indicated that surface roughness showed no obvious dependence on the coating thickness. However, the porosity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating was increased with increased thickness. The enhanced coating thickness also resulted in decreasing microhardness and reduced corrosion resistance. In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with thickness of 160 {mu}m possesses the lowest porosity, the highest hardness and superior corrosion resistance. Research Highlights: {yields} Increase of coating thickness shows no obvious effect on phase composition and surface roughness of plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings. {yields} Variation of porosity and microhardness presents dependence on coating thickness parameter. {yields} Increasing coating thickness leads to reduced corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating.

Yin Zhijian [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tao Shunyan, E-mail: shunyantao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhou Xiaming [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

2011-01-15

249

Effect of Processing Conditions on the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of micro-structural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses. While the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. A bi-layer curvature measurement technique was adapted to measure the anelastic properties of plasma sprayed ceramic. The quantification of anelastic parameters was done using a non-linear model proposed by Nakamura et.al. An error analysis was conducted on the technique to know the available margins for both experimental as well as computational errors. The error analysis was extended to evaluate its sensitivity towards different coating microstructure. For this purpose, three coatings with significantly different microstructures were fabricated via tuning of process parameters. Later the three coatings were also subjected to different strain ranges systematically, in order to understand the origin and evolution of anelasticity on different microstructures. The last segment of this thesis attempts to capture the intricacies on the processing front and tries to evaluate and establish a correlation between them and the anelastic parameters.

Viswanathan, Vaishak

2011-12-01

250

Preparation of Lanthanum Zirconate Coatings by the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) can synthesize powders and deposit the coatings synchronously. The lanthanum zirconate coatings are deposited by SPPS in the present study, and the dense coating can be obtained through changing the precursor solution. The addition of urea can change the heat exchange process for some precursor mixtures. However, almost no effect can be found on the microstructure of powder and coating by the addition of urea. The extra heat energy caused by the addition of urea is so small, as compared with the heat input by the present plasma jet, so that the heating effect can be ignored. The porosity of coatings increase when the LaCl3·7H2O instead of La(NO3)3·6H2O reacts with Zr(CH3CO2)4.

Wang, W. Z.; Coyle, T.; Zhao, D.

2014-06-01

251

Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators  

E-print Network

A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 ?m to about 300 ?m can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

2013-01-01

252

Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings onto Carbon/carbon Composites in Simulated Body Fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings onto carbon/carbon composite (C/C composites) substrates, deposited by plasma spraying technique, were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) in order to determine their behavior in conditions similar to the human blood plasma. Calcium ion concentration, pH value, microstructure, and phase compositions were analyzed. Results demonstrated that both the crystal Ca-P phases or the amorphous HA do dissolve slightly, and the dissolution of CaO phases in SBF was evident after 1 day of soaking. The calcium-ion concentration was decreased and the pH value of SBF was increased with the increasing of the immersing time. The precipitation was mainly composed of HA, which was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron-probe microanalyzer.

Sui, Jin-Ling; Bo, Wu; Hai, Zhou; Cao, Ning; Li, Mu-Sen

253

Tribological Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN Abradable Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing conditions, microstructural and tribological characterizations of plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY-BN high temperature abradable coatings are reported in this manuscript. Plasma spray torch parameters were varied to produce a set of abradable coatings exhibiting a broad range of porosity levels (34-62%) and superficial Rockwell hardness values (0-78 HR15Y). Abradability tests have been performed using an abradable-seal test rig, capable of simulating operational wear at different rotor speeds and seal incursion rates (SIRs). These tests allowed determining the rubbing forces and quantifying the blade and seal wear characteristics for slow and fast SIRs. Erosion wear performance and ASTM C633 coating adhesion strength test results are also reported. For optimal abradability performance, it is shown that coating hardness needs to be lower than 70 and 50 HR15Y for slow and fast blade incursion rate conditions, respectively. It is shown that the erosion wear performance, as well as, the coating cohesive strength is a function of the coating hardness. The current results allow defining the coating specifications in terms of hardness and porosity for targeted applications.

Irissou, E.; Dadouche, A.; Lima, R. S.

2014-01-01

254

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO.sub.3 particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO.sub.3 powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3 and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO.sub.3 layer to about 1100.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell.

Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA); Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA); Kuo, Lewis (Monroeville, PA); Richards, Von L. (Anyola, IN)

1995-01-01

255

Method of forming a plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an air electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by (A) providing an electrode surface; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, a layer of doped LaCrO{sub 3} particles doped with an element selected from Ca, Sr, Ba, Mg, Co, Ni, Al and mixtures thereof by plasma spraying doped LaCrO{sub 3} powder, preferably compensated with chromium as Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or dopant element, preferably by plasma arc spraying; and, (C) heating the doped and compensated LaCrO{sub 3} layer to about 1100 C to 1300 C to provide a dense, substantially gas-tight, substantially hydration-free, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode surface. A solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to provide an electrochemical cell. 6 figs.

Spengler, C.J.; Folser, G.R.; Vora, S.D.; Kuo, L.; Richards, V.L.

1995-06-20

256

Isothermal Oxidation Behavior of Supersonic Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, Y2O3 stabilized zirconia-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited by conventional atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) and high efficiency supersonic atmospheric plasma spraying (SAPS), respectively. The effect of Al2O3 layer stability on the isothermal growth behavior of thermally grown oxides (TGOs) was studied. The results revealed that the Al2O3 layer experienced a three-stage change process, i.e., (1) instantaneous growth stage, (2) steady-state growth stage, and (3) depletion stage. The thickness of Al2O3 scale was proved to be an important factor for the growth rate of TGOs. The SAPS-TBCs exhibited a higher Al2O3 stability and better oxidation resistance as compared with the APS-TBCs. Additionally, it was found that inner oxides, especially nucleated on the top of the crest, continually grew and swallowed the previously formed Al2O3 layer, leading to the granulation and disappearance of continuous Al2O3 scale, which was finally replaced by the mixed oxides and spinel.

Bai, Yu; Ding, Chunhua; Li, Hongqiang; Han, Zhihai; Ding, Bingjun; Wang, Tiejun; Yu, Lie

2013-10-01

257

Piezospectroscopic measurements capturing the evolution of plasma spray-coating stresses with substrate loads.  

PubMed

Plasma-spray coatings have a unique microstructure composed of various types of microcracks and weakly bonded interfaces which dictate their nonlinear mechanical properties. The intrinsic photo-luminescence (PL) characteristics of alpha-alumina (?-Al2O3) within these coatings offer a diagnostic functionality, enabling these properties to be probed experimentally at the microscale, under substrate loading. The piezospectroscopic (PS) measurements from the coatings are capable of revealing microstructural stress at high spatial resolution. Here, for the first time, the evolution of stresses within air plasma spray (APS) coatings under increasing substrate loads were captured using piezospectroscopy. With mechanical cycling of the substrate, the PS properties revealed anelastic and inelastic behavior and a relaxation of residual tensile stress within the APS coatings. With decreasing substrate thickness, the coating was observed to sustain more stress, as the substrate's influence on the mechanical behavior decreased. The findings provide an insight into the microstructural response that can serve as the basis for model validation and subsequently drive the design process for these coatings. PMID:24422438

Freihofer, Gregory; Fugon-Dessources, Daniela; Ergin, Emrecan; Van Newkirk, Amy; Gupta, Ankur; Seal, Sudipta; Schülzgen, Axel; Raghavan, Seetha

2014-02-12

258

A prospective randomized study comparing electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite and plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite on titanium stems  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) is a successful coating for fixation of uncemented femoral stems. There may be alternative coatings with advantages in bone remodeling and transport of bone-active substances. We investigated whether an electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite, Bonemaster (BM), might be a safe alternative in total hip arthroplasty. Our hypothesis was that the new coating would not be inferior to the conventional one. Patients and methods 50 patients (55 hips) were included. The stem was tapered and porous-coated proximally. On top of the porous coating was either HA or BM. Patients were evaluated postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months to measure fixation by radiostereometric analysis (RSA), bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and conventional radiography. Clinical evaluation was performed with Harris hip score and Oxford hip score, both preoperatively and after 2 years. Results After 2 years, the stems had subsided 0.25 (HA) and 0.28 (BM) mm and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any direction, regarding both migration and rotation. The BM group retained significantly more bone than the HA group in Gruen zone 1 during the first 2 years. The Harris and Oxford hip scores were similar in both groups. Interpretation Electrochemically deposited hydroxyapatite on an uncemented stem does not appear to be inferior to plasma-sprayed HA regarding clinical and radiological results, bone remodeling, and micromotion after 2 years follow-up. PMID:21189109

2011-01-01

259

Nano-structural bioactive gradient coating fabricated by computer controlled plasma-spraying technology.  

PubMed

The poor mechanical property of hydroxyapatite was the major problem for load bearing and implant coating in clinical applications. To overcome this weakness, a bioactive gradient coating with a special design composition of hydroxyapatite (HA), ZrO2, Ti, bioglass was developed. This 120 microm coating with an upper layer of 30-50 microm porous HA produced by computer controlled plasma spraying which maintained energy level of the plasma which ensure proper melting of powder. The crystal size of the coating was 18.6-26.2 nm. Transformation of t-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2 reduced the thermal stress that weakened the coating and lowered down interfacial strength of the coating and metal substrate. Thermal stress of sprayed coating was 16.4 MPa which was much smaller than the sample without thermal treatment of 67.1 MPa. Interfacial strength between the coating and metal substrate was 53 MPa which is much higher than conventional Hydroxyapatite coating. Based on XRD analysis crystallinity of HA approached 98%. Therefore, high temperature treatment improved long term stability of the coating through improved crystallinity of hydroxyapatite and reduced other impure calcium phosphate phase. PMID:16977384

Ning, C Y; Wang, Y J; Lu, W W; Qiu, Q X; Lam, R W M; Chen, X F; Chiu, K Y; Ye, J D; Wu, G; Wu, Z H; Chow, S P

2006-10-01

260

Fabrication and Wear Behavior of Nanostructured Plasma-Sprayed 6061Al-SiCp Composite Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

6061Al powder with 15 wt.% SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforcement was mechanically alloyed (MA) in a high-energy attrition mill. The MA powder was then plasma sprayed onto weathering steel (Cor-Ten A242) substrate using an atmospheric plasma spray process. Results of particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy show that the addition of SiC particles as the reinforcement influences on the matrix grain size and morphology. XRD studies revealed embedment of SiCp in the MA-processed composite powder, and nanocrystals in the MA powder and the coating. Microstructural studies showed a uniform distribution of reinforced SiC particles in the coating. The porosity level in the coating was as low as 2% while the coating hardness was increased to 232VHN. The adhesion strength of the coatings was high and this was attributed to higher degree of diffusion at the interface. The wear rate in the coatings was evaluated using a pin-on-disk type tribometer and found to decrease by 50% compared to the 6061Al matrix coating. The wear mechanism in the coating was delamination and oxidative type.

Tailor, Satish; Mohanty, R. M.; Sharma, V. K.; Soni, P. R.

2014-10-01

261

Better Quality Control: Stochastic Approaches to Optimize Properties and Performance of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical design of experiment (SDE) methodology applied to design and performance testing of plasma-sprayed coatings follows an evolutionary path, usually starting with classic multiparameter screening designs (Plackett-Burman), and progressing through factorial (Taguchi) to limited response surface designs (Box-Behnken). Modern designs of higher dimensionality, such as central composite and D-optimal designs, will provide results with higher predictive power. Complex theoretical models relying on evolutionary algorithms, and application of artificial neuronal networks (ANNs) and fuzzy logic control (FLC) allow estimating the behavior of the complex plasma spray environment through validation either by key experiments or first-principle calculations. In this review, paper general principles of SDE will be discussed and examples be given that underscore the different powers of prediction of individual statistical designs. Basic rules of ANN and FLC will be briefly touched on, and their potential for increased reliability of coating performance through stringent quality control measures assessed. Salient features will be reviewed of studies performed to optimize thermal coating properties and processes reported in the pertinent literature between 2000 and the present.

Heimann, Robert B.

2010-06-01

262

Reactive Plasma Spraying of Fine Al2O3/AlN Feedstock Powder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive plasma spraying (RPS) is a promising technology for in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN) coatings. Recently, AlN-based coatings were fabricated by RPS of alumina (Al2O3) powder in N2/H2 thermal plasma. This study investigated the feasibility of RPS of a fine Al2O3/AlN mixture and the influence of the plasma gases (N2, H2) on the nitriding conversion, and coating microstructure and properties. Thick AlN/Al2O3 coatings with high nitride content were successfully fabricated. The coatings consist of h-AlN, c-AlN, Al5O6N, ?-Al2O3, and a small amount of ?-Al2O3. Use of fine particles enhanced the nitriding conversion and the melting tendency by increasing the surface area. Furthermore, the AlN additive improved the AlN content in the coatings. Increasing the N2 gas flow rate improved the nitride content and complete crystal growth to the h-AlN phase, and enhanced the coating thickness. On the other hand, though the H2 gas is required for plasma nitriding of the Al2O3 particles, increasing its flow rate decreased the nitride content and the coating thickness. Remarkable influence of the plasma gases on the coating composition, microstructure, and properties was observed during RPS of the fine particles.

Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

2013-12-01

263

On the Anelastic Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings: Observations, Characterizations and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma sprayed ceramic materials contain an assortment of microstructural defects, including pores, cracks, and interfaces arising from the droplet based assemblage of the spray deposition technique. The defective architecture of the deposits introduces a novel "anelastic" response in the coatings comprising of their non-linear and hysteretic stress-strain relationship under mechanical loading. It has been established that this anelasticity can be attributed to the relative movement of the embedded defects under varying stresses; while the non-linear response of the coatings arises from the opening/closure of defects, hysteresis is produced by the frictional sliding among defect surfaces. Recent studies have indicated that anelastic behavior of coatings can be a unique descriptor of their mechanical behavior and related to the defect configuration. In this dissertation, a multi-variable study employing systematic processing strategies was conducted to augment the understanding on various aspects of the reported anelastic behavior. Enhancements to bi-layer curvature measurement technique allowed for reliable and repeatable quantification of the anelastic response, enabling extraction of three anelastic parameters; elastic modulus, non-linear degree and hysteresis degree. This allowed for further exploration of the process space enabling controlled introduction of anelasticity in thermal sprayed ceramic coatings. This dissertation reports on these findings by first describing the experimental advancements in bilayer curvature measurements via thermal cycling of a coated beam. This experimental development allowed assessment of sensitivity and repeatability of the obtained anelastic parameters to varying microstructures imposed by processing excursions. Subsequently, controlled modification of anelasticity was achieved through material and process parameters as well as through extrinsic modification of the defects within the microstructure. The results suggest that anelasticity can be tuned by manipulation of the material as well as processing conditions, and the presence of foreign materials in a coating is seen to have significant influence on the coating response. The anelastic response was also verified through purely mechanical (four-point-bend) loading of ceramic coatings on substrates at room temperature in order to avoid any temperature effects in anelasticity measurements. The implication of this work is significant as it provides a comprehensive and quantitative description of the properties of layered, high defect density ceramic coatings produced from complex deposition processes such as plasma spray. These quantitative descriptors will not only provide opportunities to generate/produce/create enhanced design of thermo-structural coatings but also a robust methodology for process-structure-property-performance relations.

Dwivedi, Gopal

264

Vacuum-free processed transparent inverted organic solar cells with spray-coated PEDOT:PSS anode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray coating is a high throughput coating technique that is scalable and adaptable for organic photovoltaic manufacturing. To ensure uniform coating of the organic layers, the wettability, surface tension and boiling points of the solvents have to be optimized. Here, we used microscopic videos to understand the dynamics of the spray coating process. By optimizing the wettability and drying time

Rui Jie Peh; Yanru Lu; Fangli Zhao; Chi-Lik Ken Lee; Wei Lek Kwan

2011-01-01

265

Arc-Cathode Coupling in the Modeling of a Conventional DC Plasma Spray Torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma torch is the basis of the plasma spray process and understanding of the electric arc dynamics within the plasma torch is necessary for better control of torch and process instabilities. Numerical simulation is a useful tool for investigating the effect of the torch geometry and operating parameters on the electric arc characteristics provided that the model of arc dynamics is reliable and the boundary conditions of the computational domain are well founded. However, such a model should also address the intricate transient and 3D interactions between the electrically conducting fluid and electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustics phenomena. Especially, the description of the electrode regions where the electric arc connects with solid material is an important part of a realistic model of the plasma torch operation as the properties of electric arcs at atmospheric pressure depend not only on the arc plasma medium, but also on the electrodes. This paper describes the 3D and time-dependent numerical simulation of a plasma arc and is focused on the cathode boundary conditions. This model was used to investigate the differences in arc characteristics when the cathode is included into the numerical domain and coupled with the arc. The magnetic and thermal coupling between the cathode and arc made it possible to get rid of the current density boundary condition at the cathode tip that is delicate to predetermine. It also allowed a better prediction of the cathode flow jet generated by the pumping action induced by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the electric current and so it allowed a better description of the dynamics of arc. It should be a necessary step in the development of a fully predictive model of DC plasma torch operation.

Alaya, M.; Chazelas, C.; Mariaux, G.; Vardelle, A.

2014-10-01

266

Arc-Cathode Coupling in the Modeling of a Conventional DC Plasma Spray Torch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma torch is the basis of the plasma spray process and understanding of the electric arc dynamics within the plasma torch is necessary for better control of torch and process instabilities. Numerical simulation is a useful tool for investigating the effect of the torch geometry and operating parameters on the electric arc characteristics provided that the model of arc dynamics is reliable and the boundary conditions of the computational domain are well founded. However, such a model should also address the intricate transient and 3D interactions between the electrically conducting fluid and electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustics phenomena. Especially, the description of the electrode regions where the electric arc connects with solid material is an important part of a realistic model of the plasma torch operation as the properties of electric arcs at atmospheric pressure depend not only on the arc plasma medium, but also on the electrodes. This paper describes the 3D and time-dependent numerical simulation of a plasma arc and is focused on the cathode boundary conditions. This model was used to investigate the differences in arc characteristics when the cathode is included into the numerical domain and coupled with the arc. The magnetic and thermal coupling between the cathode and arc made it possible to get rid of the current density boundary condition at the cathode tip that is delicate to predetermine. It also allowed a better prediction of the cathode flow jet generated by the pumping action induced by the interaction of the self-magnetic field with the electric current and so it allowed a better description of the dynamics of arc. It should be a necessary step in the development of a fully predictive model of DC plasma torch operation.

Alaya, M.; Chazelas, C.; Mariaux, G.; Vardelle, A.

2015-01-01

267

High Charge State Ions Extracted from Metal Plasmas in the Transition Regime from Vacuum Spark to High Current Vacuum Arc  

SciTech Connect

Metal ions were extracted from pulsed discharge plasmas operating in the transition region between vacuum spark (transient high voltage of kV) and vacuum arc (arc voltage ~;; 20 V). At a peak current of about 4 kA, and with a pulse duration of 8 ?s, we observed mean ion charges states of about 6 for several cathode materials. In the case of platinum, the highest average charge state was 6.74 with ions of charge states as high as 10 present. For gold we found traces of charge state 11, with the highest average charge state of 7.25. At currents higher than 5 kA, non-metallic contaminations started to dominate the ion beam, preventing further enhancement of the metal charge states.

Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, A.

2008-06-19

268

High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.  

PubMed

A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed. PMID:18315170

Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

2008-02-01

269

Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

2014-12-01

270

Bulge Testing and Interface Fracture Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed and HIP Bonded Zr Coatings on U-Mo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulge testing using a pressurized fluid to fracture the interface between bonded material layers along with three-dimensional digital image correlation to measure the sample distortion caused by pressurized fluid was applied to plasma-sprayed coatings. The initiation fracture toughness associated with the bonded materials was measured during the testing. The bulge testing of the uranium-molybdenum alloy plasma sprayed with zirconium and clad in aluminum is presented. The initiation fracture toughness was observed to increase with the increasing cathodic arc-cleaning current and the use of alternating polarity transferred arc current. This dependence was linked to the interface composition of oxide and mixed metal phases along with the interface temperature during spray deposition.

Hollis, K.; Liu, C.; Leckie, R.; Lovato, M.

2015-01-01

271

Nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings deposited by the liquid precursor plasma spraying process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings have great potential in dental and orthopedic medical implant applications, due to its excellent bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoinductivity. However, most of the coating preparation techniques either produce only thin thickness coatings or require tedious preparation steps. In this study, a new attempt was made to deposit bioactive glass-ceramic coatings on titanium substrates by the liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate, triethyl phosphate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate solutions were mixed together to form a suspension after hydrolysis, and the liquid suspension was used as the feedstock for plasma spraying of P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings. The in vitro bioactivities of the as-deposited coatings were evaluated by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 4 h, 1, 2, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days, respectively. The as-deposited coating and its microstructure evolution behavior under SBF soaking were systematically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that P 2O 5-Na 2O-CaO-SiO 2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with nanostructure had been successfully synthesized by the LPPS technique and the synthesized coatings showed quick formation of a nanostructured HCA layer after being soaked in SBF. Overall, our results indicate that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize nanostructured bioactive glass-ceramic coatings with good in vitro bioactivity.

Xiao, Yanfeng; Song, Lei; Liu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yi; Huang, Tao; Wu, Yao; Chen, Jiyong; Wu, Fang

2011-01-01

272

Plasma-spray ionization (PLASI): a multimodal atmospheric pressure ion source for liquid stream analysis.  

PubMed

A new ion generation method, named plasma-spray ionization (PLASI) for direct analysis of liquid streams, such as in continuous infusion experiments or liquid chromatography (LC), is reported. PLASI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and has potential for real time process stream analysis and reaction monitoring under atmospheric conditions in non-ESI friendly scenarios. In PLASI-mass spectrometry (MS), the liquid stream is pneumatically nebulized and partially charged at low voltages; the resultant aerosol is thus entrained with a gaseous plasma plume from a distal glow discharge prior to MS detection. PLASI-MS not only overcomes ESI-MS limitations but also generates simpler mass spectra with minimal adduct and cluster formation. PLASI utilizes the atomization capabilities of an ESI sprayer operated below the ESI threshold to generate gas-phase aerosols that are then ionized by the plasma stream. When operated at or above the ESI threshold, ionization by traditional ESI mechanisms is achieved. The multimodal nature of the technique enables readily switching between plasma and ESI operation. It is expected that PLASI will enable analyzing a wide range of analytes in complex matrices and less-restricted solvent systems, providing more flexibility than that achievable by ESI alone. PMID:25001384

Kaylor, Adam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Pittman, Jennifer J; Monge, María Eugenia; Cheng, Guilong; Li, Shelly; Fernández, Facundo M

2014-10-01

273

Plasma-Spray Ionization (PLASI): A Multimodal Atmospheric Pressure Ion Source for Liquid Stream Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new ion generation method, named plasma-spray ionization (PLASI) for direct analysis of liquid streams, such as in continuous infusion experiments or liquid chromatography (LC), is reported. PLASI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) and has potential for real time process stream analysis and reaction monitoring under atmospheric conditions in non-ESI friendly scenarios. In PLASI-mass spectrometry (MS), the liquid stream is pneumatically nebulized and partially charged at low voltages; the resultant aerosol is thus entrained with a gaseous plasma plume from a distal glow discharge prior to MS detection. PLASI-MS not only overcomes ESI-MS limitations but also generates simpler mass spectra with minimal adduct and cluster formation. PLASI utilizes the atomization capabilities of an ESI sprayer operated below the ESI threshold to generate gas-phase aerosols that are then ionized by the plasma stream. When operated at or above the ESI threshold, ionization by traditional ESI mechanisms is achieved. The multimodal nature of the technique enables readily switching between plasma and ESI operation. It is expected that PLASI will enable analyzing a wide range of analytes in complex matrices and less-restricted solvent systems, providing more flexibility than that achievable by ESI alone.

Kaylor, Adam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Pittman, Jennifer J.; Monge, María Eugenia; Cheng, Guilong; Li, Shelly; Fernández, Facundo M.

2014-10-01

274

The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

1983-01-01

275

Influence of NH4Cl Powder Addition for Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Coating in Reactive Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive plasma spray is the key to fabricating aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. It was possible to fabricate AlN/Al composite coatings using atmospheric plasma spray process through plasma nitriding of Al powders (Al 30 ?m). The nitriding reaction and the AlN content could be improved by controlling the spray distance and the feedstock powder particle size. Increasing the spray distance and/or using smaller particle size of Al powders improved the in-flight nitriding reaction. However, it was difficult to fabricate thick and dense AlN coatings with an increase in the spray distance and/or when using fine particles. Thus, the coatings thickness was suppressed because of the complete nitriding of some particles (formation of AlN particles) during flight, which prevents the particle deposition. Furthermore, the excessive vaporization of Al fine particles (due to increased particle temperature) decreased the deposition efficiency. To fabricate thick AlN coatings in the reactive plasma spray process, improving the nitriding reaction of the large Al particles at short spray distance is required to decrease the vaporization of Al particles during flight. This study investigated the influence of adding ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) powders on the nitriding process of large Al powders and on the microstructure of the fabricated coatings. It was possible to fabricate thick AlN coatings at 100 mm spray distance with small addition of NH4Cl powders to the Al feedstock powders (30 ?m). Addition of NH4Cl to the starting Al powders promoted the formation of AlN through changing the reaction path to vapor-phase nitridation chlorination-nitridation sequences as confirmed by the thermodynamic analysis of possible intermediate reactions. This changes the nitriding reaction to a mild way, so it is more controlled with no explosive mode and with relatively low heating rates. Thus, NH4Cl acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source, and diluent agent. Furthermore, the evolved gases from the sublimation or decomposition of NH4Cl can prevent the Al particles coalescing after melting.

Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

2011-01-01

276

Manufacturing of composite titanium-titanium nitride coatings by reactive very low pressure plasma spraying (R-VLPPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very Low Pressure Plasma Spraying (VLPPS) is an emerging spray process nowadays intensively studied by many research centers in the World. To date, studies are mostly focused on the manufacturing of ceramic or metallic coatings. None refers to composite coatings manufacturing by reactive plasma spraying under very low pressure (i.e., ~150 Pa). This paper aims at presenting the carried-out developments and some results concerning the manufacturing of composite coatings by reactive spraying. Titanium was selected as metallic material in order to deposit titanium-nitride titanium coatings (Ti-TiN). Nitrogen was used as plasma gas and was injected along an Ar-H2-N2 plasma jet via a secondary injector in order to reach the nitrogen content on the substrate surface. Thus, different kind of reactive mechanisms were highlighted. Resulting coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations. Porous microstructures are clearly identified and the deposits exhibit condensed vapours and molten particles. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) analysis evidenced nitrogen inside the deposits and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of titanium nitride phases, such as TiN and Ti2N, depending upon the location of the nitrogen injection. Microhardness values as high as 800 VHN were measured on manufactured samples (to be compared to 220 VHN for pure titanium VLPPS-manufactured coatings).

Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.; Montavon, G.

2014-11-01

277

Characterization and solid particle erosion behavior of plasma sprayed alumina and calcia-stabilized zirconia coatings on Al6061 substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated impact by solid particles causes erosion and degradation of engineering components. In internal combustion engines, during combustion, hot gases are generated in large quantity which causes erosion of cylinder, combustion chamber, exhaust system, etc. In this work, two types of plasma sprayed coating systems were developed on Al-6061 substrate. For each system, a systematic microstructural study was carried out

N. Krishnamurthy; M. S. Murali; B. Venkataraman; P. G. Mukunda

278

The use of spray-dried animal plasma in comparison with other binders in canned pet food recipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) is used in canned pet food mainly because of some technological properties such as gel strength, water retention and fat emulsion capacities. In this study, 5 different binders commonly used in canned pet food recipes were evaluated in chunk- and loaf-type products. The binders tested were SDAP, wheat gluten (WG), dehydrated pork rind (DPR), soy protein

J. Polo; C. Rodríguez; J. Ródenas; S. Morera; N. Saborido

2009-01-01

279

The effect of plasma spraying on the fatigue strength of 30KhGSA steel under fretting corrosion conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

.nce of parts made of this steel, reduces the fatigue strength of the base, reducing the operating reliability of the part. For the purpose of increasing the fatigue life of parts operating under fretting corrosion conditions we have used the method of plasma application of wear-resistant coatings. The effect of a sprayed coating on the resistance of parts to fretting

A. Ya. Alyab'ev; V. V. Shevelya; V. A. Venediktov; B. I. Chaika

1978-01-01

280

Nonlinear theory of intense laser-plasma interactions modified by vacuum polarization effects  

SciTech Connect

The classical nonlinear theory of laser-plasma interactions is corrected by taking account of the vacuum polarization effects. A set of wave equations are obtained by using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian density and the derivative correction with the first-order quantum electrodynamic effects. A model more suitable to formulate the interactions of ultra-strong lasers and high-energy-density plasmas is developed. In the result, some environments in which the effects of vacuum polarization will be enhanced are discussed.

Chen, Wenbo; Bu, Zhigang; Li, Hehe; Luo, Yuee [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)] [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Ji, Peiyong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China) [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); The Shanghai Key Lab of Astrophysics, Shanghai 200234 (China)

2013-07-15

281

Sliding Wear Response of Nanostructured YSZ Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings for applications in high-temperature environments can be deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) techniques. The present research has been conducted in order to study the sliding wear response of a SPS ZrO2-8% mol. Y2O3 coating (75 ?m in thickness) deposited onto a Haynes 230 substrate, using pin-on-disc tests. Some of the coated samples were subsequently heat-treated for 1 h at 300 and 600 °C. Samples characterization prior and after the wear tests was carried out by SEM, EDS, XRD and optical profilometry techniques. Instrumented indentation was employed to determine elastic modulus and hardness. The results have shown that the as-sprayed and heat-treated samples experienced severe wear (10-13 m3/Nm) and the worst wear performance corresponded to the sample heat treated at 600 °C. Such a behavior could be related to both the structural changes that took place during heat treatment and the nature and level of the residual stresses in the coatings. In general, the morphologies of the wear tracks observed by SEM have shown a smoothing of the surface, brittle fracture, smearing and grain pull-out.

Kossman, S.; Chicot, D.; Decoopman, X.; Iost, A.; van Gorp, A.; Meillot, E.; Puchi-Cabrera, E. S.; Santana, Y. Y.; Staia, M. H.

2014-12-01

282

Young's modulus and fatigue behavior of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue behavior and Young’s modulus of plasma-sprayed gray alumina on low-carbon steel substrates were investigated. The investigation of the properties of composites that were defined as “coating-substrate” composites included measurements of the microhardness profile, the residual stress on the top of the coating, and the residual stress profile in the substrate. Fatigue samples were periodically loaded as a cantilever beam on a special testing machine. Failed samples were observed with a scanning electron microscope to determine the failure processes in the coating. The Young’s modulus of the coating was measured by the four-point bending method. Samples were tested both in tension and compression under low (300 N) and high (800 N) loads. The authors’ experiments revealed that the average fatigue lives of coated specimens were nearly two times longer than those of the uncoated specimens. The measurements of Young’s modulus of the coating yielded values that varied between 27 and 53 GPa, with an average value of 43 GPa. Loading in tension caused a decrease in the Young’s modulus of the coating, while loading in compression led to an increase in Young’s modulus. The increase in the lifetime of coated samples was likely due to compressive residual stresses in the substrate, originating during the spray process. The failure of the coating was due to several processes, among which the most important were splat cracking, splat debonding, and the coalescence of cracks through the voids in the coating.

Ková?ík, O.; Siegl, J.; Nohava, J.; Chráska, P.

2005-06-01

283

Acoustic emission responses of plasma sprayed ceramics during four point bend tests  

SciTech Connect

Free standing ceramics including alumina-13 wt.% titania (AT13), alumina-3 wt.% titania (AT3), alumina-40 wt.% zirconia (AZ40), and calcia-stabilized zirconia (CSZ), were produced by water-stabilized plasma spraying. Four point bend tests were performed in the in-plane direction (i.e., spray direction) to obtain the modulus of rupture of the materials. In situ acoustic emission (AE) monitoring was used to detect cracking during the tests. The AE characteristics such as ring down counts, event duration, peak amplitude, and energy were recorded and analyzed to evaluate different cracking mechanisms. The AE responses versus time for individual tests were evaluated and two basic types of cracking mechanisms; i.e., catastrophic failure and microcracking before failure, can be observed. AT3 and AZ40 tend to exhibit microcracking before failure and CSZ shows catastrophic failure. However, both mechanisms can be observed for AT13. For the total AE responses, the amplitude distributions are skewed to the right and the energy distributions show multi-modal distributions. Micro-, transitional, and macro-cracks can be better distinguished by the energy distribution. The relative proportion of these cracks was also determined.

Lin, Chung-Kwei; Leigh, S.H.; Berndt, C.C. [SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

284

Microstructure and Electrochemical Behavior of Fe-Based Amorphous Metallic Coatings Fabricated by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fe48Cr15Mo14C15B6Y2 alloy with high glass forming ability (GFA) was selected to prepare amorphous metallic coatings by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The as-deposited coatings present a dense layered structure and low porosity. Microstructural studies show that some nanocrystals and a fraction of yttrium oxides formed during spraying, which induced the amorphous fraction of the coatings decreasing to 69% compared with amorphous alloy ribbons of the same component. High thermal stability enables the amorphous coatings to work below 910 K without crystallization. The results of electrochemical measurement show that the coatings exhibit extremely wide passive region and relatively low passive current density in 3.5% NaCl and 1 mol/L HCl solutions, which illustrate their superior ability to resist localized corrosion. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of the amorphous coatings in 1 mol/L H2SO4 solution is similar to their performance under conditions containing chloride ions, which manifests their flexible and extensive ability to withstand aggressive environments.

Zhou, Z.; Wang, L.; He, D. Y.; Wang, F. C.; Liu, Y. B.

2011-01-01

285

Effect of Sintering on Mechanical and Physical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of sintering on mechanical and physical properties of free-standing plasma-sprayed ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was determined by annealing them at 1316 C in air. Mechanical and physical properties of the TBCs, including strength, modes I and II fracture toughness, elastic modulus, Poisson s response, density, microhardness, fractography, and phase stability, were determined at ambient temperature as a function of annealing time ranging from 0 to 500 h. All mechanical and physical properties, except for the amount of monoclinic phase, increased significantly in 5 to 100 h and then reached a plateau above 100 h. Annealing resulted in healing of microcracks and pores and in grain growth, accompanying densification of the TBC s body due to the sintering effect. However, an inevitable adverse effect also occurred such that the desired lower thermal conductivity and good expansivity, which makes the TBCs unique in thermal barrier applications, were degraded upon annealing. A model was proposed to assess and quantify all the property variables in response to annealing in a normalized scheme. Directionality of as-sprayed TBCs appeared to have an insignificant effect on their properties, as determined via fracture toughness, microhardness, and elastic modulus measurements.

Choi, Sung R.; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Miller, Robert A.

2004-01-01

286

Effect of Thermal Aging on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Samarium Zirconate Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rare-earth zirconates with the general formula of Ln2Zr2O7 (Ln = rare-earth elements) having considerable low thermal conductivity and exhibiting good phase stability at high temperature have attracted particular interest in thermal barrier coating (TBC) applications. The Sm2Zr2O7 coatings were deposited by plasma spraying, and the effect of thermal aging on their microstructure and mechanical properties was examined. The lamellar structure gradually disappeared with the temperature increasing for thermal aging. The evaluation by image analysis revealed that the amount of microcrack in coatings decreased with increasing aging temperature because of the increase in aspect ratio caused by microcrack healing, while no obvious change was observed in the spherical porosity. The as-sprayed Sm2Zr2O7 coating exhibited low microhardness and elastic modulus, which increased with rise in aging temperature because of the microstructure reconfiguration; in addition, the ratio of microhardness to elastic modulus decreased with aging temperature increase, indicating a promotion in plastic property.

Yu, Jianhua; Zhao, Huayu; Zhou, Xiaming; Tao, Shunyan; Ding, Chuanxian

2011-09-01

287

Development and the Implementation of High-Temperature Reliable Heaters in Plasma Spray Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many problems have been encountered during development of reliable high-temperature heaters by means of atmospheric plasma spray and procedures commonly adopted in thermal spray technology, especially due to poor steel substrate corrosion resistance, notably affected by grit-blasting operations, but also deriving from contamination of insulating layers, dielectric arcs, and failures due to hot spots in the heating elements. While seeking the origin of these problems, a close scrutiny of every single step of the preparation process and analyses of the coatings were carried out using laser confocal scanning microscopy, optical and electronic microscopy, fluorescence analysis, X-ray diffraction, and ancillary techniques. The electrical properties of both alumina layers and metal strips prepared with Ni, NiCr, NiAl commercial powders for the heating elements were studied and cross-related to the failures in the heaters. The article reports the main results of these investigations, delineates the innovations introduced to overcome or circumvent the problems, and underlines the distinct characteristics of new heaters, whose reliability has been proven up to now with temperatures of up to 600 °C in air.

Prudenziati, Maria

2008-06-01

288

Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Overlay Coatings for GRCop-84 Combustion Chamber Liners for Reusable Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center, and designated as GRCop-84, is currently being considered for use as combustor chamber liners and nozzle ramps in NASA s future generations of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). However, past experience has shown that unprotected copper alloys undergo an environmental attack called "blanching" in rocket engines using liquid hydrogen as fuel and liquid oxygen as the oxidizer. Potential for sulfidation attack of the liners in hydrocarbon-fueled engines is also of concern. Protective overlay coatings alloys are being developed for GRCop-84. The development of this coatings technology has involved a combination of modeling, coatings development and characterization, and process optimization. Coatings have been low pressure plasma sprayed on GRCop-84 substrates of various geometries and shapes. Microstructural, mechanical property data and thermophysical results on the coated substrates are presented and discussed.

Raj, S. V.; Barrett, C.; Ghosn, L. J.; Lerch, B.; Robinson,; Thorn, G.

2005-01-01

289

Synthesis, characterization and physical properties of Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystalline plasma sprayed coatings  

SciTech Connect

Our lab has been working with plasma spraying of both high pressure gas atomized (HPGA) and cast and crushed quasicrystal powders. A major component of this research includes comparative studies of PAS coatings formed with starting powders prepared by both techniques. In addition, a thorough investigation of the effects of starting powder particle size on coating microstructure is included. During the course of the overall research, an interest developed in forming Al-Cu-Fe materials with finer grain sizes. Therefore, a brief study was performed to characterize the effect of adding boron to Al-Cu-Fe materials prepared by different techniques. In addition to characterizing the microstructural features of the above materials, oxidation and wear behavior was also examined.

Daniel, S.

1995-11-09

290

Effect of Thermal Exposure on Mechanical Properties of a Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nanostructured thermal barrier coating (TBC) was deposited by air plasma spraying. The effect of microstructural evolution on nano-hardness and Young's modulus has been investigated by nanoindentation technique after exposure at 1200 °C in air for different times. The results showed that the sintering process of nanostructured TBC at 1200 °C was divided into two stages. TBC completely kept the nanostructure with the grain size <100 nm at the first stage of 10 h thermal exposure. The nanostructure was lost gradually at the second stage from 10 to 200 h thermal exposure. During the first stage, nano-hardness and Young's modulus increased rapidly for TBC densification, and Weibull bimodal distribution of both Young's modulus and nano-hardness disappeared as grain grew and most microcracks were healed. The structure of TBC did not change basically, and nano-hardness and Young's modulus increased slightly at the second stage.

Wu, Zilong; Ni, Liyong; Yu, Qinghe; Zhou, Chungen

2012-01-01

291

Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure spinel phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 < pH {<=} 10) were found to favor oxide film formation. The nanostructured films produced under optimized conditions, with 500 mM solution at pH {approx} 8.0, yielded pure cubic phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of {approx}1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)] [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India); Borse, Pramod H., E-mail: phborse@arci.res.in [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)

2012-03-15

292

Antibacterial and biological characteristics of plasma sprayed silver and strontium doped hydroxyapatite coatings  

PubMed Central

Infection in primary total joint prostheses is estimated to occur in up to 3% of all surgeries. As a measure to improve the antimicrobial properties of implant materials, silver (Ag) was incorporated into plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings. To offset potential cytotoxic effects of Ag in the coatings, strontium (Sr) was also added as a binary dopant. HA powder were doped with 2.0 wt% Ag2O, 1.0 wt% SrO and the powder was then heat treated at 800° C. Titanium substrates were coated using a 30 kW plasma spray system equipped with a supersonic nozzle. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the phase purity and high crystallinity of the coatings. Samples were evaluated for mechanical stability by adhesive bond strength testing. Results show that the addition of dopants did not affect the overall bond strength of the coatings. The antibacterial efficacies of the coatings were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Samples that contained the Ag2O dopant were found to be highly effective against the bacterial colonization. In vitro cell-material interactions using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells were characterized by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cell viability, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for cell morphology and confocal imaging for the important differentiation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our results showed evidence of cytotoxic effects in the Ag-HA coatings, characterized by poor cellular morphology and cell death and nearly complete impediment of functional ALP activity. The addition of SrO to Ag-HA coatings was able to effectively offset these negative effects and improve the performance when compared to pure HA coated samples. PMID:22487928

Fielding, Gary A.; Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

2012-01-01

293

Immediate loading of titanium plasma-sprayed implants: an histologic analysis in monkeys.  

PubMed

Aim of this study was to evaluate peri-implant tissue reactions to immediately loaded titanium plasma-sprayed implants in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. A total of 48 titanium plasma-sprayed implants were inserted (24 in the posterior maxilla and 24 in the posterior mandible). A metal superstructure was cemented 3 days after implant insertion on 24 implants (12 in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible) (test implants). The remaining 24 implants (12 in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible) were left unloaded (control implants). Nine months after implant placement a block section was carried out, the defect filled with non-resorbable hydroxyapatite, and all 48 implants retrieved. The implants were treated to obtain thin ground sections. Three slides were cut for each implant and examined under normal and polarized light and a morphometrical analysis done. All implants were covered by bone under light microscopy. The histomorphometrical analysis demonstrated that in test implants, the bone-implant contact percentage was 67.3% (+/-7.6%) in the maxilla, and 73.2% (+/-5.9%) in the mandible; in control implants the percentages were, respectively, 54.5% (+/-3.3%) and 55.8% (+/-6.5%). In the test implants the bone around the implants tended to have a more compact appearance. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that in test implants the bone-implant contact percentage was significantly greater than in the controls (P < 0.01) and no fibrous connective tissue was present at the interface. PMID:9579618

Piattelli, A; Corigliano, M; Scarano, A; Costigliola, G; Paolantonio, M

1998-03-01

294

Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity  

PubMed Central

Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10??m, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants. PMID:18664431

Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

2008-01-01

295

Induction Plasma Sprayed Nano Hydroxyapatite Coatings on Titanium for Orthopaedic and Dental Implants  

PubMed Central

This paper reports preparation of a highly crystalline nano hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) using inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) plasma spray and their in vitro and in vivo biological response. HA coatings were prepared on Ti using normal and supersonic plasma nozzles at different plate powers and working distances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis show that the normal plasma nozzle lead to increased phase decomposition, high amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase formation, and severe dehydroxylation of HA. In contrast, coatings prepared using supersonic nozzle retained the crystallinity and phase purity of HA due to relatively short exposure time of HA particles in the plasma. In addition, these coatings exhibited a microstructure that varied from porous and glassy structure at the coating-substrate interface to dense HA at the top surface. The microstructural analysis showed that the coating was made of multigrain HA particles of ~200 nm in size, which consisted of recrystallized HA grains in the size range of 15– 20 nm. Apart from the type of nozzle, working distance was also found to have a strong influence on the HA phase decomposition, while plate power had little influence. Depending on the plasma processing conditions, a coating thickness between 300 and 400 ?m was achieved where the adhesive bond strengths were found to be between 4.8 MPa to 24 MPa. The cytotoxicity of HA coatings was examined by culturing human fetal osteoblast cells (hFOB) on coated surfaces. In vivo studies, using the cortical defect model in rat femur, evaluated the histological response of the HA coatings prepared with supersonic nozzle. After 2 weeks of implantation, osteoid formation was evident on the HA coated implant surface, which could indicate early implant- tissue integration in vivo. PMID:21552358

Roy, Mangal; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

2011-01-01

296

Improving Powder Injection in Plasma Spraying by Optical Diagnostics of the Plasma and Particle Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Powder injection parameters such as gas flow, injection angle, and injector position strongly influence the particle beam and thus coating properties. The interaction of the injection conditions on particle properties based on DPV-2000 measurements using the single-cathode F4 torch is presented. Furthermore, the investigation of the plasma plume by emission computer tomography is described when operating the three-cathode TriplexPro™ torch. By this imaging technology, the three-dimensional shape of the radiating plasma jet is reproduced based on images achieved from three CCD cameras rotating around the plume axis. It is shown how the formation of the plasma jet changes with plasma parameters and how this knowledge can be used to optimize particle injection.

Mauer, Georg; Vaßen, Robert; Stöver, Detlev; Kirner, Stefan; Marqués, José-Luis; Zimmermann, Stephan; Forster, Günter; Schein, Jochen

2011-01-01

297

Relationship Between Particle and Plasma Properties and Coating Characteristics of Samaria-Doped Ceria Prepared by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samaria-doped ceria (SDC) has become a promising material for the fabrication of high-performance, intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In this study, the in-flight characteristics, such as particle velocity and surface temperature, of spray-dried SDC agglomerates were measured and correlated to the resulting microstructures of SDC coatings fabricated using atmospheric plasma spraying, a manufacturing technique with the capability of producing full cells in minutes. Plasmas containing argon, nitrogen and hydrogen led to particle surface temperatures higher than those in plasmas containing only argon and nitrogen. A threshold temperature for the successful deposition of SDC on porous stainless steel substrates was calculated to be 2570 °C. Coating porosity was found to be linked to average particle temperature, suggesting that plasma conditions leading to lower particle temperatures may be most suitable for fabricating porous SOFC electrode layers.

Cuglietta, Mark; Kesler, Olivera

2012-06-01

298

Studies on the Sliding Wear Performance of Plasma Spray Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two metallic powders namely Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al were coated on AISI 309 SS steel by shrouded plasma spray process. The wear behavior of the bare, Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al-coated AISI 309 SS steel was investigated according to ASTM Standard G99-03 on a Pin-on-Disc Wear Test Rig. The wear tests were carried out at normal loads of 30 and 50 N with a sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (?) were calculated for all the cases. The worn-out surfaces were then examined by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Both the as-sprayed coatings exhibited typical splat morphology. The XRD analysis indicated the formation of Ni phase for the Ni-20Cr coating and Ni3Al phase for the Ni3Al coating. It has been concluded that the plasma-sprayed Ni-20Cr and Ni3Al coatings can be useful to reduce the wear rate of AISI 309 SS steel. The coatings were found to be adherent to the substrate steel during the wear tests. The plasma-sprayed Ni3Al coating has been recommended as a better choice to reduce the wear of AISI 309 SS steel, in comparison with the Ni-20Cr coating.

Kaur, Maninder; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Balraj; Singh, Bhupinder

2010-01-01

299

Preparation of Aluminum Coatings by Atmospheric Plasma Spraying and Dry-Ice Blasting and Their Corrosion Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum coating, as an example of spray coating material with low hardness, was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying while dry-ice blasting was applied during the deposition process. The deposited coatings were characterized in terms of microstructure, porosity, phase composition, and the valence states. The results show that the APS aluminum coatings with dry-ice blasting present a porosity of 0.35 ± 0.02%, which is comparable to the bulk material formed by the mechanical compaction. In addition, no evident oxide has been detected, except for the very thin and impervious oxide layer at the outermost layer. Compared to plasma-sprayed Al coatings without dry-ice blasting, the adhesion increased by 52% for Al substrate using dry-ice blasting, while 25% for steel substrate. Corrosion behavior of coated samples was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl aqueous using electrochemistry measurements. The electrochemical results indicated that APS Al coating with dry-ice blasting was more resistant to pitting corrosion than the conventional plasma-sprayed Al coating.

Dong, Shu-Juan; Song, Bo; Zhou, Gen-Shu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Hansz, Bernard; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

2013-10-01

300

The influence of laser specific energy on laser sealing of plasma sprayed yttria partially stabilized zirconia coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2 kW CO2 laser was used to modify the surface of air plasma sprayed (APS) 7.8 wt% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (YPSZ) coatings; the effects of laser specific energy was investigated. The sealed coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, WDS, XRD and microhardness. It was possible to control the cell size (or well-sintered 'domain like' structure), crack width, depth of sealing and depth of concavity by carefully adjusting the specific energy. The microstructure of the sealed coatings was characterized by a cellular structure at all laser parameters studied. Cracks formed under optimum specific energies (1-2 J/mm²) were seen to be shallow and they do not penetrate through the plasma sprayed coating. The sealed coatings have much lower roughness and higher hardness than non-treated coatings indicating the beneficial effect of plasma treatment.

Kadhim, Mohammed Jasim; Ibrahim Al-Rubaiey, Sami; Sabea Hammood, Ali

2013-02-01

301

Time and space resolved Langmuir probe measurements of a pulsed vacuum arc plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time and space evolution of pulsed vacuum arc plasma parameters have been measured using a single cylindrical Langmuir probe in a free expansion cup. Electron density ne, effective electron temperature Teff and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are derived from the I–V curves using Druyvesteyn method. Results show that during the discharge time, the electron density ne is between

Lei Chen; Dazhi Jin; Xiaohua Tan; Jingyi Dai; Liang Cheng; Side Hu

302

Radially expanding plasma parameters in a hot refractory anode vacuum arc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron temperature, plasma density, and plasma potential were measured with a Langmuir probe in the radially expanding plasma streaming from the interelectrode gap of a hot refractory anode vacuum arc. Plasma parameters were measured when the anodic plume was formed, during the first 20 s after arc ignition, at points located 3 to 18 cm from the electrode edge. In addition, the ion energy distribution was determined using a retarding field analyzer. As a function of radial distance, the electron temperature decreased from 1.2 to 0.6 eV, the plasma potential decreased from 3.7 to 1.7 V, and the plasma density decreased from 2.1013 to 1.8.1011cm-3. The measured mean ion energy per unit charge state increased from 8 eV at an axial distance of 3 cm to 20 eV at 18 cm. The electron temperature and plasma potential decreased with arc duration by about 0.4 and 2 eV, respectively, near the electrode region. The relatively small magnitude of the ion energy observed near the gap may be caused by nonelastic resonance charge exchange scattering of the cathode jet ions on atoms that are reevaporated from the anode. The observed ion acceleration at larger distances from the gap is caused by the gradient in the electron pressure caused by the plasma expansion from the interelectrode gap into the ambient vacuum.

Beilis, I. I.; Boxman, R. L.; Goldsmith, S.; Paperny, V. L.

2000-12-01

303

Preparation of Nanocomposite GDC/LSCF Cathode Material for IT-SOFC by Induction Plasma Spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homogeneous mixtures of Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) nanopowders were successfully synthesized using induction plasma by axial injection of a solution. The resulting nanocomposite powders consisted of two kinds of nanopowders with different mass ratio of GDC/LSCF, such as 3/7 and 6/4. The morphological features, crystallinity, and the phases of the synthesized powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), local energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanopowders are almost globular in shape with a diameter smaller than 100 nm and their BET specific areas are around 20 m2 g-1. The GDC and LSCF phases are well distributed in the nanopowders. In addition, suspensions, made with the as-synthesized composite nanopowders and ethanol, were used to deposit cathode coatings using suspension plasma spray (SPS). Micro-nanostructures of the coatings are discussed. The coatings are homogeneous and porous (51% porosity) with cauliflower structures.

Shen, Yan; Almeida, Veronica Alexandra B.; Gitzhofer, François

2011-01-01

304

Generation of high charge state platinum ions on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hybrid high charge metal ion source based on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation into simple magnetic trap has been developed. Two types of magnetic traps were used: a mirror configuration and a cusp one with inherent "minimum-B" structure. Pulsed high power (>100 kW) gyrotrons with frequency 37.5 GHz and 75 GHz were used for heating the vacuum arc plasma injected into the traps. Two different ways were used for injecting the metal plasma—axial injection by a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and simultaneous radial injection by a number of sources mounted radially at the midplane of the traps. This article represents all data gathered for platinum ions, thus making comparison of the experimental results obtained with different traps and injections convenient and accurate.

Yushkov, G. Yu.; Vodopyanov, A. V.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Izotov, I. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Golubev, S. V.; Oks, E. M.

2014-02-01

305

Generation of high charge state platinum ions on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation.  

PubMed

The hybrid high charge metal ion source based on vacuum arc plasma heated by gyrotron radiation into simple magnetic trap has been developed. Two types of magnetic traps were used: a mirror configuration and a cusp one with inherent "minimum-B" structure. Pulsed high power (>100 kW) gyrotrons with frequency 37.5 GHz and 75 GHz were used for heating the vacuum arc plasma injected into the traps. Two different ways were used for injecting the metal plasma-axial injection by a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and simultaneous radial injection by a number of sources mounted radially at the midplane of the traps. This article represents all data gathered for platinum ions, thus making comparison of the experimental results obtained with different traps and injections convenient and accurate. PMID:24593607

Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Nikolaev, A G; Izotov, I V; Savkin, K P; Golubev, S V; Oks, E M

2014-02-01

306

Improved Oxidation Life of Segmented Plasma Sprayed 8YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unconventional plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems were produced and evaluated by interrupted or cyclic furnace oxidation life testing. First, approximately 250 µm thick 8YSZ coatings were directly sprayed onto grit blasted surfaces of PWA 1484, without a bond coat, to take advantage of the excellent oxidation resistance of this superalloy. For nominal sulfur (S) contents of 1 ppmw, total coating separation took place at relatively short times (200 h at 1100°C). Reductions in the S content, by melt desulfurization commercially (0.3 ppmw) or by hydrogen (H2) annealing in the laboratory (0.01 ppmw), improved scale adhesion and extended life appreciably, by factors of 5-10. However, edge-initiated failure persisted, producing massive delamination as one sheet of coating. Secondly, surfaces of melt desulfurized PWA 1484 were machined with a grid of grooves or ribs (˜250 µm wide and high), resulting in a segmented TBC surface macrostructure, for the purpose of subverting this failure mechanism. In this case, failure occurred only as independent, single-segment events. For grooved samples, 1100 °C segment life was extended to ˜1000h for 5 mm wide segments, with no failure observed out to 2000 h for segments ?2.5 mm wide. Ribbed samples were even more durable, and segments ?6 mm remained intact for 2000 h. Larger segments failed by buckling at times inversely related to the segment width and decreased by oxidation effects at higher temperatures. This critical buckling size was consistent with that predicted for elastic buckling of a TBC plate subject to thermal expansion mismatch stresses. Thus, low S substrates demonstrate appreciable coating lives without a bond coat, while rib segmenting extends life considerably.

Smialek, James L.

2004-03-01

307

In-Flight Temperature and Velocity of Powder Particles of Plasma-Sprayed TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper relates to the in-flight temperature and velocity of TiO2 particles, an integral part of the systematic research on atmospheric plasma spraying of the material. Initial powder feedstock (32-45 ?m, 100% rutile phase) was introduced into the plasma jet. Six parameters were selected to represent the versatility of the plasma system and their respective influences were determined according to basic one-at-a-time and advanced Taguchi design of experiments combined with the analysis of variance analytical tool. It was found that the measured temperatures varied from 2121 to 2830 K (33% variation), while the velocities of the particles were altered from 127 to 243 m/s (91% variation). Gun net power was detected as the most influential factor with respect to the velocity of the TiO2 particles (an increase of 8.4 m/s per 1-kW increase in net power). Spray distance was determined to have a major impact on the in-flight temperature (a decrease of 10 mm in spray distance corresponds to a drop of 36 K). A significant decrease in both characteristics was detected for an increasing amount of powder entering the plasma jet: A drop of 7.1 K and 1.4 m/s was recorded per every +1 g/min of TiO2 powder.

Cizek, Jan; Khor, Khiam Aik; Dlouhy, Ivo

2013-12-01

308

Suspension Plasma Spray and Performance Characterization of Half Cells with NiO/YSZ Anode and YSZ Electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a liquid feedstock carrier in suspension plasma spray (SPS) permits injection of fine powders, providing the possibility of producing sprayed coatings that are both thin and dense and have fine microstructures. These characteristics make SPS an attractive process for depositing highly efficient electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. In this study, NiO-yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode and YSZ electrolyte half cells were successfully deposited on porous Hastelloy X substrates by SPS. The NiO-YSZ anode deposition process was optimized by design of experiment. The YSZ electrolyte spray process was examined by changing one parameter at a time. The results from the design-of-experiment trials indicated that the porosity of the as-deposited coatings increased with an increase of suspension feed rate while it decreased with an increase of total plasma gas flow rate and standoff distance. The deposition rate increased with an increase of total plasma gas flow rate, suspension feed rate, and standoff distance. The microstructure examination by SEM showed that the NiO and YSZ phases were homogeneously distributed and that the YSZ phase had a lamellar structure. It was observed that the density of the YSZ electrolyte layer increased as input power of the plasma torch increased. Electrochemical characterization of the fabricated cells indicated that an open cell voltage of 0.989 V at 500 °C and a peak power of 0.610 W/cm2 at 750 °C were reached.

Wang, Y.; Legoux, J.-G.; Neagu, R.; Hui, S.; Marple, B. R.

2012-01-01

309

Cavitation-erosion of thermal sprayed hardfacing coatings  

SciTech Connect

An investigation has been carried out on the cavitation-erosion behavior of thermal sprayed WC-Co and Tribaloy (T-400) coatings. The thermal spray processes used were air and vacuum plasma spraying and hypersonic flame or Jet Kote spraying. The principal goals of this work were to investigate the influence of the three types of spray processes on the coating microstructure and cavitation-erosion behavior. It was found that spray atmosphere is a critical parameter in thermal spraying of WC-Co coatings. For the case of WC-Co materials, decomposition and dissolution of the carbide occur during air plasma and Jet Kote spraying processes, while no apparent decomposition and dissolution of the carbide were observed for vacuum plasma spraying. Tribaloy coatings produced by these three spray processes showed metastable mixtures of amorphous and microcrystalline phases, as well as supersaturated solid solution due to rapid solidification. Upon the heat treatment (at 1175 C for 5 minutes), these metastable phases were transformed to more stable phases. Laser treatment gave a dense coating surface structure, pore-free and crack-free surfaces, and resulted in significantly improved cavitation-erosion resistance. The main factors leading to enhanced cavitation-erosion resistance of the Tribaloy coatings are: (i) high coating density; (ii) high proportion of Laves phase; (iii) stress-induced phase transformation; and (iv) a low level of microstructural defects. The corrosive aspects of cavitation-erosion and electrochemical measurements showed that porosity was the predominant factor influencing cavitation-corrosion and corrosion behaviors.

Guo, X.

1988-01-01

310

Use of vacuum arc plasma guns for a metal puff Z-pinch system  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a metal puff Z-pinch system has been studied experimentally. In this type of system, the initial cylindrical shell 4 cm in diameter was produced by ten plasma guns. Each gun initiates a vacuum arc operating between magnesium electrodes. The net current of the guns was 80 kA. The arc-produced plasma shell was compressed by using a 450-kA, 450-ns driver, and as a result, a plasma column 0.3 cm in diameter was formed. The electron temperature of the plasma reached 400 eV at an average ion concentration of 1.85 {center_dot} 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The power of the Mg K-line radiation emitted by the plasma for 15-30 ns was 300 MW/cm.

Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Baksht, R. B. [Tel Aviv University, Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Tel Aviv 69101 (Israel)

2011-09-15

311

Plasma centrifuge with vacuum arc discharge applied to the separation of stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge experiment are described. A plasma centrifuge is an apparatus where a plasma column is produced due to the interaction of an electric current with an externally applied magnetic field, vector J x vector B. Among the applications of a rotating plasma, this work deals particularly with its utilization in an isotope enrichment device. The main characteristics of the plasma produced in this experiment are presented, with special attention to the plasma column rotation and the isotope enrichment. The analysis of the results is performed using a fluid model for a completely ionized rigid body rotating plasma column in steady state equilibrium. The main results are: (1) rotation frequency of the plasma column in the range 2 x (exp 4) to 3 x 10 (exp 5) rad/s; (2) enrichment of 10 to 30 pct for the magnesium isotopes, and 290 to 490 pct for the carbon-13 isotope; (3) rigid body rotation of the plasma column only for radii smaller than the characteristic radius of the plasma column, r(sub e); (4) linear dependence of the rotation frequency upon the magnetic field strength only for r is less than r(sub e); (5) existence of an optimum value of the magnetic field for maximum enrichment; and (6) dependence of the rotation frequency upon the inverse of the atomic mass.

Delbosco, Edson

1989-09-01

312

An Assessment of the Residual Stresses in Low Pressure Plasma Sprayed Coatings on an Advanced Copper Alloy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modeling studies were conducted on low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) NiAl top coat applied to an advanced Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb alloy (GRCop-84) substrate using Ni as a bond coat. A thermal analysis suggested that the NiAl and Ni top and bond coats, respectively, would provide adequate thermal protection to the GRCop-84 substrate in a rocket engine operating under high heat flux conditions. Residual stress measurements were conducted at different depths from the free surface on coated and uncoated GRCop-84 specimens by x-ray diffraction. These data are compared with theoretically estimated values assessed by a finite element analysis simulating the development of these stresses as the coated substrate cools down from the plasma spraying temperature to room temperature.

Raj, S. V.; Ghosn, L. J.; Agarwal, A.; Lachtrupp, T. P.

2002-01-01

313

Fabrication of ceramic substrate-reinforced and free forms by mandrel plasma spraying metal-ceramic composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Components fabricated of, or coated with, ceramics have lower parasitic cooling requirements. Techniques are discussed for fabricating thin-shell ceramic components and ceramic coatings for applications in rocket or jet engine environments. Thin ceramic shells with complex geometric forms involving convolutions and reentrant surfaces were fabricated by mandrel removal. Mandrel removal was combined with electroplating or plasma spraying and isostatic pressing to form a metal support for the ceramic. Rocket engine thrust chambers coated with 0.08 mm (3 mil) of ZrO2-8Y2O3 had no failures and a tenfold increase in engine life. Some measured mechanical properties of the plasma-sprayed ceramic are presented.

Quentmeyer, R. J.; Mcdonald, G.; Hendricks, R. C.

1985-01-01

314

Low Thermal Conductivity Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings Using the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary function of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is to insulate the underlying metal from high temperature gases in gas turbine engines. As a consequence, low thermal conductivity and high durability are the primary properties of interest. In this work, the solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS) process was used to create layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries, in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) TBCs. IPBs have been shown to be effective in reducing thermal conductivity. Optimization of the IPB microstructure by the SPPS process produced YSZ TBCs with a thermal conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, an approximately 50% reduction compared to standard air plasma sprayed (APS) coatings. In preliminary tests, SPPS YSZ with IPBs exhibited equal or greater furnace thermal cycles and erosion resistance compared to regular SPPS and commercially made APS YSZ TBCs.

Jordan, Eric H.; Jiang, Chen; Roth, Jeffrey; Gell, Maurice

2014-06-01

315

Preliminary study of cyclic thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed zirconium oxide turbine outer air seal shrouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several experimental concepts representing potential high pressure turbine seal material systems were subjected to cyclic thermal shock exposures similar to those that might be encountered under severe engine start-up and shut-down sequences. All of the experimental concepts consisted of plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized ZrO2 on the high temperature side of the blade tip seal shroud. Between the ZrO2 and a cooled, dense metal backing, various intermediate layer concepts intended to mitigate thermal stresses were incorporated. Performance was judged on the basis of the number of thermal shock cycles required to cause loss of seal material through spallation. The most effective approach was to include a low modulus, sintered metal pad between the ZrO2 and the metallic backing. It was also found that reducing the density of the ZrO2 layer significantly improved the performance of specimens with plasma-sprayed metal/ceramic composite intermediate layers.

Bill, R. C.; Wisander, D. W.

1977-01-01

316

Failure of thick, low density air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research was directed at developing fundamental understandings of the variables that influence the performance of air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Focus was placed on understanding how and why each variable influenced the performance of the TBC system along with how the individual variables interacted with one another. It includes research on the effect of surface roughness of NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying, the interdiffusion behavior of bond coats coupled to commercial superalloys, and the microstructural and compositional control of APS topcoats to maximize the coating thicknesses that can be applied without spallation. The specimens used for this research were prepared by Praxair Surface Technologies and have been evaluated using cyclic oxidation and thermal shock tests. TBC performance was sensitive to bond coat roughness with the rougher bond coats having improved cyclic performance than the smoother bond coats. The explanation being the rough bond coat surface hindered the propagation of the delamination cracks. The failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on a combination of the topcoat thickness, topcoat microstructure and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the superalloy and topcoat. Thinner topcoats tended to fail at the topcoat/TGO interface due to bond coat oxidation whereas thicker topcoats failed within the topcoat due to the strain energy release rate of the thicker coating exceeding the fracture strength of the topcoat. Properties of free-standing high and conventional purity YSZ topcoats of both a lowdensity (LD) and dense-vertically fissure (DVF) microstructures were evaluated. The densification rate and phase evolution were sensitive to the YSZ purity and the starting microstructure. Increasing the impurity content resulted in enhanced sintering and phase decomposition rates, with the exception of the conventional-purity DVF which exhibited a density decrease during sintering. A combination of the DVF and LD topcoat microstructures (dual TBC) resulted in significant increase in cyclic durability. A 1275 mum thick dual TBC coating was found to have a comparable furnace cyclic life to that of a 100 im LD TBC.

Helminiak, Michael Aaron

317

Structure and electronic properties features of amorphous chalhogenide semiconductor films prepared by ion-plasma spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structure of amorphous chalcogenide semiconductor glassy As-S-Se films, obtained by high-frequency (HF) ion-plasma sputtering has been investigated. It was shown that the length of the atomic structure medium order and local structure were different from the films obtained by thermal vacuum evaporation. Temperature dependence of dark conductivity, as well as the dependence of the spectral transmittance has been studied. Conductivity value was determined at room temperature. Energy activation conductivity and films optical band gap have been calculated. Temperature and field dependence of the drift mobility of charge carriers in the HF As-S-Se films have been shown. Bipolarity of charge carriers drift mobility has been confirmed. Absence of deep traps for electrons in the As40Se30S30 spectrum of localized states for films obtained by HF plasma ion sputtering was determined. Bipolar drift of charge carriers was found in amorphous As40Se30S30 films obtained by ion-plasma sputtering of high-frequency, unlike the films of these materials obtained by thermal evaporation.

Korobova, N.; Almasov, N.; Prikhodko, O.; Timoshenkov, S.; Tsendin, K.

2014-10-01

318

New process of ion surface modification of compressor steel in the vacuum arc plasma of titanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new process of ion modification of the surfaces of EI961 and EP866 compressor steels by titanium in the plasma of high-current vacuum arc discharge in an ion-plasma MAP-3 device is studied and compared to the thermodiffusion solid-phase saturation of these steels by titanium under temperature-time conditions that are identical to the ion modification conditions. The phase and elemental compositions of the surfaces of the samples modified in titanium plasma at various bias voltages and the samples with a titanium coating after vacuum thermodiffusion annealing are analyzed. The phase state of the surfaces of the EI961 and EP866 steel samples is shown to begin to change during ion treatment in titanium plasma at a bias voltage of 150 V and an ion heating temperature of 470-480°C. No changes are detected in the phase state of the surfaces of the samples coated with titanium after vacuum diffusion annealing at a temperature of 1050°C.

Muboyadzhyan, S. A.; Azarovskii, E. N.

2013-11-01

319

[Preliminary study of atomic emission spectrometry of Ti (H) plasma produced by vacuum arc ion source].  

PubMed

In order to study the discharge process of vacuum arc ion source, make a detail description of the discharge plasma, and lay the foundation for further research on ion source, atomic emission spectrometry was used to diagnose the parameters of plasma produced by vaccum arc ion source. In the present paper, two kinds of analysis method for the emission spectra data collected by a spectrometer were developed. Those were based in the stark broadening of spectral lines and Saba-Boltzmann equation. Using those two methods, the electron temperature, electron number density and the ion temperature of the plasma can be determined. The emission spectroscopy data used in this paper was collected from the plasma produced by a vacuum are ion source whose cathode was made by Ti material (which adsorbed hydrogen during storage procedure). Both of the two methods were used to diagnose the plasma parameters and judge the thermal motion state of the plasma. Otherwise, the validity of the diagnostic results by the two methods were analyzed and compared. In addition, the affection from laboratory background radiation during the spectral acquisition process was discussed. PMID:25208416

Deng, Chun-Feng; Wu, Chun-Lei; Wang, Yi-Fu; Lu, Biao; Wen, Zhong-Wei

2014-03-01

320

Physically enhanced coating of a titanium plasma-spray surface with human SAOS-2 osteoblasts and extracellular matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggest that the modification of a titanium surface could play an important role in bone tissue engineering. In this study we have followed a biomimetic strategy where ultrasonically or electromagnetically stimulated human SAOS-2 osteoblasts proliferated and built their extracellular matrix on a titanium plasma-spray surface. In comparison with control conditions, the ultrasonic stimulus (power, 149 mW; frequency, 1.5

Lorenzo Fassina; Enrica Saino; Livia Visai; Giovanni Magenes

2007-01-01

321

Microstructural characterization of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits using multiple small-angle neutron scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density, electron microscopy, elastic modulus, and small-angle neutron scattering studies are used to characterize the microstructures of yttria-stabilized zirconia plasma-sprayed deposits as a function of both feedstock morphology and annealing. In particular, anisotropic multiple small-angle neutron scattering data are combined with anisotropic Porod scattering results to quantify each of the three main porous components in these thermal barrier coating materials:

A. J. Allen; J. Ilavsky; G. G. Long; J. S. Wallace; C. C. Berndt; H. Herman

2001-01-01

322

Microstructure and tribological properties of plasma sprayed Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline coatings after laser post-treatment processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of the study on the effect of laser melting–solidification processing on the structure and tribological properties of plasma spray Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline alloy coatings. Dense and hard coatings were obtained by the laser post-treatment processing and the volume fraction of the icosahedral (i) phase was found to be dependent on the laser power and scanning velocity

W. D. Yuan; T. M. Shao; E. Fleury; D Se; D. R Chen

2004-01-01

323

Mechanical properties of in situ Al 2O 3 formed Al–Si composite coating via atmospheric plasma spraying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mechanically alloyed Al–12Si\\/SiO2 composite powder was deposited onto an aluminum substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying. The composite coating consisting of in situ formed Al2O3 reinforced hypereutectic Al–18Si matrix alloy was achieved. The produced coatings were extensively analyzed with respect to X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD patterns of the coatings include Al, Si and Al2O3 phase formation. Mechanical

O. Culha; C. Tekmen; M. Toparli; Y. Tsunekawa

2010-01-01

324

RETRACTED: Chemical densification of plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings for high temperature wear and corrosion resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic coatings have been widely used as wear- and corrosion-resistant coatings in high temperature applications and an aggressive environment due to their high hardness, wear resistance, heat and chemical resistance, and low thermal conductivity. The highly porous structure of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings and their poor adhesion to the substrate usually lead to the coating degradation and failure. In this study, a two-layer system consisting of atmospheric plasma-sprayed 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) and Ni-based alloy coatings was post-treated by means of a novel chemical sealing process at moderate temperatures of 600-800 °C. Microstructure characteristics of the YSZ coatings were studied using an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). Results revealed that the ceramic top coat was densified by the precipitated zirconia in the open pores. Therefore, the sealed YSZ coatings exhibit reduced porosity, higher hardness and a better adhesion onto the bond coat. The mechanisms for the sealing process were also proposed.

Ye, Yaping; Fehr, Karl Thomas; Faulstich, Martin; Wolf, Gerhard

2012-12-01

325

Enhanced cycle capacity retention of plasma-sprayed SiOx nanocomposite powders for negative electrode of lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Core–shell SiOx nanocomposite powders have been produced in a single continuous plasma spray process. The addition of CH4 at appropriate amounts during plasma spraying of SiO was found to be quite effective in promoting the reduction of SiO and thus increasing the crystalline Si amount after the disproportionation reaction. The half-coin cell assembled using these powders for the negative electrode has exhibited a stable capacity higher than 1000 mAh/g with the coulombic efficiency of around 99.3%, both of which are higher values than those of the cell with raw SiO. Electrochemical analysis has revealed that the resistance at the SiOx particle surface decreases potentially with Li2O formation from the beginning of the first lithiation. The decrease in the resistance is further enhanced by the addition of CH4, although more volume change is expected because of the increased crystalline Si phase content. As a result, the core–shell SiO nanocomposite produced by plasma spraying with CH4 becomes advantageous in attaining high capacity and high retention efficiency simultaneously.

Kambara, Makoto; Oda, Nobuhiko; Homma, Keiichiro

2015-01-01

326

Bone reactions to early occlusal loading of two-stage titanium plasma-sprayed implants: a pilot study in monkeys.  

PubMed

This pilot study analyzed the bone reactions to early loaded titanium plasma-sprayed implants. A total of 24 titanium plasma-sprayed implants (12 in the maxilla and 12 in the mandible) (Primary Healing Implant, Legnano) were inserted into four Macaca fascicularis monkeys with instruments specially designed to obtain a precise fit of the implant in the bone socket. A metal superstructure was cemented into 10 mandibular and 10 maxillary implants 15 days after implant insertion. The four remaining implants were used as controls. Eight months after implant placement, a block section was carried out, the defect was filled with nonresorbable hydroxyapatite, and all 24 implants were retrieved. The implants were treated to obtain thin ground sections that were examined under normal and polarized light. Histologic analysis showed that bone was observed around the implant surface in all implants. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that bone lined 67.2% (SD = 3.1%) of the maxillary implant surface, and 80.71% (SD = 4.6%) of the mandibular implant surface. No differences were found in the percentage of bone-implant contact in the control implants. In the loaded implants, however, the bone around the implants had a more compact appearance. The study demonstrated that it is possible to obtain a high percentage of bone-implant contact in early loaded titanium plasma-sprayed implants. PMID:9497710

Piattelli, A; Corigliano, M; Scarano, A; Quaranta, M

1997-04-01

327

A comparative physico-chemical study of chlorapatite and hydroxyapatite: from powders to plasma sprayed thin coatings.  

PubMed

Due to their bioactivity and osteoconductivity, hydroxyapatite (HA) plasma sprayed coatings have been widely developed for orthopedic uses. However, the thermodynamic instability of HA leads frequently to a mixture of phases which limit the functional durability of the coating. This study investigates the plasma spraying of chlorapatite (ClA) powder, known to melt without decomposition, onto pure titanium substrates using a low energy plasma spray system (LEPS). Pure ClA powder was prepared by a solid gas reaction at 950 °C and thermogravimetric analysis showed the good thermal stability of ClA powder in the range 30-1400 °C compared to that of the HA powder. Characterization of ClA coating showed that ClA had a very high crystalline ratio and no other crystalline phase was detected in the coating. HA and ClA coatings composition, microstructure and in vitro bioactivity potential were studied, compared and discussed. In vitro SBF test on HA and ClA coatings revealed the formation of a poorly crystalline apatite on the coating surface suggesting that we could expect a good osteoconductivity especially for the ClA coating prepared by the LEPS system. PMID:22971953

Demnati, I; Grossin, D; Combes, C; Parco, M; Braceras, I; Rey, C

2012-10-01

328

The dependency of microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured alumina-titania coatings on critical plasma spraying parameter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical plasma spraying parameter (CPSP) is a significant factor to influence the quality of plasma-sprayed coatings. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of the CPSP on microstructure and mechanical properties of nanostructured alumina-13 wt.% titania (n-AT13) coatings prepared by supersonic plasma spray (SPS). The microstructure, phase composition, porosity, micro-hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness of coatings were characterized and experimentally measured. The results revealed that the values of porosity, micro-hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness followed Weibull distribution and had wide ranges. The microstructure of the coating consisted of fully melted regions and partially melted regions, which resulted in a bimodal distribution characteristic of mechanical properties. With the increase of CPSP, there were two contradictory trends. The mean values and characteristic values of both porosity and fracture toughness decreased rapidly and then slowly to a local minimum, while values of both micro-hardness and Young's modulus were on the contrary trend. Moreover, the characteristic values of micro-hardness and Young's modulus were decreased functions of those of porosity, and the opposite tendency for the characteristic value of fracture toughness.

Wang, Hai-dou; Ma, Jian-long; Li, Guo-lu; Kang, Jia-jie; Xu, Bin-shi

2014-09-01

329

[The spectra of a laser-produced plasma source with CO2, O2 and CF4 liquid aerosol spray target].  

PubMed

A laser-produced plasma (LPP) source with liquid aerosol spray target and nanosecond laser was developed, based on both soft X-ray radiation metrology and extreme ultraviolet projection lithography (EUVL). The LPP source is composed of a stainless steel solenoid valve whose temperature can be continuously controlled, a Nd : YAG laser with pulse width, working wavelength and pulse energy being 7 ns, 1.064 microm and 1J respectively, and a pulse generator which can synchronously control the valve and the laser. A standard General Valve Corporation series 99 stainless steel solenoid valve with copper gasket seals and a Kel-F poppet are used in order to minimize leakage and poppet deformation during high-pressure cryogenic operation. A close fitting copper cooling jacket surrounds the valve body. The jacket clamps a copper coolant carrying tube 3 mm in diameter, which is fed by an automatically pressurized liquid nitrogen-filled dewar. The valve temperature can be controlled between 77 and 473 K. For sufficiently high backing pressure and low temperature, the valve reservoir gas can undergo a gas-to-liquid phase transition. Upon valve pulsing, the liquid is ejected into a vacuum and breaks up into droplets, which is called liquid aerosol spray target. For the above-mentioned LPP source, firstly, by the use of Cowan program on the basis of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the authors computed the radiative transition wavelengths and probabilities in soft X-ray region for O4+, O5+, O6+, O7+, F5+, F6+ and F7+ ions which were correspondingly produced from the interaction of the 10(11)-10(12) W x cm(-2) power laser with liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray targets. Secondly, the authors measured the spectra of liquid O2, CO2 and CF4 aerosol spray target LPP sources in the 6-20 nm band for the 8 x 10(11) W x cm(-2) laser irradiance. The measured results were compared with the Cowan calculated results ones, and the radiative transition wavelength and probability for the measured spectral lines were obtained. PMID:19271467

Ni, Qi-Liang; Chen, Bo

2008-11-01

330

Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La.sub.1-x M.sub.x Cr.sub.1-y N.sub.y O.sub.3, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075-0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO).sub.12. (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3).sub.7 flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO.sub.3 interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO.sub.3, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and, (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1200.degree. to 1350.degree. C. to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Vora, Shailesh D. (Monroeville, PA)

1995-01-01

331

Method of forming a leak proof plasma sprayed interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell  

DOEpatents

A dense, substantially gas-tight, electrically conductive interconnection layer is formed on an electrode structure of an electrochemical cell by: (A) providing an electrode structure; (B) forming on a selected portion of the electrode surface, an interconnection layer having the general formula La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}y}N{sub y}O{sub 3}, where M is a dopant selected from the group of Ca, Sr, Ba, and mixtures thereof, and where N is a dopant selected from the group of Mg, Co, Ni, Al, and mixtures thereof, and where x and y are each independently about 0.075--0.25, by thermally spraying, preferably plasma arc spraying, a flux added interconnection spray powder, preferably agglomerated, the flux added powder comprising flux particles, preferably including dopant, preferably (CaO){sub 12}(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 7} flux particles including Ca and Al dopant, and LaCrO{sub 3} interconnection particles, preferably undoped LaCrO{sub 3}, to form a dense and substantially gas-tight interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure by a single plasma spraying step; and (C) heat treating the interconnection layer at from about 1,200 to 1,350 C to further densify and heal the micro-cracks and macro-cracks of the thermally sprayed interconnection layer. The result is a substantially gas-tight, highly doped, electrically conductive interconnection material bonded to the electrode structure. The electrode structure can be an air electrode, and a solid electrolyte layer can be applied to the unselected portion of the air electrode, and further a fuel electrode can be applied to the solid electrolyte, to form an electrochemical cell for generation of electrical power. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Vora, S.D.

1995-02-21

332

Low cycle fatigue behaviour of a plasma-sprayed coating material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V.

1986-01-01

333

Process-Property Relationship for Air Plasma-Sprayed Gadolinium Zirconate Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous need of elevating operating temperature of gas turbine engines has introduced several challenges with the current state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), requiring examination of new TBC material with high temperature phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and resistance to environmental ash particles. Gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) (GDZ) has been shown to meet many of these requirements, and has, in fact, been successfully implemented in to engine components. However, several fundamental issues related to the process-ability, toughness, and microstructural differences for GDZ when compared to equivalent YSZ coating. This study seeks to critically address the process-structure-property correlations for plasma-sprayed GDZ coating subjected to controlled parametric exploration. Use of in-flight diagnostics coupled with in situ and ex situ coating property monitoring allows examination and comparison of the process-property interplay and the resultant differences between the two TBC compositions. The results indicate that it is feasible to retain material chemistry and fabricate relevant microstructures of interest with GDZ with concomitant performance advantages such as low conductivity, mechanical compliance, sintering resistance, and suppression of environmentally induced damage from ash particles. This study provides a framework for optimal design and manufacturing of emergent multi-layer and multi-material TBCs.

Dwivedi, Gopal; Tan, Yang; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

2014-11-01

334

The low cycle fatigue behavior of a plasma-sprayed coating material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystal nickel-base superalloys employed in turbine blade applications are often used with a plasma spray coating for oxidation and hot corrosion resistance. These coatings may also affect fatigue life of the superalloy substrate. As part of a large program to understand the fatigue behavior of coated single crystals, fully reversed, total strain controlled fatigue tests were run on a free standing NiCoCrAlY coating alloy, PWA 276, at 0.1 Hz. Fatigue tests were conducted at 650 C, where the NiCoCrAlY alloy has modest ductility, and at 1050 C, where it is extremely ductile, showing tensile elongation in excess of 100 percent. At the lower test temperature, deformation induced disordering softened the NiCoCrAlY alloy, while at the higher test temperature cyclic hardening was observed which was linked to gradual coarsening of the two phase microstructure. Fatigue life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy was significantly longer at the higher temperature. Further, the life of the NiCoCrAlY alloy exceeds that of coated, /001/-oriented PWA 1480 single crystals at 1050 C, but at 650 C the life of the coated crystal is greater than that of the NiCoCrAlY alloy on a total strain basis.

Gayda, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

1986-01-01

335

Microstructure and properties of plasma-sprayed steel/carbide composites  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure and properties of plasma-sprayed 316 stainless steel containing TiC and NbC were studied over a range of 0-40 vol/o carbide. The stainless steel in the deposits was fully austenitic. The matrix grain size varied with carbide content, and the grain size within melted carbides (splats) was a function of the carbide type. The extent of carbide melting was related to the total amount of carbide in the powder mixture. Yield stress and ultimate tensile strength increased with increasing carbide contents. For a specific type of powder, increases in yield stress were related to the decrease in the average mean free path between particles as the carbide volume fraction increased. The amount of the increase in yield stress varied with the type of carbide and also with the matrix grain size. The fracture strain increased with decreasing particle size, and enhanced ductility was seen in heat-treated and quenched samples, presumably because of increased compressive residual stresses at the carbide/matrix interface. Fracture in these composites was associated with strain localization and critical intercrack spacings. The critical inter-crack spacing at room temperature and at 760/sup 0/C was a function of the average crack length in the cracker carbides.

Ritter, A.M.

1987-01-01

336

Process-Property Relationship for Air Plasma-Sprayed Gadolinium Zirconate Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continuous need of elevating operating temperature of gas turbine engines has introduced several challenges with the current state-of-the-art yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), requiring examination of new TBC material with high temperature phase stability, lower thermal conductivity, and resistance to environmental ash particles. Gadolinium zirconate (Gd2Zr2O7) (GDZ) has been shown to meet many of these requirements, and has, in fact, been successfully implemented in to engine components. However, several fundamental issues related to the process-ability, toughness, and microstructural differences for GDZ when compared to equivalent YSZ coating. This study seeks to critically address the process-structure-property correlations for plasma-sprayed GDZ coating subjected to controlled parametric exploration. Use of in-flight diagnostics coupled with in situ and ex situ coating property monitoring allows examination and comparison of the process-property interplay and the resultant differences between the two TBC compositions. The results indicate that it is feasible to retain material chemistry and fabricate relevant microstructures of interest with GDZ with concomitant performance advantages such as low conductivity, mechanical compliance, sintering resistance, and suppression of environmentally induced damage from ash particles. This study provides a framework for optimal design and manufacturing of emergent multi-layer and multi-material TBCs.

Dwivedi, Gopal; Tan, Yang; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

2015-02-01

337

Microstructural study of aluminum phosphate-sealed, plasma-sprayed chromium oxide coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructural characterization of aluminum phosphate-sealed, plasma-sprayed chromium oxide coating was carried out in order to study the strengthening mechanisms of the aluminum phosphate sealant in the coating. Characterization was performed using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The structure of the sealed coating was lamellar with columnar ?-Cr2O3 grains extending through the lamella thickness. Amorphous aluminum phosphate sealant had penetrated into the structural defects of the coating such as cracks, gaps, and pores between the lamellae. The relative composition was 25 at.% aluminum and 75 at.% phosphorus for the sealant in the coating, giving the molar ratio P/Al of 3, which corresponds to that of metaphosphates Al(PO3)3. There is no indication of reaction products from the chemical reactions between the sealant and the coating. Thus, the aluminum phosphate sealing in the chromium oxide coatings can be explained mainly by adhesive binding resulting from the formation of the condensed phosphates with the appropriate adhesive properties to the coating, and not by chemical bonding resulting from the chemical reactions between the sealant and the coating.

Vippola, Minnamari; Ahmaniemi, Samppa; Vuoristo, Petri; Lepistö, Toivo; Mäntylä, Tapio; Olsson, Eva

2002-06-01

338

Plasma Sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) Coatings for Corrosion Protection and Adhesion Treatments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma-sprayed Bondable Stainless Surface (BOSS) coatings are being developed under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program's (SPIP) Bondlines Package. These coatings are designed as a steel case preparation treatment prior to insulation lay-up. Other uses include the exterior of steel cases and bonding surfaces of nozzle components. They provide excellent bondability - rubber insulation and epoxy bonds fail cohesively within the polymer - for both fresh surfaces and surfaces having undergone natural and accelerated environmental aging. They have passed the MSFC requirements for protection of inland and sea coast environment. Because BOSS coatings are inherently corrosion resistant, they do not require preservation by greases or oils. The reduction/elimination of greases and oils, known bondline degraders, can increase SRM reliability, decrease costs by reducing the number of process steps, and decrease environmental pollution by reducing the amount of methyl chloroform used for degreasing and thus reduce release of the ozone-depleting chemical in accordance with the Clean Air Act and the Montreal Protocol. The coatings can potential extend the life of RSRM case segments and nozzle components by eliminating erosion due to multiple grit blasting during each use cycle and corrosion damage during marine recovery. Concurrent work for the Air Force show that other BOSS coatings give excellent bondline strength and durability for high-performance structures of aluminum and titanium.

Davis, G. D.; Groff, G. B.; Rooney, M.; Cooke, A. V.; Boothe, R.

1995-01-01

339

Heat load behaviors of plasma sprayed tungsten coatings on copper alloys with different compliant layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma sprayed tungsten (PS-W) coatings with the compliant layers of titanium (Ti), nickel-chromium-aluminum (NiCrAl) alloys and W/Cu mixtures were fabricated on copper alloys, and their properties of the porosity, oxygen content, thermal conductivity and bonding strength were measured. High heat flux tests of actively cooled W coatings were performed by means of an electron beam facility. The results indicated that APS-W coating showed a poorer heat transfer capability and thermo-mechanical properties than VPS-W coating, and the compliant layers improved W coating performance under the heat flux load. Among three compliant layers, W/Cu was the preferable because of its better effects on heat removal and stress alleviating. The optimization of W/Cu compliant layer found that 0.1 mm and 25 vol.%W was optimum compliant layer structure for 1 mm W coating, which induced a 23% reduction of the maximum stress compared to the sharp interface, and the plastic strain was reduced to 0.01% from 1.55%.

Chong, F. L.; Chen, J. L.; Li, J. G.; Hu, D. Y.; Zheng, X. B.

2008-04-01

340

Effect of electron energy distribution functions on plasma generated vacuum ultraviolet in a diffusion plasma excited by a microwave surface wave  

SciTech Connect

Plasma generated vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) in diffusion plasma excited by a microwave surface wave has been studied by using dielectric-based VUV sensors. Evolution of plasma VUV in the diffusion plasma as a function of the distance from the power coupling surface is investigated. Experimental results have indicated that the energy and spatial distributions of plasma VUV are mainly controlled by the energy distribution functions of the plasma electrons, i.e., electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs). The study implies that by designing EEDF of plasma, one could be able to tailor plasma VUV in different applications such as in dielectric etching or photo resist smoothing.

Zhao, J. P.; Chen, L.; Funk, M.; Sundararajan, R. [Austin Plasma Laboratory, Tokyo Electron America, Inc., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Nozawa, T. [Tokyo Electron Limited, TEL Technology Center Sendai, 2-1 Osawa 3-chome, Izumi-ku, Sendai 981-3137 (Japan); Samukawa, S. [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-07-15

341

Measurements and simulations of shock wave generated plasma-vacuum interface  

SciTech Connect

A controlled gradient gas jet was designed, constructed, and tested at the Naval Research Laboratory for the generation of high density and sharp gradient plasma regions. The gas jet uses a laser-generated shock wave to control the density gradient at the vacuum and neutral gas interface. The length scale of the laser produced plasma density gradient is fully controlled by the strength of the shock wave and can be varied continuously from100 {mu}m for a weak shock to under 20 {mu}m in case of strong shock wave as verified by the experimental results and simulations.

Kaganovich, D.; Helle, M. H.; Gordon, D. F.; Ting, A. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

2011-12-15

342

Measurements and simulations of shock wave generated plasma-vacuum interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A controlled gradient gas jet was designed, constructed, and tested at the Naval Research Laboratory for the generation of high density and sharp gradient plasma regions. The gas jet uses a laser-generated shock wave to control the density gradient at the vacuum and neutral gas interface. The length scale of the laser produced plasma density gradient is fully controlled by the strength of the shock wave and can be varied continuously from100 ?m for a weak shock to under 20 ?m in case of strong shock wave as verified by the experimental results and simulations.

Kaganovich, D.; Helle, M. H.; Gordon, D. F.; Ting, A.

2011-12-01

343

The effect of cathode deuteration on the parameters of vacuum-arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a model for determining the influence of the relative content of deuterium in a zirconium cathode on the properties of vacuum-arc plasma. It is shown that the occlusion of deuterium in the cathode leads to an additional energy consumption for its ionization and to the related decrease in the average charge of cathode material ions in the discharge plasma. Deuterium in the cathode spot is fully ionized, and the drift velocity of deuterium ions almost coincides with that of ions of the cathode material.

Shmelev, D. L.; Barengolts, S. A.; Shchitov, N. N.

2014-09-01

344

Plasmachemical synthesis of aluminum-based nitride compounds in vacuum-arc discharge plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vacuum-arc plasmachemical synthesis of aluminum-based nitride compounds (AlN and Ti-Al-N) is described. The compositions and structures of the obtained coatings have been studied. It is shown that the composition and structure of a coating can be effectively controlled by varying the discharge current, ion current density distribution, and gas pressure, provided that the plasma flow is free of droplets.

Bystrov, Yu. A.; Vetrov, N. Z.; Lisenkov, A. A.

2012-10-01

345

Effect of vacuum plasma surface treatment on the titanium alloy resistance to static and cyclic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of the experimental investigations on the static and cyclic strength of titanium alloy VT20 with a\\u000a TiN vacuum plasma coating. This coating has been found to increase the static strength characteristics and to reduce the plasticity\\u000a characteristics. Under conditions of low-cycle loading, the coating application results in the improvement in the cyclic strength\\u000a characteristics in quasistatic

A. P. Gopkalo; A. V. Rutkovskii; V. I. Mirnenko

2007-01-01

346

Multilayer vacuum window for wide-band microwave plasma diagnostic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwave diagnostics, e.g., reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission in plasma machines, often require large windows displaying low attenuation and reflection on a wide band, in addition to some basic features such as vacuum tightness and mechanical robustness. Wide-band matching is usually achieved by coating the window with dielectric layers of suitable permittivity and thickness. On the vacuum side the coating must also be vacuum compatible and resistant to the thermal radiation coming from plasma. On the RFX machine, to satisfy these requirements, a boron nitride disk properly machined on the surface facing the plasma has been clamped to the existing fused silica window. The addition of a Teflon layer on the air side allowed to attain power reflection coefficients as low as 0.025 in the frequency ranges of 26.5-40, 40-56, and 56-75GHz and as low as 0.01 in the frequency ranges of 75-92 and 92-110GHz.

Cavazzana, Roberto; Moresco, Maurizio

2006-10-01

347

Multilayer vacuum window for wide-band microwave plasma diagnostic systems  

SciTech Connect

Microwave diagnostics, e.g., reflectometry and electron cyclotron emission in plasma machines, often require large windows displaying low attenuation and reflection on a wide band, in addition to some basic features such as vacuum tightness and mechanical robustness. Wide-band matching is usually achieved by coating the window with dielectric layers of suitable permittivity and thickness. On the vacuum side the coating must also be vacuum compatible and resistant to the thermal radiation coming from plasma. On the RFX machine, to satisfy these requirements, a boron nitride disk properly machined on the surface facing the plasma has been clamped to the existing fused silica window. The addition of a Teflon layer on the air side allowed to attain power reflection coefficients as low as 0.025 in the frequency ranges of 26.5-40, 40-56, and 56-75 GHz and as low as 0.01 in the frequency ranges of 75-92 and 92-110 GHz.

Cavazzana, Roberto; Moresco, Maurizio [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127, Italy and Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Padova, Padova 35122 (Italy)

2006-10-15

348

Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Fe-Based Alloy Coating as an Alternative to Hard Chromium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fe-based alloy coating (FAC) was prepared from Fe-based amorphous metallic powders on low-carbon steel by plasma spray. The microstructures and corrosion resistances (salt spray and electrochemical tests) of the FAC and the reference hard chromium coatings (HCC) were investigated. The results indicated that the as-sprayed FAC consisted of amorphous phase, nanocrystalline grains, and borides. Both the FAC and HCC adhered well to the low-carbon steel substrate, but there are micro-cracks and pores located in FAC, which disappeared after the sealing treatment. After 60 days (1440 h) of corrosion tests by salt spray, the weight loss of FAC was about 10% of the HCC, but that of the sealed FAC (SFAC) was only about 4% of HCC. The electrochemical tests indicated that the HCC had the lowest E corr (-629 mV) and highest I corr (63.2 mA/m2). Correspondingly, the SFAC possessed the highest E corr (-321 mV) and lowest I corr (6.97 mA/m2). These suggested that the resistance to corrosion sequence ( R) among these coatings was R SFAC > R FAC > R HCC. Therefore, this Fe-based alloy coating could be applied as a good alternative material to hard chromium in corrosion environments.

Lu, Wenhuan; Wu, Yuping; Zhang, Jingjing; Hong, Sheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Li, Gaiye

2011-09-01

349

Thermal spraying of cylinder bores with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engine blocks of passenger cars made of hypoeutectic AlSi-alloys are generally equipped with cast iron liners in order to provide cylinder running surfaces that meet the tribological requirements. Thermally sprayed cylinder running surfaces are a promising alternative to cast iron liners. APS sprayed cylinder running surfaces made from low alloyed C steel have already proven their ability to reduce friction

K. Bobzin; F. Ernst; K. Richardt; T. Schlaefer; C. Verpoort; G. Flores

2008-01-01

350

Observation of THz emission from a laser-plasma accelerated electron bunch crossing a plasma-vacuum boundary  

SciTech Connect

Coherent radiation in the 0.3 - 3 THz range has been generated from femto second electron bunches at a plasma-vacuum boundary via transition radiation. The bunches produced by a laser-plasma accelerator contained 1.5 nC of charge. The THz energy per pulse within a limited 30 mrad collection angle was 3.5 nJ and scaled quadratically with bunch charge, consistent with coherent emission. Modeling indicates that this broadband source produces about 0.3 muJ per pulse within a 100 mrad angle, and that increasing the transverse plasma size and electron beam energy could provide more than 100 muj/pulse.

Leemans, W.P.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Faure, J.; Toth, Cs.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Fubiani, G.; Auerbach, D.; Marcelis, B.; Carnahan, M.A.; Kaindl, R.A.; Byrd, J.; Martin, M.C.

2003-04-15

351

Role of powder treatment and carbon nanotube dispersion in the fracture toughening of plasma-sprayed aluminum oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite.  

PubMed

Al2O3 ceramic reinforced with 4-wt% multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) is plasma sprayed for improving the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite coating. Two different methodologies of CNT addition have been adopted in the powder feedstock to assist CNT dispersion in the nano-Al2O3 matrix. First, spray-dried nano-Al2O3 agglomerates are blended with 4 wt% CNT as powder-feedstock, which is subsequently plasma sprayed resulting in the fracture toughness improvement of 19.9%. Secondly, spray dried composite nano-Al2O3 and 4 wt% CNT powder was used as feedstock for attaining improved dispersion of CNTs. Plasma sprayed coating of composite spray dried powder resulted in increase of 42.9% in the fracture toughness. Coating synthesized from the blended powder displayed impact alignment of CNTs along splat interface, and CNTs chain loop structure anchoring the fused Al2O3 melt whereas coating synthesized from composite spray dried powder evinced anchoring of CNTs in the solid state sintered region and CNT mesh formation. Enhanced fracture toughness is attributed to significance of CNT dispersion. PMID:18330173

Balani, Kantesh; Bakshi, Srinivasa Rao; Chen, Yao; Laha, Tapas; Agarwal, Arvind

2007-10-01

352

The novel use of waste animal bone from New Zealand agricultural sources as a feedstock for forming plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on biomedical implant materials.  

PubMed

This study presents the feasibility of using animal bone-derived hydroxyapatite (HAP) as feedstock powders for plasma spraying. Bovine, cervine and ovine bone from abattoirs was boiled in a pressure cooker to remove blood, fat and adhering meat tissue. The bone was then placed in a muffler furnace, pyrolyzed at approximately 1000 degrees C to remove collagen and resid-ual organics, cooled and subsequently ground to a powder then digested in nitric acid. Sodium hydroxide was added to the digest to reprecipitate the HAP. Ageing of the precipitate followed by filtration, extensive washing and drying produced the white powder used as the feedstock. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the powder to be poorly crystalline HAP with low-level carbonate. Out of several batches of the sieved powders, one batch was plasma sprayed to produce adherent HAP coatings; therefore, demonstrating that animal bone-derived HAP powders can be seri-ously considered as a feedstock powder, subject to the powder being processed for the correct rheological characteristics for easy flowing within the plasma spray flow lines. The phase composition of the successful plasma sprayed HAP coatings on both stainless steel and titanium were found by XRD to be mainly HAP with minor contributions from á -tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO; therefore, demonstrating that feedstock decomposition on its passage through the plasma spray torch was insignificant under the conditions employed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the coatings indicated that their morphology featured the classical heterogeneous and splat-like appearance expected of plasma sprayed coatings. Young's modulus and Vicker's microhardness tests conducted on the coatings revealed values in the range, respectively, 22-87 GPa and 166-287 (HV200 ) indicating high strength plasma spray HAP coatings had been produced from the feedstock powder. PMID:20803443

Mucalo, M R; Foster, D L; Wielage, B; Steinhaeuser, S; Mucha, H; Knighton, D; Kirby, J

2004-01-01

353

Influence of Plasma Remelting on the Microstructure and Cavitation Resistance of Arc-Sprayed Fe-Mn-Cr-Si Alloy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface remelting is an important technique for modifying the microstructure of thermally sprayed coatings as it reduces the porosity and promotes a metallurgical bond between substrate and coating. Many studies have been carried out in the field of materials selection and surface engineering in an attempt to reduce cavitation damage. In this work, an Fe-Mn-Cr-Si alloy was deposited by arc spraying and then remelted by a plasma-transferred arc process. The base metal was a soft martensitic stainless steel. The influence of remelting current on coating and base metal microstructure and cavitation resistance was studied. The use of a lower mean current and a pulsed arc reduced the thickness of the heat-affected zone. In specimens remelted with constant arc current, dendrites were aligned parallel to the path followed by the plasma torch; while in those remelted with a pulsed plasma arc, the alignment of the microstructure was disrupted. The use of a higher peak current in pulsed-current plasma transferred arc remelting reduced mass loss due to cavitation. Fe-Mn-Cr-Si coatings exhibited cavitation-induced hardening, with martensite formation during cavitation tests. This transformation helps to increase the cavitation resistance of the remelted coating compared with the soft martensitic stainless steel base metal.

Pukasiewicz, A. G. M.; Alcover, P. R. C.; Capra, A. R.; Paredes, R. S. C.

2014-01-01

354

Electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells having electrolytes made by suspension and solution precursor plasma spraying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes were deposited by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) and solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS). The electrolytes were evaluated for permeability, microstructure, and electrochemical performance. With SPS, three different suspensions were tested to explore the influence of powder size distribution and liquid properties. Electrolytes made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 2.6 ?m were more gas-tight than those made from suspensions of a powder with d50 = 0.6 ?m. A peak open circuit voltage of 1.00 V was measured at 750 °C with a cell with an electrolyte made from a suspension of d50 = 2.6 ?m powder. The use of a flammable suspension liquid was beneficial for improving electrolyte conductivity when using lower energy plasmas, but the choice of liquid was less important when using higher energy plasmas. With SPPS, peak electrolyte conductivities were comparable to the peak conductivities of the SPS electrolytes. However, leak rates through the SPPS electrolytes were higher than those through the electrolytes made from suspensions of d50 = 2.6 ?m powder. The electrochemical test data on SPPS electrolytes are the first reported in the literature.

Marr, M.; Kuhn, J.; Metcalfe, C.; Harris, J.; Kesler, O.

2014-01-01

355

The effect of impregnation with nanostructured boehmite on the structure and properties of plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that capillary phenomena can be used to nanostructure ceramic coatings via their impregnation with suspensions based on a nanostructured material. Boehmite with particle sizes of 30-50 nm was used as the nanostructured material. Two methods are suggested. When already-formed coatings are impregnated, the system of interconnected pores between particles is used, with the pores within the particles themselves being closed. If hydroxyapatite particles are impregnated before the spraying, boehmite is more uniformly and to a fuller extent distributed within the plasma-sprayed coating. In contrast to the first method, a coating is nanostructured in this case both within hydroxyapatite particles and on their surface. The adhesion increases from 8.4 to 17.1 MPa upon nanostructuring.

Mel'nikova, I. P.; Lyasnikova, A. V.; Veselukhina, S. V.; Grinev, V. S.; Surmenko, E. L.

2014-10-01

356

Optimizing Compliance and Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings via Controlled Powders and Processing Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties and performance of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are strongly dependent on the microstructural defects, which are affected by starting powder morphology and processing conditions. Of particular interest is the use of hollow powders which not only allow for efficient melting of zirconia ceramics but also produce lower conductivity and more compliant coatings. Typical industrial hollow spray powders have an assortment of densities resulting in masking potential advantages of the hollow morphology. In this study, we have conducted process mapping strategies using a novel uniform shell thickness hollow powder to control the defect microstructure and properties. Correlations among coating properties, microstructure, and processing reveal feasibility to produce highly compliant and low conductivity TBC through a combination of optimized feedstock and processing conditions. The results are presented through the framework of process maps establishing correlations among process, microstructure, and properties and providing opportunities for optimization of TBCs.

Tan, Yang; Srinivasan, Vasudevan; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay; Bertrand, Pierre; Bertrand, Ghislaine

2012-09-01

357

Parametric Appraisal of Process Parameters for Adhesion of Plasma Sprayed Nanostructured YSZ Coatings Using Taguchi Experimental Design  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the application of the Taguchi experimental design in developing nanostructured yittria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings by plasma spraying process. This paper depicts dependence of adhesion strength of as-sprayed nanostructured YSZ coatings on various process parameters, and effect of those process parameters on performance output has been studied using Taguchi's L16 orthogonal array design. Particle velocities prior to impacting the substrate, stand-off-distance, and particle temperature are found to be the most significant parameter affecting the bond strength. To achieve retention of nanostructure, molten state of nanoagglomerates (temperature and velocity) has been monitored using particle diagnostics tool. Maximum adhesion strength of 40.56?MPa has been experimentally found out by selecting optimum levels of selected factors. The enhanced bond strength of nano-YSZ coating may be attributed to higher interfacial toughness due to cracks being interrupted by adherent nanozones. PMID:24288490

Mantry, Sisir; Mishra, Barada K.; Chakraborty, Madhusudan

2013-01-01

358

Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

2006-06-01

359

High energy density capacitors for vacuum operation with a pulsed plasma load  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of the effort of designing, fabricating, and testing of a 40 joules/lb (88.2 joules/Kg) high voltage energy storage capacitor suitable for operating a pulsed plasma thruster in a vacuum environment for millions of pulses are presented. Using vacuum brazing and heli-arc welding techniques followed by vacuum and high pressure helium leak tests it was possible to produce a hermetically sealed relatively light weight enclosure for the dielectric system. An energy density of 40 joules/lb was realized with a KF-polyvinylidene fluoride dielectric system. One capacitor was D.C. life tested at 4 KV (107.8 joules/lb) for 2,000 hours before it failed. Another exceeded 2,670 hours without failure at 38.3 joules/lb. Pulse life testing in a vacuum exceeded 300,000 discharges with testing still in progress. The D.C. life test data shows a small decrease in capacitance and an increase in dissipation factor with time. Heat transfer from the load to the capacitor must also be considered besides the self-heat generated by the capacitor.

Guman, W. J.

1976-01-01

360

Effect of Sealing Treatment on Corrosion Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed NiCrAl/Cr2O3-8 wt.%TiO2 Coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings inherently contain pores and micro-cracks which is deleterious when performed in aggressive environment. Various methods were applied to the as-sprayed coatings in order to improve the corrosion resistance. In the investigation of this study, plasma-sprayed NiCrAl/Cr2O3-8 wt.%TiO2 coatings were sealed by epoxy resin and silicone resin, respectively. Coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), optical microscopy (OM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The possible corrosion mechanism was discussed. The results of salt spray test and electrochemical measurements indicated that after the sealing treatment, the porosity of coatings decreased obviously and a compact layer was formed to protect the coating from corrosion. The silicone resin proved to be more effective than epoxy resin in enhancing the corrosion resistance of the coatings used in this research.

Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Zehua; Lin, Pinghua; Lu, Wenhuan; Zhou, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun

2011-03-01

361

Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization.  

PubMed

Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp3) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study. PMID:18681714

Zhang, H-S; Komvopoulos, K

2008-07-01

362

Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Isothermal Oxidation Characteristics of Plasma Sprayed CoNi and CoCrAlY Coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of particle size distribution on the degradation behavior of plasma sprayed CoNi- and CoCrAlY coatings during isothermal\\u000a oxidation was investigated, in terms of the oxygen content, porosity, surface roughness, and oxide scale formation. The results\\u000a show that the degradation of both coatings was considerably influenced by the starting particle size distribution. It also\\u000a shows that in the as-sprayed

Dowon Seo; Kazuhiro Ogawa; Tetsuo Shoji; Shozo Murata

2007-01-01

363

Metal vapor plasma behavior during vacuum arc remelting of alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

A production vacuum arc remelt (VAR) furnace was modified to enable direct viewing of the metal vapor arc and molten electrode tip during melting of 432 mm dia. alloy 718 electrodes into 508 mm dia. ingots. Diffuse and constricted arcing conditions were characterized using high speed cinematography, standard video format, and monochromatic imaging. Constricted arcing was observed while melting electrodes contaminated with oxide slag of the type used for refractory linings in vacuum induction furnaces. Monochromatic imaging was used in visualize the ion distribution in the arc plasma; these images clearly showed whether the arc operated in a diffuse or constricted model. Diffuse arc melting conditions were very similar to those previously reported in the literature for smaller laboratory sized melts.

Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.; Williamson, R.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adasczik, C.B. [Teledyne Allvac Corp., Monroe, NC (United States); Roberts, R.R. [Concarsc Corp., Rancocas, NJ (United States); Strohecker, R. [Strohecker Corp., East Palestine, OH (United States)

1992-05-01

364

Metal vapor plasma behavior during vacuum arc remelting of alloy 718  

SciTech Connect

A production vacuum arc remelt (VAR) furnace was modified to enable direct viewing of the metal vapor arc and molten electrode tip during melting of 432 mm dia. alloy 718 electrodes into 508 mm dia. ingots. Diffuse and constricted arcing conditions were characterized using high speed cinematography, standard video format, and monochromatic imaging. Constricted arcing was observed while melting electrodes contaminated with oxide slag of the type used for refractory linings in vacuum induction furnaces. Monochromatic imaging was used in visualize the ion distribution in the arc plasma; these images clearly showed whether the arc operated in a diffuse or constricted model. Diffuse arc melting conditions were very similar to those previously reported in the literature for smaller laboratory sized melts.

Zanner, F.J.; Maguire, M.C.; Williamson, R.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Adasczik, C.B. (Teledyne Allvac Corp., Monroe, NC (United States)); Roberts, R.R. (Concarsc Corp., Rancocas, NJ (United States)); Strohecker, R. (Strohecker Corp., East Palestine, OH (United States))

1992-01-01

365

Shear viscosity of the gluon plasma in the stochastic-vacuum approach  

E-print Network

Shear viscosity of the gluon plasma in SU(3) YM theory is calculated nonperturbatively, within the stochastic vacuum model. The result for the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, proportional to the squared chromo-magnetic gluon condensate and the fifth power of the correlation length of the chromo-magnetic vacuum, falls off with the increase of temperature. At temperatures larger than the deconfinement critical temperature by a factor of 2, this fall-off is determined by the sixth power of the temperature-dependent strong-coupling constant and yields an asymptotic approach to the conjectured lower bound of 1/(4\\pi), achievable in {\\cal N}=4 SYM theory. As a by-product of the calculation, we find a particular form of the two-point correlation function of gluonic field strengths, which is the only one consistent with the Lorentzian shape of the shear-viscosity spectral function.

Dmitri Antonov

2009-05-20

366

Charge distribution of ions in low-current vacuum-arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge distribution of vacuum-arc ions has been investigated for the arc between copper electrodes at currents varied from 8 to 60 A (with the arc voltage increased from 21 to 24 V). Plasma contains copper ions with charge states from +1 to +4. The mean ion charge state increases from 2.15 to 2.24 (i.e., by only 4%) due to a small increase in the fractions of multiply charged ions (Cu2+ and Cu3+) in the total ion flux. This conclusion does not contradict that of the ecton model of vacuum-arc cathode spot, according to which the number of cells in the spot that are due to microexplosions on the cathode increases proportionally to the arc current.

Mesyats, G. A.; Oks, E. M.

2013-08-01

367

On the well-posedness of a linearized plasma-vacuum interface problem in ideal compressible MHD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the initial-boundary value problem resulting from the linearization of the plasma-vacuum interface problem in ideal compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We suppose that the plasma and the vacuum regions are unbounded domains and the plasma density does not go to zero continuously, but jumps. For the basic state upon which we perform linearization we find two cases of well-posedness of the "frozen" coefficient problem: the "gas dynamical" case and the "purely MHD" case. In the "gas dynamical" case we assume that the jump of the normal derivative of the total pressure is always negative. In the "purely MHD" case this condition can be violated but the plasma and the vacuum magnetic fields are assumed to be non-zero and non-parallel to each other everywhere on the interface. For this case we prove a basic a priori estimate in the anisotropic weighted Sobolev space H?1 for the variable coefficient problem.

Trakhinin, Yuri

368

A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

2013-06-01

369

Spray-dried plasma attenuates inflammation and improves pregnancy rate of mated female mice.  

PubMed

Three studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary spray-dried plasma (SDP) might improve pregnancy rate by ameliorating inflammation, using mice in an experimental model that produces a low pregnancy rate. Mated female mice (C57BL/6 strain) were purchased and shipped from a vendor (Bar Harbor, ME) to the university facility (Urbana, IL) on the day the vaginal plug was found (gestation day [GD] 1), arriving at the laboratory on GD 3 after 2 d transport by air and ground. Mice (Exp. 1: n = 250, 16.0 ± 1.2 g BW; Exp. 2: n = 202, 16.2 ± 1.2 g BW; Exp. 3: n = 156, 16.4 ± 1.1 g BW) were housed in individual cages and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (Exp. 1: 0 [CON] and 8% SDP in the diet, ? 90 mice/diet; Exp. 2: 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8% SDP in the diet, ? 40 mice/diet; Exp. 3: 0, 1, and 8% SDP in the diet, 48 mice/diet) fed from arrival. In Exp. 1 and 2, pregnancy of each mouse was determined on GD 17 based on BW, shape of abdomen, and inspection postmortem, and maternal growth performance from GD 3 to 17 was measured. On GD 19, pregnant mice in Exp. 2 were euthanized to measure number of fetuses and fetal and placental weights. Pregnancy rates in CON were low in both Exp. 1 (11%) and Exp. 2 (7%). The SDP consistently and markedly increased (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates in both Exp. 1 (49%) and Exp. 2 (35-43%) compared with the CON. In Exp. 3, 12 randomly selected mice were euthanized immediately after they arrived as an initial group. From GD 4 to 7, randomly selected mice were also euthanized each day (12 mice/diet). After euthanasia, the abdominal cavity was opened to check pregnancy by uterine inspection and to collect blood and uterus samples for immune measurements. The SDP increased (P < 0.05; 40 vs. 15%) pregnancy rate compared with the CON. Concentrations of indicators of inflammation and stress (uterine TNF-? and IFN-?, and serum TNF-?, C-reactive protein, and cortisol) were greatest (P < 0.05) and an anti-inflammatory cytokine (TGF-?1) was lowest (P < 0.05) soon after arrival, on GD 3 or 4. The SDP decreased (P < 0.05) the uterine concentrations of TNF-? and IFN-?, and serum TNF-?, C-reactive protein, and cortisol, compared with the CON, but increased (P < 0.05) the uterine concentration of TGF-?1. In conclusion, dietary SDP improves the low pregnancy rates in this model, apparently by attenuating inflammation. PMID:25568378

Song, M; Liu, Y; Lee, J J; Che, T M; Soares-Almeida, J A; Chun, J L; Campbell, J M; Polo, J; Crenshaw, J D; Seo, S W; Pettigrew, J E

2015-01-01

370

Measurements of atomic carbon density in processing plasmas by vacuum ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the absolute C atom density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source were carried out by using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser absorption spectroscopy with the resonance lines of C atoms at wavelengths around 94.5 and 165.7 nm. A tunable VUV laser covering these wavelength ranges was generated by a two-photon resonance/four-wave mixing technique in Xe gas. No absorption at around 94.5 nm could be observed, but from the absorption spectra around 165.7 nm we successfully derived the absolute density of C atoms in the ICP source. The obtained values varied from 1×1010 to 1×1011 cm-3, depending on the source gas and operating conditions of the plasma source. The relatively small density values compared to other atomic species are attributed to the large loss rates, which mostly occur on the surface.

Tanaka, Norifusa; Tachibana, Kunihide

2002-11-01

371

Vacuum ultraviolet plasma arc radiation source for the 300-1000-a wavelength region.  

PubMed

A plasma arc radiation source is described which can produce continuum radiation in the 300-1000-A range from discharges in the gases He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H(2), and their mixtures. The radiation is emitted from a dc self-stabilized plasma arc column having a core temperature of about 18,000 K. The spectra of major interest are due to ion-electron recombination to the ground state of the neutral atom. These continua extend to wavelengths shorter than the first ionization threshold. For helium, the useful continuum extends from 504 A to approximately 350 A. The arc column is observed along its cylindrical axis of symmetry through a small opening in the anode. The radiation source was developed for use in the measurement of cross sections in the vacuum uv using continuously scanning photoelectric spectrometers. The application of the source to measurements in krypton near 500 A is described. PMID:20076133

Levy, M E; Huffman, R E

1970-01-01

372

Mechanisms for the formation and transport of ion fluxes in the plasma of a high-current vacuum spark  

SciTech Connect

The processes of ion flux formation in the plasma of a high-current vacuum spark were investigated experimentally. It is shown that multicharged ions are generated in the neck formed in the erosion products of the inner electrode. The plasma escaping from the neck region plays a role of a piston dragging particles of the cold peripheral plasma into ambient space. As the discharge current increases, the flux of the evaporated electrode material grows, the degree of ionization of the plasma produced decreases, and the efficiency of plasma heating caused by the pinching effect is reduced.

Dolgov, A. N.; Zemchenkova, N. V.; Klyachin, N. A.; Prokhorovich, D. E. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

2010-09-15

373

Role of carbon nanotube dispersion in fracture toughening of plasma sprayed aluminum oxide-carbon nanotube nanocomposite coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminum oxide (Al2O3, or alumina) is a conventional ceramic known for applications such as wear resistant coatings, thermal liners, heaters, crucibles, dielectric systems, etc. However applications of Al 2O3 are limited owing to its inherent brittleness. Due to its excellent mechanical properties and bending strength, carbon nanotubes (CNT) is an ideal reinforcement for Al2O3 matrix to improve its fracture toughness. The role of CNT dispersion in the fracture toughening of the plasma sprayed Al2O3-CNT nanocomposite coating is discussed in the current work. Pretreatment of powder feedstock is required for dispersing CNTs in the matrix. Four coatings namely spray dried Al2O 3 (A-SD), Al2O3 blended with 4wt.% CNT (A4C-B), composite spray dried Al2O3-4wt.% CNT (A4C-SD) and composite spray dried A1203-8wt.% CNT (A8C-SD), are synthesized by plasma spraying. Owing to extreme temperatures and velocities involved in the plasma spraying of ceramics, retention of CNTs in the resulting coatings necessitates optimizing plasma processing parameters using an inflight particle diagnostic sensor. A bimodal microstructure was obtained in the matrix that consists of fully melted and resolidified structure and solid state sintered structure. CNTs are retained both in the fully melted region and solid-state sintered regions of processed coatings. Fracture toughness of A-SD, A4C-B, A4C-SD and A8C-SD coatings was 3.22, 3.86, 4.60 and 5.04 MPa m1/2 respectively. This affirms the improvement of fracture toughness from 20% (in A4C-B coating) to 43% (in A4C-SD coating) when compared to the A-SD coating because of the CNT dispersion. Fracture toughness improvement from 43% (in A4C-SD) to 57% (in A8C-SD) coating is evinced because of the CNT content. Reinforcement by CNTs is described by its bridging, anchoring, hook formation, impact alignment, fusion with splat, and mesh formation. The Al2O3/CNT interface is critical in assisting the stress transfer and utilizing excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Mathematical and computational modeling using ab-initio principle is applied to understand the wetting behavior at the Al2O 3/CNT interface. Contrasting storage modulus was obtained by nanoindentation (˜210, 250, 250-350 and 325-420 GPa in A-SD, A4C-B, A4C-SD, and A8C-SD coatings respectively) depicting the toughening associated with CNT content and dispersion.

Balani, Kantesh

374

Nanostructured Si, Mg, CO3 2- Substituted Hydroxyapatite Coatings Deposited by Liquid Precursor Plasma Spraying: Synthesis and Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a novel liquid precursor plasma spraying (LPPS) process was used to deposit Si, Mg, CO3 2- substituted hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings (alone and cosubstituted) onto Ti-6Al-4V substrates. Salts of silicon, magnesium, and carbonate elements were directly added into the HA liquid precursor for subsequent plasma spraying. The phase composition, structure, and morphology of all HA coatings were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that the trace elements were successfully incorporated into the HA structure and nanostructured coatings were obtained for all doped HA formulations. The incorporation of trace elements into the HA structure reduced its crystallinity, especially when silicon, magnesium and carbonate ions entered simultaneously into the HA structure. FTIR spectra showed that the Si-HA and Mg-HA coatings had decreased intensities in both the O-H and P-O bands and that the CO3 2--HA coating was mainly a B-type carbonate-substituted HA. The results showed that the LPPS process is an effective and simple method to synthesize trace element substituted biomimetic HA coatings with nanostructure.

Huang, Tao; Xiao, Yanfeng; Wang, Shanling; Huang, Yi; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Fang; Gu, Zhongwei

2011-06-01

375

Microstructure and Thermal Characterization of Plasma-Sprayed Nanostructured La2Ce2O7-Doped YSZ Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanostructured La2Ce2O7-doped YSZ coatings were developed using atmospheric plasma-spraying technique by optimizing various process parameters. To ensure the retention of nanostructure, the molten state of nanoagglomerates was monitored using plasma and particle diagnostic tools. It was observed that the morphology of the coating exhibits a bimodal microstructure consisting of nanozones reinforced in a matrix of fully-molten particles. The thermal diffusivity of nano-LaCeYSZ coatings is lower than that of nano and bulk YSZ. The reason for this change in thermal diffusivity may be attributed to scattering of phonons at grain boundaries, point defect scattering and higher inter-splat porosity. Also, the thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite coatings was lower than those of nanostructured and bulk YSZ coatings. XRD results show cubic zirconia with a small amount of tetragonal zirconia. The average grain size of the as-sprayed La2Ce2O7-YSZ nanocomposite coatings is ~150-200 nm. The improved thermal behavior is mainly due to a dense, packed, and more compact structure of the coatings.

Mantry, S.; Mandal, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Jha, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.; Chakraborty, M.

2014-10-01

376

Effects of alkaline phosphatase on bone healing around plasma-sprayed titanium implants: a pilot study in rabbits.  

PubMed

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme thought to be important in the process of biomineralization. ALP promotes hydrolysis of phosphate containing substrates, produces orthophosphate and increases the uptake of calcium. ALP has been demonstrated recently to induce mineralization of collagen sheets in the animal body. Many factors are being investigated to try to increase the quantity of bone around dental implants. The aim of this study was an evaluation of the bone formation around dental implants used in conjunction with ALP extracted from calf intestine. Titanium plasma-sprayed implants were put for 30 min in glasses containing 500 micrograms of ALP, and then inserted into the femoral articular surface of the knee joint. The implants were retrieved after 2, 3, 4 and 8 weeks, and treated to obtain thin ground sections. The histological examination showed a higher quantity of bone trabeculae, and at 2 and 3 weeks, the presence of plump, elongated, highly stained, very active ALP-positive osteoblasts around the treated specimens. ALP seems, in the experimental conditions of this pilot study, to have a positive effect on bone formation around titanium plasma-sprayed implants. PMID:8830973

Piattelli, A; Scarano, A; Corigliano, M; Piattelli, M

1996-07-01

377

Nonlinearity of Uniaxial Compressive Response in Atmospheric Plasma Sprayed Free-Standing CoNiCrAlY Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CoNiCrAlY protective coatings are used for insulation from corrosion and oxidation of super alloy substrates in gas turbine blades. The life of a gas turbine blade is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the protective coating. However, the properties of the coatings themselves have not been clarified, because there are few proper measurement methods for thin coatings. In this study, uniaxial stress-strain responses of atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) free-standing CoNiCrAlY coatings were examined. The coating specimen was tube with the thickness of 0.3 mm. Coating specimens independent of substrates were fabricated by chemically dissolving out the substrates only at the region of gauge area. The stress-strain response was measured using the laser speckle strain measurement method. The coating showed the significant nonlinear stress-strain response. The stiffness increased with an increase of applied compressive stress, and the coating left permanent strain when the compressive stress was released. The nonlinearity of stress-strain response became significant if the surface roughness increased. The nonlinearity was decided by the surface roughness which represented the amount of defects in the coating. On the contrary, the nonlinearity was not proportional to the fraction of oxidized area. As compared with low pressure plasma sprayed (LPPS) CoNiCrAlY, the Young's modulus of APS CoNiCrAlY was low.

Waki, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Izuru; Kobayashi, Akira

378

Multiobjective Optimization of Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process Parameters to Deposit Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Coatings Using Response Surface Methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric plasma spraying is used extensively to make Thermal Barrier Coatings of 7-8% yttria-stabilized zirconia powders. The main problem faced in the manufacture of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings by the atmospheric plasma spraying process is the selection of the optimum combination of input variables for achieving the required qualities of coating. This problem can be solved by the development of empirical relationships between the process parameters (input power, primary gas flow rate, stand-off distance, powder feed rate, and carrier gas flow rate) and the coating quality characteristics (deposition efficiency, tensile bond strength, lap shear bond strength, porosity, and hardness) through effective and strategic planning and the execution of experiments by response surface methodology. This article highlights the use of response surface methodology by designing a five-factor five-level central composite rotatable design matrix with full replication for planning, conduction, execution, and development of empirical relationships. Further, response surface methodology was used for the selection of optimum process parameters to achieve desired quality of yttria-stabilized zirconia coating deposits.

Ramachandran, C. S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P. V.

2011-03-01

379

Plasma transport in stochastic magnetic field caused by vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations at diverted tokamak edge  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic transport simulation for the first 4 ms of the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) application has been performed for the first time in realistic diverted DIII-D tokamak geometry [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], with the self-consistent evaluation of the radial electric field and the plasma rotation. It is found that, due to the kinetic effects, the stochastic parallel thermal transport is significantly reduced when compared to the standard analytic model [A. B. Rechester and M. N. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 38 (1978)] and the nonaxisymmetric perpendicular radial particle transport is significantly enhanced from the axisymmetric level. These trends agree with recent experimental result trends [T. E. Evans, R. A. Moyer, K. H. Burrell et al., Nat. Phys. 2, 419 (2006)]. It is also found, as a side product, that an artificial local reduction of the vacuum RMP fields in the vicinity of the magnetic separatrix can bring the kinetic simulation results to a more detailed agreement with experimental plasma profiles.

Park, G. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Chang, C. S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Joseph, I.; Moyer, R. A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2010-10-15

380

Effects of Plasma-spraying Powers on Microstructure and Microhardness of In-Situ Nanostructured FeAl2O4 Composite Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In-situ nanostructured FeAl2O4 composite coatings were prepared using plasma spraying of Al/Fe2O3 composite powders applying different spraying powers. The effects of plasma-spraying powers on microstructure and property of FeAl2O4 composite coatings were investigated. The results indicated the composite coatings had the microstructure with thin lamellar splats rich in FeAl2O4 as matrix, and dispersed granules rich in Fe and thin lamellar splats rich in Al2O3 as second phases. The reaction degree of Al/Fe2O3 composite powders increased while applying spraying power of 25-30 kW and then decreased while applying spraying power of 30-40 kW, which first resulted in the increase and then in the decrease of the Al2O3 content. The coating prepared by applying spraying power of 30 kW had the maximum microhardness, which was attributed to the maximum Al2O3 content present in the coating and the most uniform microstructure of the coating.

Yang, Yong; Yan, Dian-ran; Dong, Yan-chun; Chen, Xue-guang; Wang, Lei; Chu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Jian-xin; He, Ji-ning

2013-08-01

381

Vacuum ultraviolet to visible emission from hydrogen plasma: Effect of excitation frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanding use of low pressure (p?10 Torr), high frequency plasmas in various applications has stimulated research toward increased operating efficiency. In order to optimize a particular plasma process, the operator can vary several "external" (operator-set) parameters, among which the excitation frequency f has received relatively little attention in the literature over the years, probably due to the difficulties encountered in designing meaningful frequency-dependent experiments. These difficulties can be avoided by the use of surface-wave discharges (SWDs), which possess great flexibility: a very broad (continuous) range of excitation frequencies, and wide ranges of operating pressures and plasma densities, under noncritical, almost perfect impedance matching with the power source. In earlier work in these laboratories, we have examined the f dependence of plasma deposition and etching experiments; the present experiments have been designed to investigate the f dependence more "directly" by turning to the plasma through its optical emission. The vacuum ultraviolet to visible emission from SWD plasmas in pure hydrogen or 7%H2 in Ar mixture has been investigated over a broad range of excitation frequency (50?f?200 MHz) using a spectrophotometer with a known transfer function. The observed f dependence of emission intensity (atomic lines and molecular bands) as f is increased is interpreted in the case of the pure H2 discharge in terms of changes from a nonstationary to a stationary electron energy distribution function (EEDF) while, in the 7%H2/Ar mixture, it is related to changes in the form of the stationary EEDF.

Fozza, A. C.; Moisan, M.; Wertheimer, M. R.

2000-07-01

382

Microstructure and properties of in-flight rare-earth doped thermal barrier coatings prepared by suspension plasma spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal barrier coatings with lower thermal conductivity improve the efficiency of gas turbine engines by allowing higher operating temperatures. Recent studies were shown that coatings containing a pair of rare-earth oxides with equal molar ratio have lower thermal conductivity and improved sintering resistance compared to the undoped 4-4.5 mol.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). In the present work, rare-earth doped coatings were fabricated via suspension plasma spray by spraying YSZ powder-ethanol suspensions that contained dissolved rare-earth nitrates. The compositions of the coatings determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy verified that 68 +/- 8% of the rare-earth nitrates added into the suspension was incorporated into the coatings. Two coatings containing different concentrations of the same dopant pair (Nd2O3/Yb2O3), and three coatings having similar concentrations of different dopant pairs (Nd 2O3/Yb2O3, Nd2O3/Gd 2O3, and Gd2O3/Yb2O 3) were produced and compared. The effect of dopant concentration and dopant pair type on the microstructure and properties of the coatings in the as-sprayed and heat treated conditions were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM-EDX, and the laser flash method. The cross-sectional morphology of all coatings displayed columnar structure. The porosity content of the coating was found to increase with increasing dopant concentration, but did not significantly change with dopant pairs. Similarly, increasing the Nd2O3/Yb2O 3 concentration lowered the thermal conductivity of the as-sprayed coatings. Although the effect of changing dopant pair type is not as significant as increasing the dopant concentration, the coating that contained Gd2O 3/Yb2O3 exhibited the lowest conductivity compared to coatings that had other dopant pairs. Thermal conductivity measurement performed on the heat treated coatings indicated a larger conductivity increase for the rare-earth doped coatings. A detailed study on the microstructural change of the coatings after various heat treatments at 1200°C and 1300°C showed evidence of crack healing and grain growth. Comparison between the rare-earth dopant distribution of a selected coating before and after a 1300°C/50 hr heat treatment suggests the possibility of dopant rearrangement, which can further increase the thermal conductivity. An explanation on the difference in the properties of the rare-earth doped coatings produced by SPS and conventional processes was discussed.

Gong, Stephanie

383

Effect of TiO2 addition on the microstructure and nanomechanical properties of Al2O3 Suspension Plasma Sprayed coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alumina-titania coatings are widely used in industry for wear, abrasion or corrosion protection components. Such layers are commonly deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) using powder as feedstock. In this study, both Al2O3 and Al2O3-13 wt% TiO2 coatings were deposited on austenitic stainless steel coupons by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). Two commercial suspensions of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles were used as starting materials. The coatings microstructure and phase composition were fully characterised using FEG-SEM and XRD techniques. Nanoindentation technique was used to determine the coatings hardness and elastic modulus properties. Results have shown that the addition of titania to alumina SPS coatings causes different crystalline phases and a higher powder melting rate is reached. The higher melted material achieved, when titania is added leads to higher hardness and elastic modulus when the same spraying parameters are used.

Bannier, E.; Vicent, M.; Rayón, E.; Benavente, R.; Salvador, M. D.; Sánchez, E.

2014-10-01

384

Vacuum laser-initiated plasma shutters for retropulse isolation in Antares  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that sintered LiF spatial filters may be used in a 10/sup -6/-torr vacuum environment as laser-initiated plasma shutters for retropulse isolation in the Antares high-energy laser fusion system. In our experiments, a 1.1-ns pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser, at a 10-..mu..m wavelength and an energy of up to 3.0 J, was used for plasma initiation; a chopped probe laser tuned to a 9l6-..mu..m wavelength was used in determining the blocking time of the plasma. We measured the 10.6- and 9.6-..mu..m beam transmissions as a function of fluence on the aperture edge. For an 800-..mu..m-diam aperture and a 1.2-mm-diam Gaussian beam determined at the 1/e/sup 2/ intensity points, we observed blocking times in excess of 1.0 ..mu..s.

Sheheen, T.W.; Czuchlewski, S.J.; Hyde, J.; Ainsworth, R.L.

1983-03-01

385

Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7?nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p?3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

Boffard, John B., E-mail: jboffard@wisc.edu; Lin, Chun C. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Culver, Cody [Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold [Varian Semiconductor Equipment, Applied Materials Inc., Gloucester, MA 01939 (United States)

2014-03-15

386

A Composite Approach to Al2O3-based Plasma-Sprayed Coatings O. Amsellem, F. Borit, V. Guipont and M. Jeandin  

E-print Network

A Composite Approach to Al2O3-based Plasma-Sprayed Coatings O. Amsellem, F. Borit, V. Guipont and M-performance dielectric coatings such as those made of pure alumina (Al2O3). Al2O3 is used extensively for its electrical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

IMPACT OF GLUTAMINE AND SPRAY-DRIED PLASMA ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, SMALL INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY, AND IMMUNE RESPONSES IN ESCHERICHIA COLI K88+ CHALLENGED WEANED PIGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A total of 40 barrows (5.32 +/- 0.3 kg) weaned at 17 +/- 2 days of age were used to investigate the effects of feeding glutamine (GLN) and spray-dried plasma (SDP) diets on E. coli K88+ LT/STb**+ challenged pigs. Pigs were allotted in a RCBD to four dietary treatments which included: positive contr...

388

Site-selective electroless metallization on porous organosilica films by multisurface modification of alkyl monolayer and vacuum plasma.  

PubMed

Taking plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited porous SiOCH (p-SiOCH) and octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) as model cases, this study elucidates the chemical reaction pathways for alkyl-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on porous carbon-doped organosilica films under N(2)-H(2) vacuum plasma illumination. In contrast to previous findings that carboxylic groups are found in alkyl-based SAMs only by exposure to oxygen-based plasma, this study discovers that, upon exposure to reductive nitrogen-based vacuum plasma, surface carboxylic functional groups can be instantly formed on OTS-coated p-SiOCH films. Particular attention is given to developing a multisurface modification process, starting with the modification of p-SiOCH films by N(2)-H(2) plasma and continuing with SAM deposition and plasma patterning; this ultimately leads to site-selective seeding for the spatially controlled fabrication of Cu-wire metallization by electroless deposition. Plasma diagnosis and X-ray near-edge absorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies show that, by adequately controlling the plasma parameters, the bulk of the p-SiOCH films are free from plasma damage (in terms of degradation in bonding structures and electrical properties); the formation of the seed-trapping carboxylic functional groups on the surface, the key factor for the validity of this new seeding process, is due to a water-mediated chemical oxygenation route. PMID:23205708

Chen, Giin-Shan; Chen, Sung-Te; Chen, Yenying W; Hsu, Yen-Che

2013-01-15

389

Spray-Dried Porcine Plasma Reduces the Effects of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B on Glucose Transport in Rat Intestine1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the intestinal transport of D-glucose (D-Glc) and 3 essential amino acids in a model of intestinal inflammation, and the effects of dietary supplementation with animal plasma proteins on this function. Wistar Lewis rats were fed a diet containing an isonitrogenous amount of milk protein (control group) or a diet supplemented with either spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) or immunoglobulin

Carles Garriga; Anna Perez-Bosque; Joy M. Campbell; Louis Russell; Javier Polo; Joana M. Planas; Miquel Moreto

390

Vacuum ultraviolet emission from microwave Ar-H{sub 2} plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum ultraviolet emission from Ar-H{sub 2} wave driven microwave (2.45 GHz) plasmas operating at low pressures (0.1-1 mbar) has been investigated. The emitted spectra show the presence of the Ar resonance lines at 104.8 and 106.7 nm and of the Lyman-{alpha},{beta} atomic lines at 121.6 nm and 102.6 nm, respectively. The increase of the hydrogen amount in the mixture results in an abrupt increase of the Werner and Lyman molecular bands intensity. The Lyman-{beta} intensity shows little changes in the range of 5%-30% of hydrogen in the mixture while the Lyman-{alpha} intensity tends to decrease as the percentage of hydrogen increases.

Espinho, S.; Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

2013-03-18

391

Cathodoluminescence of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon film by filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cr doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:Cr) film was synthesized in various flow rates of C2H2/Ar under a substrate voltage of -50 V at 500 °C by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma. This work has found that the structure of the films was correlated to the flow rate of C2H2/Ar but the luminescence properties are similar. The cathodoluminescence spectra of DLC:Cr films obtained at 1.9-2.4 eV verifies that the luminescence from the films is in the visible region. The incorporation of Cr into the carbon network results in red emission shifted to 1.99 eV and the orange emission (2.03 eV) also appeared due to the transitions between chromium-related electron levels and ?* states. The peak at 2.10 eV may result from the defects of the structures in DLC:Cr films.

Huang, Meng-Wen; Jao, Jui-Yun; Lin, Chun-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Jen; Yang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Li-Shin; Shieu, F. S.; Shih, Han C.

2012-11-01

392

Nanocrystalline nitride coatings deposited by vacuum arc plasma-assisted method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the given work, experiments on research of formation of titanium nitride doped with copper (<=12 at %) produced by plasma-assisted vacuum arc deposition by evaporation of sintered Ti-Cu cathodes were carried out. It was revealed that Ti-Cu-N coatings have high hardness (?40 GPa), high elastic recovery (>=50%), low friction coefficient (?0.2) and high adhesion to a substrate compared with typical TiN coatings. By methods of transmission electron microscopy of thin foils and x-ray diffraction, it was showed that the coating crystallites consist of ?-TiN with the average crystallite size of 10-30 nm and the sheath of doping elements (copper) with thickness of 2-3 monolayers is formed around of TiN crystallites.

Krysina, O. V.; Koval, N. N.; Ivanov, Yu F.; Timchenko, N. A.; Baumbach, T.; Doyle, S.; Slobodskyy, T.

2012-06-01

393

Coating Bores of Light Metal Engine Blocks with a Nanocomposite Material using the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc Thermal Spray Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engine blocks of modern passenger car engines are generally made of light metal alloys, mostly hypoeutectic AlSi-alloys. Due to their low hardness, these alloys do not meet the tribological requirements of the system cylinder running surface—piston rings—lubricating oil. In order to provide a suitable cylinder running surface, nowadays cylinder liners made of gray cast iron are pressed in or cast into the engine block. A newer approach is to apply thermal spray coatings onto the cylinder bore walls. Due to the geometric conditions, the coatings are applied with specifically designed internal diameter thermal spray systems. With these processes a broad variety of feedstock can be applied, whereas mostly low-alloyed carbon steel feedstock is being used for this application. In the context of this work, an iron-based wire feedstock has been developed, which leads to a nanocrystalline coating. The application of this material was carried out with the Plasma Transferred Wire Arc system. AlMgSi0.5 liners were used as substrates. The coating microstructure and the properties of the coatings were analyzed.

Bobzin, K.; Ernst, F.; Zwick, J.; Schlaefer, T.; Cook, D.; Nassenstein, K.; Schwenk, A.; Schreiber, F.; Wenz, T.; Flores, G.; Hahn, M.

2008-09-01

394

Thermal Aging Behavior of Axial Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

7.5YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) were deposited onto the stainless steel substrates using axial suspension plasma spraying (ASPS). Free-standing coatings were isothermally aged in air from 1200 to 1600 °C for 24 h and at 1550 °C for 20 to 100 h, respectively. Thermal aging behavior such as phase composition, microstructure evolutions, grain growth, and mechanical properties for thermal-aged coatings were investigated. Results show that the as-sprayed metastable tetragonal (t'-ZrO2) phase decomposes into equilibrium tetragonal (t-ZrO2) and cubic (c-ZrO2) phases during high-temperature exposures. Upon further cooling, the c-ZrO2 may be retained or transform into another metastable tetragonal (t?-ZrO2) phase, and tetragonal ? monoclinic phase transformation occurred after 1550 °C/40 h aging treatment. The coating exhibits a unique structure with segmentation cracks and micro/nano-size grains, and the grains grow gradually with increasing aging temperature and time. In addition, the hardness ( H) and Young's modulus ( E) significantly increased as a function of temperature due to healing of pores or cracks and grain growth of the coating. And a nonmonotonic variation is found in the coatings thermal aged at a constant temperature (1550 °C) with prolonged time, this is a synergetic effect of coating sintering and m-ZrO2 phase formation.

Zhao, Yuexing; Wang, Liang; Yang, Jiasheng; Li, Dachuan; Zhong, Xinghua; Zhao, Huayu; Shao, Fang; Tao, Shunyan

2015-02-01

395

Degradation behavior of Ni{sub 3}Al plasma-sprayed boiler tube steels in an energy generation system  

SciTech Connect

Boiler steels, namely, low-C steel, ASTM-SA210-Grade A1 (GrA1), 1Cr-0.5Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11) and 2.25Cr-1Mo steel, ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22) were plasma sprayed with Ni3Al. The alloy powder was prepared by mixing Ni and Al in the stoichiometric ratio of 3 to 1. The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was used as a bond coat, with a 150{mu} m thick layer sprayed onto the surface before applying the 200{mu}m coating of Ni{sub 3}Al. Exposure studies have been performed in the platen superheater zone of a coal-fired boiler at around 755{sup o}C for 10 cycles, each of 100 h duration. The protection to the base steel was minimal for the three steels. Scale spallation and the formation of a porous and nonadherent NiO scale were probably the main reasons for the lack of protection. In the case of T22-coated steel, cracks in the coatings have been observed after the first 100 h exposure cycle.

Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S. [GZS, Bathinda (India). College of Engineering

2005-06-01

396

Microstructures and properties of plasma sprayed FeAl/CeO 2/ZrO 2 nano-composite coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial FeAl powders and ZrO 2 nano-particles as well as CeO 2 additive were reconstituted into a novel multi-compositional feedstock powders via spray drying. The resulting feedstock powders were used to deposit FeAl/CeO 2/ZrO 2 nano-composite coating by plasma spraying on 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS), and a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (FESEM/EDS) were employed to characterize the microstructure of the as-prepared feedstock powders and nano-composite coating. At the same time, the mechanical properties and friction and wear behavior of the nano-composite coating and pure FeAl coating were comparatively evaluated by using a Vickers microindentation tester and ball-on-disk sliding wear tribotester, respectively. And the wear mechanisms for the two types of coatings are discussed in terms of their microstructure and mechanical properties. Results indicate that the nano-composite coating has a much higher hardness and fracture toughness as well as drastically increased wear resistance than pure FeAl coating, which could be mainly attributed to the reinforcing effect of ZrO 2 nano-particles and partially attributed to the refining effect of CeO 2 in the nano-composite coating.

Yin, Bin; Liu, Guang; Zhou, Huidi; Chen, Jianmin; Yan, Fengyuan

2010-04-01

397

Boron Ion Implantation into Silicon by Use of the Boron Vacuum-Arc Plasma Generator  

SciTech Connect

This paper continues with presentation of experimental work pertaining to use of the boron vacuum arc (a.k.a. cathodic arc) plasma generator for boron doping in semiconductor silicon, particularly with a view to the problems associated with shallow junction doping. Progress includes development of an excellent and novel macroparticle filter and subsequent ion implantations. An important perceived issue for vacuum arc generators is the production of copious macroparticles from cathode material. This issue is more important for cathodes of materials such as carbon or boron, for which the particles are not molten or plastic, but instead are elastic, and tend to recoil from baffles used in particle filters. The present design starts with two vanes of special orientation, so as to back reflect the particles, while steering the plasma between the vanes by use of high countercurrents in the vanes. Secondly, behind and surrounding the vanes is a complex system of baffles that has been designed by a computer-based strategy to ultimately trap the particles for multiple bounces. The statistical transmittance of particles is less than 5 per coulomb of boron ions transmitted at a position just a few centimeters outside the filter. This value appears adequate for the silicon wafer application, but improvement is easily visualized as wafers will be situated much further away when they are treated in systems. A total of 11 silicon samples, comprising an area of 250 cm2, have been implanted. Particles were not detected. Sample biases ranged from 60 to 500 V. Boron doses ranged from 5 x 1014 to 5 x 1015/cm2. Exposure times ranged from 20 to 200 ms for average transmitted boron current values of about 125 mA. SIMS concentration profiles from crystalline material are presented. The results appear broadly favorable in relation to competitive techniques and will be discussed. It is concluded that doubly charged boron ions are not present in the plume.

Williams, J. M. [Brontek Delta Corporation, 6580 Valley Center Drive, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); Klepper, C. C. [Brontek Delta Corporation, 6580 Valley Center Drive, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); HY-Tech Research Corporation, 105 Centre Court, Radford, VA 24141 (United States); Chivers, D. J. [Ion Links Int. Ltd., 32 St. Mary's Place, Bathgate, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hazelton, R. C.; Moschella, J. J.; Keitz, M. D. [HY-Tech Research Corporation, 105 Centre Court, Radford, VA 24141 (United States)

2006-11-13

398

High-temperature erosion of plasma-sprayed, yttria-stabilized zirconia in a simulated turbine environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of rig calibration and high temperature tests simulating gas path seal erosion in turbine engines were performed at three impingement angles and at three downstream locations. Plasma sprayed, yttria stablized zirconia specimens were tested. Steady state erosion curves presented for 19 test specimens indicate a brittle type of material erosion despite scanning electron microscopy evidence of plastic deformation. Steady state erosion results were not sensitive to downstream location but were sensitive to impingement angle. At difference downstream locations specimen surface temperature varied from 1250 to 1600 C (2280 to 2900 F) and particle velocity varied from 260 to 320 m/s (850 to 1050 ft/s). The mass ratio of combustion products to erosive grit material was typically 240.

Hanschuh, R. F.

1984-01-01

399

High-temperature erosion of plasma-sprayed, yttria-stabilized zirconia in a simulated turbine environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of rig calibration and high temperature tests simulating gas path seal erosion in turbine engines were performed at three impingement angles and at three downstream locations. Plasma sprayed, yttria stabilized zirconia specimens were tested. Steady state erosion curves presented for 19 test specimens indicate a brittle type of material erosion despite scanning electron microscopy evidence of plastic deformation. Steady state erosion results were not sensitive to downstream location but were sensitive to impingement angle. At different downstream locations specimen surface temperature varied from 1250 to 1600 C (2280 to 2900 F) and particle velocity varied from 260 to 320 m/s (850 to 1050 ft/s). The mass ratio of combustion products to erosive grit material was typically 240.

Handschuh, R. F.

1985-01-01

400

La2Zr2O7 (LZ) Coatings by Liquid Feedstock Plasma Spraying: The Role of Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) is an innovative process for obtaining finely structured coatings from metallic salt solutions. Lanthanum and zirconium precursors were studied to understand their influence on lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) synthesis by SPPS. Thermal analysis revealed that the nature of the precursor and the solvent affected mixture decomposition by changing the decomposition temperature. The surface tensions of precursor solutions in various media were investigated and revealed the influence of the nature of the counter-cation. Different solutions of precursor mixtures were used to obtain La2Zr2O7 splats on metallic substrates. A decrease in solution surface tension led to an increase in splat size. Coating mechanisms by SPPS are governed by the nature of the precursors and solvents.

Duarte, William; Rossignol, Sylvie; Vardelle, Michel

2014-12-01

401

A histologic study of nonsubmerged titanium plasma-sprayed screw implants retrieved from a patient: a case report.  

PubMed

The authors report on the microscopic findings in two plasma-sprayed nonsubmerged implants retrieved from a patient 6 months after placement. One of the implants had been loaded for 3 months, while the other was left unloaded. Clinically, the peri-implant gingival tissues were in good health. The implants were sectioned according to the cutting-grinding system. Bone lined the titanium surface almost completely with 77.3% +/- 5.1% of contact in the unloaded implant and 86.5% +/- 3.3% of contact in the loaded implant. Signs of bone resorption with many macrophages and osteoclasts were present in the loaded implant, while in the unloaded implant only osteoclast resorption activity was demonstrable. PMID:9084302

Piattelli, A; Emanuelli, M; Scarano, A; Trisi, P

1996-04-01

402

Induction of osteoconductivity by BMP-2 gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells combined with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Success in bone implant depends greatly on the composition and surface features of the implant. The surface-modification measures not only favor the implant's osteoconductivity, but also promote both bone anchoring and biomechanical stability. This paper reports an approach to combine a hydroxyapatite (HA) coated substrate with a cellular vehicle for the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) synergistically enhancing the osteoconductivity of implant surfaces. We examined the attachment, growth and osteoinductive activity of transfected BMP-producing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on a plasma-sprayed HA coated substrate. It was found that the HA coated substrate could allow the attachment and growth of BMP-2 gene modified BMSCs, and this combined application synergistically enhanced osteconductivity of the substrate surface. This synergistic method may be of osseointegration value in orthopedic and dental implant surgery.

Wu, Jiang; Guo, Ying-qiang; Yin, Guang-fu; Chen, Huai-qing; Kang, Yunqing

2008-11-01

403

La2Zr2O7 (LZ) Coatings by Liquid Feedstock Plasma Spraying: The Role of Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) is an innovative process for obtaining finely structured coatings from metallic salt solutions. Lanthanum and zirconium precursors were studied to understand their influence on lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7) synthesis by SPPS. Thermal analysis revealed that the nature of the precursor and the solvent affected mixture decomposition by changing the decomposition temperature. The surface tensions of precursor solutions in various media were investigated and revealed the influence of the nature of the counter-cation. Different solutions of precursor mixtures were used to obtain La2Zr2O7 splats on metallic substrates. A decrease in solution surface tension led to an increase in splat size. Coating mechanisms by SPPS are governed by the nature of the precursors and solvents.

Duarte, William; Rossignol, Sylvie; Vardelle, Michel

2014-08-01

404

Plasma and cold sprayed aluminum carbon nanotube composites: Quantification of nanotube distribution and multi-scale mechanical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) could serve as potential reinforcement for metal matrix composites for improved mechanical properties. However dispersion of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in the matrix has been a longstanding problem, since they tend to form clusters to minimize their surface area. The aim of this study was to use plasma and cold spraying techniques to synthesize CNT reinforced aluminum composite with improved dispersion and to quantify the degree of CNT dispersion as it influences the mechanical properties. Novel method of spray drying was used to disperse CNTs in Al-12 wt.% Si prealloyed powder, which was used as feedstock for plasma and cold spraying. A new method for quantification of CNT distribution was developed. Two parameters for CNT dispersion quantification, namely Dispersion parameter (DP) and Clustering Parameter (CP) have been proposed based on the image analysis and distance between the centers of CNTs. Nanomechanical properties were correlated with the dispersion of CNTs in the microstructure. Coating microstructure evolution has been discussed in terms of splat formation, deformation and damage of CNTs and CNT/matrix interface. Effect of Si and CNT content on the reaction at CNT/matrix interface was thermodynamically and kinetically studied. A pseudo phase diagram was computed which predicts the interfacial carbide for reaction between CNT and Al-Si alloy at processing temperature. Kinetic aspects showed that Al4C3 forms with Al-12 wt.% Si alloy while SiC forms with Al-23wt.% Si alloy. Mechanical properties at nano, micro and macro-scale were evaluated using nanoindentation and nanoscratch, microindentation and bulk tensile testing respectively. Nano and micro-scale mechanical properties (elastic modulus, hardness and yield strength) displayed improvement whereas macro-scale mechanical properties were poor. The inversion of the mechanical properties at different scale length was attributed to the porosity, CNT clustering, CNT-splat adhesion and Al 4C3 formation at the CNT/matrix interface. The Dispersion parameter (DP) was more sensitive than Clustering parameter (CP) in measuring degree of CNT distribution in the matrix.

Bakshi, Srinivasa Rao

405

Formation of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond/Amorphous Carbon Composite Films in Vacuum Using Coaxial Arc Plasma Gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite films were grown in vacuum using a coaxial arc plasma gun. From the X-ray diffraction measurement, the UNCD crystallite size was estimated to be 1.6 nm. This size is dramatically reduced from that (2.3 nm) of UNCD/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) composite films grown in a hydrogen atmosphere. The sp3/(sp3 + sp2) value, which was estimated from the X-ray photoemission spectrum, was also reduced to be 41%. A reason for it might be the reduction in the UNCD crystallite size. From the near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectrum, it was found that the ?*C=C and ?*C?C bonds are preferentially formed instead of the ?*C-H bonds in the UNCD/a-C:H films. Since the extremely small UNCD crystallites (1.6 nm) correspond to the nuclei of diamond, we consider that UNCD crystallite formation should be due predominantly to nucleation. The supersaturated condition required for nucleation is expected to be realized in the deposition using the coaxial arc plasma gun.

Hanada, Kenji; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, You; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

2010-12-01

406

Analyzing the contents of residual and plasma-supporting gases inside a vacuum deposition unit chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a quadruple mass-spectrometer method, which is used to analyze the content of residual gas in a vacuum chamber of the ARM NTM (Automatised Working Area) ion-plasma unit. This unit is used to perfect the magnetron deposition process for coating radio-reflecting surfaces. The intake of pure argon into the chamber revealed up to 0.3 % of impurities in the plasma-supporting gas, including 0.02 % of water and oxygen. A significant presence of hydrocarbon gases is explained by the presence of solvents sorbed in rubber washers, joints of internal equipment, and other components inside the chamber. In order to decrease the level of impurities in the plasmasupporting atmosphere inside the chamber and improve the composition and properties of the coatings, it is necessary to take additional measures to cleanse and degas the surface of the chamber from condensation products and hydrocarbon compounds. To provide a minimal level of impurities in the coated surfaces it is vital to clean and degas the surfaces of the chamber, removing residual moisture and hydrocarbon compounds.

Mikheev, A. Ye; Kharlamov, V. A.; Kruchek, S. D.; Cherniatina, A. A.; Khomenko, I. I.

2015-01-01

407

Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap.  

PubMed

A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent "minimum-B" structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap--axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 ?s) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams. PMID:22380156

Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Oks, E M; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu; Vodopyanov, A V; Izotov, I V; Mansfeld, D A

2012-02-01

408

Generation of high charge state metal ion beams by electron cyclotron resonance heating of vacuum arc plasma in cusp trap  

SciTech Connect

A method for generating high charge state heavy metal ion beams based on high power microwave heating of vacuum arc plasma confined in a magnetic trap under electron cyclotron resonance conditions has been developed. A feature of the work described here is the use of a cusp magnetic field with inherent ''minimum-B'' structure as the confinement geometry, as opposed to a simple mirror device as we have reported on previously. The cusp configuration has been successfully used for microwave heating of gas discharge plasma and extraction from the plasma of highly charged, high current, gaseous ion beams. Now we use the trap for heavy metal ion beam generation. Two different approaches were used for injecting the vacuum arc metal plasma into the trap - axial injection from a miniature arc source located on-axis near the microwave window, and radial injection from sources mounted radially at the midplane of the trap. Here, we describe preliminary results of heating vacuum arc plasma in a cusp magnetic trap by pulsed (400 {mu}s) high power (up to 100 kW) microwave radiation at 37.5 GHz for the generation of highly charged heavy metal ion beams.

Nikolaev, A. G.; Savkin, K. P.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Division of Russian Academy Science, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Vodopyanov, A. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Mansfeld, D. A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Science, Nizhniy Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

2012-02-15

409

Evolution of Lamellar Interface Cracks During Isothermal Cyclic Test of Plasma-Sprayed 8YSZ Coating with a Columnar-Structured YSZ Interlayer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC) usually occurs through spalling of ceramic coating. The crack evolution during thermal cycling of TBC is directly associated with its spalling. In this paper, the cracks in TBC along the direction of the interface between ceramic coating and bond coat were examined from cross-section of TBC experienced different numbers of thermal cycle, and crack number and the total length of cracks were measured to aim at understanding the failure mechanism. TBC consists of cold-sprayed NiCoCrAlTaY bond coat on IN738 superalloy and double layered plasma-sprayed 8YSZ with a columnar grain structured YSZ interlayer of about 20 ?m thick and about 230 ?m lamellar YSZ. With each isothermal cyclic test, the TBC samples were kept at 1150 °C for 26 min hold and then cooled down to a temperature less than 80 °C in 4 min by air forced cooling. Results showed that cracks propagated primarily within lamellar-structured YSZ over the columnar YSZ along lamellar interface. The measurement from the cross-section revealed that crack number and total crack length apparently increased with the increase of the number of thermal cycle. It was found that cracks with a length less than a typical size of 200 ?m accounted for the majority of cracks despite the number of thermal cycle during the test. A crack initiation and propagation model for plasma-sprayed TBC is proposed with a uniform distribution of circular cracks. The propagatable cracks form homogeneously within plasma-sprayed porous YSZ coating at the early stage of thermal cycling and propagate at an identical rate during thermal cycling. Only a few of large cracks are formed before most cracks reach to the critical size for multi-cracks linking-up. The propagation of most cracks to the critical size will leads to the rapid crack bridging and subsequent spalling of top ceramic TBC.

Li, Chang-Jiu; Li, Yong; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin

2013-12-01

410

Quasineutral plasma expansion into infinite vacuum as a model for parallel ELM transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytic solution for the expansion of a plasma into vacuum is assessed for its relevance to the parallel transport of edge localized mode (ELM) filaments along field lines. This solution solves the 1D1V Vlasov-Poisson equations for the adiabatic (instantaneous source), collisionless expansion of a Gaussian plasma bunch into an infinite space in the quasineutral limit. The quasineutral assumption is found to hold as long as ?D0/?0 ? 0.01 (where ?D0 is the initial Debye length at peak density and ?0 is the parallel length of the Gaussian filament), a condition that is physically realistic. The inclusion of a boundary at x = L and consequent formation of a target sheath is found to have a negligible effect when L/?0 ? 5, a condition that is physically plausible. Under the same condition, the target flux densities predicted by the analytic solution are well approximated by the ‘free-streaming’ equations used in previous experimental studies, strengthening the notion that these simple equations are physically reasonable. Importantly, the analytic solution predicts a zero heat flux density so that a fluid approach to the problem can be used equally well, at least when the source is instantaneous. It is found that, even for JET-like pedestal parameters, collisions can affect the expansion dynamics via electron temperature isotropization, although this is probably a secondary effect. Finally, the effect of a finite duration, ?src, for the plasma source is investigated. As is found for an instantaneous source, when L/?0 ? 5 the presence of a target sheath has a negligible effect, at least up to the explored range of ?src = L/cs (where cs is the sound speed at the initial temperature).

Moulton, D.; Ghendrih, Ph; Fundamenski, W.; Manfredi, G.; Tskhakaya, D.

2013-08-01

411

Influence of a Sealing Treatment on the Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Alumina Coatings Operating in Extreme Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In numerous applications developed at the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, Direction de l’Energie Nucléaire (CEA-DEN, French Atomic Agency, Atomic Energy Department), particularly those encountered in the processing of nuclear wastes, metallic components are subjected to extreme environments in service, in terms, for example, of ageing at moderated temperature (several months at about 300 °C) coupled to thermal shocks (numerous cycles up to 850 °C for a few seconds and a few ones up to 1500 °C) under a reactive environment made of a complex mixture of acid vapors in the presence of an electric field of a few hundred volts and a radioactive activity. Alumina plasma-sprayed coatings manufactured with feedstock of different particle size distributions, graded alumina-titania coatings, and phosphate-sealed alumina coatings were investigated to improve the properties of metallic substrates operating in such extreme environments. The effects of particle size distribution, phosphate sealant, and graded titania additions on the dielectric strength of the as-sprayed, thermally cycled and thermally aged coatings were investigated. Thermal ageing test was realized in furnace at 350 °C for 400 h and thermal shocks tests resulted from cycling the coating between 850 and 150 °C using oxyacetylene flame and compressed air-cooling. Alumina coating structures and phase content were characterized in parallel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to image analysis and stereological protocols and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The dielectric strength was assessed by measuring the breakdown voltage at 50 Hz during and after the thermal tests.

Berard, Geoffroy; Brun, Patrice; Lacombe, Jacques; Montavon, Ghislain; Denoirjean, Alain; Antou, Guy

2008-09-01

412

Arc-plasma deposited dispenser cathode for use in powerful flow water vacuum electron heater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A principal new design of vacuum electron heater is presented. The vacuum electronic heater (VEH) is developed as a vacuum diode and contains a thermionic cathode and an anode. The anode is cooled by flowing water. The thermonic dispenser cathode heated by tungsten heater emits an electron current. Kinetic energy of the electrons accelerated by the supply-line voltage of the

V. Abrosimov; O. Maslennikov

2004-01-01

413

Spectroscopic study of excited-state densities in a Zn vacuum-arc plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectroscopic study of the excited-state densities in the interelectrode plasma of a Zn multi-cathode-spot vacuum arc is presented. The plasma was produced by a 1.2-kA peak current, 0.65-ms full-width half-amplitude discharge between Zn butt electrodes, 14 mm in diameter, spaced 4-mm apart. Absolute time and space resolved line intensities were measured using a calibrated lens-monochromator-photomultiplier system. Peak excited-state densities ranging from 1013 to 1017 m-3 were calculated from absolute peak line intensities. The derived Zn i and Zn ii excited state densities could not be fitted to a Boltzmann-like distribution. The observed intensity of some Zn iii lines at the discharge midplane reached its maximum at about 0.25 ms, prior to the attainment of the arc peak current at t=0.28 ms, while the intensity of Zn ii and Zn i spectral lines observed also at the discharge midplaned peaked 0.45 and 1.3 ms after arc initiation, respectively. Thus lines of neutral zinc atoms reached their maxima at the decaying phase of the discharge. At the early phase of the discharge, line intensity as a function of the distance from the cathode surface z generally decreased. However, for each ionic species this trend was reversed (or at least no decrease with z was noted) after a certain time had passed from arc onset. The times at which the line intensity began to increase with z were inversely related to the degree of ionization of the radiating atom. Thus, at t=0.28 ms, time of peak current, Zn iii increased with z, while Zn ii and Zn iii lines decreased.

Goldsmith, S.; Bresler, Y.; Boxman, R. L.

1983-10-01

414

Characterization of Magnesium Silicide Processed with Thermal Spray for Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg2Si has long been recognized as one of the promising thermoelectric materials; the fabrication methods are hot press, spark plasma sintering, high temperature sintering, etc. however, application of thermoelectric materials requires large scale manufacturing but traditional manufacturing process cannot reach this goal by its nature; thus we employed thermal spray technology to fabricate such thermoelectric material. In collaboration with Thermal Spray Center in Stony Brook University, we manufactured Mg 2Si coatings on titanium substrate by plasma thermal spray technology. Samples were further characterized in various methods: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibits the micro structures of sprayed Mg2Si coatings; X-ray spectroscopy (XRD) analysis examined the content and various thermoelectric properties by electrical conductivity measurement, thermal conductivity measurement, Seebeck Effect measurement and Hall Effect measurement. The result showed that vacuum plasma thermal spray so far has better thermoelectric properties than atmospheric plasma spray and Mg2Si has potential to increase its thermoelectric properties if proper fabrication environment and post-fabrication processes are employed.

Nie, Chao

415

Spray-dried porcine plasma reduces the effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin B on glucose transport in rat intestine.  

PubMed

We investigated the intestinal transport of D-glucose (D-Glc) and 3 essential amino acids in a model of intestinal inflammation, and the effects of dietary supplementation with animal plasma proteins on this function. Wistar Lewis rats were fed a diet containing an isonitrogenous amount of milk protein (control group) or a diet supplemented with either spray-dried animal plasma (SDAP) or immunoglobulin concentrate (IC) from porcine plasma, from d 21 of life (weaning) until d 35. On d 30 and 33, rats were challenged intraperitoneally with Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB; groups SEB, SEB-SDAP, and SEB-IC) and on d 35, brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared and used for transport and binding studies. Administration of SEB reduced D-Glc transport across sodium glucose transporter 1 [SGLT1; 20% reduction in maximal transport rate (Vmax); P < 0.05], without affecting the Michaelis constant (Km). The results from specific phlorizin binding, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry supported the view that the effects of SEB are due to reduced expression of D-Glc transporters in the apical membrane. SEB increased the passive diffusion constant (Kd) for D-Glc 3-fold (P < 0.05). SEB did not affect mediated or passive amino acid fluxes of L-leucine, L-methionine, or L-lysine. Dietary SDAP increased the D-Glc Vmax in the SEB group without affecting the passive component. Changes in d-Glc Vmax due to SEB and to the dietary treatments were correlated with changes in the number of SGLT1 transporters present in the BBMVs (r = 0.9468; P < 0.05). Dietary IC had no observed effect. We estimate that, in rats challenged with SEB, SDAP supplementation can increase glucose absorption by 8-9% during the interdigestive periods. PMID:15987845

Garriga, Carles; Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Amat, Concepció; Campbell, Joy M; Russell, Louis; Polo, Javier; Planas, Joana M; Moretó, Miquel

2005-07-01

416

Microstructure and wear behavior of quasicrystalline thermal sprayed coatings  

SciTech Connect

An Al-Cu-Fe alloy coating which forms a quasicrystalline phase is a potential candidate for replacing electro-deposited chromium on various components in the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Coatings were deposited by air and vacuum plasma spraying and by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. Finer starting powders tended to lose Al during spraying, which affected the phase equilibrium of the coatings. Coatings which retained the starting powder composition were richer in the desired quasicrystalline phase. Ball-on-disk wear tests between 440 C stainless steel ball and the Al-Cu-Fe coatings were performed. Coefficients of friction ranged from 0.60 to 1.2 for the different coatings.

Sordelet, D.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Krotz, P.D.; Daniel, R.L. Jr. [Rockwell Aerospace, Huntsville, AL (United States); Smith, M.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

417

Microstructure and wear behavior of quasicrystalline thermal sprayed  

SciTech Connect

An Al-Cu-Fe alloy coating which forms a quasicrystalline phase is a potential candidate for replacing electro-deposited chromium on various components in the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Coatings were deposited by air and vacuum plasma spraying and by high-velocity oxygen-fuel spraying. Finer starting powders tended to lose Al during spraying, which affected the phase equilibrium of the coatings. Coatings which retained the starting powder composition were richer in the desired quasicrystalline phase. Ball-on-disk wear tests between 440 C stainless steel ball and the Al-Cu-Fe coatings were performed. Coefficients of friction ranged from 0.60 to 1.2 for the different coatings.

Sordelet, D.J.; Krotz, P.D.; Daniel, R.L.; Smith, M.F.

1994-12-31

418

Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2014-08-01

419

Dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings deposited via atmospheric plasma spraying and dry-ice blasting correlated with microstructural characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, atmospheric plasma spraying combined with dry-ice blasting have been used to prepare alumina (Al2O3) coatings designed for insulating applications. The microstructural characteristics and dielectric properties of Al2O3 coatings were presented. The electrical insulating properties, i.e., dielectric strength and breakdown voltage, were investigated by dielectric breakdown test using direct current and alternating current. Relationships between dielectric properties and coating characteristics were discussed. The results showed that dry-ice blasting used during atmospheric plasma spray process allowed the production of coatings with better dielectric properties than those prepared without dry-ice blasting. The dielectric properties were correlated with the microstructural characteristics, not with phase composition.

Dong, Shujuan; Song, Bo; Liao, Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

2015-01-01

420

LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) and non-LTE gas temperatures in loaded and unloaded plasmas during spraying of NiAl powders  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to contribute to the science of the complex particle plasma interaction in the plasma spray process. The relationship between the chaotic torch, the nonequilibrium plasma, the accelerating vaporizing particle, and the particle substrate interaction must be understood to relate coating characteristics to process parameters. This will lead to improved models, scalability, and appropriate monitoring and control of the process. This work focuses on the nonequilibrium plasma plume through which the particles must pass. Present models are based on the best knowledge available, but do not predict particle size, velocity, and surface temperatures that are consistent with experiments. Plasmas at pressures at and below atmospheric have been shown to deviate from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). 15 refs., 5 figs.

Eddy, T.L.; Detering, B.A.; Wilson, G.C. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-01-01