Sample records for vaginal epithelial cells

  1. Norepinephrine Potentiates Proinflammatory Responses of Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Vulchanova, Lucy; Witta, Samantha R.; Dai, Yuying; Jones, Bryan J.; Brown, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal epithelium provides a barrier to pathogens and recruits immune defenses through the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Several studies have shown that mucosal sites are innervated by norepinephrine-containing nerve fibers. Here we report that norepinephrine potentiates the proinflammatory response of human vaginal epithelial cells to products produced by Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen that causes menstrual toxic shock syndrome. The cells exhibit immunoreactivity for catecholamine synthesis enzymes and the norepinephrine transporter. Moreover, the cells secrete norepinephrine and dopamine at low concentrations. These results indicate that norepinephrine may serve as an autocrine modulator of proinflammatory responses in the vaginal epithelium. PMID:23571017

  2. Cytopathogenic Effect of Trichomonas vaginalis on Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells Cultured In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Gilbert; G. Elia; D. H. Beach; SUZANNE KLAESSIG; B. N. Singh

    2000-01-01

    In this study we established human vaginal epithelial cells (hVECs) in culture and evaluated their inter- action with Trichomonas vaginalis parasites to complement previous studies using other cell types. Primary cultures of hVECs were established. Contaminating fibroblasts were separated from epithelial cells by differ- ential trypsinization. Specific antibody staining revealed that over 92% of cells in hVEC monolayers were epithelial

  3. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17? -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  4. Transcytosis of HIV-1 through Vaginal Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Trafficking to the Endocytic Recycling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kinlock, Ballington L.; Wang, Yudi; Turner, Tiffany M.; Wang, Chenliang; Liu, Bindong

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia. PMID:24830293

  5. Oral and Vaginal Epithelial Cell Lines Bind and Transfer Cell-Free Infectious HIV-1 to Permissive Cells but Are Not Productively Infected

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Murciano, Celia; Shen, Chengguo; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Naglik, Julian R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells. PMID:24857971

  6. Enterococcus faecalis Inhibits Superantigen Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Induced Interleukin-8 from Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells through Tetramic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Ford, Bradley; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa can be colonized by many bacteria including commensal organisms and potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of S. aureus produce the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, which can penetrate the vaginal epithelium to cause toxic shock syndrome. We have observed that a female was mono-colonized with Enterococcus faecalis vaginally as tested in aerobic culture, even upon repeated culture for six months, suggesting this organism was negatively influencing colonization by other bacteria. In recent studies, we demonstrated an “outside-in” mechanism of cytokine signaling and consequent inflammation that facilitates the ability of potential pathogens to initiate infection from mucosal surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that this strain of E. faecalis may make anti-inflammatory factors which block disease progression of more pathogenic organisms. E. faecalis MN1 inhibited interleukin-8 production from human vaginal epithelial cells in response to the vaginal pathogens Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. We further demonstrated that this organism secretes two tetramic acid compounds which appear responsible for inhibition of interleukin-8 production, as well as inhibition of T cell proliferation due to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Microbicides that include anti-inflammatory molecules, such as these tetramic acid compounds naturally produced by E. faecalis MN1, may be useful in prevention of diseases that develop from vaginal infections. PMID:23613823

  7. Effect of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia Infection in Cervical Epithelial Cells and Vaginally Infected Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Darville; Lynn Welter-Stahl; Cristiane Cruz; Ali Abdul Sater; Charles W. Andrews; David M. Ojcius

    2007-01-01

    Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells

  8. Distinct Proinflammatory Host Responses to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in Immortalized Human Cervical and Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina Nakova; Desai, Pragnya Jasvantrai; Gibson, Frank C.; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2001-01-01

    In this study we utilized immortalized morphologically and functionally distinct epithelial cell lines from normal human endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina to characterize gonococcal epithelial interactions pertinent to the lower female genital tract. Piliated, but not nonpiliated, N. gonorrhoeae strain F62 variants actively invaded these epithelial cell lines, as demonstrated by an antibiotic protection assay and confocal microscopy. Invasion of these cells by green fluorescent protein-expressing gonococci was characterized by colocalization of gonococci with F actin, which were initially detected 30 min postinfection. In all three cell lines, upregulation of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54), and the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (CD66c) were detected 4 h after infection with piliated and nonpiliated gonococci. Furthermore, stimulation of all three cell lines with gonococcal whole-cell lysates resulted in a similar upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8, confirming that bacterial uptake is not essential for this response. Increased levels of IL-1 were first detected 8 h after infection with gonococci, suggesting that the earlier IL-8 and IL-6 responses were not mediated through the IL-1 signaling pathway. The IL-1 response was limited to cultures infected with piliated gonococci and was more vigorous in the endocervical epithelial cells. The ability of gonococci to stimulate distinct proinflammatory host responses in these morphologically and functionally different compartments of the lower female genital tract may contribute directly to the inflammatory signs and symptoms characteristic of disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:11500462

  9. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL L. FIDEL; WEI LUO; CHAD STEELE; JOSEPH CHABAIN; MARC BAKER

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection

  10. Comparative in vitro sensitivities of human immune cell lines, vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines, and primary cells to candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9, C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Fred C; Miller, Shendra R; Catalone, Bradley J; Fichorova, Raina; Anderson, Deborah; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2002-07-01

    In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more sensitive to N-9 and C31G after 48 h than were primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Cytokine activation of monocytes and lymphocytes had no effect on cell viability following exposure to these microbicidal compounds. Primary and passaged vaginal epithelial cultures and cell lines differed in sensitivity to N-9 and C31G but not SDS. These studies provide a foundation for in vitro experiments in which cell lines of human immune and epithelial origin can be used as suitable surrogates for primary cells to further investigate the effects of microbicides on cell metabolism, membrane composition, and integrity and the effects of cell type, proliferation, and differentiation on microbicide sensitivity. PMID:12069993

  11. Epithelial Cells Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

  12. Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred C. Krebs; Shendra R. Miller; Bradley J. Catalone; Raina Fichorova; Deborah Anderson; Daniel Malamud; Mary K. Howett; Brian Wigdahl

    2002-01-01

    In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more

  13. Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pyles, Richard B.; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Baum, Marc M.; Elsom, Barry; Miller, Aaron L.; Maxwell, Carrie; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Li, Guangyu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Ferguson, Monique R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for modeling of the symbiotic and at times dysbiotic relationship established between bacterial microbiomes and human mucosal surfaces. In particular clinical studies have indicated that the complex vaginal microbiome (VMB) contributes to the protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens including the life-threatening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The human microbiome project has substantially increased our understanding of the complex bacterial communities in the vagina however, as is the case for most microbiomes, very few of the community member species have been successfully cultivated in the laboratory limiting the types of studies that can be completed. A genetically controlled ex vivo model system is critically needed to study the complex interactions and associated molecular dialog. We present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic VMB from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. The immortalized vaginal epithelial cells used in the model and VMB cryopreservation methods provide the opportunity to reproducibly create replicates for lab-based evaluations of this important mucosal/bacterial community interface. The culture system also contains HIV-1 susceptible cells allowing us to study the impact of representative microbiomes on replication. Our results show that our culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of HIV-1. Further, we show the utility of the system to predict unwanted alterations in efficacy or bacterial community profiles following topical application of a front line antiretroviral. PMID:24676219

  14. Vaginitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common vaginal infections are Bacterial Vaginosis Trichomoniasis Vaginal Yeast Infection Some vaginal infections are transmitted through sexual contact, but others, such as yeast infections, probably are not. Other Causes of Vaginitis ...

  15. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Increases Immune Cell Numbers and Activation Markers in Human Vaginal Mucosal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Neelima; Anderson, Sharon; Cunningham, Tina Duong; Yousefieh, Nazita; Mauck, Christine; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between exogenous contraceptive hormones and permissiveness of the female genital tract to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the subject of renewed debate. To better characterize the effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on HIV-1 cellular targets and epithelial integrity in the vagina, we compared leukocyte populations, markers of activation and proliferation, and the density of intercellular junctional proteins in the vaginal epithelium of women during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and approximately 12 weeks after receiving a DMPA injection. This prospective cohort study involved 15 healthy women. Vaginal biopsies were obtained in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, and approximately 12 weeks following a 150-mg intramuscular injection of DMPA. Leukocyte populations, activation phenotype, and epithelial tight junction and adherens proteins were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After receiving DMPA, the numbers of CD45, CD3, CD8, CD68, HLA-DR, and CCR5 bearing immune cells were significantly (p<0.05) increased in vaginal tissues, compared to the follicular and/or luteal phases of untreated cycles. There were no significant differences in immune cell populations between the follicular and luteal phases of the control cycle. There were also no statistically significant differences in epithelial thickness and density of epithelial tight junction and adherens proteins among the follicular, luteal, and post-DMPA treatment sampling points. In this pilot study, vaginal immune cell populations were significantly altered by exogenous progesterone, resulting in increased numbers of T cells, macrophages, and HLA-DR- and CCR5-positive cells. PMID:23189932

  16. Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex.

    PubMed

    Madison, Marisa N; Jones, Philip H; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2015-08-01

    Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles secreted by diverse cell types. Exosomes from healthy human semen have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and to impair progeny virus infectivity. In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25880110

  17. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  18. Annexin-A1 identified as the oral epithelial cell anti-Candida effector moiety

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Innate and adaptive immunity are considered critical to protection against mucosal candidal infections. Among innate anti-Candida mechanisms, oral and vaginal epithelial cells have antifungal activity. The mechanism is fungistatic, acid-labile, and includes a requirement for cell contact by intact, but not necessarily live, epithelial cells. The purpose of this study was to use the acid-labile property to further characterize the effector moiety. Surface material extracted from PBS-, but not acid-treated epithelial cells, significantly inhibited the growth of Candida blastoconidia in a dose-dependent manner which was abrogated by prior heat and protease treatment. Proteins extracted from PBS-treated cells bound blastoconidia and hyphae more intensely than those from acid-treated cells. Proteins from PBS-treated cells eluted from Candida revealed two unique bands of approximately 33 and 45 kDa compared to acid-treated cells. Mass spectrometry identified these proteins as Annexin-A1 and actin, respectively. Oral epithelial cells stained positive for Annexin-A1, but not actin. Western blots showed reduced Annexin-A1 in proteins from acid-treated epithelial cells compared to those from PBS-treated epithelial cells. Lastly, it was demonstrated that immunoprecipitation of Annexin-A1 from proteins extracted from PBS-treated oral epithelial cells results in abrogation of inhibitory activity. Taken together, these results indicate that Annexin-A1 is a strong candidate for the epithelial cell anti-Candida effector protein. PMID:20618702

  19. A rabbit vaginal cell-derived antimicrobial peptide, RVFHb?P, blocks lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in human vaginal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Patgaonkar, Mandar S; Sathe, Ameya; Selvaakumar, C; Reddy, K V R

    2011-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a phylogenetically ancient form of innate immunity that provides host defense at various mucosal surfaces, including the vagina. Recently, we have identified one such AMP, rabbit vaginal fluid hemoglobin alpha peptide (RVFHb?P), from the vaginal lavage of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The recent demonstration of a protective role of this peptide in erythrocytes and vaginal cells led us to investigate (i) the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) interactive domain in RVFHb?P and (ii) whether RVFHb?P of rabbit origin modulates the cellular immune responses of another species (humans) in vitro. HeLa-S3, a human vaginal epithelial cell line (hVEC), was exposed to LPS alone (10 ?g/ml for 6 h), or LPS-induced cells were treated with RVFHb?P (70.45 ?M for 1 h) and cultured for 24 h, and the results obtained were compared with the medium control. We show here that RVFHb?P exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in hVECs, as suggested by the prevention of LPS-induced production of extracellular (supernatant) and intracellular (lysate) levels of cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6] and IL-1?) and chemokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]). The demonstration of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NF-?B expression in hVECs and the observations of RVFHb?P suppression of human ?-defensin-1 (hBD1) mRNA expression further support the hypothesis of a genomic activity of RVFHb?P. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results demonstrate that RVFHb?P inhibits LPS-induced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by macrophages. The chemotaxis studies performed using the Boyden chamber Transwell method showed the increased migration of U937 cells when supernatants of LPS-induced hVECs were used, and this effect was inhibited by RVFHb?P. In conclusion, our study proposes a novel explanation for the protective role of RVFHb?P in inflammation-associated infections, which not only may provide the new cellular targets for the screening of RVFHb?P ligands acting in the vaginal tissue but also has the potential to develop RVFHb?P as a therapeutic agent for reproductive tract infections. PMID:21865417

  20. Neonatal uterine and vaginal cell proliferation and adenogenesis are independent of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Manjunatha K; Medrano, Theresa I; March, Amelia G; Cooke, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal uterus and vagina express estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and respond mitogenically to exogenous estrogens. However, neonatal ovariectomy does not inhibit preweaning uterine cell proliferation, indicating that this process is estrogen independent. Extensive literature suggests that ESR1 can be activated by growth factors in a ligand-independent manner and drive uterine cell proliferation. Alternatively, neonatal uterine cell proliferation could be ESR1 independent despite its obligatory role in adult luminal epithelial proliferation. To determine ESR1's role in uterine and vaginal development, we analyzed cell proliferation, apoptosis, and uterine gland development (adenogenesis) in wild-type (WT) and Esr1 knockout (Esr1KO) mice from Postnatal Day 2 to Postnatal Day 60. Uterine and vaginal cell proliferation, apoptosis, and uterine adenogenesis were comparable in WT and Esr1KO mice before weaning. By Days 29-60, glands had regressed, and uterine cell proliferation was reduced in Esr1KO mice in contrast to continued adenogenesis and proliferation in WT. Apoptosis in Esr1KO uterine epithelium was not increased compared to WT at any age, indicating that differences in cell proliferation, rather than apoptosis, cause divergence of uterine size in these two groups at puberty. Similarly, vaginal epithelial proliferation was reduced, and the epithelium became atrophic in Esr1KO mice by 29 days of age and later in Esr1KO mice. These results indicate that preweaning uterine and vaginal development is ESR1 independent but becomes dependent on ESR1 by Day 29 on. It is not yet clear what mechanisms drive preweaning vaginal and uterine development, but ligand-independent activation of ESR1 is not involved. PMID:25653281

  1. Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

  2. Epithelial cell contributions to intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lora V

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the mammalian intestine interface directly with the external environment and thus continuously encounter pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The intestinal epithelium is also closely associated with complex communities of symbiotic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells are thus faced with the unique challenge of directly interacting with enormous numbers of microbes that include both pathogens and symbionts. As a result, gut epithelia have evolved an array of strategies that contribute to host immunity. This chapter considers the various mechanisms used by epithelial cells to limit microbial invasion of host tissues, shape the composition of indigenous microbial communities, and coordinate the adaptive immune response to microorganisms. Study of intestinal epithelial cells has contributed fundamental insights into intestinal immune homeostasis and has revealed how impaired epithelial cell function can contribute to inflammatory disease. PMID:25727289

  3. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  4. DNA repair in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fornace, A.J. Jr.; Lechner, J.F.; Grafstrom, R.C.; Harris, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the response of human cell types (bronchial epithelial cells and fibroblasts and skin fibroblasts) to various DNA damaging agents. Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) induced by 5 krads of X-ray was similar for all cell types; approximately 90% of the DNA SSB were rejoined within one hour. During excision repair of DNA damage from u.v.-radiation, the frequencies of DNA SSB as estimated by the alkaline elution technique, were similar in all cell types. Repair replication as measured by BND cellulose chromatography was also similar in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after u.v.-irradiation. Similar levels of SSB were also observed in epithelial and fibroblastic cells after exposure to chemical carcinogens: 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene; benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE); or N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Significant repair replication of BPDE-induced DNA damage was detected in both bronchial epithelial and fibroblastic cells, although the level in fibroblasts was approximately 40% of that in epithelial cells. The pulmonary carcinogen asbestos did not damage DNA. DNA-protein crosslinks induced by formaldehyde were rapidly removed in bronchial cells. Further, epithelial and fibroblastic cells, which were incubated with formaldehyde and the polymerase inhibitor combination of cytosine arabinoside and hydroxyurea, accumulated DNA SSB at approximately equal frequencies. These results should provide a useful background for further investigations of the response of human bronchial cells to various DNA damaging agents.

  5. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Cardiff (England))

    1990-04-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate.

  6. Propagation and Immortalization of Human Lens Epithelial Cells in Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Usha P. Andley; Johng S. Rhim; Leo T. Chylack; Timothy P. Fleming

    Purpose. To establish primary and immortalized cell cultures of human lens epithelial cells for a model system investigating human lens epithelial physiology and cataract. Methods. Human lens epithelial cells in culture were grown by isolating epithelium fragments from infant human lenses from patients who underwent treatment for retinopathy of prema- turity and by allowing epithelial cells to grow from explants.

  7. [Behavior of the cell center during epithelial cell spreading].

    PubMed

    Gudima, G O; Vorob'ev, I A; Chentsov, Iu S

    1986-06-01

    In the epithelial cells of mouse embryo renal channels, centrioles are located near the plasma membrane of the apical part of the cell. In most of the cells an active centriole carries a cilium, which comes out into the channel lumen. In the epithelial cells, suspended after trypsinisation and in single cells adhering to the substrate, the centrioles are located near the nucleus, and the outcoming cilia are not observed. In the spread cells of epithelial islets, the centrioles are also found near the nucleus, and in most cases an active centriole carries a cilium, which comes out of the cytoplasm at the upper side of the cell. In the peripheral cells of the islet, centrioles are positioned between the nucleus and the active edge of the cell. In the epithelial cells in situ, a relatively small number of microtubules radiate from the active centrioles. In the suspended cells, the activation of microtubule formation is observed in the cell center. In the spread cells of the epithelial islets there occurs a further increase in the number of microtubules radiating from the active centrioles. In the peripheral cells which cause translocation of the epithelial islet in the culture, the number of microtubules, radiating from the centrioles does not differ significantly from that of the inner cells of the islet. The cell center of the epithelial cells does not seem to be actively involved in the locomotion of the epithelial cells in the culture. PMID:3750409

  8. Human bone marrow-derived stem cells acquire epithelial characteristics through fusion with gastrointestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Jonathan; Noël, Danièle; Lehours, Philippe; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Chambonnier, Lucie; Ménard, Armelle; Mégraud, Francis; Varon, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types and are a potential source for epithelial tissue repair. Several studies have demonstrated their ability to repopulate the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in bone marrow transplanted patients or in animal models of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis where they were the source of epithelial cancers. However, mechanism of MSC epithelial differentiation still remains unclear and controversial with trans-differentiation or fusion events being evoked. This study aimed to investigate the ability of MSC to acquire epithelial characteristics in the particular context of the gastrointestinal epithelium and to evaluate the role of cell fusion in this process. In vitro coculture experiments were performed with three gastrointestinal epithelial cell lines and MSC originating from two patients. After an 8 day coculture, MSC expressed epithelial markers. Use of a semi-permeable insert did not reproduce this effect, suggesting importance of cell contacts. Tagged cells coculture or FISH on gender-mismatched cells revealed clearly that epithelial differentiation resulted from cellular fusion events, while expression of mesenchymal markers on fused cells decreased over time. In vivo cell xenograft in immunodeficient mice confirmed fusion of MSC with gastrointestinal epithelial cells and self-renewal abilities of these fused cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that fusion could be the predominant mechanism by which human MSC may acquire epithelial characteristics when in close contact with epithelial cells from gastrointestinal origin . These results could contribute to a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms allowing MSC engraftment into the GIT epithelium. PMID:21573181

  9. Effects of tamoxifen on vaginal blood flow and epithelial morphology in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel N Kim; Miljan Stankovic; Abdullah Armagan; Tulay T Cushman; Irwin Goldstein; Abdulmaged M Traish

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Treatment with tamoxifen is associated with sexual side effects, such as increased vaginal dryness and pain\\/discomfort during sexual activity. There have been limited investigations of the effect of tamoxifen on estrogen-dependent peripheral genital arousal responses. The objective

  10. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  11. Calprotectin Expression by Gingival Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KAREN F. ROSS; MARK C. HERZBERG

    2001-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of MRP8 and MRP14 with antimicrobial properties, is found in the cytosol of neutrophils, monocytes, and human gingival keratinocytes. During inflammation of the oral mucosa, the expression of immunoreactive calprotectin appears upregulated. Given the possible cell sources, we sought to learn if epithelial cells upregulate calprotectin in response to proinflammmatory agents. First, human gingival keratinocytes were maintained

  12. Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. M.; Duckworth, C. A.; Burkitt, M. D.; Watson, A. J. M.; Campbell, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed. PMID:25428410

  13. Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells: Deficiency and Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Genevieve A. Secker; Julie T. Daniels

    2008-01-01

    The corneal epithelium is continuously renewed by a population of stem cells that reside in the corneoscleral junction, otherwise\\u000a known as the limbus. These limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC) are imperative for corneal maintenance with deficiencies leading\\u000a to in-growth of conjunctival cells, neovascularisation of the corneal stroma and eventual corneal opacity and visual loss.\\u000a One such disease that has traditionally

  14. Calprotectin Expression Inhibits Bacterial Binding to Mucosal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KANOKWAN NISAPAKULTORN; KAREN F. ROSS; MARK C. HERZBERG

    2001-01-01

    Squamous mucosal epithelial cells constitutively express calprotectin in the cytoplasm. To study how this antimicrobial protein complex confers epithelial resistance to invading bacteria, an epithelial cell line was stably transfected to express the calprotectin complex. Cells expressing calprotectin resist invasion by Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Calprotectin expression was accompanied by altered actin organization, increased a3 integrin expression,

  15. Eosinophil Adhesion to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Regulation by Cytokines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Sato; Hajime Takizawa; Tadashi Kohyama; Takayuki Ohtoshi; Shigeru Takafuji; Shin Kawasaki; Shigeto Tohma; Akira Ishii; Shunsuke Shoji; Koji Ito

    1997-01-01

    Background: Eosinophil infiltration into the airways and interaction with bronchial epithelial cells are important in the pathogenesis of asthma. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of eosinophil adhesion to human bronchial epithelial cells. Methods: We cultured a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, on a collagen-coated glass slide. Highly purified human eosinophils were added

  16. Release of RANTES from nasal and bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Altman; L. C. Altman; D. L. Luchtel; A. J. Jabbour; C. Baker

    1997-01-01

    RANTES is a chemokine with eosinophil attractant and activating activities. This study was undertaken to determine whether primary cultures of human nasal and primate bronchial epithelial cells produce RANTES and the effect of various cytokines and dexamethasone on the release of this chemokine. Nasal epithelial cells from 32 patients (HNE) and bronchial epithelial cells from 17 Macaca nemestrina monkeys (PBE)

  17. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGF?1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGF?1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGF? Receptor 1 (TGF?R1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGF?1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGF?1, but also in the absence of TGF?1. PMID:22844446

  18. Epithelial stem cells and tissue engineered intestine.

    PubMed

    Day, Richard M

    2006-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa has an amazing regenerative capacity, enabling rapid restoration of its physiological functions following injury. The ability to do this resides with the epithelial stem cells located within glandular invaginations in the mucosal surface. Recent advances toward the isolation and characterization of epithelial stem cells has paved the way for exploring novel therapeutic approaches for gastrointestinal disease. Possible stem cell-based therapy of gastrointestinal disorders range from the repair of damaged mucosa through to tissue engineering of artificial intestinal constructs for patients with short bowel syndrome. Before these benefits are realized further information is required on the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells, their interactions with surrounding cells, and the environment in which they reside. This includes discovering markers to assist in the identification and purification of stem cell populations and techniques to manipulate the cells both in vivo and in vitro. Because intestinal transplantation for patients still represents a significant challenge, it is hoped that one day a tissue-engineered intestine will provide a feasible option for patients with short bowel syndrome. This review aims to introduce the reader to the main characteristics of epithelial stem cells and provide an overview of the current status of intestinal tissue engineering and the problems still being faced. PMID:18220860

  19. Epithelial Defence by ?? T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Kabelitz; Lothar Marischen; Hans-Heinrich Oberg; Wolfgang Holtmeier; Daniela Wesch

    2005-01-01

    ?? T cells constitute a separate lineage of T lymphocytes which differ from conventional ?? T cells with regard to T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and tissue localization. In murine skin, ?? T cells expressing a canonical V?5 TCR are abundant and contribute as so-called dendritic epidermal T cells to local immune surveillance. In humans, major subsets of ?? T

  20. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. PMID:21572528

  1. Esophageal epithelial cells acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts after undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Amanda B.; Dods, Kara; Noah, Yuli; Toltzis, Sarit; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna Modayur; Lee, Anna; Benitez, Alain; Bedenbaugh, Adam; Falk, Gary W.; Wells, Rebecca G.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Wang, Mei-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic inflammatory disease that leads to esophageal fibrosis and stricture. We have recently shown that in EoE, esophageal epithelial cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by gain of mesenchymal markers and loss of epithelial gene expression. Whether epithelial cells exposed to profibrotic cytokines can also acquire the functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts, including migration, contraction, and extracellular matrix deposition, is relevant to our understanding and treatment of EoE-associated fibrogenesis. In the current study, we characterize cell migration, contraction, and collagen production by esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone cytokine-induced EMT in vitro. Methods and Results Stimulation of human non-transformed immortalized esophageal epithelial cells (EPC2-hTERT) with profibrotic cytokines TNF?, TGF?, and IL1? for three weeks led to acquisition of mesenchymal ?SMA and vimentin, and loss of epithelial E-cadherin expression. Upon removal of the profibrotic stimulus, epithelial characteristics were partially rescued. TGF? stimulation had a robust effect upon epithelial collagen production. Surprisingly, TNF? stimulation had the most potent effect upon cell migration and contraction, exceeding the effects of the prototypical profibrotic cytokine TGF?. IL1? stimulation alone had minimal effect upon esophageal epithelial migration, contraction, and collagen production. Conclusions Esophageal epithelial cells that have undergone EMT acquire functional characteristics of activated myofibroblasts in vitro. Profibrotic cytokines exert differential effects upon esophageal epithelial cells, underscoring complexities of fibrogenesis in EoE, and implicating esophageal epithelial cells as effector cells in EoE-associated fibrogenesis. PMID:25183431

  2. Epithelial cell proliferation in childhood enteropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Savidge, T C; Shmakov, A N; Walker-Smith, J A; Phillips, A D

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate epithelial cell turnover in childhood enteropathy to establish whether common disease related mechanisms operate. Levels of epithelial cell proliferation were measured in children with food intolerance (cows' milk protein intolerance and coeliac disease), and after infection with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. METHODS: Comparative measures of epithelial cell proliferation were performed by recording mitotic activity and MIB-1 immunoreactivity in proximal small intestinal biopsy specimens. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: A hyperplastic crypt response was evident in all of the disease states examined and was particularly pronounced in coeliac disease and in infection with enteropathogenic E coli, where mitotic and MIB-1 labelling indices were significantly raised above control values. In contrast with coeliac disease, increased crypt cell production rates in enteropathogenic E coli infection were also due to an expansion of the crypt proliferation compartment, without a comparable increase in crypt cell numbers. Crypt hyperplasia is therefore a common tissue response to mucosal damage in food allergy and infection, although disease specific mechanisms are evident. Images Figure 1: A-D Figure 1: E-F PMID:8977336

  3. Epithelial cell division - multiplying without losing touch.

    PubMed

    Le Bras, Stéphanie; Le Borgne, Roland

    2014-12-15

    Epithelia are compact tissues comprising juxtaposed cells that function as mechanical and chemical barriers between the body and the environment. This barrier relies, in part, on adhesive contacts within adherens junctions, which are formed and stabilized by E-cadherin and catenin proteins linked to the actomyosin cytoskeleton. During development and throughout adult life, epithelia are continuously growing or regenerating, largely as a result of cell division. Although persistence of adherens junctions is needed for epithelial integrity, these junctions are continually remodelled during cell division. In this Commentary, we will focus on cytokinesis, the final step of mitosis, a multiparty phenomenon in which the adherens junction belt plays an essential role and during which a new cell-cell interface is generated between daughter cells. This new interface is the site of intense remodelling, where new adhesive contacts are assembled and cell polarity is transmitted from mother to daughter cells, ultimately becoming the site of cell signalling. PMID:25344250

  4. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadi, A; Drozd, A; Salem, A; Hietanen, J; Häyrinen-Immonen, R; Konttinen, Y T

    2015-07-01

    A recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a common inflammatory ulcerative lesion affecting oral mucosa. We studied the eventual apoptosis of epithelial cells from the point of view of ulcer and inflammation. RAU lesions and healthy mucosa samples were immunostained for caspase-3 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). DNA nicks were identified using TUNEL staining. We studied the effects of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) and interferon ? (IFN?) on the toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) expression of human oral SCC-25 keratinocytes. We also studied the effects of self-DNA, all-thiol-HMGB1, and disulfide-HMGB1 on epithelial cells, with or without IFN?. At the edge of RAU lesions, all epithelial cell layers were caspase-3(+), TUNEL(+), and HMGB-1(+) and had widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, healthy epithelial cells were negative for caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. HMGB1 was seen in only the basal cell layers, and the cells retained close cell-to-cell contacts. Self-DNA increased TNF-? mRNA (P = 0.02) in SCC-25 cells. Both TNF? and IFN? (P = 0.01) increased TLR2. Upon TNF? stimulation, SCC-25 cells lost their nuclear HMGB1 staining. HMGB1 did not increase IL-8, IL-6, or TNF-? mRNA in SCC-25 cells, which was unaffected by the presence of IFN?. We conclude that in healthy epithelium, the most superficial cells at the end of their life cycle are simply desquamated. In contrast, RAU is characterized by top-to-bottom apoptosis such that dead cells may slough off, leading to an ulcer. Because of a lack of scavenging anti-inflammatory macrophages, apoptotic cells probably undergo secondary necrosis releasing proinflammatory danger signals, which may contribute to the peripheral inflammatory halo. This is supported by self-DNA-induced TNF? synthesis. In contrast to TLR4- and TLR2-binding lipopolysaccharide used as a positive control, disulfide-HMGB1 did not stimulate proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25861801

  5. 12/15-lipoxygenase expressed in non-epithelial cells causes airway epithelial injury in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Rehman, Rakhshinda; Ahmad, Tanveer; Kumar, Sarvesh; Leishangthem, Geeta Devi; Singh, Suchita; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Biswal, Shyam; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying asthmatic airway epithelial injury are not clear. 12/15-lipoxygenase (an ortholog of human 15-LOX-1), which is induced by IL-13, is associated with mitochondrial degradation in reticulocytes at physiological conditions. In this study, we showed that 12/15-LOX expressed in nonepithelial cells caused epithelial injury in asthma pathogenesis. While 12/15-LOX overexpression or IL-13 administration to naïve mice showed airway epithelial injury, 12/15-LOX knockout/knockdown in allergic mice reduced airway epithelial injury. The constitutive expression of 15-LOX-1 in bronchial epithelia of normal human lungs further indicated that epithelial 15-LOX-1 may not cause epithelial injury. 12/15-LOX expression is increased in various inflammatory cells in allergic mice. Though non-epithelial cells such as macrophages or fibroblasts released 12/15-LOX metabolites upon IL-13 induction, bronchial epithelia didn't release. Further 12-S-HETE, arachidonic acid metabolite of 12/15-LOX leads to epithelial injury. These findings suggested 12/15-LOX expressed in non-epithelial cells such as macrophages and fibroblasts leads to bronchial epithelial injury. PMID:23528921

  6. estradiol-treated human lens epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivas Gottipati; Patrick R. Cammarata

    Purpose: 17 ? -estradiol (17?-E2) protects human lens epithelial cells against oxidative stress by preserving mitochondrial function in part via the non-genomic rapid activation of prosurvival signal transduction pathways. The study described herein examined whether 17?-E2 also elicits genomic protection by influencing the expression (and activity) of mitochondrial-associated manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a possible parallel mechanism by which 17?-E2

  7. Characterization of mouse alveolar epithelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Demaio, Lucas; Tseng, Wanru; Balverde, Zerlinde; Alvarez, Juan R; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kelley, Diane G; Senior, Robert M; Crandall, Edward D; Borok, Zea

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the influence of extracellular matrix on transport properties of mouse alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers (MAECM) and transdifferentiation of isolated mouse alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells into an alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype. Primary mouse AT2 cells plated on laminin 5-coated polycarbonate filters formed monolayers with transepithelial resistance (R(T)) and equivalent short-circuit current (I(EQ)) of 1.8 kOmega.cm(2) and 5.3 microA/cm(2), respectively, after 8 days in culture. Amiloride (10 microM), ouabain (0.1 mM), and pimozide (10 microM) decreased MAECM I(EQ) to 40%, 10%, and 65% of its initial value, respectively. Sequential addition of pimozide and amiloride, in either order, revealed that their inhibitory effects are additive, suggesting that cyclic nucleotide-gated channels contribute to amiloride-insensitive active ion transport across MAECM. Ussing chamber measurements of unidirectional ion fluxes across MAECM under short-circuit conditions indicated that net absorption of Na(+) in the apical-to-basolateral direction is comparable to net ion flux calculated from the observed short-circuit current: 0.38 and 0.33 microeq.cm(-2).h(-1), respectively. Between days 1 and 9 in culture, AEC demonstrated increased expression of aquaporin-5 protein, an AT1 cell marker, and decreased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C protein, an AT2 cell marker, consistent with transition to an AT1 cell-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that AT1 cell-like MAECM grown on laminin 5-coated polycarbonate filters exhibit active and passive transport properties that likely reflect the properties of intact mouse alveolar epithelium. This mouse in vitro model will enhance the study of AEC derived from mutant strains of mice and help define important structure-function correlations. PMID:19329539

  8. Characterization of mouse alveolar epithelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    DeMaio, Lucas; Tseng, Wanru; Balverde, Zerlinde; Alvarez, Juan R.; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Kelley, Diane G.; Senior, Robert M.; Crandall, Edward D.; Borok, Zea

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of extracellular matrix on transport properties of mouse alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers (MAECM) and transdifferentiation of isolated mouse alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells into an alveolar epithelial type I (AT1) cell-like phenotype. Primary mouse AT2 cells plated on laminin 5-coated polycarbonate filters formed monolayers with transepithelial resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) of 1.8 k?·cm2 and 5.3 ?A/cm2, respectively, after 8 days in culture. Amiloride (10 ?M), ouabain (0.1 mM), and pimozide (10 ?M) decreased MAECM IEQ to 40%, 10%, and 65% of its initial value, respectively. Sequential addition of pimozide and amiloride, in either order, revealed that their inhibitory effects are additive, suggesting that cyclic nucleotide-gated channels contribute to amiloride-insensitive active ion transport across MAECM. Ussing chamber measurements of unidirectional ion fluxes across MAECM under short-circuit conditions indicated that net absorption of Na+ in the apical-to-basolateral direction is comparable to net ion flux calculated from the observed short-circuit current: 0.38 and 0.33 ?eq·cm?2·h?1, respectively. Between days 1 and 9 in culture, AEC demonstrated increased expression of aquaporin-5 protein, an AT1 cell marker, and decreased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C protein, an AT2 cell marker, consistent with transition to an AT1 cell-like phenotype. These results demonstrate that AT1 cell-like MAECM grown on laminin 5-coated polycarbonate filters exhibit active and passive transport properties that likely reflect the properties of intact mouse alveolar epithelium. This mouse in vitro model will enhance the study of AEC derived from mutant strains of mice and help define important structure-function correlations. PMID:19329539

  9. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1? (IL-1?) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1? and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1? receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  10. Binding of epithelial cells to lectin-coated surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Gordon Phillips; Shiu-Lan Lui; David M. Phillips

    1982-01-01

    Summary  Epithelial cells may relate to their basement membrane substrates via lectin-like interactions. In a model system for study\\u000a of this type of interaction, lectin-coated bacteriological plastic petri dishes were presented as substrates for epithelial\\u000a cell adhesion. Of 21 lectins tested by mixed agglutination against two epithelial cell types, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK),\\u000a and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK), nine gave

  11. Sonic hedgehog opposes epithelial cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Khavari, P A

    1999-10-01

    Stratified epithelium displays an equilibrium between proliferation and cell cycle arrest, a balance that is disrupted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation appears sufficient to induce BCC, however, the way it does so is unknown. Shh-induced epidermal hyperplasia is accompanied by continued cell proliferation in normally growth arrested suprabasal cells in vivo. Shh-expressing cells fail to exit S and G2/M phases in response to calcium-induced differentiation and also resist exhaustion of replicative growth capacity. In addition, Shh blocks p21(CIP1/WAF1)-induced growth arrest. These data indicate that Shh promotes neoplasia by opposing normal stimuli for epithelial cell cycle arrest. PMID:10508856

  12. Rhinovirus Replication Causes RANTES Production in Primary Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K. Schroth; Elizabeth Grimm; Paula Frindt; Dawn M. Galagan; Shin-Ichi Konno; Robert Love; James E. Gern

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms by which rhinovirus (RV) infections produce lower airway symptoms in asthmatic indi- viduals are not fully established. To determine effects of RV infection on lung epithelial cells, primary hu- man bronchial epithelial (BE) cells were infected with either RV16 or RV49, and viral replication, cell vi- ability, and cell activation were measured. Both viral serotypes replicated in BE

  13. Nitric oxide, a survival factor for lens epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Coral G. Chamberlain; Kylie J. Mansfield; Anna Cerra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) is capable of promoting either cell death or cell survival depending on cell type and experimental conditions. In this study, the possible effects of NO on the viability of lens epithelial cells were investigated in an explant model used previously to identify cellular changes associated with posterior capsule opacification following cataract surgery. Methods: Rat lens epithelial

  14. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  15. Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorarinn Gudjonsson; Helga Lind Nielsen; Lone Rønnov-Jessen; Mina J. Bissell; Ole William Petersen

    2002-01-01

    The epithelial compartment of the human breast comprises two distinct lineages: the luminal epithelial and the myoepithelial lineage. We have shown previously that a subset of the luminal epithelial cells could convert to myoepithelial cells in culture signifying the possible existence of a progenitor cell. We therefore set out to identify and isolate the putative precursor in the luminal epithelial

  16. Stimulation of mucin secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells by mast cell chymase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao-heng HE; Jian ZHENG

    AIM: To investigate the effect of chymase on the mucin secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: Primarily-cultured human bronchial epithelial (PCHBE) cells and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured with chymase or other stimulus in a mixture of bronchial epithelial growth medium (BEGM) and Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), and the quantities of stimulatory mucin release were

  17. Th17 Cells and IL-17 in Protective Immunity to Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pietrella, Donatella; Rachini, Anna; Pines, Mark; Pandey, Neelam; Mosci, Paolo; Bistoni, Francesco; d'Enfert, Cristophe; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background Th17 cells play a major role in coordinating the host defence in oropharyngeal candidiasis. In this study we investigated the involvement of the Th17 response in an animal model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods To monitor the course of infection we exploited a new in vivo imaging technique. Results i) The progression of VVC leads to a strong influx of neutrophils in the vagina soon after the challenge which persisted despite the resolution of infection; ii) IL-17, produced by vaginal cells, particularly CD4 T cells, was detected in the vaginal wash during the infection, reaching a maximum 14 days after the challenge; iii) The amount and kinetics of IL-23 in vaginal fluids were comparable to those in vaginal cells; iv) The inhibition of Th17 differentiation led to significant inhibition of IL-17 production with consequent exacerbation of infection; v) An increased production of ?defensin 2 was manifested in cells of infected mice. This production was strongly reduced when Th17 differentiation was inhibited and was increased by rIL-17 treatment. Conclusions These results imply that IL-17 and Th17, along with innate antimicrobial factors, have a role in the immune response to vaginal candidiasis. PMID:21818387

  18. Possibility of skin epithelial cell transdifferentiation in tracheal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hoon; Kong, Won Ho; Kim, Jhin Gook; Kim, Ho Joong; Seo, Soo Won

    2011-02-01

    In tissue engineering, injured tissue is normally reconstructed with cells obtained from that tissue itself. However, it is difficult to obtain cells for reconstruction of the trachea because of its shape and limited accessibility. Therefore, other cell sources having similar form and function or stem cells are used for tracheal reconstruction. In a previous study, we used autologous skin epithelial cells and successfully reconstructed canine tracheas. We found that the tracheal epithelial layer was completely covered with ciliated cells, which is a remarkable finding because skin and tracheal epithelial cells originate from different germinal layers and have very different forms. In this study, to elucidate the origin of the ciliated cells, we identified the stem cell contents of skin epithelial cells on primary culture, marked the skin epithelial cells with PKH26 dye, and transplanted them onto canine tracheas. After 5 months, we identified PKH26 fluorescence on the tracheal epithelial layers, especially over the tracheal cartilages. Consequently, we demonstrated that transplanted autologous skin epithelial stem cells can remain viable on the trachea for a few months and can transdifferentiate into tracheal epithelial cells and chondrocytes. PMID:20946312

  19. Puromycin Aminonucleoside Suppresses Integrin Expression in Cultured Glomerular Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UMA KRISHNAMURTI; BING ZHOU; WEI-WEI FAN; EFFIE TSILIBARY; ELIZABETH WAYNER; YOUNGKI KIM; CLIFFORD E. KASHTAN; ALFRED MICHAEL

    2001-01-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephro- sis is a well-described model of human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, but the mechanism of PAN's effect is not com- pletely understood. Because PAN injection into rats results in retraction of glomerular epithelial cell foot processes and glo- merular epithelial cell detachment, it was hypothesized that PAN might alter the contacts between these cells and the glomerular

  20. Adherence of Candida albicans and other Candida species to mucosal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    King, R D; Lee, J C; Morris, A L

    1980-01-01

    To study the possible involvement of candidal adherence in mucosal colonization, we examined the in vitro adherence capabilities of seven Candida species. Adherence was evaluated by direct microscopic examination and by a quantitative radiometric adherence test. The results indicate that C. albicans adheres to vaginal and buccal epithelial cells to a significantly greater degree (P less than 0.01) than the other species tested. C. tropicalis and C. stellatoidea demonstrated moderate adherence capabilities, while C. parapsilosis adhered only to a slight degree. Other species failed to interact with isolated mucosal cells. These findings suggest that there is a relationship between the adherence capabilities of the Candida species and their abilities to colonize mucosal surfaces, since those species which adhere are those which most frequently colonize mucosal surfaces. C. albicans was found to be adherent under a variety of environmental conditions. Stationary-phase blastospores of C. albicans were found to be more adherent than logarithmic-phase yeasts, and larger blastospore cell-to-epithelial cell ratios resulted in greater adherence values. The actual number of adherent yeasts varied considerably when epithelial cells were obtained from different donors. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6991423

  1. Cell Lineage and the Differentiation of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Beebe; Barry R. Masters

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. Studies were designed to determine whether cell division and cell differentiation are linked direcdy in the corneal epithelium. To obtain tfiese data, corneal basal epithelial cells were labeled during DNA synthesis, and the resultant daughter cells were followed for as long as 2 weeks. Methods. Adult rats were injected with 5-bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog, and were killed 6

  2. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  3. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  4. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial cells participate in angiotensin II-mediated control of the glomerular filtration barrier.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ?lvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  6. Cigarette Smoke Inhibits Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Repair Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hangjun Wang; Xiangde Liu; Takeshi Umino; C. Magnus Sköld; Yunkui Zhu; Tadashi Kohyama; John R. Spurzem; Debra J. Romberger; Stephen I. Rennard

    2001-01-01

    By interfering with the ability of airway epithelial cells to sup- port repair processes, cigarette smoke could contribute to al- terations of airway structures and functions that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study assessed the ability of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to alter human airway epithelial cell chemotaxis, proliferation, and contraction of three-dimensional collagen gels, a model

  7. Glomerular epithelial cells synthesize endothelin peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Kasinath, B. S.; Fried, T. A.; Davalath, S.; Marsden, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial and endothelial cells have been reported to synthesize and secrete endothelin-1 (ET-1). Whether glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) have the ability to synthesize ET-peptides is not known. Employing immunocytochemistry we report that the GEC in vitro constitutively express ET-1 and ET-3. ET-1 synthesis by the GEC was further confirmed by detection of a specific 2.3kb mRNA that hybridizes with rat prepro ET-1 genomic DNA on Northern blot analysis. ET-1 is secreted into the medium in a time-dependent manner as measured by radioimmunoassay and radiobinding assay. Synthesis of endothelin peptides by the GEC may have important implications in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases where GEC injury figures prominently. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1497086

  8. OF EPITHELIAL CELL CYCLE AND CELL FATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy C. Weinberg; Mitchell F. Denning

    As a broad-acting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1 occupies a central position in the cell cycle regula- tion of self-renewing tissues such as oral mucosa and skin. In addition to regulating normal cell cycle progression decisions, p21WAF1 integrates genotoxic insults into growth arrest and apoptotic signaling pathways that ultimately determine cell fate. As a result of its complex interactions with cell

  9. Bovine oviductal epithelial cells: their cell culture and applications in studies for reproductive biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Abe; Hiroyoshi Hoshi

    1997-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the mammalian oviduct play an important role in reproductive and developmental events that occur there. Oviductal epithelial cells from several mammalian species can be isolated and cultured in serum or serum-free medium in vitro and cell culture of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) has been described by many investigators. Cultured BOEC show a wide variety of secretory

  10. Observing planar cell polarity in multiciliated mouse airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Lee, Yin Loon; Stearns, Tim; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The concerted movement of cilia propels inhaled contaminants out of the lungs, safeguarding the respiratory system from toxins, pathogens, pollutants, and allergens. Motile cilia on the multiciliated cells (MCCs) of the airway epithelium are physically oriented along the tissue axis for directional motility, which depends on the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. The MCCs of the mouse respiratory epithelium have emerged as an important model for the study of motile ciliogenesis and the PCP signaling mechanism. Unlike other motile ciliated or planar polarized tissues, airway epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible and primary cultures faithfully model many of the essential features of the in vivo tissue. There is growing interest in understanding how cells acquire and polarize motile cilia due to the impact of mucociliary clearance on respiratory health. Here, we present methods for observing and quantifying the planar polarized orientation of motile cilia both in vivo and in primary culture airway epithelial cells. We describe how to acquire and evaluate electron and light microscopy images of ciliary ultrastructural features that reveal planar polarized orientation. Furthermore, we describe the immunofluorescence localization of PCP pathway components as a simple readout for airway epithelial planar polarization and ciliary orientation. These methods can be adapted to observe ciliary orientation in other multi- and monociliated cells and to detect PCP pathway activity in any tissue or cell type. PMID:25837385

  11. STUDIES ON AN EPITHELIAL (GLAND) CELL JUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Werner R.; Kanno, Yoshinobu

    1964-01-01

    Membrane permeability of an epithelial cell junction (Drosophila salivary gland) was examined with intracellular microelectrodes and with fluorescent tracers. In contrast to the non-junctional cell membrane surface, which has a low permeability to ions (10-4 mho/cm2), the junctional membrane surface is highly permeable. In fact, it introduces no substantial restriction to ion flow beyond that in the cytoplasm; the resistance through a chain of cells (150 ? cm) is only slightly greater than in extruded cytoplasm (100 ? cm). The diffusion resistance along the intercellular space to the exterior, on the other hand, is very high. Here, there exists an ion barrier of, at least, 104? cm2. As a result, small ions and fluorescein move rather freely from one cell to the next, but do not leak appreciably through the intercellular space to the exterior. The organ here, rather than the single cell, appears to be the unit of ion environment. The possible underlying structural aspects are discussed. PMID:14206423

  12. Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Promote Lung Epithelial Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Jason R.; Garibaldi, Brian T.; Aggarwal, Neil R.; Jenkins, John; Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Singer, Benjamin D.; Chau, Eric; Rabold, Richard; Files, Daniel C.; Sidhaye, Venkataramana; Mitzner, Wayne; Wagner, Elizabeth M.; King, Landon S.; D’Alessio, Franco R.

    2014-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) causes significant morbidity and mortality each year. There is a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms necessary for ARDS resolution. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be an important determinant of resolution in an experimental model of lung injury. We demonstrate that intratracheal delivery of endotoxin (LPS) elicits alveolar epithelial damage from which the epithelium undergoes proliferation and repair. Epithelial proliferation coincided with an increase in Foxp3+ Treg cells in the lung during the course of resolution. To dissect the role that Foxp3+ Treg cells exert on epithelial proliferation, we depleted Foxp3+ Treg cells which led to decreased alveolar epithelial proliferation and delayed lung injury recovery. Furthermore, antibody-mediated blockade of CD103, an integrin, which binds to epithelial expressed E-cadherin decreased Foxp3+ Treg numbers and decreased rates of epithelial proliferation after injury. In a non-inflammatory model of regenerative alveologenesis, left lung pneumonectomy (PNX), we found that Foxp3+ Treg cells enhanced epithelial proliferation. Moreover, Foxp3+ Treg cells co-cultured with primary type II alveolar cells (AT2) directly increased AT2 cell proliferation in a CD103-dependent manner. These studies provide evidence of a new and integral role for Foxp3+ Treg cells in repair of the lung epithelium. PMID:24850425

  13. [Recurrent cystitis and vaginitis: role of biofilms and persister cells. From pathophysiology to new therapeutic strategies].

    PubMed

    Graziottin, A; Zanello, P P; D'Errico, G

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent vaginitis and cystitis are a daily challenge for the woman and the physician. The recurrence worsens the symptoms' severity, increases comorbidities, both pelvic (provoked vestibulodynia, bladder pain syndrome, levator ani hyperactivity, introital dyspareunia, obstructive constipation, chronic pelvic pain) and cerebral (neuroinflammation and depression), increases health costs, worsens the quality of life. Antibiotics increase the risk of bacterial resistences and devastate the ecosystems: intestinal, vaginal and mucocutaneous. Pathogenic biofilms are the (still) neglected etiology of recurrences. Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria and yeasts, protected by a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to a living or inert structures, such as medical devices. Biofims can be intra or extracellular. Pathogens live in a resting state in the deep biofilm layers as "persister cells", resistant to antibiotics and host defences and ready to re-attack the host. The paper updates the evidence on biofilms and introduces new non-antibiotic strategies of preventing and modulating recurrent vaginitis and cystitis. PMID:25245998

  14. Serial culturing of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra M. de Jong; Marianne A. J. A. van Sterkenburg; Johanna A. Kempenaar; Joop H. Dijkman; Maria Ponec

    1993-01-01

    Summary  In the present study we describe the establishment of serial cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells derived from biopsies\\u000a obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy. The cell cultures were initiated from small amounts of material (2 mm forceps biopsies)\\u000a using either explants or epithelial cell suspensions in combination with a feeder-layer technique. The rate of cell proliferation\\u000a and the number of passages

  15. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  16. Quantitative Assessment of Cytosolic Salmonella in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knodler, Leigh A.; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol. PMID:24400108

  17. Clinical implications of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Luis A; Blanco, Moisés; Castosa, Raquel; Concha, Ángel; Valladares, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Figueroa, Angélica

    2015-09-28

    In the last few years, the role of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer biology research has gained increasing attention. This concept refers to the ability of the epithelial cells to dynamically switch between different phenotypic cellular states. This programme is particularly relevant during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression. During colonization, epithelial cells first activate the EMT programme to disseminate from a primary tumour to reach a distant tissue site. During this process, cells are transported into the circulation and are able to escape the immune system of the host. Then, a reverse process called mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occurs on cells that settle in the distant organs. Although epithelial cell plasticity has an important impact on tumour biology, the clinical relevance of this concept remains to be recapitulated. In this review, we will update the current state of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression and its clinical implications for the design of therapeutic strategies, the acquisition of multidrug resistance, and future perspectives for the management of cancer patients. PMID:26099173

  18. Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells and mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Naglik, Julian R.; Moyes, David L; Wächtler, Betty; Hube, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells are critical for commensal growth, fungal pathogenicity and host defence. This review will outline our current understanding of C. albicans-epithelial interactions and will discuss how this may lead to the induction of a protective mucosal immune response. PMID:21801848

  19. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  20. Differentiated cultures of primary hamster tracheal airway epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina K. Rowe; Steven L. Brody; Andrew Pekosz

    2004-01-01

    Summary  Primary airway epithelial cell cultures can provide a faithful representation of the in vivo airway while allowing for a controlled\\u000a nutrient source and isolation from other tissues or immune cells. The methods used have significant differences based on tissue\\u000a source, cell isolation, culture conditions, and assessment of culture purity. We modified and optimized a method for generating\\u000a tracheal epithelial cultures

  1. Serum-free culture of fractionated bovine bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe D. Beckmann; Hajime Takizawa; Debra Romberger; Mary Illig; Lorene Claassen; Kathleen Rickard; Stephen I. Rennard

    1992-01-01

    Summary  Procedures for the serum-free culture of a density fractionated population of bovine bronchial epithelial cells have been\\u000a established. Epithelial cells dispersed by protease digestion were fractionated by density equilibrium centrifugation, followed\\u000a by plating of the small basal-like population on type I collagen-coated culture dishes. Two or three passages of 1:4 split\\u000a enriched for a population of actively dividing cells, which

  2. Andrographolide suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by inhibition of MAPK signalling pathway in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kayastha, Forum; Johar, Kaid; Gajjar, Devarshi; Arora, Anshul; Madhu, Hardik; Ganatra, Darshini; Vasavada, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) may contribute to the development of posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which leads to visual impairment. Andrographolide has been shown to have therapeutic potential against various cancers. However, its effect on human LECs is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on EMT induced by growth factors in the fetal human lens epithelial cell line (FHL 124). Initially the LECs were treated with growth factors (TGF-beta 2 and bFGF) to induce EMT. Subsequently these EMT-induced cells were treated with andrographolide at 100 and 500 nM concentrations for 24 h. Our results showed that FHL 124 cells treated with growth factors had a significant decrease in protein and m-RNA levels of epithelial markers pax6 and E-Cadherin. After administering andrographolide, these levels significantly increased. It was noticed that EMT markers alpha-SMA, fibronectin and collagen IV significantly decreased after treatment with andrographolide when compared to the other group. Treatment with andrographolide significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Cell cycle analysis showed that andrographolide did not arrest cells at G0/G1 or G2/M at tested concentrations. Our findings suggest that andrographolide helps sustain epithelial characteristics by modulating EMT markers and inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in LECs. Hence it can prove to be useful in curbing EMT-mediated PCO. PMID:25963259

  3. Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

  4. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  5. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  6. Puromycin aminonucleoside suppresses integrin expression in cultured glomerular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurti, U; Zhou, B; Fan, W W; Tsilibary, E; Wayner, E; Kim, Y; Kashtan, C E; Michael, A

    2001-04-01

    Puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis is a well-described model of human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome, but the mechanism of PAN's effect is not completely understood. Because PAN injection into rats results in retraction of glomerular epithelial cell foot processes and glomerular epithelial cell detachment, it was hypothesized that PAN might alter the contacts between these cells and the glomerular basement membrane. The major integrin expressed by glomerular epithelial cells is alpha3beta1, which mediates attachment of these cells to extracellular matrix proteins including type IV collagen. T-SV 40 immortalized human glomerular epithelial cells were used to study PAN's effects on alpha3beta1 expression, as well as that of podocalyxin and the slit diaphragm component ZO-1. Glomerular epithelial cells were seeded into plastic flasks and allowed to attach and proliferate for 48 h. The cells were then incubated for another 48 h in media containing 0, 0.5, or 5.0 microg/ml PAN. PAN exposure resulted in dose-dependent decreases in alpha3 and beta1 expression, both at the protein level and at the mRNA level. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the adhesion of glomerular epithelial cells to type IV collagen. PAN did not affect ZO-1 protein expression. Treatment with PAN increased the expression of podocalyxin at the protein and mRNA levels. Reduced glomerular epithelial cell expression of alpha3beta1 integrins and impaired adhesion to type IV collagen may contribute to the glomerular epithelial cell detachment from glomerular basement membrane seen in the PAN nephrosis model. PMID:11274237

  7. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Koyama; S. I. Rennard; G. D. Leikauf; R. A. Robbins

    1991-01-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers

  8. Generation of a complete thymic microenvironment by MTS24+ thymic epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Malin; Georg A. Holländer; Richard Boyd; Jason Gill

    2002-01-01

    The epithelial component of the thymic microenvironment is indispensable for the generation of T lymphocytes. Although the heterogeneity of this epithelium is well documented, little is known about precursor-progeny relationships between distinct thymic epithelial lineages. Here we characterized a thymic epithelial cell subpopulation identified by the cell surface glycoprotein MTS24. These cells contained epithelial progenitor cells that were competent and

  9. The Contribution of the Airway Epithelial Cell to Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    In the context of cystic fibrosis, the epithelial cell has been characterized in terms of its ion transport capabilities. The ability of an epithelial cell to initiate CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport has been recognized early as a means to regulate the thickness of the epithelial lining fluid and recently as a means to regulate the pH, thereby determining critically whether or not host defense proteins such as mucins are able to fold appropriately. This review describes how the epithelial cell senses the presence of pathogens and inflammatory conditions, which, in turn, facilitates the activation of CFTR and thus directly promotes pathogens clearance and innate immune defense on the surface of the epithelial cell. This paper summarizes functional data that describes the effect of cytokines, chemokines, infectious agents, and inflammatory conditions on the ion transport properties of the epithelial cell and relates these key properties to the molecular pathology of cystic fibrosis. Recent findings on the role of cystic fibrosis modifier genes that underscore the role of the epithelial ion transport in host defense and inflammation are discussed. PMID:26185361

  10. Epithelial cell kinase-B61: an autocrine loop modulating intestinal epithelial migration and barrier function.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, I M; Göke, M; Kanai, M; Reinecker, H C; Podolsky, D K

    1997-10-01

    Epithelial cell kinase (Eck) is a member of a large family of receptor tyrosine kinases whose functions remain largely unknown. Expression and regulation of Eck and its cognate ligand B61 were analyzed in the human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated coexpression of Eck and B61 in the same cells, suggestive of an autocrine loop. Eck levels were maximal in preconfluent cells. In contrast, B61 levels were barely detectable in preconfluent cells and increased progressively after the cells reached confluence. Caco-2 cells cultured in the presence of added B61 showed a significant reduction in the levels of dipeptidyl peptidase and sucrase-isomaltase mRNA, markers of Caco-2 cell differentiation. Cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), basic fibroblast growth factor, IL-2, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta modulated steady-state levels of Eck and B61 mRNA and regulated Eck activation as assessed by tyrosine phosphorylation. Functionally, stimulation of Eck by B61 resulted in increased proliferation, enhanced barrier function, and enhanced restitution of injured epithelial monolayers. These results suggest that the Eck-B61 interaction, a target of regulatory peptides, plays a role in intestinal epithelial cell development, migration, and barrier function, contributing to homeostasis and preservation of continuity of the epithelial barrier. PMID:9357823

  11. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  12. Gene expression in TGFbeta-induced epithelial cell differentiation in a three-dimensional intestinal epithelial cell differentiation model

    PubMed Central

    Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati M; Kaukinen, Katri; Mäki, Markku; Tuimala, Jarno; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2006-01-01

    Background The TGF?1-induced signal transduction processes involved in growth and differentiation are only partly known. The three-dimensional epithelial differentiation model, in which T84 epithelial cells are induced to differentiate either with TGF?1 or IMR-90 mesenchymal cell-secreted soluble factors, is previously shown to model epithelial cell differentiation seen in intestine. That model has not been used for large scale gene expression studies, such as microarray method. Therefore the gene expression changes were studied in undifferentiated and differentiated three-dimensional T84 cultures with cDNA microarray method in order to study the molecular changes and find new players in epithelial cell differentiation. Results The expression of 372 genes out of 5188 arrayed sequences was significantly altered, and 47 of them were altered by both mediators. The data were validated and the altered genes are presented in ontology classes. For the genes tested the expressions in protein level were in accordance with the mRNA results. We also found 194 genes with no known function to be potentially important in epithelial cell differentiation. The mRNA expression changes induced by TGF?1 were bigger than changes induced by soluble factors secreted by IMR-90 mesenchymal cells. The gene expression data was depicted in already known signaling pathway routes. Conclusion Our results reveal potential new signaling pathways and several new genes affected by TGF? in epithelial cell differentiation. The differentiation induced by TGF?1 appears to be more potent than the differentiation induced by mesenchymal cells. This study indicates that our cell culture model is a suitable tool in studying regulatory mechanisms during epithelial cell differentiation in intestine. Furthermore the present results indicate that our model is a good tool for finding new players acting in the differentiation of epithelial cells. PMID:17074098

  13. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)] [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland)] [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)] [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  14. Fluid transport by cultured corneal epithelial cell layers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Yang; P S Reinach; J P Koniarek; Z Wang; P Iserovich; J Fischbarg

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\/AIMSFluid transport across the in vitro corneal epithelium is short lived, hence difficult to detect and characterise. Since stable rates of fluid transport across several cultured epithelial cell layers have been demonstrated, the behaviour of confluent SV40 transformed rabbit corneal epithelial cells (tRCEC) grown on permeable supports was examined.METHODSFluid transport was determined with a nanoinjector volume clamp; the specific electrical

  15. Characterization of epithelial cell shedding from human small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim F Bullen; Sharon Forrest; Fiona Campbell; Andrew R Dodson; Michael J Hershman; D Mark Pritchard; Jerrold R Turner; Marshall H Montrose; Alastair J M Watson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells migrate from the base of the crypt to the villi where they are shed. However, little is known about the cell shedding process. We have studied the role of apoptosis and wound healing mechanisms in cell shedding from human small intestinal epithelium. A method preparing paraffin sections of human small intestine that preserves cell shedding was developed.

  16. ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

  17. Developmental kinetics, turnover, and stimulatory capacity of thymic epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel H. D. Gray; Natalie Seach; Tomoo Ueno; Morag K. Milton; Adrian Liston; Andrew M. Lew; Christopher C. Goodnow; Richard L. Boyd

    2006-01-01

    Despite the importance of thymic stromal cells to T-cell development, relatively little is known about their biology. Here, we use single-cell analysis of stromal cells to analyze extensive changes in the number and composition of thymic stroma throughout life, revealing a surprisingly dynamic population. Phenotypic progres- sion of thymic epithelial subsets was assessed at high resolution in young mice to

  18. TSLP in epithelial cell and dendritic cell cross talk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have the ability to sense infection and tissue stress, sample and present antigen to T lymphocytes, and instruct the initiation of different forms of immunity and tolerance. The functional versatility of DCs depends on their remarkable ability to translate collectively the information from the invading microbes, as well as their resident tissue microenvironments. Recent progress in understanding Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology has illuminated the mechanisms by which DCs link innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses. However, how tissue microenvironments shape the function of DCs has remained elusive. Recent studies of TSLP (thymic stromal lymphopoietin), an epithelial cell-derived cytokine that strongly activates DCs, provide strong evidence at a molecular level that epithelial cells/tissue microenvironments directly communicate with DCs, the professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. We review recent progress on how TSLP expressed within thymus and peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues regulates DC-mediated central tolerance, peripheral T cell homeostasis, and inflammatory Th2 responses. PMID:19231591

  19. Stochastic Terminal Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Grosshans, Joerg; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We found that the constriction of epithelial cell contacts during intercalation in germ band extension in Drosophila embryos follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. The mean contact length < L > follows < L > (t) ~(T - t) ? , where T is the finite collapse time; the time dependent variance of contact length is proportional to the square of the mean; finally the time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations suggest that the dynamics of contact collapse can be captured by a stochastic differential equation analytically tractable in small noise approximation. Here, we present such a model, providing an effective description of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. All model parameters are fixed by measurements of time dependent mean and variance of contact lengths. The model predicts the contact length covariance function that we obtain in closed form. The contact length covariance function closely matches experimental observations suggesting that the model well captures the dynamics of contact collapse.

  20. The Epithelial Cell in Lung Health and Emphysema Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Becky A.; Lemaître, Vincent; Powell, Charles A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of the irreversible lung disease emphysema. Historically, inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils have been studied for their role in emphysema pathology. However, recent studies indicate that the lung epithelium is an active participant in emphysema pathogenesis and plays a critical role in the lung’s response to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke increases protease production and alters cytokine expression in isolated epithelial cells, suggesting that these cells respond potently even in the absence of a complete inflammatory program. Tobacco smoke also acts as an immunosuppressant, reducing the defense function of airway epithelial cells and enhancing colonization of the lower airways. Thus, the paradigm that emphysema is strictly an inflammatory-cell based disease is shifting to consider the involvement of resident epithelial cells. Here we review the role of epithelial cells in lung development and emphysema. To better understand tobacco-epithelial interactions we performed microarray analyses of RNA from human airway epithelial cells exposed to smoke extract for 24 hours. These studies identified differential regulation of 425 genes involved in diverse biological processes, such as apoptosis, immune function, cell cycle, signal transduction, proliferation, and antioxidants. Some of these genes, including VEGF, glutathione peroxidase, IL-13 receptor, and cytochrome P450, have been previously reported to be altered in the lungs of smokers. Others, such as pirin, cathepsin L, STAT1, and BMP2, are shown here for the first time to have a potential role in smoke-associated injury. These data broaden our understanding of the importance of epithelial cells in lung health and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. PMID:19662102

  1. Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Rimoldi; Marcello Chieppa; Valentina Salucci; Francesca Avogadri; Angelica Sonzogni; Gianluca M Sampietro; Angelo Nespoli; Giuseppe Viale; Paola Allavena; Maria Rescigno

    2005-01-01

    The control of damaging inflammation by the mucosal immune system in response to commensal and harmful ingested bacteria is unknown. Here we show epithelial cells conditioned mucosal dendritic cells through the constitutive release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and other mediators, resulting in the induction of 'noninflammatory' dendritic cells. Epithelial cell–conditioned dendritic cells released interleukins 10 and 6 but not interleukin

  2. Bronchial epithelial cells release IL6, CXCL1 and CXCL8 upon mast cell interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Cao; GuoSheng Ren; Yi Gong; ShanShan Dong; YiBing Yin; LiPing Zhang

    Although mast cells have been found in increased numbers in bronchial epithelium in asthma patients, the pathogenic role of the interaction of mast cells with bronchial epithelial cells in the development of local inflammation in asthma is not well understood.In this study, primary human bronchial epithelial cells and a human mast cell line (HMC-1) were cultured either together or separately

  3. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China) [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)] [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)] [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  4. ?-Adrenoceptor-mediated effects in rat cultured thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Bodo; Feindt, Janka; von Gaudecker, Brita; Kranz, Andrea; Loppnow, Harald; Mentlein, Rolf

    1997-01-01

    Sympathetic nerves were visualized in sections from rat thymus by immunostaining of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthesis, and by glyoxylic acid-induced fluorescence of catecholamines. Catecholaminergic nerve fibres were detected in close connection to thymic epithelial cells which therefore might be preferred target cells. To evaluate this, rat immunocytochemically defined, cultured thymic epithelial cells were investigated for adrenoceptors and adrenergic effects.In rat cultured thymic epithelial cells mRNA for ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction by use of sequence-specific primers. Specific, saturable binding to the cultivated cells was observed with the ?-adrenoceptor agonist CGP 12177.Adrenaline, noradrenaline or the ?-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline, increased intracellular adenosine 3??:?5?-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in cultivated thymic epithelial cells dose-dependently about 25 fold. The pharmacological properties revealed that this response was mediated by receptors of the ?1- and the ?2-subtypes. The selective ?3-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 had no effect on cyclic AMP levels. The increase in cyclic AMP was downregulated by preincubation with glucocorticoids like dexamethasone or cortisol which also changed the relative importance of ?1-/?2-adrenoceptors to the response.Incubation with isoprenaline or the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin decreased basal and serum-stimulated proliferation of thymic epithelial cells. However, adrenergic stimulation of thymic epithelial cells did not induce interleukin 1 production. Since thymic epithelial cells create a microenvironment which influences the maturation and differentiation of thymocytes to T-lymphocytes, their observed capacity to respond to catecholamines provides novel evidence for the suggestion that adrenergic stimulation may interfere with the regulation of immune functions. PMID:9113358

  5. Culture and characterisation of epithelial cells from human pterygia

    PubMed Central

    Di, G; Tedla, N.; Kumar, R.; McCluskey, P.; Lloyd, A.; Coroneo, M.; Wakefield, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Pterygia are a common disorder of the ocular surface. The disease represents a chronic fibrovascular and degenerative process thought to originate at the conjunctival-corneal junction, where altered limbal stem cells are proposed to be the cell of origin. Extensive epidemiological evidence exists to implicate ultraviolet B irradiation in the pathogenesis of pterygia. To date no animal or in vitro culture model has been developed to test such an hypothesis. The aim of this study was to establish and characterise a pure population of epithelial cells derived from pterygium tissue.?METHODS—Tissue specimens were obtained from patients undergoing pterygium excision. Explants were cultured in either serum free or serum supplemented medium. Primary and passaged cells were processed for light microscopy, analysed by flow cytometry, and characterised immunohistochemically using specific antibodies.?RESULTS—In serum free culture, cuboidal cells with typical morphology of epithelial cells migrated from the pterygium explants from 3 days onwards and eventually formed a cohesive monolayer. Passaged cells consisted of 98.4% cytokeratin positive cells and demonstrated immunoreactivity for multiple cytokeratins, including AE1, AE3, AE5, but were negative for AE8. These cells also expressed an epithelial specific antigen, together with vimentin and mucin, as did epithelial cells in sections of pterygia.?CONCLUSIONS—A relatively simple method of isolating pterygium epithelial cells has been established. Cultured pterygium epithelial cells are phenotypically and functionally similar to their in vivo counterparts with respect to keratin, vimentin, and mucin expression. In vitro assays using these cells may aid in elucidating the pathogenesis of pterygia.?? PMID:10460780

  6. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  7. Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients†

    PubMed Central

    Scherber, Cally; Aranyosi, Alexander J.; Kulemann, Birte; Thayer, Sarah P.; Toner, Mehmet; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epithelial cells often migrate away from the primary tumor to invade into the surrounding tissues. Their migration is commonly assumed to be directed by pre-existent spatial gradients of chemokines and growth factors in the target tissues. Unexpectedly however, we found that the guided migration of epithelial cells is possible in vitro in the absence of pre-existent chemical gradients. We observed that both normal and cancer epithelial cells can migrate persistently and reach the exit along the shortest path from microscopic mazes filled with uniform concentrations of media. Using microscale engineering techniques and biophysical models, we uncovered a self-guidance strategy during which epithelial cells generate their own guiding cues under conditions of biochemical confinement. The self-guidance strategy depends on the balance between three interdependent processes: epidermal growth factor (EGF) uptake by the cells (U), the restricted transport of EGF through the structured microenvironment (T), and cell chemotaxis toward the resultant EGF gradients (C). The UTC self-guidance strategy can be perturbed by inhibition of signalling through EGF-receptors and appears to be independent from chemokine signalling. Better understanding of the UTC self-guidance strategy could eventually help devise new ways for modulating epithelial cell migration and delaying cancer cell invasion or accelerating wound healing. PMID:22314635

  8. Modulation of cell surface-associated mannoprotein antigen expression in experimental candidal vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    De Bernardis, F; Molinari, A; Boccanera, M; Stringaro, A; Robert, R; Senet, J M; Arancia, G; Cassone, A

    1994-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb) AF1 recognizes an oligosaccharide epitope present on highly immunogenic and immunomodulatory mannoproteins (MP) of Candida albicans. The expression of this epitope (AF1-MP) during experimental candidal vaginitis was studied in two strains of C. albicans (3153 and CA-2) which were equally vaginopathic but differed in the mode of hypha formation in the vagina. In both strains, immunofluorescence of vaginal samples, taken 1 h after challenge, revealed an intense, MAb AF1-specific labelling of the yeast cells. This labelling was very scarce in fungal cells taken at 24 h and on subsequent days during the development of filamentous forms. Electron-microscopic gold immunolabelling observations showed that molecules carrying AF1-MP spanned the entire cell wall in the initial yeast cells but were absent on the cell surface and in the outermost, capsular layer of the cell wall of the germ tubes and filamentous forms. In both strains, at any time and for any form of intravaginal growth, AF1-MP was clearly expressed in the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic vesicles, and was fully incorporated into the inner layers of the cell wall. As seen by immunofluorescence, the vaginal fluid from C. albicans-infected rats did not hinder the expression of AF1-MP on the yeast cells surface in vitro. In electron-microscopic gold immunolabelling, a hypha-specific MAb (3D9) labelled the surface of the hyphal but not of the yeast cells of C. albicans harvested from rat vagina. Overall, these data strongly suggest that cell surface expression of MP antigen is modulated during intravaginal growth and morphogenesis of C. albicans. Images PMID:7507895

  9. Gastrin stimulates MMP-1 expression in gastric epithelial cells: putative role in gastric epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Dinesh; Steele, Islay; Moore, Andrew R; Murugesan, Senthil V; Rakonczay, Zoltan; Venglovecz, Viktoria; Pritchard, D Mark; Dimaline, Rodney; Tiszlavicz, Laszlo; Varro, Andrea; Dockray, Graham J

    2015-07-15

    The pyloric antral hormone gastrin plays a role in remodeling of the gastric epithelium, but the specific targets of gastrin that mediate these effects are poorly understood. Glandular epithelial cells of the gastric corpus express matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, which is a potential determinant of tissue remodeling; some of these cells express the CCK-2 receptor at which gastrin acts. We have now examined the hypothesis that gastrin stimulates expression of MMP-1 in the stomach. We determined MMP-1 transcript abundance in gastric mucosal biopsies from Helicobacter pylori negative human subjects with normal gastric mucosal histology, who had a range of serum gastrin concentrations due in part to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPI). The effects of gastrin were studied on gastric epithelial AGS-GR cells using Western blot and migration assays. In human subjects with increased serum gastrin due to PPI usage, MMP-1 transcript abundance was increased 2-fold; there was also increased MMP-7 transcript abundance but not MMP-3. In Western blots, gastrin increased proMMP-1 abundance, as well that of a minor band corresponding to active MMP-1, in the media of AGS-GR cells, and the response was mediated by protein kinase C and p42/44 MAP kinase. There was also increased MMP-1 enzyme activity. Gastrin-stimulated AGS-GR cell migration in both scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays was inhibited by MMP-1 immunoneutralization. We conclude that MMP-1 expression is a target of gastrin implicated in mucosal remodeling. PMID:25977510

  10. Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, DM; Cheng, D; Schafenacker, AM; Paik, DY; Goldstein, AS; Witte, ON; Jaroszewicz, A; Pellegrini, M; Memarzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM+CD44+ITGA6hiThy1?PECAM1?PTPRC?Ter119?, comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multi-lineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Co-administration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

  11. Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Deanna M; Cheng, Donghui; Schafenacker, Amanda M; Paik, Daniel Y; Goldstein, Andrew S; Witte, Owen N; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Pellegrini, Matteo; Memarzadeh, Sanaz

    2013-04-01

    Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here, we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM(+) CD44(+) ITGA6(hi) Thy1(-) PECAM1(-) PTPRC(-) Ter119(-), comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multilineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Coadministration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore, their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

  12. Niche regulation of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Yasutaka Hayashida; Ying-Ting Chen; Scheffer CG Tseng

    2007-01-01

    Among all adult somatic stem cells, those of the corneal epithelium are unique in their exclusive location in a defined limbal structure termed Palisades of Vogt. As a result, surgical engraftment of limbal epithelial stem cells with or without ex vivo expansion has long been practiced to restore sights in patients inflicted with limbal stem cell deficiency. Nevertheless, compared to

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS CULTURED IN SEMIPERMEABLE HOLLOW FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Grek, Christina L.; Newton, Danforth A.; Qiu, Yonhzhi; Wen, Xuejun; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.; Baatz, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell culture methods commonly used to represent alveolar epithelial cells in vivo have lacked airflow, a 3-dimensional air-liquid interface, and dynamic stretching characteristics of native lung tissue—physiological parameters critical for normal phenotypic gene expression and cellular function. Here the authors report the development of a selectively semipermeable hollow fiber culture system that more accurately mimics the in vivo microenvironment experienced by mammalian distal airway cells than in conventional or standard air-liquid interface culture. Murine lung epithelial cells (MLE-15) were cultured within semipermeable polyurethane hollow fibers and introduced to controlled airflow through the microfiber interior. Under these conditions, MLE-15 cells formed confluent monolayers, demonstrated a cuboidal morphology, formed tight junctions, and produced and secreted surfactant proteins. Numerous lamellar bodies and microvilli were present in MLE-15 cells grown in hollow fiber culture. Conversely, these alveolar type II cell characteristics were reduced in MLE-15 cells cultured in conventional 2D static culture systems. These data support the hypothesis that MLE-15 cells grown within our microfiber culture system in the presence of airflow maintain the phenotypic characteristics of type II cells to a higher degree than those grown in standard in vitro cell culture models. Application of our novel model system may prove advantageous for future studies of specific gene and protein expression involving alveolar epithelial or bronchiolar epithelial cells. PMID:19263283

  14. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  15. Trans-sialidase stimulates eat me response from epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Butler, Claire E; de Carvalho, Tecia M U; Grisard, Edmundo C; Field, Robert A; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-07-01

    Epithelial cell invasion by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is enhanced by the presence of an enzyme expressed on its cell surface during the trypomastigote life cycle stage. The enzyme, trans-sialidase (TS), is a member of one of the largest gene families expressed by the parasite and the role of its activity in mediating epithelial cell entry has not hitherto been understood. Here we show that the T. cruzi TS generates an eat me signal which is capable of enabling epithelial cell entry. We have utilized purified, recombinant, active (TcTS) and inactive (TcTS2V0) TS coated onto beads to challenge an epithelial cell line. We find that TS activity acts upon G protein coupled receptors present at the epithelial cell synapse with the coated bead, thereby enhancing cell entry. By so doing, we provide evidence that TS proteins bind glycans, mediate the formation of distinct synaptic domains and promote macropinocytotic uptake of microparticles into a perinuclear compartment in a manner which may emulate entosis. PMID:23601193

  16. Trans-sialidase Stimulates Eat Me Response from Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E; de Carvalho, Tecia M U; Grisard, Edmundo C; Field, Robert A; Tyler, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell invasion by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is enhanced by the presence of an enzyme expressed on its cell surface during the trypomastigote life cycle stage. The enzyme, trans-sialidase (TS), is a member of one of the largest gene families expressed by the parasite and the role of its activity in mediating epithelial cell entry has not hitherto been understood. Here we show that the T. cruzi TS generates an eat me signal which is capable of enabling epithelial cell entry. We have utilized purified, recombinant, active (TcTS) and inactive (TcTS2V0) TS coated onto beads to challenge an epithelial cell line. We find that TS activity acts upon G protein coupled receptors present at the epithelial cell synapse with the coated bead, thereby enhancing cell entry. By so doing, we provide evidence that TS proteins bind glycans, mediate the formation of distinct synaptic domains and promote macropinocytotic uptake of microparticles into a perinuclear compartment in a manner which may emulate entosis. PMID:23601193

  17. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Christopher M.; Roan, Esra; Navajas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the lung are located at the interface between the environment and the organism and serve many important functions including barrier protection, fluid balance, clearance of particulate, initiation of immune responses, mucus and surfactant production, and repair following injury. Because of the complex structure of the lung and its cyclic deformation during the respiratory cycle, epithelial cells are exposed to continuously varying levels of mechanical stresses. While normal lung function is maintained under these conditions, changes in mechanical stresses can have profound effects on the function of epithelial cells and therefore the function of the organ. In this review, we will describe the types of stresses and strains in the lungs, how these are transmitted, and how these may vary in human disease or animal models. Many approaches have been developed to better understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical stresses, and we will discuss these approaches and how they have been used to study lung epithelial cells in culture. Understanding how cells sense and respond to changes in mechanical stresses will contribute to our understanding of the role of lung epithelial cells during normal function and development and how their function may change in diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. PMID:23728969

  18. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... the problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. The main symptom is smelly vaginal discharge, but ...

  19. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    PubMed Central

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

  20. Cell-adhesion molecule uvomorulin is localized in the intermediate junctions of adult intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Boller; D. VESTWEBER; R. KEMLER

    1985-01-01

    Uvomorulin is a cell-adhesion molecule implicated in the compaction process of mouse preimplantation embryos and the aggregation of embryonal carcinoma cells. A rabbit antiserum against purified uvomorulin also reacts with epithelial cells of various adult tissues. In this study, we investigated the localization of uvomorulin on adult intestinal epithelial cells using electron micro- scopic analyses. Uvomorulin was shown to exhibit

  1. Epithelial–mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit fibrillin microfibrils

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Andrew K.; Cain, Stuart A.; Lennon, Rachel; Godwin, Alan; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Kielty, Cay M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we show that epithelial–mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit extracellular matrix. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells that expressed high levels of E-cadherin and had cell–cell junctions rich in zona occludens (ZO)-1, ?-catenin and heparan sulfate, required syndecan-4 but not fibronectin or protein kinase C ? (PKC?) to assemble extracellular matrix (fibrillin microfibrils and perlecan). In contrast, RPE cells that strongly expressed mesenchymal smooth muscle ?-actin but little ZO-1 or E-cadherin, required fibronectin (like fibroblasts) and PKC?, but not syndecan-4. Integrins ?5?1 and/or ?8?1 and actomyosin tension were common requirements for microfibril deposition, as was heparan sulfate biosynthesis. TGF?, which stimulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition, altered gene expression and overcame the dependency on syndecan-4 for microfibril deposition in epithelial RPE cells, whereas blocking cadherin interactions disrupted microfibril deposition. Renal podocytes had a transitional phenotype with pericellular ?-catenin but little ZO-1; they required syndecan-4 and fibronectin for efficient microfibril deposition. Thus, epithelial–mesenchymal status modulates microfibril deposition. PMID:24190885

  2. Increased epithelial stem cell traits in advanced endometrial endometrioid carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shing-Jyh Chang; Tao-Yeuan Wang; Chan-Yen Tsai; Tzu-Fang Hu; Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang; Hsei-Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been recognized cancer cells acquire characters reminiscent of those of normal stem cells, and the degree of stem cell gene expression correlates with patient prognosis. Lgr5(+) or CD133(+) epithelial stem cells (EpiSCs) have recently been identified and these cells are susceptible to neoplastic transformation. It is unclear, however, whether genes enriched in EpiSCs also contribute in tumor

  3. Stem Cell Reports Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    Stem Cell Reports Resource Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells Establishes Intestinal Stem Cell Hierarchy Ning Li,1 Maryam Yousefi,1,5 Angela Nakauka-Ddamba,1 Rajan Jain,2 development of targeted murine reporter alleles as proxies for intestinal stem cell activity has led

  4. ESX induces transformation and functional epithelial to mesenchymal transition in MCF-12A mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Schedin, Pepper J; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; McDaniel, Shauntae M; Prescott, Jason D; Brodsky, Kelley S; Tentler, John J; Gutierrez-Hartmann, Arthur

    2004-03-01

    ESX is an epithelial-restricted member of a large family of transcription factors known as the Ets family. ESX expression has been shown to be correlated with Her2/neu proto-oncogene amplification in highly aggressive breast cancers and induced by Her2/neu in breast cell lines, but its role in tumorigenesis is unknown. Previously, we have shown that ESX enhances breast cell survival in colony-formation assays. In order to determine whether ESX can act as a transforming gene, we stably transfected MCF-12A human mammary epithelial cells with the ESX expression vector, pCGN2-HA-ESX. The MCF-12A cell line is immortalized, but nontransformed, and importantly, these cells fail to express endogenous ESX protein. We used pCGN2-HA-Ets-2 and pSVRas expression vectors as positive controls for transformation. Like HA-Ets-2 and V12-Ras, stable expression of ESX induced EGF-independent proliferation, serum-independent MAPK phosphorylation and growth in soft agar. Additionally, stable ESX expression conferred increased cell adhesion, motility and invasion in two-dimensional and transwell filter assays, and an epithelial to mesenchymal morphological transition. In three-dimensional cultures, parental and vector control (pCGN2) cells formed highly organized duct-like structures with evidence of cell polarity, ECM adhesion-dependent proliferation and cell survival, and lack of cellular invasion into surrounding matrix. Remarkably, the ESX stable cells formed solid, disorganized structures, with lack of cell polarity, loss of adhesion junctions and cytokeratin staining and loss of dependence on ECM adhesion for cell proliferation and survival. In addition, ESX cells invaded the surrounding matrix, indicative of a transformed and metastatic phenotype. Taken together, these data show that ESX expression alone confers a transformed and in vitro metastatic phenotype to otherwise normal MCF-12A cells. PMID:14767472

  5. Epithelial cell apoptosis facilitates Entamoeba histolytica infection in the gut.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen M; Cho, Kyou-Nam; Guo, Xiaoti; Fendig, Kirsten; Oosman, Mohammed N; Whitehead, Robert; Cohn, Steven M; Houpt, Eric R

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes amebic colitis. The parasite triggers apoptosis on contact with host cells; however, the biological significance of this event during intestinal infection is unclear. We examined the role of apoptosis in a mouse model of intestinal amebiasis. Histopathology revealed that abundant epithelial cell apoptosis occurred in the vicinity of amoeba in histological specimens. Epithelial cell apoptosis occurred rapidly on co-culture with amoeba in vitro as measured by annexin positivity, DNA degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of the pan caspase inhibitor ZVAD decreased the rate and severity of amebic infection in CBA mice by all measures (cecal culture positivity, parasite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and histological scores). Similarly, caspase 3 knockout mice on the resistant C57BL/6 background exhibited even lower cecal parasite antigen burden and culture positive rates than wild type mice. The permissive effect of apoptosis on infection could be tracked to the epithelium, in that transgenic mice that overexpressed Bcl-2 in epithelial cells were more resistant to infection as measured by cecal parasite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and histological scores. We concluded that epithelial cell apoptosis in the intestine facilitates amebic infection in this mouse model. The parasite's strategy for inducing apoptosis may point to key virulence factors, and therapeutic maneuvers to diminish epithelial apoptosis may be useful in amebic colitis. PMID:20093500

  6. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixuan; Koike, Chika; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Fathy, Moustafa; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Saito, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEs) have a low immunogenic profile and possess potent immunosuppressive properties. HAEs also have several characteristics similar to stem cells, and they are discarded after parturition. Thus, they could potentially be used in cell therapy with fewer ethical problems. HAEs have a short life, so our aim is to establish and characterize immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells (iHAEs). HAEs were introduced with viral oncogenes E6/E7 and with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to create iHAEs. These iHAEs have proliferated around 200 population doublings (PDs) for at least 12 months. High expression of stem cell markers (Oct 3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4) and epithelial markers (CK5, CK18) were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These iHAEs were expanded in ultra-low-attachment dishes to form spheroids similarly to epithelial stem/precursor cells. High expression of mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) and somatic (CD24, CD29, CD271, Nestin) stem cell markers was detected by flow cytometry. The iHAEs showed adipogenic, osteogenic, neuronal, and cardiac differentiation abilities. In conclusion, the immortalization of HAEs with the characteristics of stem cells has been established, allowing these iHAEs to become useful for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:23298399

  7. Equine bronchial epithelial cells differentiate into ciliated and mucus producing cells in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute E. Schwab; M. Leslie Fulcher; Scott H. Randell; M. Julia Flaminio; David G. Russell

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method for creating differentiated equine bronchial epithelial cell cultures that can be used for in vitro studies\\u000a including airway disease mechanisms and pathogen–host interactions. Our method is based on the culturing of human tracheobronchial\\u000a epithelial cells at an air–liquid interface (ALI) in specific serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. Bronchial epithelial\\u000a cells are isolated and grown on T-Clear® insert membranes.

  8. Developmental Cell Wnt-Dependent Epithelial Transitions

    E-print Network

    Crump, Gage DeKoeyer

    to a number of important organs in the face and neck, including the Eustachian tube, thymus, and parathyroid of epithelial morphology by Wnt signaling may be a common theme for the budding of organ anlagen from in an anterior-posterior wave from the pharyngeal endo- derm (PE). These pouches then segment the cranial-neural

  9. Alternative Splicing Regulated by Butyrate in Bovine Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitao Wu; Congjun Li; Wen Huang; Weizhong Li; Robert W. Li

    2012-01-01

    As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for

  10. Campylobacter jejuni Survives within Epithelial Cells by Avoiding Delivery

    E-print Network

    Galan, Jorge E

    Campylobacter jejuni Survives within Epithelial Cells by Avoiding Delivery to Lysosomes Robert O Haven, Connecticut, United States of America Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes to survive within host cells. Citation: Watson RO, Gala´n JE (2008) Campylobacter jejuni survives within

  11. Polarized Secretion of Fibrinogen by Lung Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gayle Guadiz; Lee Ann Sporn; Rachel A. Goss; Sarah O. Lawrence; Victor J. Marder; Patricia J. Simpson-Haidaris

    1997-01-01

    The lung epithelium has recently been identified as a novel site of fibrinogen (FBG) biosynthesis. A coor- dinated upregulation of A a , B b , and g chain FBG gene transcription occurs upon stimulation of A549 lung epithelial cells with dexamethasone (DEX) and the proinflammatory mediator interleukin-6 (IL-6). Subsequently, the cells synthesize and secrete fully assembled FBG. This study

  12. Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

    2014-09-28

    The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world's population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori's avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

  13. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Yang; L. M. Craise

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal

  14. Cdk5: A regulator of epithelial cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Brajendra K; Zelenka, Peggy S

    2010-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a fundamental property of epithelial cells required for anchoring, migration and survival. During cell migration, the formation and disruption of adhesion sites is stringently regulated by integration of multiple, sequential signals acting in distinct regions of the cell. Recent findings implicate cyclin dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) in the signaling pathways that regulate cell adhesion and migration of a variety of cell types. Experiments with epithelial cell lines indicate that Cdk5 activity exerts its effects by limiting Src activity in regions where Rho activity is required for stress fiber contraction and by phosphorylating the talin head to stabilize nascent focal adhesions. Both pathways regulate cell migration by increasing adhesive strength. PMID:20190570

  15. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the LESC hypothesis. PMID:25815115

  16. Coronavirus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yingying; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2014-09-01

    Most coronaviruses cause respiratory or intestinal infections in their animal or human host. Hence, their interaction with polarized epithelial cells plays a critical role in the onset and outcome of infection. In this paper, we review the knowledge regarding the entry and release of coronaviruses, with particular emphasis on the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. As these viruses approach the epithelial surfaces from the apical side, it is not surprising that coronavirus cell receptors are exposed primarily on the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells. With respect to release, all possibilities appear to occur. Thus, most coronaviruses exit through the apical surface, several through the basolateral one, although the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus appears to use both sides. These observations help us understand the local or systematic spread of the infection within its host as well as the spread of the virus within the host population. PMID:24737708

  17. Helicobacter pylori Infection Induces Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song-Ze Ding; Yutaka Minohara; Xue Jun Fan; Jide Wang; Victor E. Reyes; Janak Patel; Bernadette Dirden-Kramer; Istvan Boldogh; Peter B. Ernst; Sheila E. Crowe

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with altered gastric epithelial cell turnover. To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in cell death, gastric epithelial cells were exposed to various strains of H. pylori, inflammatory cytokines, and hydrogen peroxide in the absence or presence of antioxidant agents. Increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected using a redox-sensitive fluorescent dye, a cytochrome

  18. Flagellin stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells triggers CCL20-mediated migration of dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Sierro; Bertrand Dubois; Alix Coste; Dominique Kaiserlian; Jean-Pierre Kraehenbuhl; Jean-Claude Sirard

    2001-01-01

    Enteropathogenic bacteria elicit mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. We investigated whether gut epithelial cells played a role in triggering an adaptive immune response by recruiting dendritic cells (DCs). Immature DCs are selectively attracted by the CCL20 chemokine. The expression of the CCL20 gene in human intestinal epithelial cell lines was up-regulated by pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella species, but not

  19. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P???0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P???0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2-0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05-0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P???0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. PMID:24142706

  20. Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ? 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ? 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2–0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05–0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ? 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. Part A: 102A: 3393–3400, 2014. PMID:24142706

  1. Expression, secretion, and inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Misato Takimoto; Hironobu Mitani; Seiji Hori; Masaaki Kimura; Tsutomu Bandoh; Toshikazu Okada

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme is present in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and which types of epithelial cells possess this enzyme. It is well known that serum promotes squamous differentiation of airway epithelial cell culture in vitro. We found that whole-cell homogenates of both basal (serum-untreated) and squamous-differentiated bronchial epithelial cells degraded hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine,

  2. Effects of topical corticosteroids on inflammatory mediator–induced eicosanoid release by human airway epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark O. Aksoy; Xiu-xia Li; Michael Borenstein; Yang Yi; Steven G. Kelsen

    1999-01-01

    Background: Airway epithelial cells are among the first cells to come in contact with aerosolized corticosteroids. However, the relative potencies and time course of action of the several commonly used aerosolized corticosteroids on eicosanoid production by airway epithelial cells are unknown. Objectives: This study compared the effects of fluticasone, budesonide, and triamcinolone on eicosanoid output by human airway epithelial cells

  3. [Disorders of the actin cytoskeleton in transformed epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Svitkina, T M; Kaverina, I N

    1989-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton of 8 transformed epithelial cell lines was studied using electron microscopy of platinum replicas. Seven of these lines belonged to the IAR series of rat liver epithelial cells, being at different stages of neoplastic progression. One cell line (FBT) was derived from the epithelium of bovine fetal trachea. The extent of actin cytoskeleton alteration in cell lines studied has been shown to correlate with other signs of neoplastic transformation. Among various actin-containing cell structures (microfilament bundles, actin meshwork at active edges, cell-cell adherence junctions, and endoplasmic microfilament sheath) the latter was the most sensitive to transformation. The loosening of the sheath and the alteration of its fine structure were observed in all the cell lines. The degree of these changes increased in the following order: FBT; non-tumorigenic IAR lines; IAR lines transformed in vitro; IAR lines obtained from the latter by single or double selection in vivo. The alteration of sheath was the only disturbance of actin cytoskeleton in FBT cells, whereas in other groups of epithelial cell lines some other changes occurred. These involved disruption of actin-containing intercellular junctions, the cell polarization accompanied by progressive shortening of length of the cell active edge containing actin meshwork, and disappearance or reorganization of microfilament bundles. PMID:2637543

  4. Feature Quantification and Abnormal Detection on Cervical Squamous Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingzhu; Bian, Linjie; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    Feature analysis and classification detection of abnormal cells from images for pathological analysis are an important issue for the realization of computer assisted disease diagnosis. This paper studies a method for cervical squamous epithelial cells. Based on cervical cytological classification standard and expert diagnostic experience, expressive descriptors are extracted according to morphology, color, and texture features of cervical scales epithelial cells. Further, quantificational descriptors related to cytopathology are derived as well, including morphological difference degree, cell hyperkeratosis, and deeply stained degree. The relationship between quantified value and pathological feature can be established by these descriptors. Finally, an effective method is proposed for detecting abnormal cells based on feature quantification. Integrated with clinical experience, the method can realize fast abnormal cell detection and preliminary cell classification. PMID:25873991

  5. Human renal tubular epithelial cells suppress alloreactive T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Demmers, M W H J; Korevaar, S S; Roemeling-van Rhijn, M; van den Bosch, T P P; Hoogduijn, M J; Betjes, M G H; Weimar, W; Baan, C C; Rowshani, A T

    2015-03-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) are one of the main targets of alloreactive T cells during acute rejection. We hypothesize that TECs modulate the outcome of alloimmunity by executing immunosuppressive effects in order to dampen the local inflammation. We studied whether TECs possess immunosuppressive capacities and if indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) might play a role in suppressing T cell alloreactivity. Next, we studied the role of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 with regard to TEC-related immunomodulatory effects. CD3/CD28 and alloactivated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured with activated TECs. We analysed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and apoptosis in the absence or presence of IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-L-tryptophan (1-L-MT), anti-PD-L1 and anti-ICAM-1. Further, we examined whether inhibition of T cell proliferation was cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that TECs dose-dependently inhibited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation (P<0.05). Activated TECs showed significantly increased IDO activity and up-regulated PD-L1 and ICAM-1 expression. Suppressed CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation was only partially restored or failed to restore using 1-L-MT. Activated TECs increased early and late apoptosis of proliferating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells; only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis was statistically affected by 1-L-MT. Transwell experiments revealed that TEC-mediated immunosuppression is cell-cell contact-dependent. We found that anti-ICAM-1 affected only CD4(+) T cell apoptosis and not T cell proliferation. Our data show that TECs suppress both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation contact dependently. Interestingly, inhibition of proliferation and enhancement of apoptosis of T cell subsets is differentially regulated by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and ICAM-1, with no evidence for the involvement of PD-L1 in our system. PMID:25310899

  6. Sp3 regulates fas expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, H; Miranda, K; Fine, A

    1998-01-01

    By transducing an apoptotic signal in immune effector cells, Fas has been directly implicated in the control of immunological activity. Expression and functional results, however, have also suggested a role for Fas in regulating cell turnover in specific epithelial populations. To characterize factors responsible for Fas expression in epithelial cells, approximately 3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the mouse Fas gene was isolated. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends and primer extension, transcriptional start sites were identified within 50 bp upstream of the translation start site. Transient transfection of promoter-luciferase constructs in a mouse lung epithelial cell line, MLE-15, localized promoter activity to the first 77 bp of upstream sequence. By using a 60 bp DNA probe (-18 to -77) in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, three shifted complexes were found. Incubation with excess cold Sp1 oligonucleotide or an anti-Sp3 antibody inhibited complex formation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Sp1 site resulted in 60-70% loss of promoter activity. In Drosophila SL-2 cells, promoter activity was markedly increased by co-transfection of an Sp3 expression construct. These results show that the Sp3 protein is involved in regulating Fas gene expression in lung epithelial cells. PMID:9639581

  7. Characterization of a Hormone-Responsive Organotypic Human Vaginal Tissue Model: Morphologic and Immunologic Effects.

    PubMed

    Ayehunie, Seyoum; Islam, Ayesha; Cannon, Chris; Landry, Timothy; Pudney, Jeffrey; Klausner, Mitchell; Anderson, Deborah J

    2015-08-01

    Estrogen and progesterone regulate proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells in the female genital tract. We investigated the effects of these hormones on reconstructed human organotypic vaginal epithelial tissue models (EpiVaginal). We ascertained that epithelial cells in the tissue models express estrogen and progesterone receptors. Treatment with estradiol-17? (E2) significantly increased epithelium thickness and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), whereas progesterone (P) treatment resulted in thinning of the epithelium and decreased TEER when compared with untreated controls. Exposure to E2 increased (1) the expression of the progesterone receptor B (PR-B), (2) accumulation of glycogen in suprabasal cells, (3) epithelial differentiation, and (4) the expression of a number of gene pathways associated with innate immunity, epithelial differentiation, wound healing, and antiviral responses. These findings indicate that EpiVaginal tissues are hormone responsive and can be used to study the role of female reproductive hormones in innate immune responses, microbial infection, and drug delivery in the vaginal mucosa. PMID:25676577

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Induced Synthesis of Interleukin-16 in Airway Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    Tumor Necrosis Factor- Induced Synthesis of Interleukin-16 in Airway Epithelial Cells Priming. Cruikshank Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts Epithelial cells from individuals with asthma or from allergen- have been implicated in both initiation and perpetuation

  9. Respiratory epithelial cell lines exposed to anoxia produced inflammatory mediator.

    PubMed

    Shahriary, Cyrus M; Chin, Terry W; Nussbaum, Eliezer

    2012-12-01

    Human epithelial cell lines were utilized to examine the effects of anoxia on cellular growth and metabolism. Three normal human epithelial cells lines (A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B) as well as a cystic fibrosis cell line (IB3-1) and its mutation corrected cell line (C38) were grown in the presence and absence of oxygen for varying periods of time. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Cellular metabolism and proliferation were assayed by determining mitochondrial oxidative burst activity by tetrazolium compound reduction. The viability of cells was indirectly measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B cells cultured in the absence of oxygen showed a progressive decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation after one to three days. There was a concomitant increase in IL-8 production. Cell lines from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients did not show a similar detrimental effect of anoxia. However, the IL-8 level was significantly increased only in IB3-1 cells exposed to anoxia after two days. Anoxia appears to affect certain airway epithelial cell lines uniquely with decreased cellular proliferation and a concomitant increased production of a cytokine with neutrophilic chemotactic activity. The increased ability of the CF cell line to respond to anoxia with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the inflammatory damage seen in CF bronchial airway. This study indicates the need to use different cell lines in in vitro studies investigating the role of epithelial cells in airway inflammation and the effects of environmental influences. PMID:23301190

  10. Adherence of Escherichia coli to Human Urinary Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Amundsen, Susan K.; Schmidt, Lawrence N.

    1979-01-01

    The adherence of Escherichia coli to human uroepithelial cells obtained from midstream urine specimens of healthy women was studied. Bacteria labeled with [3H]uridine were used, and unattached organisms were separated from the epithelial cells by vacuum filtration with 5-?m-pore-size Nucleopore membrane filters. These techniques allowed adherence to be measured in large numbers of epithelial cells and overcame the problem of distinguishing experimental bacteria from the indigenous organisms present on uroepithelial cells. Adherence was not appreciably affected by temperature. Adherence was maximal at pH 4 to 5 and at bacterial-to-epithelial-cell ratios of 5,000 or more. The latter observation suggested that there are a limited number of receptors on the epithelial cell surface, an idea which was supported by competition experiments. Adherence occurred within 1 min and then decreased gradually or quickly, depending on the type of bacterial growth medium, to a stationary level of adherence, approximately 50% of that observed initially. The ability of epithelial cells from a single individual to bind E. coli varied in a cyclical and repetitive pattern. Adherence tended to be higher during the early phase of the menstrual cycle and diminished shortly after the time of expected ovulation; adherence frequently correlated with the value obtained on the same day of the menstrual cycle during the preceding months. Adherence was markedly enhanced by bacterial incubation in broth for 72 h and inhibited by ?-d-mannose. These results suggest that adherence is a complex phenomenon perhaps mediated in part by bacterial pili and mannose residues on uroepithelial cells. PMID:38207

  11. Isolation of thymic epithelial cells and analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Jain, Reema; Gray, Daniel H D

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the thymus govern the differentiation of hematopoietic precursors into T cells, which are critical for acquired immunity. Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) provide molecular cues that direct precursor recruitment, commitment to the T cell lineage, thymocyte proliferation, and the processes of positive and negative selection. Despite the importance of TEC to the immune system, fundamental questions regarding their differentiation, turnover, and function throughout life remain unanswered. This knowledge gap is largely due to technical difficulties in isolating, quantifying, and purifying this rare cell type. Here, we describe methods for the enzymatic digestion of the thymus to obtain single-cell suspensions of TEC, their analysis by flow cytometry, enrichment using magnetic beads, and purification for a variety of downstream applications. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25367128

  12. Transport of paraquat by a renal epithelial cell line, MDCK.

    PubMed

    Chan, B S; Lazzaro, V A; Seale, J P; Duggin, G G

    1997-11-01

    Transport of paraquat (PQ), a herbicidal cation, was previously investigated in a proximal (LLC-PK1), renal epithelial cell line using permeable collagen-coated filters. PQ was actively transported from the basolateral side via a cation transport system by the LLC-PK1 cells. In the present study, the transport of PQ was investigated in a distal renal epithelial cell line, MDCK. PQ was predominantly transported from the basolateral to apical (B to A) side. The basolateral transport of PQ in MDCK cells was not saturable with increasing concentrations and not energy dependent. The flux and uptake of PQ was much lower in the MDCK than LLC-PK1 cells. It is concluded that MDCK, a distal renal tubular cell line, does not have an active transport system for PQ. PMID:9415931

  13. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and C31G as Microbicidal Alternatives to Nonoxynol 9: Comparative Sensitivity of Primary Human Vaginal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Fred C.; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K.; Wigdahl, Brian

    2000-01-01

    A broad-spectrum vaginal microbicide must be effective against a variety of sexually transmitted disease pathogens and be minimally toxic to the cell types found within the vaginal epithelium, including vaginal keratinocytes. We assessed the sensitivity of primary human vaginal keratinocytes to potential topical vaginal microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Direct immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes expressed epithelial cell-specific keratin proteins. Experiments that compared vaginal keratinocyte sensitivity to each agent during a continuous, 48-h exposure demonstrated that primary vaginal keratinocytes were almost five times more sensitive to N-9 than to either C31G or SDS. To evaluate the effect of multiple microbicide exposures on cell viability, primary vaginal keratinocytes were exposed to N-9, C31G, or SDS three times during a 78-h period. In these experiments, cells were considerably more sensitive to C31G than to N-9 or SDS at lower concentrations within the range tested. When agent concentrations were chosen to result in an endpoint of 25% viability after three daily exposures, each exposure decreased cell viability at the same constant rate. When time-dependent sensitivity during a continuous 48-h exposure was examined, exposure to C31G for 18 h resulted in losses in cell viability not caused by either N-9 or SDS until at least 24 to 48 h. Cumulatively, these results reveal important variations in time- and concentration-dependent sensitivity to N-9, C31G, or SDS within populations of primary human vaginal keratinocytes cultured in vitro. These investigations represent initial steps toward both in vitro modeling of the vaginal microenvironment and studies of factors that impact the in vivo efficacy of vaginal topical microbicides. PMID:10858360

  14. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  15. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Garofalo, R.P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Casola, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States)], E-mail: ancasola@utmb.edu

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  16. Hyperoxia-induced signal transduction pathways in pulmonary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Tahereh E.; Miller, Edmund J.; Morrow, Dympna M. P.; Javdan, Mohammad; Mantell, Lin L.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is necessary to treat critically ill patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause acute inflammatory lung injury. One of the major effects of hyperoxia is the injury and death of pulmonary epithelium, which is accompanied by increased levels of pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines and excessive leukocyte infiltration. A thorough understanding of the signaling pathways leading to pulmonary epithelial cell injury/death may provide some insights into the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury. This review focuses on epithelial responses to hyperoxia and some of the major factors regulating pathways to epithelial cell injury/death, and proinflammatory responses upon exposure to hyperoxia. We discuss in detail some of the most interesting players, such as, NF-?B, that can modulate both proinflammatory responses and cell injury/death of lung epithelial cells. A better appreciation for the functions of these factors will no doubt help us to delineate the pathways to hyperoxic cell death and proinflammatory responses. PMID:17349918

  17. Epithelial mesenchymal transition traits in human breast cancer cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Blick; E. Widodo; H. Hugo; M. Waltham; M. E. Lenburg; R. M. Neve; E. W. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) has long been associated with breast cancer cell invasiveness and evidence of EMT\\u000a processes in clinical samples is growing rapidly. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of increasingly larger numbers of\\u000a human breast cancer (HBC) cell lines have confirmed the existence of a subgroup of cell lines (termed Basal B\\/Mesenchymal)\\u000a with enhanced invasive properties and a predominantly mesenchymal gene

  18. Functional symbiosis between endothelium and epithelial cells in glomeruli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raimund Hirschberg; Shinong Wang; Grace M. Mitu

    2008-01-01

    In some capillary beds, pericytes regulate endothelial growth. Capillaries with high filtration capacity, such as those in\\u000a renal glomeruli, lack pericytes. Glomerular endothelium lies adjacent to visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) that are anchored\\u000a to and cover the anti-luminal surface of the basement membrane. We have tested the hypothesis that podocytes can function\\u000a as endothelial supporting cells. Endothelial cells were outgrown

  19. The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Fuxe

    \\u000a The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process which is reactivated during carcinoma progression,\\u000a providing tumor cells with enhanced migratory properties, the capacity to invade the stroma, and the ability to metastasize.\\u000a Tumor cells undergoing EMT also acquire stem cell characteristics, suggesting that there is crosstalk between pathways promoting\\u000a EMT and self-renewal, and that the EMT process contributes to the

  20. Cytotoxic effects of air freshener biocides in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Seo, Gun-Baek; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Doo-Hee; Kim, Taksoo; Seo, Jung Kwan; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of mixtures of citral (CTR) and either benzisothiazolinone (BIT, Mix-CTR-BIT) or triclosan (TCS, Mix-CTR-TCS) in human A549 lung epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of various mix ratios of these common air freshener ingredients on cell viability, cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. Mix-CTR-BIT and Mix-CTR-TCS significantly decreased the viability of lung epithelial cells and inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, both mixtures increased ROS generation, compared to that observed in control cells. In particular, cell viability, growth, and morphology were affected upon increase in the proportion of BIT or TCS in the mixture. However, comet analysis showed that treatment of cells with Mix-CTR-BIT or Mix-CTR-TCS did not increase DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggested that increasing the content of biocides in air fresheners might induce cytotoxicity, and that screening these compounds using lung epithelial cells may contribute to hazard assessment. PMID:24273871

  1. Interferon ? Stimulates Fractalkine Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Regulates Mononuclear Cell Adherence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Fujimoto; Tadaatsu Imaizumi; Hidemi Yoshida; Shingo Takanashi; Ken Okumura; Kei Satoh

    Bronchial epithelial cells may contribute to airway inflamma- tion by releasing chemokines and expressing surface mem- brane molecules involved in the adhesion of leukocytes. We found that interferon (IFN)- ? stimulates expression of fractal- kine, a potent chemoattractant for monocytes and T lympho- cytes, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by normal human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. Enhanced expression

  2. Hexagonal Packing of Drosophila Wing Epithelial Cells by the Planar Cell Polarity Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Kathrin Classen; Kurt I. Anderson; Eric Marois; Suzanne Eaton

    2005-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms that order cellular packing geometry are critical for the functioning of many tissues, but they are poorly understood. Here, we investigate this problem in the developing wing of Drosophila. The surface of the wing is decorated by hexagonally packed hairs that are uniformly oriented by the planar cellpolaritypathway.Theyareconstructedbyahexag- onal array of wing epithelial cells. Wing epithelial cells

  3. Functional Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Are Expressed in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Barshack; Mia Levite; Alon Lang; Ella Fudim; Orit Picard; Shomron Ben Horin; Yehuda Chowers

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aim: Local anesthetics which preferentially interact with voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) were shown to have a clinical beneficial effect in ulcerative colitis and to regulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators from intestinal epithelial cells. However, expression of VGSCs in epithelial cells was not demonstrated. Herein we assessed whether intestinal epithelial cells express VGSCs. Methods: The expression of VGSCs

  4. Pen ch 13 Major Fungal Allergen Decreases CD44 Expression in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiao-Yun Tai; Ming F. Tam; Hong Chou; Diahn-Wang Perng; Horng-Der Shen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pen ch 13 is an alkaline serine protease major allergen from Penicilliumchrysogenum. CD44 adhesion molecules play important roles in resolving lung inflammation and repairing epithelial damages during bronchial asthma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Pen ch 13 on CD44 of human bronchial epithelial cells. Methods: Cells of the SV40-transformed immortalized bronchial epithelial cell

  5. Pharmacological characterization of glucocorticoid receptors in primary human bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tricia D LeVan; Elizabeth A Babin; Henry I Yamamura; John W Bloom

    1999-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells play an important role in amplifying and perpetuating airway inflammation and may be a target for inhaled steroids. We have characterized glucocorticoid receptors in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Northern and western blot analyses demonstrated the expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein, respectively, in primary bronchial epithelial cells. The activity of these receptors was shown using

  6. Helicobacter pylori Induces Gastric Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Association with Increased Fas Receptor Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICOLA L. JONES; ANDREW S. DAY; HILARY A. JENNINGS; PHILIP M. SHERMAN

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in mediating the enhanced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis observed during infection with Helicobacter pylori in vivo are unknown. To determine whether H. pylori directly induces apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells in vitro and to define the role of the Fas-Fas ligand signal transduction cascade, human gastric epithelial cells were infected with H. pylori for up to 72

  7. Role of Helicobacter pylori and p53 in Regulation of Gastric Epithelial Cell Cycle Phase Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zun-Wu Zhang; Stephen E. Patchett; Michael J. G. Farthing

    2002-01-01

    H. pylori disrupts gastric mucosal homeostasis by altering gastric epithelial cell cycle distribution, and this may contribute to the diverse disease outcomes associated with this infection. The effect of H. pylori on gastric epithelial cells and the role of p53 were assessed in this study by incubating H. pylori strains with gastric epithelial cells. During a 72-hr coincubation, H. pylori

  8. Ionizing Radiation Predisposes Nonmalignant Human Mammary Epithelial Cells to Undergo Transforming Growth Factor B-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kumari L. Andarawewa; Anna C. Erickson; William S. Chou; Sylvain V. Costes; Philippe Gascard; Joni D. Mott; Mina J. Bissell; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor B1 (TGFB) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGFB activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGFB-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT).

  9. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Renders Epithelial Cells Vulnerable to Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Stephen; Pithadia, Ravi; Rehman, Tooba; Zhang, Lijuan; Plichta, Jennifer; Radek, Katherine A.; Forsyth, Christopher; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shafikhani, Sasha H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite two centuries of reports linking alcohol consumption with enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections and in particular gut-derived bacteria, there have been no studies or model systems to assess the impact of long-term alcohol exposure on the ability of the epithelial barrier to withstand bacterial infection. It is well established that acute alcohol exposure leads to reduction in tight and adherens junctions, which in turn leads to increases in epithelial cellular permeability to bacterial products, leading to endotoxemia and a variety of deleterious effects in both rodents and human. We hypothesized that reduced fortification at junctional structures should also reduce the epithelial barrier’s capacity to maintain its integrity in the face of bacterial challenge thus rendering epithelial cells more vulnerable to infection. In this study, we established a cell-culture based model system for long-term alcohol exposure to assess the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the ability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells to withstand infection when facing pathogenic bacteria under the intact or wounded conditions. We report that daily treatment with 0.2% ethanol for two months rendered Caco-2 cells far more susceptible to wound damage and cytotoxicity caused by most but not all bacterial pathogens tested in our studies. Consistent with acute alcohol exposure, long-term ethanol exposure also adversely impacted tight junction structures, but in contrast, it did not affect the adherens junction. Finally, alcohol-treated cells partially regained their ability to withstand infection when ethanol treatment was ceased for two weeks, indicating that alcohol’s deleterious effects on cells may be reversible. PMID:23358457

  10. Basolateral membrane K+ channels in renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    The major function of epithelial tissues is to maintain proper ion, solute, and water homeostasis. The tubule of the renal nephron has an amazingly simple structure, lined by epithelial cells, yet the segments (i.e., proximal tubule vs. collecting duct) of the nephron have unique transport functions. The functional differences are because epithelial cells are polarized and thus possess different patterns (distributions) of membrane transport proteins in the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. K+ channels play critical roles in normal physiology. Over 90 different genes for K+ channels have been identified in the human genome. Epithelial K+ channels can be located within either or both the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. One of the primary functions of basolateral K+ channels is to recycle K+ across the basolateral membrane for proper function of the Na+-K+-ATPase, among other functions. Mutations of these channels can cause significant disease. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the basolateral K+ channels of the nephron, providing potential physiological functions and pathophysiology of these channels, where appropriate. We have taken a “K+ channel gene family” approach in presenting the representative basolateral K+ channels of the nephron. The basolateral K+ channels of the renal epithelia are represented by members of the KCNK, KCNJ, KCNQ, KCNE, and SLO gene families. PMID:22338089

  11. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  12. Dysregulated Cytokine Production in Human Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene A. Stecenko; Gayle King; Keizo Torii; Richard M. Breyer; Ryszard Dworski; Timothy S. Blackwell; John W. Christman; Kenneth L. Brigham

    2001-01-01

    Although pulmonary inflammation is an important pathologic event in cystic fibrosis (CF), the relationship between expression of the CF gene and the inflammatory response is unclear. We studied tumor necrosis factor (TNF) a and IL-1ß stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 by CF, corrected CF, and normal human bronchial epithelial cells in culture. During the first 24 hours of TNFa

  13. Gastric Epithelial Cell Proliferation in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelo Zullo; Adriana Romiti; Vittorio Rinaldi; Andrea Vecchione; Cesare Hassan; Simon Winn; Silverio Tomao; Adolfo F. Attili

    2001-01-01

    An increased risk for gastric cancer in patients with liver cirrhosis has recently been reported. This study was performed in order to determine gastric epithelial cell proliferation in cirrhotic patients and to evaluate the role of congestive gastropathy (CG) and Helicobacter pylori infection in this process. Thirty-six cirrhotic patients and 18 controls were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Regulates Airway Epithelial Cell Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela C. C. Wang; Xinhua Dai; Bao Luu; Douglas J. Conrad

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone transcription factors that regulate genes as- sociated with lipid and glucose metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that PPAR- ? may also act as a negative immunomodu- lator. To investigate the potential role of PPAR- ? in regulating airway inflammation, we characterized the expression and function of PPAR- ? in airway epithelial cells. Airway

  15. Growth Factor Regulation of Cell Cycle Progression in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malinda A. Stull; Anne M. Rowzee; Aimee V. Loladze; Teresa L. Wood

    2004-01-01

    Growth factors are among the critical positive and negative regulators of cell proliferation for normal mammary\\/breast epithelial cells and for breast cancer cells. The mechanisms by which specific growth factors regulate the cell cycle in mammary\\/breast epithelial cells is beginning to be understood for several growth factor families, including the epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, and transforming growth factor-beta

  16. Performing vaginal lavage, crystal violet staining, and vaginal cytological evaluation for mouse estrous cycle staging identification.

    PubMed

    McLean, Ashleigh C; Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fai, Stephen; Bennett, Steffany A L

    2012-01-01

    A rapid means of assessing reproductive status in rodents is useful not only in the study of reproductive dysfunction but is also required for the production of new mouse models of disease and investigations into the hormonal regulation of tissue degeneration (or regeneration) following pathological challenge. The murine reproductive (or estrous) cycle is divided into 4 stages: proestrus, estrus, metestrus, and diestrus. Defined fluctuations in circulating levels of the ovarian steroids 17-?-estradiol and progesterone, the gonadotropins luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones, and the luteotropic hormone prolactin signal transition through these reproductive stages. Changes in cell typology within the murine vaginal canal reflect these underlying endocrine events. Daily assessment of the relative ratio of nucleated epithelial cells, cornified squamous epithelial cells, and leukocytes present in vaginal smears can be used to identify murine estrous stages. The degree of invasiveness, however, employed in collecting these samples can alter reproductive status and elicit an inflammatory response that can confound cytological assessment of smears. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive protocol that can be used to determine the stage of the estrous cycle of a female mouse without altering her reproductive cycle. We detail how to differentiate between the four stages of the estrous cycle by collection and analysis of predominant cell typology in vaginal smears and we show how these changes can be interpreted with respect to endocrine status. PMID:23007862

  17. Epstein-Barr virus infection and persistence in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Chi Man; Deng, Wen; Yip, Yim Ling; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Lo, Kwok Wai; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), strongly implicating a role for EBV in NPC pathogenesis; conversely, EBV infection is rarely detected in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues. In general, EBV does not show a strong tropism for infecting human epithelial cells, and EBV infection in oropharyngeal epithelial cells is believed to be lytic in nature. To establish life-long infection in humans, EBV has evolved efficient strategies to infect B cells and hijack their cellular machinery for latent infection. Lytic EBV infection in oropharyngeal epithelial cells, though an infrequent event, is believed to be a major source of infectious EBV particles for salivary transmission. The biological events associated with nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are only beginning to be understood with the advancement of EBV infection methods and the availability of nasopharyngeal epithelial cell models for EBV infection studies. EBV infection in human epithelial cells is a highly inefficient process compared to that in B cells, which express the complement receptor type 2 (CR2) to mediate EBV infection. Although receptor(s) on the epithelial cell surface for EBV infection remain(s) to be identified, EBV infection in epithelial cells could be achieved via the interaction of glycoproteins on the viral envelope with surface integrins on epithelial cells, which might trigger membrane fusion to internalize EBV in cells. Normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are not permissive for latent EBV infection, and EBV infection in normal nasopharyngeal epithelial cells usually results in growth arrest. However, genetic alterations in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, including p16 deletion and cyclin D1 overexpression, could override the growth inhibitory effect of EBV infection to support stable and latent EBV infection in nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. The EBV episome in NPC is clonal in nature, suggesting that NPC develops from a single EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cell, and the establishment of persistent and latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelium may represent an early and critical event for NPC development. PMID:25223910

  18. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui (Charles A. Dana Laboratory of Toxicology, Boston, MA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  19. Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

  20. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  1. Established Thymic Epithelial Progenitor/Stem Cell-Like Cell Lines Differentiate into Mature Thymic Epithelial Cells and Support T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yu; Su, Juanjuan; Du, Yarui; Xu, Guoliang; Shi, Yufang; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Zhang, Xiaoren

    2013-01-01

    Common thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cells (TEPCs) differentiate into cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which are required for the development and selection of thymocytes. Mature TEC lines have been widely established. However, the establishment of TEPC lines is rarely reported. Here we describe the establishment of thymic epithelial stomal cell lines, named TSCs, from fetal thymus. TSCs express some of the markers present on tissue progenitor/stem cells such as Sca-1. Gene expression profiling verifies the thymic identity of TSCs. RANK stimulation of these cells induces expression of autoimmune regulator (Aire) and Aire-dependent tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in TSCs in vitro. TSCs could be differentiated into medullary thymic epithelial cell-like cells with exogenously expressed NF-?B subunits RelB and p52. Importantly, upon transplantation under the kidney capsules of nude mice, TSCs are able to differentiate into mature TEC-like cells that can support some limited development of T cells in vivo. These findings suggest that the TSC lines we established bear some characteristics of TEPC cells and are able to differentiate into functional TEC-like cells in vitro and in vivo. The cloned TEPC-like cell lines may provide useful tools to study the differentiation of mature TEC cells from precursors. PMID:24086471

  2. Cytotoxic Action of Serratia marcescens Hemolysin on Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Hilger, Martina; Weingardt-Kocher, Sandra; Walev, Iwan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of human epithelial cells with nanomolar concentrations of chromatographically purified Serratia marcescens hemolysin (ShlA) caused irreversible vacuolation and subsequent lysis of the cells. Vacuolation differed from vacuole formation by Helicobacter pylori VacA. Sublytic doses of ShlA led to a reversible depletion of intracellular ATP. Restoration to the initial ATP level was presumably due to the repair of the toxin damage and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Pores formed in epithelial cells and fibroblasts without disruption of the plasma membrane, and the pores appeared to be considerably smaller than those observed in artificial lipid membranes and in erythrocytes and did not allow the influx of propidium iodide or trypan blue. All cytotoxic effects induced by isolated recombinant ShlA were also obtained with exponentially growing S. marcescens cells. The previously suggested role of the hemolysin in the pathogenicity of S. marcescens is supported by these data. PMID:9916096

  3. Iron upregulates melanogenesis in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Natalie; Li, Yafeng; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Song, Ying; Alekseev, Oleg; Iacovelli, Jared; Song, Delu; Lee, Jennifer C; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our studies was to examine the relationship between iron and melanogenesis in retinal pigment epithelial cells, as prior observations had suggested that iron may promote melanogenesis. This relationship has potential clinical importance, as both iron overload and hyperpigmentation are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells and ARPE-19 cells were treated with iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate, after which quantitative RT-PCR and electron microscopy were performed. Melanogenesis genes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3, premelanosome protein and dopachrome tautomerase were upregulated, as was the melanogenesis-controlling transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Iron-treated cells had increased pigmentation and melanosome number. Multiple transcription factors upstream of MITF were upregulated by iron. PMID:25277027

  4. Immunolocalization of sex steroid hormone receptors in canine vaginal and vulvar tissue and their relation to sex steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vermeirsch, Hilde; Van den Broeck, Wim; Simoens, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this immunohistochemical study was to describe the cellular distribution of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR) in canine vaginal and vulvar tissue. Samples were taken from dogs in different stages of the estrous cycle. Nuclear staining for ERalpha, PR and AR was observed in surface epithelium, stromal and smooth muscle cells. Receptors were also expressed in vulvar skin. Cytoplasmic staining for AR was observed in basal and parabasal cell layers of vulvar and vaginal epithelium. For all three receptors, staining intensity was generally higher in stromal cells compared with epithelial cells, suggesting that stromal cells may be more receptive to steroid hormone action. Therefore, as in other tissues of the female genital tract, stromal-epithelial interactions induced by sex steroid hormones may be of importance in canine vaginal and vulvar tissues. No cyclic changes in receptor immunostaining were observed. Significant positive correlations were found between receptor immunostaining in some vaginal and vulvar cell groups and the serum concentrations of estradiol-17beta and testosterone, but not with the serum progesterone concentration. Significant negative correlations were found between ERalpha immunostaining in epithelial and stromal cells of the vagina and the serum estradiol-17beta concentration, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism between estradiol-17beta and its receptor. Both cell types play a role in the differentiation of vaginal epithelium, under the influence of estradiol-17beta. PMID:12219948

  5. Ex Vivo Comparison of Microbicide Efficacies for Preventing HIV-1 Genomic Integration in Intraepithelial Vaginal Cells ? †

    PubMed Central

    McElrath, M. Juliana; Ballweber, Lamar; Terker, Andrew; Kreger, Allison; Sakchalathorn, Polachai; Robinson, Barry; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Vaginally applied microbicides hold promise as a strategy to prevent sexual HIV transmission. Several nonspecific microbicides, including the polyanion cellulose sulfate, have been evaluated in large-scale clinical trials but have failed to show significant efficacy. These findings have prompted a renewed search for preclinical testing systems that can predict negative outcomes of microbicide trials. Moreover, the pipeline of potential topical microbicides has been expanded to include antiretroviral agents, such as reverse transcriptase, fusion, and integrase inhibitors. Using a novel ex vivo model of vaginal HIV-1 infection, we compared the prophylactic potentials of two forms of the fusion inhibitor T-20, the CCR5 antagonist TAK-778, the integrase inhibitor 118-D-24, and cellulose sulfate (Ushercell). The T-20 peptide with free N- and C-terminal amino acids was the most efficacious compound, causing significantly greater inhibition of viral genomic integration in intraepithelial vaginal leukocytes, measured by an optimized real-time PCR assay, than the more water-soluble N-acetylated T-20 peptide (Fuzeon) (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.153 ?M versus 51.2 ?M [0.687 ng/ml versus 230 ng/ml]; P < 0.0001). In contrast, no significant difference in IC50s was noted in peripheral blood cells (IC50, 13.58 ?M versus 7.57 ?M [61 ng/ml versus 34 ng/ml]; P = 0.0614). Cellulose sulfate was the least effective of all the compounds tested (IC50, 1.8 ?g/ml). These results highlight the merit of our model for screening the mucosal efficacies of novel microbicides and their formulations and potentially rank ordering candidates for clinical evaluation. PMID:19949052

  6. Biological principals and clinical potentials of limbal epithelial stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Notara; Julie T. Daniels

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we describe a population of adult stem cells that are currently being successfully used in the clinic to treat\\u000a blinding ocular surface disease, namely limbal epithelial stem cells (LESC). The function and characteristics of LESC and\\u000a the challenges faced in making use of their therapeutic potential will be examined. The cornea on the front surface of the

  7. Sampling of the Intestinal Microbiota by Epithelial M Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Pickard; Alexander V. Chervonsky

    2010-01-01

    Sampling of intestinal pathogens and commensals is an important aspect of the gut immune system, and is accomplished through\\u000a the action of specialized epithelial M cells. Although their sampling abilities have been appreciated for decades, few molecular\\u000a details of their development or function are known. This review discusses several recent advances in our understanding of\\u000a these cells, including signals controlling

  8. Clonal growth characteristics of adult human prostatic epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna M. Peehl; Stephen T. Wong; Thomas A. Stamey

    1988-01-01

    Summary  The ability of human epithelial cells derived from adult prostatic tissues to undergo clonal growth in culture was examined.\\u000a In a previously described serum-free culture system, such cells exhibited a density-dependent growth requirement. It was found\\u000a that raising the level of one of the constituents of the culture medium, bovine pituitary extract, to 100 ?g\\/ml permitted\\u000a excellent clonal growth when

  9. (Neuro-)endocrinology of epithelial hair follicle stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Paus; Petra Arck; Stephan Tiede

    2008-01-01

    The hair follicle is a repository of different types of somatic stem cells. However, even though the hair follicle is both a prominent target organ and a potent, non-classical site of production and\\/or metabolism of numerous polypetide- and steroid hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and neurotrophins, the (neuro-)endocrine controls of hair follicle epithelial stem cell (HFeSC) biology remain to be systematically explored.

  10. Neuroendocrinelike (small granule) epithelial cells of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    DiAugustine, R P; Sonstegard, K S

    1984-01-01

    The presence of neuroendocrinelike epithelial cells in the lung of numerous species has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Histochemical methods used to identify these cells have included staining with silver, amine-type fluorescence (APUD cell), periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-lead hematoxylin, and immunohistochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase. Cytoplasmic dense core vesicles (70-200 nm in diameter) have served as the major ultrastructural characteristic. Lung neuroendocrinelike cells have been shown to occur in fetal and adult mammals as solitary-type cells or as distinct organoids known as neuroepithelial bodies ( NEBs ). Although the frequency of both populations is considered low, solitary-type cells with dense-core granules can be found in as high as 5% of epithelial cells in the cricoid region of the guinea-pig larynx. The solitary cells can be found throughout the airways of mammals, whereas the NEBs are confined to the intrapulmonary airways. Unmyelinated fibers have been traced from the lamina propria and into the NEB, where they ramified between the component cells of the NEB. The function of lung neuroendocrinelike cells is not known, but morphological and cytochemical studies suggest that the NEBs are intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that can respond to changes in airway gas composition. Hypoxia or hypercapnia has been shown to decrease the amine cytofluorescence in these organoids and apparently to increase the exocytosis of dense core vesicles from the basal region of the cell. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that some lung epithelial cells may contain a known neuropeptide(s), but further investigation is needed to confirm the presence of such compounds in lung neuroendocrinelike cells and their physiochemical properties. Apparent hyperplasia of lung neuroendocrinelike cells can occur readily in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine. It has been postulated that human lung tumors with endocrinelike properties, namely, bronchial carcinoids and lung small cell carcinomas, may originate from lung neuroendocrinelike cells. However, a more plausible explanation, based on cytokinetic studies of epithelial neuroendocrinelike cells in the lung and other organs, is that these cells originate from a nonneuroendocrine population. Interaction of such a progenitor cell population with selected carcinogens may lead to stimulation of the rate of normal differentiation or, alternately, to selection of an abnormal route of differentiation that possesses a neuroendocrine phenotype. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. PMID:6376101

  11. Cell-cell contacts with epithelial cells modulate the phenotype of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Striz, I; Slavcev, A; Kalanin, J; Jaresová, M; Rennard, S I

    2001-08-01

    Interactions of macrophages with epithelium represent one of the pathways involved in regulating local immune mechanisms. We studied the effect of cell-cell contact with an epithelial monolayer on the phenotype of macrophages. Human monocytes and THP-1 macrophages were co-cultured with monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), the alveolar type II-like cell line A549, renal adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (RA), and the lung fibroblast strain HFL-1. The expression of CD11b, CD14, CD54, and HLA-DR was measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry and showed epithelial cell induction of CD54 and HLA-DR in monocytes and of all antigens in THP-1 cells. Co-culture with fibroblasts did not change the phenotype of macrophages. Separation by a filter insert inhibited most of the effects. Culture supernatants did not induce prominent phenotypic changes. Cell-cell contacts with epithelium appear to be of importance in regulating the phenotype of macrophages. PMID:11580100

  12. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

  13. Cdk5 regulates cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Negash, Sewite; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Gao, Chun; Ledee, Dolena; Zelenka, Peggy

    2002-05-15

    Cdk5 is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family, which is expressed predominantly in terminally differentiated neurons. Lower levels of Cdk5 are also found in a wide variety of cell types, including the lens. Although Cdk5 has been shown to play an important role in neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth, its function in non-neuronal cells is not known. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the role of Cdk5 in the lens. Results showed that, within the adult mouse lens, Cdk5 was localized to the cytoplasm, especially along the lateral membranes of differentiating primary fiber cells, which suggests a role in cell-cell adhesion. Staining at the tips of elongating fiber cells was also particularly strong, suggesting a role in cell-matrix adhesion. To examine the possible role of Cdk5 in lens epithelial cell adhesion, we stably transfected N/N1003A rabbit lens epithelial cells with cDNAs for Cdk5 or a dominant-negative mutation, Cdk5-T33. Attachment to a fibronectin matrix, as measured with substrate-coated cell adhesion strips, was increased by Cdk5 overexpression, while an equivalent overexpression of Cdk5-T33 had no effect. Cdk5 also increased the rate of cell attachment and spreading as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS). In addition, Cdk5 overexpression decreased cell-cell adhesion as measured by a cell aggregation assay. These findings suggest that Cdk5 plays a role in regulating both cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in the lens. PMID:11973352

  14. Vangl2 Regulates E-Cadherin in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Begum, Khadiza; hafiz, Khandakar musabbir bin; Kishi, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin belongs to the classic cadherin subfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules and is crucial for the formation and function of epithelial adherens junctions. In this study, we demonstrate that Vangl2, a vertebrate regulator of planar cell polarity (PCP), controls E-cadherin in epithelial cells. E-cadherin co-immunoprecipitates with Vangl2 from embryonic kidney extracts, and this association is also observed in transfected fibroblasts. Vangl2 enhances the internalization of E-cadherin when overexpressed. Conversely, the quantitative ratio of E-cadherin exposed to the cell surface is increased in cultured renal epithelial cells derived from Vangl2Lpt/+ mutant mice. Interestingly, Vangl2 is also internalized through protein traffic involving Rab5- and Dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Taken together with recent reports regarding the transport of Frizzled3, MMP14 and nephrin, these results suggest that one of the molecular functions of Vangl2 is to enhance the internalization of specific plasma membrane proteins with broad selectivity. This function may be involved in the control of intercellular PCP signalling or in the PCP-related rearrangement of cell adhesions. PMID:25373475

  15. A novel method for preserving cultured limbal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Raeder, Sten; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Cai, Yiqing; Roald, Borghild; Drolsum, Liv; Lyberg, Torstein; Nicolaissen, Bjørn

    2007-01-01

    Aim To investigate organ culture preservation of cultured limbal epithelial cells in order to enhance the availability of tissue?engineered epithelia that are used to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. Methods Limbal epithelial cells were cultured for 3?weeks on intact amniotic membrane fastened to a polyester membrane carrier. The cultured epithelia were stored for 1?week at 23°C in organ culture medium. The preserved epithelia were then examined using a colorimetric cell viability assay, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Results The viability of the preserved epithelia was 84% (20%), and no statistically significant difference was found compared with non?preserved epithelia. In general, the cell borders were maintained, the nuclei showed no sign of degeneration, and the original layered structure was preserved. Mild intercellular oedema was occasionally observed. Expression of p63, K19 and vimentin was maintained. Conclusions Cultured limbal epithelial cells can be preserved in organ culture medium for 1?week at room temperature, while maintaining the original layered structure and undifferentiated phenotype. PMID:17124242

  16. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  17. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  18. Effects of Hepatocyte Growth Factor, Transforming Growth Factor-?1 and Epidermal Growth Factor on Bovine Corneal Epithelial Cells under Epithelial–Keratocyte Interaction in Reconstruction Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOMOHISA NISHIMURA; SHUJI TODA; TAKUYA MITSUMOTO; SHINJI OONO; HAJIME SUGIHARA

    1998-01-01

    In the cornea, corneal epithelial cells are in close contact with keratocytes: the epithelial cells organize thickened lamellar structure on a layer of keratocytes embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). Thus, growth factors are expected to critically regulate corneal component cells under epithelial–keratocyte interaction. The purpose of this study is to clarify effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), transforming growth factor-?1

  19. To grow mouse mammary epithelial cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Normal mouse mammary epithelial cells from Balb/c mice were successfully cultivated on tissue culture plastic with lethally irradiated LA7 feeder cells. The feeder cells also promoted colony formation from single mouse mammary cells, and the fraction of cells that formed colonies was proportional to the density of feeder cells. The mouse mammary cells could be passaged at least 8-12 times as long as new feeder cells were added at each passage. The cells now in culture have doubled in number at least 30 times, but the in vitro lifespan is not yet known. The cultures of mouse cells maintained by this technique never became overgrown with fibroblasts and numerous domes formed in the cultures. PMID:6699079

  20. Functional interleukin-2 receptors on intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ciacci, C; Mahida, Y R; Dignass, A; Koizumi, M; Podolsky, D K

    1993-01-01

    The presence of receptors for the cytokine IL-2 was assessed in the IEC-6 cell line established from normal rat crypt epithelium and primary intestinal epithelial cells. 125I-IL-2 was found to specifically bind to subconfluent IEC-6 cells. Maximal binding was observed within 30 min after addition of the ligand; binding could be inhibited by excess unlabeled IL-2 or addition of antibody to the IL-2 receptor. Both intermediate and low affinity receptors with approximate Kd of 10 and 100 pM, respectively were present. Kinetic analysis were consistent with the results of Western blot analysis using an antisera to the 75-kD IL-2 receptor beta chain. IL-2 receptors appeared to be functional; addition of IL-2 led to modulation of proliferation with initial stimulation at 24 h followed by inhibition at 48 h. This effect could be blocked by addition of antibody to the IL-2 receptor beta chain. IL-2 treatment could be shown to enhance expression (range = 4- to 50-fold stimulation) of TGF-beta, as well as the lectin protein mac-2, in IEC-6 cells. The relevance of observations in the IEC-6 cell line to intestinal mucosa in vivo was supported by the demonstration of a gradient of expression of the IL-2 receptor in primary rat intestinal epithelial cells by Western blot analysis. In addition, mRNA for the IL-2 receptor-beta chain was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using mRNA from primary rat intestinal epithelial cells depleted of detectable contaminating intraepithelial lymphocytes by two cycles of fractionation on Percoll gradients. Collectively, these observations suggest that the range of cellular targets of the putative lymphokine IL-2 is broader than appreciated, and IL-2 may serve to integrate epithelial and lymphocyte responses in the intestinal mucosa. Images PMID:8326018

  1. Stem cell properties and neural differentiation of sheep amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuemin; Wang, Xiumei; Cao, Guifang; Liu, Fengjun; Yang, Yinfeng; Li, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yuling; Mi, Yan; Liu, Junping; Zhang, Lingli

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to verify the stem cell properties of sheep amniotic epithelial cells and their capacity for neural differentiation. Immunofluorescence microscopy and reverse transcription-PCR revealed that the sheep amniotic epithelial cells were positive for the embryonic stem cell marker proteins SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, and the totipotency-associated genes Oct-4, Sox-2 and Rex-1, but negative for Nanog. Amniotic epithelial cells expressed ?-III-tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, nestin and microtubule-associated protein-2 at 28 days after induction with serum-free neurobasal-A medium containing B-27. Thus, sheep amniotic epithelial cells could differentiate into neurons expressing ?-III-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein-2, and glial-like cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein, under specific conditions. PMID:25206415

  2. Hsc70 negatively regulates epithelial sodium channel trafficking at multiple sites in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chanoux, Rebecca A.; Shubin, Calla B.; Robay, Amal; Suaud, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays an important role in homeostasis of blood pressure and of the airway surface liquid, and excess function of ENaC results in refractory hypertension (in Liddle's syndrome) and impaired mucociliary clearance (in cystic fibrosis). The regulation of ENaC by molecular chaperones, such as the 70-kDa heat shock protein Hsc70, is not completely understood. Our previously published data suggest that Hsc70 negatively affects ENaC activity and surface expression in Xenopus oocytes; here we investigate the mechanism by which Hsc70 acts on ENaC in epithelial cells. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing epitope-tagged ???-ENaC and with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of Hsc70, treatment with 5 ?g/ml doxycycline increased total Hsc70 expression 20%. This increase in Hsc70 expression led to a decrease in ENaC activity and surface expression that corresponded to an increased rate of functional ENaC retrieval from the cell surface. In addition, Hsc70 overexpression decreased the association of newly synthesized ENaC subunits. These data support the hypothesis that Hsc70 inhibits ENaC functional expression at the apical surface of epithelia by regulating ENaC biogenesis and ENaC trafficking at the cell surface. PMID:23885065

  3. One for all and all for one: thymic epithelial stem cells and regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Clare Blackburn; Nancy R. Manley; Donald B. Palmer; Richard L. Boyd; Graham Anderson; Mary A. Ritter

    2002-01-01

    It has long been believed that the thymic epithelial microenvironment originates from both the endodermal and ectodermal germ cell layers. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that such a dual origin is not the case, and that the diverse thymic epithelial populations all develop from a common epithelial stem cell. This article explores these data, investigates the identity of

  4. Immortalization of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in the Absence of Viral Oncoproteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruben D. Ramirez; Shelley Sheridan; Luc Girard; Mitsuo Sato; Young Kim; Jon Pollack; Michael Peyton; Ying Zou; Jonathan M. Kurie; J. Michael DiMaio; Sara Milchgrub; Alice L. Smith; Rhonda F. Souza; Laura Gilbey; Xi Zhang; Kenia Gandia; Melville B. Vaughan; Woodring E. Wright; Adi F. Gazdar; Jerry W. Shay; John D. Minna

    2004-01-01

    By expressing two genes (hTERT and Cdk4), we have developed a method to reproducibly generate continuously replicating human bron- chial epithelial cell (HBEC) lines that provide a novel resource to study the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer and the differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells. Twelve human bronchial epithelial biopsy specimens ob- tained from persons with and without lung cancer were

  5. Medullary thymic epithelial cell depletion leads to autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bonito, Anthony J.; Aloman, Costica; Fiel, M. Isabel; Danzl, Nichole M.; Cha, Sungwon; Weinstein, Erica G.; Jeong, Seihwan; Choi, Yongwon; Walsh, Matthew C.; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    TRAF6, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, plays a critical role in T cell tolerance by regulating medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) development. mTECs regulate T cell tolerance by ectopically expressing self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive T cells in the thymus. Here we show that mice with mTEC depletion due to conditional deletion of Traf6 expression in murine thymic epithelial cells (Traf6?TEC mice) showed a surprisingly narrow spectrum of autoimmunity affecting the liver. The liver inflammation in Traf6?TEC mice exhibited all the histological and immunological characteristics of human autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The role of T cells in AIH establishment was supported by intrahepatic T cell population changes and AIH development after transfer of liver T cells into immunodeficient mice. Despite a 50% reduction in natural Treg thymic output, peripheral tolerance in Traf6?TEC mice was normal, whereas compensatory T regulatory mechanisms were evident in the liver of these animals. These data indicate that mTECs exert a cell-autonomous role in central T cell tolerance and organ-specific autoimmunity, but play a redundant role in peripheral tolerance. These findings also demonstrate that Traf6?TEC mice are a relevant model with which to study the pathophysiology of AIH, as well as autoantigen-specific T cell responses and regulatory mechanisms underlying this disease. PMID:23867620

  6. Helicobacter pylori increases proliferation of gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, X G; Kelleher, D; Fan, X J; Xia, H X; Keeling, P W

    1996-01-01

    The direct and indirect effects of helicobacter pylori on cell kinetics of gastric epithelial cell line AGS were investigated by flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positive cells and by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 positivity permits detection of cells that are in S-phase, whereas the MTT assay is a colometric measure of the number of viable cells. In the absence of added stimulants, 23.06 (4.88)% mean (SD) of AGS cells were Ki-67 positive. When cells were preincubated in the presence of H pylori, there was a significant increase in Ki-67 positivity (66.20 (7.89)%, p < 0.001). This increase was not seen in cells cultured in the presence of Campylobacter jejuni (24.63 (8.11)% or Escherichia coli (21.66 (9.78)%). Pre-incubation of AGS cells with supernatants from both H pylori and mitogen activated peripheral blood lymphocytes also increased the per cent of cells that were Ki-67 positive (72.93 (8.68) and 69.96 (12.35)%; p, 0.001) respectively. Similar results were also found in MTT assay. These data show that both H pylori directly and the immune/inflammatory response to H pylori indirectly can influence the rate of epithelial cell proliferation, suggesting this bacterium may be an initiating step in gastric carcinogenesis and an important co-carcinogenic factor in H pylori positive subjects. PMID:8566853

  7. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  8. Epithelial stem cells, wound healing and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther N. Arwert; Esther Hoste; Fiona M. Watt

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that tissue repair depends on stem cells and that chronic wounds predispose to tumour formation. However, the association between stem cells, wound healing and cancer is poorly understood. Lineage tracing has now shown how stem cells are mobilized to repair skin wounds and how they contribute to skin tumour development. The signalling pathways, including WNT and

  9. Vaginal transmission of cell-associated HIV-1 in the mouse is blocked by a topical, membrane-modifying agent

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Kristen V.; Whaley, Kevin J.; Zeitlin, Larry; Moench, Thomas R.; Mehrazar, Karim; Cone, Richard A.; Liao, Zhaohao; Hildreth, James E.K.; Hoen, Timothy E.; Shultz, Leonard; Markham, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    Because both HIV-1 virions and HIV-infected cells are present in the semen and cervical mucus of infected individuals, HIV-1 prevention strategies must consider both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Antibodies that target HIV-1 virions have been shown to prevent vaginal transmission of cell-free virus in macaques, but since cell-associated transmission has not been reliably demonstrated in this model system, no strategies to prevent such transmission have been tested. We have employed a mouse model in which SCID mice carry human peripheral blood leukocytes (HuPBLs). In these mice, vaginal transmission of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIV-1 transmission occurs, mediated by transepithelial migration of HIV-infected cells. Topical application of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), a cholesterol-sequestering agent that interferes with cell migration and budding of virus from lipid rafts, blocks transmission of cell-associated HIV-1. The HuPBL-SCID model of vaginal HIV-1 transmission should prove useful for investigating cell-associated HIV-1 transmucosal HIV-1 transmission, as well as for screening reagents for their potential efficacy in preventing sexual HIV-1 transmission. PMID:11805132

  10. Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

    2014-01-01

    The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

  11. Role of medullary progenitor cells in epithelial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuning; Park, Chanyoung; Al-Omari, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing medullary interstitial progenitor cells and to examine their capacity to induce tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. We have isolated a progenitor cell side population from a primary medullary interstitial cell line. We show that the medullary progenitor cells (MPCs) express CD24, CD44, CXCR7, CXCR4, nestin, and PAX7. MPCs are CD34 negative, which indicates that they are not bone marrow-derived stem cells. MPCs survive >50 passages, and when grown in epithelial differentiation medium develop phenotypic characteristics of epithelial cells. Inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD3) cells treated with conditioned medium from MPCs show significantly accelerated cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned medium from PGE2-treated MPCs induce tubule formation in IMCD3 cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Moreover, most of the MPCs express the pericyte marker PDGFR-b. Our study shows that the medullary interstitium harbors a side population of progenitor cells that can differentiate to epithelial cells and can stimulate tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. The findings of this study suggest that medullary pericyte/progenitor cells may play a critical role in collecting duct cell injury repair. PMID:24808539

  12. DNA analysis of epithelial cell suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Johnson, N.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cell suspensions of skin were obtained by animals exposed by skin painting of several crude oils. DNA analysis of these cell suspensions labeled with mithramycin provide determination of percentages of cells in the G/sub 1/, S and G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle. Data acquired showed differences from control animals occurring as early as 7 days after treatment and persisting through 21 days afterwards. There was histological evidence of erythema and hyperplasia in shale oil-exposed skins. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in shale-oil-exposed skin cells showed an increased percentage of cycling cells plus evidence of aneuploidy. Similar data from simply abraded skin showed increased percentages of cycling cells, but no aneuploidy. The shale-oil-exposed group, when compared to a standard petroleum-exposed group, had significantly increased percentages of cycling cells. This early indication of differing response to different complex mixtures was also seen in long-term skin exposures to these compounds. Similar analytical techniques were applied to tracheal cell suspensions from ozone-exposed rats. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Transcytosis through Polarized Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Rossana; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells bidirectionally, from both the apical to the basolateral membranes and the basolateral to the apical membranes. Apical to basolateral EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that virions were surrounded by apical surface protrusions and that virus was present in subapical vesicles. Inactivation of signaling molecules critical for macropinocytosis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, myosin light-chain kinase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-activated kinase 1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and cell division control protein 42 homolog, led to significant reduction in EBV apical to basolateral transcytosis. In contrast, basolateral to apical EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated virus entry. Caveolae were detected in the basolateral membranes of polarized human oral epithelial cells, and virions were detected in caveosome-like endosomes. Methyl ?-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of caveola formation, reduced EBV basolateral entry. EBV virions transcytosed in either direction were able to infect B lymphocytes. Together, these data show that EBV transmigrates across oral epithelial cells by (i) apical to basolateral transcytosis, potentially contributing to initial EBV penetration that leads to systemic infection, and (ii) basolateral to apical transcytosis, which may enable EBV secretion into saliva in EBV-infected individuals. PMID:23698302

  14. Establishment and characterization of a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Jie Lu; Shu-Ping Guo; Tong Tong; Li-Hua Xu; Xiang-Yang Dong; Nai-Jun Hana; Shu-Jun Cheng

    1998-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers originate from the carcinogenesis of bronchial epithelial cells. To study the malignant progression of human bronchial epithelial cells, we established a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line, and observed some biological and genetic changes of the cell line at different passages. In a 2-year culture, this cell line was approaching malignancy without obvious senescence.

  15. Adherence of oral streptococci to keratinized and nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sklavounou, A; Germaine, G R

    1980-02-01

    The ability of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus salivarius to adhere to keratinized versus nonkeratinized human oral epithelial cells was compared. S. mitis and S. salivarius exhibited significantly greater adherence to keratinized cells than to nonkeratinized cells. S. mutans and S. sanguis adhered equally well to either epithelial cell type. It is concluded that keratinization of epithelial cells may be a significant factor in the adherence of certain oral streptococci to the oral mucosa. PMID:6155336

  16. A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Tamal; Safferling, Kai; Rausch, Sebastian; Grabe, Niels; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-03-01

    Collective movement of epithelial cells drives essential multicellular organization during various fundamental physiological processes encompassing embryonic morphogenesis, cancer and wound healing. Yet the molecular mechanism that ensures the coordinated movement of many cells remains elusive. Here we show that a tumour suppressor protein, merlin, coordinates collective migration of tens of cells, by acting as a mechanochemical transducer. In a stationary epithelial monolayer and also in three-dimensional human skin, merlin localizes to cortical cell-cell junctions. During migration initiation, a fraction of cortical merlin relocalizes to the cytoplasm. This relocalization is triggered by the intercellular pulling force of the leading cell and depends on the actomyosin-based cell contractility. Then in migrating cells, taking its cue from the intercellular pulling forces, which show long-distance ordering, merlin coordinates polarized Rac1 activation and lamellipodium formation on the multicellular length scale. Together, these results provide a distinct molecular mechanism linking intercellular forces to collective cell movements in migrating epithelia. PMID:25706233

  17. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, Pasquale; Colosi, Pietro; Colosi, Francesca; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE) and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE), the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls. PMID:25045743

  18. Epithelial Cell Polarity Determinant CRB3 in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    Cell polarity, which is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, organelle distribution and cell function, is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, molecular transport, and cell fate. Epithelial cell polarity is mainly regulated by three conserved polarity protein complexes, the Crumbs (CRB) complex, partitioning defective (PAR) complex and Scribble (SCRIB) complex. Research evidence has indicated that dysregulation of cell polarity proteins may play an important role in cancer development. Crumbs homolog 3 (CRB3), a member of the CRB complex, may act as a cancer suppressor in mouse kidney epithelium and mouse mammary epithelium. In this review, we focus on the current data available on the roles of CRB3 in cancer development. PMID:25552927

  19. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  20. Microtubules and Microfilaments during Cell Spreading and Colony Formation in PK 15 Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe A. Connolly; Vitauts I. Kalnins; Brian H. Barber

    1981-01-01

    We have studied the distribution of microtubules and microfilaments during cell spreading and subsequent colony formation in PK 15 pig kidney epithelial cells using indirect immunofluorescence. During cell spreading on a solid substratum, microtubules grew out from the region around the nucleus, and a collar of microfilament bundles formed around the cell periphery. Although virtually all well-spread cells showed a

  1. Epithelial cell proliferation in diverse models of experimental cholelithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A J Scott

    1978-01-01

    Proliferation of the epithelial cells of the gall bladder during the initial stages of experimental cholelithiasis has been studied by autoradiography. Rabbits taking a diet with 1% dihydrocholesterol added showed a rise in labelling index from 1.5%-19% by three days. Mice taking a 1% cholesterol 0.5% cholic acid diet showed a similar rise from less than 1% to 15-21% at

  2. Simulated Microgravity Induced Damage in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan E. Roberts; Barbara Kukielczak; Colin Chignell; Bob Sik; Dan-Ning Hu; Mary Ann Principato

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the potential damage to the human retina that may occur from weightlessness during space flight using simulated microgravity. Methods: Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells were cultured for 24 hours in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor vessel (RWV) to mimic the microgravity environment of space. Single-stranded breaks in hRPE DNA induced

  3. Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Maldonado-Contreras; Beth A. McCormick

    2011-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells\\u000a that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal\\u000a microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite\\u000a of

  4. Analysis of ciliogenesis in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Vladar, Eszter K; Brody, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Cell biological and molecular characterization of structural and functional ciliary components and regulators of mammalian motile ciliogenesis is made possible by the development of a robust and biologically faithful mouse tracheal epithelial cell (MTEC) culture system and complementary research techniques. Here, we describe the air-liquid interface culture of mouse airway epithelial progenitor cells that undergo motile ciliogenesis de novo. Multiciliated cells differentiate rapidly, and distinct stages of the ciliogenesis pathway can be identified and characterized with centriolar and ciliary immunofluorescence markers. Immunolabeled structures correlate with morphological features previously identified by electron microscopy, facilitating light microscopy analysis. MTEC cultures can be successfully transduced by lentiviral RNAi or epitope-tagged cDNA constructs to perturb gene expression. Also, motile ciliogenesis can be manipulated by drug treatment. Distinct cell populations can be isolated by cell sorting to facilitate comparison among the multiciliated and other cell types in the in vitro differentiated epithelium. The MTEC system uniquely offers the study of ciliogenesis in cells from genetically modified mouse strains. PMID:23522475

  5. Slugging their way to immortality: driving mammary epithelial cells into a stem cell-like state

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delineating the molecular factors that define and maintain the mammary stem cell state is vital for understanding normal development and tumourigenesis. A recent study by Guo and colleagues identifies two master transcriptional regulators of mammary stem cells, Slug and Sox9, ectopic expression of which confers stem cell attributes on differentiated mammary epithelial cells. Slug and Sox9 expression was also shown to determine in vivo metastatic potential of human breast cancer cell lines. Understanding these factors in the context of normal lineage differentiation is an important step toward elucidating the mammary epithelial cell hierarchy and the origins of cancer stem cells. PMID:22971267

  6. Building Epithelial Tissues from Skin Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, E.; Nowak, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The skin epidermis and its appendages provide a protective barrier that guards against loss of fluids, physical trauma, and invasion by harmful microbes. To perform these functions while confronting the harsh environs of the outside world, our body surface undergoes constant rejuvenation through homeostasis. In addition, it must be primed to repair wounds in response to injury. The adult skin maintains epidermal homeostasis, hair regeneration, and wound repair through the use of its stem cells. What are the properties of skin stem cells, when do they become established during embryogenesis, and how are they able to build tissues with such remarkably distinct architectures? How do stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis and repair wounds and how do they regulate the delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation? What is the relationship between skin cancer and mutations that perturbs the regulation of stem cells? In the past 5 years, the field of skin stem cells has bloomed as we and others have been able to purify and dissect the molecular properties of these tiny reservoirs of goliath potential. We report here progress on these fronts, with emphasis on our laboratory’s contributions to the fascinating world of skin stem cells. PMID:19022769

  7. Transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (beas-2b) alter the growth and morphology of normal human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Albright; Raymond T. Jones; Eric A. Hudson; Joseph A. Fontana; Benjamin F. Trump; James H. Resau

    1990-01-01

    Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BE) and adenovirus-12 SV40 hybrid virus transformed, non-tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were cultured for 7 days in a serum free hormone supplemented medium. BE cells after 3 days in culture were exposed to conditioned medium (CMt) from confluent BEAS-2B cells. By day 7, CMt-treated BE cells exhibited a lower colony forming efficiency (CFE),

  8. Airway epithelial cells from asthmatic children differentially express proremodeling factors

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Guisa, Jesus M.; Powers, Claire; File, Daniele; Cochrane, Elizabeth; Jimenez, Nathalia; Debley, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The airway epithelium can express factors that drive subepithelial airway remodeling. TGF-?2, vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), and periostin are hypothesized to be involved in subepithelial remodeling and are overexpressed in adult asthmatic airways. Epidemiologic data suggest that lung function deficits in asthmatic patients are acquired in childhood. Objectives We sought to determine whether airway epithelial cells (AECs) from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-?2, VEGF, ADAM33, or periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children intrinsically or in response to IL-4/IL-13 stimulation. Methods Bronchial and nasal epithelial cells were obtained from brushings from well-characterized asthmatic (n = 16), atopic nonasthmatic (n = 9), and healthy (n = 15) children after achievement of anesthesia for elective procedures. After differentiation at an air-liquid interface (ALI) for 3 weeks, conditioned media were sampled and RNA was extracted from unstimulated and IL-4/IL-13–stimulated cultures. TGF-?2 and VEGF levels were measured with ELISA. ADAM33 and periostin expression was assessed by using real-time PCR. Results TGF-?2 and VEGF production was significantly greater in bronchial and nasal ALI cultures from asthmatic children than in cultures from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. TGF-?2 levels increased significantly in asthmatic cultures after IL-4/IL-13 stimulation. Within-subject correlation between nasal and bronchial ALI production of TGF-?2 (r = 0.64, P = .001) and VEGF (r = 0.73, P < .001) was good. Periostin expression was 3.7-fold higher in bronchial cells (P < .001) and 3.9-fold higher in nasal cells (P < .004) from asthmatic children than in cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children. ADAM33 was not differentially expressed by AECs from asthmatic patients compared with that from cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children. Conclusion AECs from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-?2, VEGF, and periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. Nasal epithelial cells might be a suitable surrogate for bronchial cells that could facilitate investigation of the airway epithelium in future longitudinal pediatric studies. PMID:22227417

  9. Epithelial-derived basal lamina regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, H C; Cummings, E; Bringas, P; Honig, L S

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms by which epithelial-mesenchymal interactions result in differentiation are not known. A number of recombinations between vertebrate tissues associated with epidermal organs (e.g. skin, feather, mammary gland, salivary gland, tooth organ) indicate that regional mesenchymal specificity is instructive for determination and differentiation of epithelial phenotypes. In epidermal organs within which mesenchyme becomes determined and differentiates into a unique phenotype, such as during tooth organogenesis and odontoblast differentiation. Does the epithelial-derived basal lamina regulate mesenchymal differentiation into odontoblasts and the expression of dentine extracellular matrix? Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that murine or avian epithelial-derived basal lamina possess information which is instructive for determined dental mesenchyme to differentiate into odontoblasts. The strategy was to examine homologous and heterologous tissue recombinants between Theiler stage 25 C57BL/6 molar tooth organs and Hamburger-Hamilton equivalent stage 22-26 Japanese Pharoah quail mandibular processes. Trypsin-dissociated molar epithelium and mesenchyme, reconstituted, secreted a basal lamina within 8 hours and mesenchyme differentiated into odontoblasts and formed dentine matrix within 3 days. Isolated trypsin-dissociated mesenchyme did not differentiate in vitro, whereas heterologous recombinants between odontogenic mesenchyma and quail epithelia resulted in odontoblasts and dentine production. Mouse tooth or quail mandibular epithelia served to regulate odontogenic mesenchyme differentiation. EDTA-dissociated mouse molar mesenchyme, in the absence of epithelium but with adherent basal lamina, routinely differentiated into odontoblasts. Control tooth organs routinely formed both dentine and enamel extracellular matrices within 7-10 days in our serumless, chemically-defined organ culture system. Regulation of determined mesenchymal cells to differentiate into functional and highly specialized odontoblasts appears to be mediated by epithelial-derived basal lamina and is not species or organ-specific. PMID:7122570

  10. Kindlin-1 and -2 Have Overlapping Functions in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Yinghong; Esser, Philipp; Heinemann, Anja; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Kindlins are a novel family of intracellular adaptor proteins in integrin-containing focal adhesions. Kindlin-1 and -2 are expressed in the skin, but whether and how they cooperate in adult epithelial cells have remained elusive. We uncovered the overlapping roles of kindlin-1 and -2 in maintaining epithelial integrity and show that the phenotype of kindlin-1-deficient cells can be modulated by regulating kindlin-2 gene expression and vice versa. The experimental evidence is provided by use of human keratinocyte cell lines that express both kindlins, just kindlin-1 or kindlin-2, or none of them. Double deficiency of kindlin-1 and -2 had significant negative effects on focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton organization, cell adhesion, survival, directional migration, and activation of ?1 integrin, whereas deficiency of one kindlin only showed variable perturbation of these functions. Cell motility and formation of cell-cell contacts were particularly affected by lack of kindlin-2. These results predict that kindlin-1 and -2 can functionally compensate for each other, at least in part. The high physiologic and pathologic significance of the compensation was emphasized by the discovery of environmental regulation of kindlin-2 expression. UV-B irradiation induced loss of kindlin-2 in keratinocytes. This first example of environmental regulation of kindlin expression has implications for phenotype modulation in Kindler syndrome, a skin disorder caused by kindlin-1 deficiency. PMID:21356350

  11. Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and Gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications. PMID:23527214

  12. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N. [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  13. Synthesis and Secretion of Interleukin15 by Freshly Isolated Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Ge; Yasuhiko Nishioka; Yoichi Nakamura; Yoshio Okano; Kazuo Yoneda; Hirohisa Ogawa; Akemi Sugita; Hiroaki Yanagawa; Saburo Sone

    2004-01-01

    Background: Interleukin-15 (IL-15), which shares many functional activities of IL-2, is proposed as a potential modulator of T and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Since IL-15 gene is expressed in various cell types including epithelial cells, we examined how proinflammatory modulators affect IL-15 gene expression in both freshly isolated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and the human bronchial epithelial

  14. Expression of Cytokines on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induced by Influenza Virus A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsuru Adachi; Satoshi Matsukura; Hisahiro Tokunaga; Fumio Kokubu

    1997-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases of bronchial mucosa. Epithelial-cell-derived cytokines are important in the elucidation of the mechanism by which airway inflammation occurs, especially in respiratory virus infection, because these cells are the primary sites of viral infection. We infected bronchial epithelial cells, NCI-H292, with influenza virus A (H3N2) and examined

  15. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  16. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  17. HIV Protease Inhibitors Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Disrupt Barrier Integrity in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiping Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier plays a crucial role in maintaining symbiotic homeostasis between microbes in the gut lumen and eukaryotic cells. Disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier function occurs commonly under various pathological conditions, including trauma, inflammatory bowel disease, and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity, exhibiting increased intestinal epithelial paracellular permeability or “leakiness” of the intestinal mucosa. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

  18. Differential effects of hypoxic stress in alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Sara; Jennings, Paul; Leonard, Martin O; Pfaller, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Under hypoxic conditions eukaryotic cells and tissues undergo adaptive responses involving glycolysis, angiogenesis, vasoconstriction and inflammation. The underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated and are most likely cell and tissue specific. In the lung, alveolar epithelial cells and microvascular endothelial cells are highly sensitive to hypoxia and together orchestrate a rapid and sustained adaptive response. We examined the effect of different oxygen tensions on cell viability, glucose metabolism, key transcription factors and signaling molecules, in alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Both cell types tolerated hypoxia without detectable cell injury. Hypoxia induced glycolysis in both epithelial and microvascular endothelial cells, although A549 cells exhibited a higher rate of glucose consumption. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) was activated with decreasing oxygen tensions in both cell types. This effect was again more marked in A549 cells, demonstrating epithelial cells to be more oxygen sensitive. Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF-3) was heavily induced by hypoxia in A549 cells but not in HMEC-1 cells. Both cell types exhibited hypoxia induced secretion of VEGF and IL-6. Secretion of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET1) was increased by hypoxia in HMEC-1 cells but decreased in A549 cells. These data reveal that both cell types exhibit an adaptive response to hypoxia but alveolar epithelial cells are generally more sensitive. ET-1 was oppositely regulated by decreased oxygen tensions in the investigated cell types. The present study further elucidates the adaptive molecular mechanisms in pulmonary hypoxia and demonstrates cell specific responses. PMID:20054152

  19. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Spiess, Page C; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J; Matthews, Dwight E; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-10-19

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase ?. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  20. Nanoparticle effects on rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayer barrier properties

    PubMed Central

    Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Phuleria, Harish C.; Demaio, Lucas; Liang, Chi H.; Peng, Ching-An; Sioutas, Constantinos; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have been reported to contribute to deleterious effects on human health. In this study, we investigated the effects of ultrafine ambient particulate suspensions (UAPS), polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP; positively and negatively charged; 20, 100, 120 nm), quantum dots (QD; positively and negatively charged; 30 nm) and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on alveolar epithelial cell barrier properties. Transmonolayer resistance (Rt) and equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq) of primary rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers were measured in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of apical nanoparticles. In some experiments, apical-to-basolateral fluxes of radiolabeled mannitol or inulin were determined with or without apical UAPS exposure and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was analyzed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. Results revealed that exposure to UAPS decreased Rt and Ieq significantly over 24 hours, although neither mannitol nor inulin fluxes changed. Positively charged QD decreased Rt significantly (with subsequent recovery), while negatively charged QD did not. Rt decreased significantly after SWCNT exposure (with subsequent recovery). On the other hand, PNP exposure had no effects on Rt or Ieq. No significant increases in LDH release were observed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. These data indicate that disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier properties due to apical nanoparticle exposure likely involves alteration of cellular transport pathways and is dependent on specific nanoparticle composition, shape and/or surface charge. PMID:17555923

  1. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that showed signs of damage by viruses and virus titers (see figure) that indicated large increases in the populations of viruses during the days following inoculation.

  2. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida, E-mail: aidaibricevic@hotmail.co [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Brody, Steven L., E-mail: sbrody@dom.wustl.ed [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Youngs, Wiley J., E-mail: youngs@uakron.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Cannon, Carolyn L., E-mail: carolyn.cannon@utsouthwestern.ed [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  3. A serum-free method for culturing normal human bronchial epithelial cells at clonal density

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Lechner; Moira A. LaVeck

    1985-01-01

    Summary A technique for the isolation and culture of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells is described. This procedure involves first explanting fragments of large airway tissue to initiate fibroblastic-cell-free outgrowths of epithelial cells and subsequently using a serum-free medium (LHC-9) to propagate the NHBE cells at clonal density.

  4. Up-regulation of human eosinophil leukotriene C 4 generation through contact with bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dent; E. Rühlmann; K. Bodtke; H. Magnussen; K. F. Rabe

    2000-01-01

    Objective and Design: We studied the effect of contact with bronchial epithelial cells on the functional activity of human eosinophils, measured as the production of a bronchoconstrictor lipid mediator, leukotriene C4 (LTC4) to determine the role of cell-cell interaction in activation of air- way eosinophils. Materials and Methods: Eosinophils were isolated from peri- pheral blood of atopic donors. Epithelial cells

  5. Comparison of rhinovirus A infection in human primary epithelial and HeLa cells

    E-print Network

    targets of HRV are human bronchial epithelial cells (hBE), it is generally more difficult to obtainComparison of rhinovirus A infection in human primary epithelial and HeLa cells S. P. Amineva,1,2 A and maintain the relevant primary cell cultures, relative to HeLa cells. Given that the HRV are now identified

  6. Secretion of cytokines and chemokines by polarized human epithelial cells from the female reproductive tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Fahey; T. M Schaefer; J. Y. Channon; C. R. Wira

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory chemokines that attract and cytokines that activate immune cells contribute to normal physiological homeostasis in the female reproductive tract, and are needed to deal effectively with poten- tial pathogenic microbes. Mucosal epithelial cells are capable of producing these factors that communicate with cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. METHODS: Epithelial cells from Fallopian tube, endometrium and

  7. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  8. Potential uses of milk epithelial cells: a review Marion BOUTINAUD*, Hlne JAMMES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    cell count in milk and the distribution of cell types, such as species, infection status, physiological. Primary cultures of epithelial cells from colostrum and milk of humans, baboons, cows and goats together milk. 2. CELL TYPE DISTRIBUTION IN M

  9. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: from cell plasticity to concept elasticity.

    PubMed

    Savagner, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental cellular process occurring during early embryo development, including gastrulation and neural crest cell migration. It can be broken down in distinct functional steps: (1) loss of baso-apical polarization characterized by cytoskeleton, tight junctions, and hemidesmosomes remodeling; (2) individualization of cells, including a decrease in cell-cell adhesion forces, (3) emergence of motility, and (4) invasive properties, including passing through the subepithelial basement membrane. These phases occur in an uninterrupted process, without requiring mitosis, in an order and with a degree of completion dictated by the microenvironment. The whole process reflects the activation of specific transcription factor families, called EMT transcription factors. Several mechanisms can combine to induce EMT. Some are reversible, involving growth factors and cytokines and/or environmental signals including extracellular matrix and local physical conditions. Others are irreversible, such as genomic alterations during carcinoma progression, along a selective and irreversible clonal drift. In carcinomas, these signals can converge to initiate a metastable phenotype. In this state, similarly to activated keratinocytes during re-epithelialization, cells can initiate a cohort migration and engage into a transient and reversible EMT controlled by the local environment prior to efficient intravasation and metastasis. EMT transcription factors also participate in cancer progression by inducing apoptosis resistance and maintaining stem-like properties exposed in tumor recurrences. These properties, very important on a clinical point of view, are not intrinsically linked to EMT, but can share common pathways. PMID:25733143

  10. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17? and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17? concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses. PMID:22153266

  11. Cultured human bronchial epithelial cells: blood group antigens, keratin, collagens, and fibronectin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Stoner; Yoichi Katoh; Jean-Michel Foidart; Benjamin F. Trump; Peter M. Steinert; Curtis C. Harris

    1981-01-01

    Summary  Immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase methods were used to identify constituents and products of cultured human bronchial\\u000a epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Epithelial cells, but not fibroblasts, from patients with blood Types A or B reacted to\\u000a the respective antisera to either the A or B blood group antigens. However, neither the epithelial cells nor the fibroblasts\\u000a from patients with blood type O[H

  12. CARD15\\/NOD2 functions as an antibacterial factor in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadakazu Hisamatsu; Manabu Suzuki; Hans-Christian Reinecker; William J. Nadeau; Beth A. McCormick; Daniel K. Podolsky

    2003-01-01

    Background & Aims: Mutations in the CARD15\\/NOD2 gene, a putative intracellular pattern recognition receptor, have been linked to the risk for Crohn's disease. Because intestinal epithelial cells play a role as the barrier to luminal microorganisms, we investigated the expression and function of CARD15\\/NOD2 in intestinal epithelial cells. Methods: Expression of CARD15\\/NOD2 messenger RNA (mRNA) in intestinal epithelial cell lines

  13. Role of ocular pigment epithelial cells in immune privilege.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Sunao

    2009-01-01

    The ocular microenvironment is both immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory in nature. Pigment epithelial (PE) cells isolated from the eye possess the ability to suppress the T cell receptor-dependent activation of T cells and the induction of regulatory T cells in vitro. This property is dependent on the cells' capacity to produce cell-surface and soluble inhibitory molecules, for example CD86 (B7-2), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, thrombospondin-1, programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1/B7-H1), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 2alpha. Cultured ocular PE cells from the iris, ciliary body, and retina can individually suppress T-cell activation via mechanisms that partially overlap. Moreover, PE-derived regulatory T cells acquire functions that play a role in establishing immune regulation in the eye. Multiple strategies are employed within the eye to control immune-mediated inflammation. This phenomenon is known as immune privilege and is instrumental in helping to prevent extensive damage to bystander cells that would otherwise lead to blindness. This review focuses on the immunosuppressive property and role of ocular PE cells in immune privileged sites. PMID:19568919

  14. ?3 Integrin and Src facilitate transforming growth factor-? mediated induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J Galliher; William P Schiemann

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? suppresses breast cancer formation by preventing cell cycle progression in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). During the course of mammary tumorigenesis, genetic and epigenetic changes negate the cytostatic actions of TGF-?, thus enabling TGF-? to promote the acquisition and development of metastatic phenotypes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this conversion of TGF-? function remain poorly understood but

  15. Nanoemulsion nasal adjuvant W805EC induces dendritic cell engulfment of antigen-primed epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F.; Smith, Douglas M.; Passmore, Crystal; Pham, Tiffany; Wong, Pamela; Bielinska, Anna U.; Baker, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoemulsions are adjuvants that enhance antigen penetration in the nasal mucosa, increase cellular uptake of antigens by both epithelial dendritic cells, and promote migration of antigen-loaded dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes within a day of vaccine administration. The objective of this study was to determine whether the W805EC nanoemulsion adjuvant enhances immune response not only by direct uptake of antigen by dendritic cells, but also indirectly, by phagocytosis of antigen-primed, apoptotic, epithelial cells. Consistent with this, we show that exposure of both epithelial cells (TC-1s) and dendritic cells (JAWS II or bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)) to nanoemulsion exhibited augmented antigen uptake in cell culture. TC-1 cells subsequently underwent G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and when co-cultured with JAWS II or BMDCs were rapidly engulfed by the dendritic cells, which responded by up-regulating dendritic cell maturation marker CD86. Altogether these results suggest that the effectiveness of nanoemulsions as adjuvants stems, at least in part, from the engulfment of antigen-loaded epithelial cells, leading to enhanced antigen processing and a strong and balanced mucosal and systemic immune response. PMID:23273511

  16. The antigenic determinant that defines thymic nurse cells is expressed by thymic epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chilukuri, Rajendra V. E.; Patel, Viral K.; Martinez, Marcia; Guyden, Jerry C.; Samms, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Stromal thymic epithelial cells with the multicellular structure unique to thymic nurse cells (TNCs) express the pH91 antigen on their cell surfaces. The multicellular TNC-complexes develop through an intimate association between ??TCR+CD4+CD8+ thymocytes and pH91-expressing cortical epithelial cells. TNCs participate in MHC-restriction and exhibit epithelial cell progenitor characteristics. In this report, we show that as early as E11.5 stage of thymus development, the pH91 antigen is expressed in association with K8, K5, Foxn1, and p63. The expression of these epithelial progenitor markers along with the pH91 antigen persists throughout thymic development in the murine thymus. At E13.5, pH91+ cells express relatively low levels of MHC class II. After E17.5, the first multicellular TNC complexes are recognizable along with increased cell surface expression of MHC class II. Our data suggest that epithelial cells bearing the “progenitor phenotype” develop into the multicellular TNCs. PMID:25340052

  17. Nanoparticle effects on rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayer barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Yacobi, Nazanin R; Phuleria, Harish C; Demaio, Lucas; Liang, Chi H; Peng, Ching-An; Sioutas, Constantinos; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D

    2007-12-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have been reported to contribute to deleterious effects on human health. In this study, we investigated the effects of ultrafine ambient particulate suspensions (UAPS), polystyrene nanoparticles (PNP; positively and negatively charged; 20, 100, 120 nm), quantum dots (QD; positively and negatively charged; 30 nm) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on alveolar epithelial cell barrier properties. Transmonolayer resistance (R(t)) and equivalent short-circuit current (I(eq)) of primary rat alveolar epithelial monolayers were measured in the presence and absence of varying concentrations of apical nanoparticles. In some experiments, apical-to-basolateral fluxes of radiolabeled mannitol or inulin were determined with or without apical UAPS exposure and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release was analyzed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. Results revealed that exposure to UAPS decreased R(t) and I(eq) significantly over 24 h, although neither mannitol nor inulin fluxes changed. Positively charged QD decreased R(t) significantly (with subsequent recovery), while negatively charged QD did not. R(t) decreased significantly after SWCNT exposure (with subsequent recovery). On the other hand, PNP exposure had no effects on R(t) or I(eq). No significant increases in LDH release were observed after UAPS or SWCNT exposure. These data indicate that disruption of alveolar epithelial barrier properties due to apical nanoparticle exposure likely involves alteration of cellular transport pathways and is dependent on specific nanoparticle composition, shape and/or surface charge. PMID:17555923

  18. Lectins as Endocytic Ligands: An Assessment of Lectin Binding and Uptake to Rabbit Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Qaddoumi; Vincent H. L. Lee

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the binding and uptake pattern of three plant lectins in rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs) with respect to their potential for enhancing cellular macromolecular uptake.

  19. Force dependence of phagosome trafficking in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Rebekah; Koll, Andrew T.; Altman, David

    2014-09-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play an integral role in the renewal of photoreceptor disk membranes. As rod and cone cells shed their outer segments, they are phagocytosed and degraded by the RPE, and a failure in this process can result in retinal degeneration. We have studied the role of myosin VI in nonspecific phagocytosis in a human RPE primary cell line (ARPE-19), testing the hypothesis that this motor generates the forces required to traffic phagosomes in these cells. Experiments were conducted in the presence of forces through the use of in vivo optical trapping. Our results support a role for myosin VI in phagosome trafficking and demonstrate that applied forces modulate rates of phagosome trafficking.

  20. H. pylori Infection Inhibits Phagocyte Clearance of Apoptotic Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Smythies, Lesley E.; Waites, Ken B.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Mannon, Peter J.; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, C. Mel; Harris, Paul R.; Das, Soumita; Ernst, Peter B.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2013-01-01

    Increased apoptotic death of gastric epithelial cells is a hallmark of H. pylori infection, and altered epithelial cell turnover is an important contributor to gastric carcinogenesis. To address the fate of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells and their role in H. pylori mucosal disease, we investigated phagocyte clearance of apoptotic gastric epithelial cells in H. pylori infection. Human gastric mononuclear phagocytes were analyzed for their ability to take up apoptotic epithelial cells in vivo using immunofluorescence analysis. We then used primary human gastric epithelial cells induced to undergo apoptosis by exposure to live H. pylori to study apoptotic cell uptake by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. We show that HLA-DR+ mononuclear phagocytes in human gastric mucosa contain cytokeratin-positive and TUNEL-positive apoptotic epithelial cell material, indicating that gastric phagocytes are involved in apoptotic epithelial cell clearance. We further show that H. pylori both increased apoptosis in primary gastric epithelial cells and decreased phagocytosis of the apoptotic epithelial cells by autologous monocyte-derived macrophages. Reduced macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells was mediated in part by H. pylori-induced macrophage TNF-?, which was expressed at higher levels in H. pylori-infected, compared to uninfected, gastric mucosa. Importantly, we show that H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa contained significantly higher numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells and higher levels of non-phagocytosed TUNEL-positive apoptotic material, consistent with a defect in apoptotic cell clearance. Thus, as shown in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, insufficient phagocyte clearance may contribute to the chronic and self-perpetuating inflammation in human H. pylori infection. PMID:23686492

  1. ISOLATION AND LONG-TERM CULTURE OF RAT, RABBIT, AND HUMAN NASAL TURBINATE EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nasal turbinate epithelial cells were isolated from rats, rabbits, and humans using either a surgical or an in situ enzyme incubation technique. The culture conditions that permit optimal cell attachment and selective growth of the nasal epithelial cells were determined. These co...

  2. Binding to and killing of human renal epithelial cells by hemolytic P-fimbriated E. coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna L Trifillis; Michael S Donnenberg; Xiaoling Cui; Robert G Russell; Simon J Utsalo; Harry L T Mobley; John W Warren

    1994-01-01

    Binding to and killing of human renal epithelial cells by hemolytic P-fimbriated E. coli. Acute pyelonephritis is a common invasive infection frequently caused by E. coli that possess P-fimbriae and secrete hemolysin. We have examined the role of P fimbriae and hemolysin in the killing of putative target cells of acute pyelonephritis, that is, human renal epithelial cells (HRPTEC). Cultures

  3. Upregulation of pirin expression by chronic cigarette smoking is associated with bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D Gelbman; Adriana Heguy; Timothy P O'Connor; Joseph Zabner; Ronald G Crystal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke disrupts the protective barrier established by the airway epithelium through direct damage to the epithelial cells, leading to cell death. Since the morphology of the airway epithelium of smokers does not typically demonstrate necrosis, the most likely mechanism for epithelial cell death in response to cigarette smoke is apoptosis. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke directly up-regulates expression

  4. HIV infects glomerular endothelial and mesangial but not epithelial cells in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dollie F Green; Lionel Resnick; Jacques J Bourgoignie

    1992-01-01

    HIV infects glomerular endothelial and mesangial but not epithelial cells in vitro. The infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in human glomerular cells was evaluated by exposing homogeneous cultures of human glomerular capillary endothelial, mesangial and epithelial cells to HIV in vitro. Infectivity and HIV expression was assessed by: 1) the measurement of p24 antigen production from culture supernatants; 2)

  5. Micronucleus Frequencies and Nuclear Anomalies in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial Cells of Firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manas Ranjan Ray; Chandreyi Basu; Senjuti Mukherjee; Sanghita Roychowdhury; Twisha Lahiri

    KEYWORDS Buccal epithelium; firefighter; micronucleus assay ABSTRACT To determine the genotoxic effects of combustion fumes on the target tissues, micronucleus (MN) assay was carried out in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of 47 firefighters. Compared to a mean value of 1.25 MN per 1000 cells in 40 matched controls, the firefighters had 3.91 MN per 1000 epithelial cells in their oral

  6. Kidney injury molecule-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Takaharu; Asseldonk, Edwin J P V; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Duffield, Jeremy S; Bonventre, Joseph V

    2008-05-01

    Following injury, the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells is necessary for mitigation and resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. In addition to macrophages, which are traditionally assigned to this task, neighboring epithelial cells in the affected tissue are postulated to contribute to this process. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that injured kidney epithelial cells assumed attributes of endogenous phagocytes. Confocal images confirm internalization of apoptotic bodies within KIM-1-expressing epithelial cells after injury in rat kidney tubules in vivo. KIM-1 was directly responsible for phagocytosis in cultured primary rat tubule epithelial cells and also porcine and canine epithelial cell lines. KIM-1 was able to specifically recognize apoptotic cell surface-specific epitopes phosphatidylserine, and oxidized lipoproteins, expressed by apoptotic tubular epithelial cells. Thus, KIM-1 is the first nonmyeloid phosphatidylserine receptor identified to our knowledge that transforms epithelial cells into semiprofessional phagocytes. PMID:18414680

  7. Effect of Matrigel on Function and Morphology of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cell in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marefat Ghaffari Novin; Mohammad Nouri

    Introduction: The importance of extra cellular matrix (ECM) in development and function of different cells has been reported but little is known about its role in human endometrial epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to examine effects of artificial ECM (Matrigel) and progesterone on the function and morphology of human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. Methods: Endometrial

  8. Requirements for proximal tubule epithelial cell detachment in response to ischemia: Role of oxidative stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Sáenz-Morales; María M. Escribese; Konstantinos Stamatakis; María García-Martos; Laura Alegre; Elisa Conde; Dolores Pérez-Sala; Francisco Mampaso; M. Laura García-Bermejo

    2006-01-01

    Sublethal renal ischemia induces tubular epithelium damage and kidney dysfunction. Using NRK-52E rat proximal tubular epithelial cells, we have established an in vitro model, which includes oxygen and nutrients deprivation, to study the proximal epithelial cell response to ischemia. By means of this system, we demonstrate that confluent NRK-52E cells lose monolayer integrity and detach from collagen IV due to:

  9. In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic

    E-print Network

    In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are critical for the health of the retina, especially the photoreceptors. A re- cent study demonstrated that individual RPE cells could be imaged in macaque in vivo

  10. Cholinergic regulation of epithelial sodium channels in rat alveolar type 2 epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yoshizumi; Helms, My N.; Eaton, Amity F.; Self, Julie; Ramosevac, Semra; Jain, Lucky; Bao, Hui-Fang

    2013-01-01

    We and others have shown that epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells are activated by ?2 agonists, steroid hormones, elevated oxygen tension, and by dopamine. Although acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) have been previously described in the lung, there are few reports of whether cholinergic agonists alter sodium transport in the alveolar epithelium. Therefore, we investigated how cholinergic receptors regulate ENaC activity in primary cultures of rat AT2 cells using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings to assess ENaC activity. We found that the muscarinic agonists, carbachol (CCh) and oxotremorine, activated ENaC in a dose-dependent manner but that nicotine did not. CCh-induced activation of ENaC was blocked by atropine. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry suggested that muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors (mAChRs) but not nicotinic receptors were present in AT2 cells. Endogenous RhoA and GTP-RhoA increased in response to CCh and the increase was reduced by pretreatment with atropine. We showed that Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), abolished endogenous ENaC activity and inhibited the activation of ENaC by CCh. We also showed that ROCK signaling was necessary for ENaC stability in 2F3 cells, a model for AT2 cells. Our results showed that muscarinic agonists activated ENaC in rat AT2 cells through M2 and/or M3 mAChRs probably via a RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:23292809

  11. PAX8 expression in ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adler, Emily; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Gayther, Simon A; Lawrenson, Kate

    2015-07-01

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is usually diagnosed at a late stage and is associated with poor prognosis. Understanding early stage disease biology is essential in developing clinical biomarkers to detect HGSOC earlier. While recent studies indicate that HGSOCs arise from fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells, a considerable body of evidence suggests that HGSOC can also arise from ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSECs). PAX8 is overexpressed in HGSOCs and expressed in fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells, but there are conflicting reports about PAX8 expression in OSECs. The purposes of this study were to comprehensively characterize PAX8 expression in a large series of OSECs and to investigate the role of PAX8 in early HGSOC development. PAX8 protein expression was analyzed in the OSECs of 27 normal ovaries and 7 primary OSEC cultures using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent cytochemistry. PAX8 messenger RNA expression was quantified in 66 primary OSEC cultures. Cellular transformation was evaluated in OSECs expressing a PAX8 construct. PAX8 was expressed by 44% to 71% of OSECs. Calretinin and E-cadherin were frequently coexpressed with PAX8. Expression of PAX8 in OSECs decreased cellular migration (P = .028), but had no other effects on cellular transformation. In addition, PAX8 expression was significantly increased (P = .003) in an in vitro stepwise model of neoplastic transformation. In conclusion, PAX8 is frequently expressed by OSECs, and endogenous levels of PAX8 expression are non-transforming. These data indicate that in OSECs, PAX8 expression may represent a normal state and that OSECs may represent an origin of HGSOCs. PMID:26079312

  12. Antibody inhibition of human cytomegalovirus spread in epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohong; Lee, Ronzo; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies reduce the incidence of CMV transmission and ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated disease. Neutralizing activity, measured as the ability of antibodies to prevent entry of cell-free virus, is an important component of natural immunity. However, in vivo CMV amplification may occur mainly via spread between adjacent cells within tissues. Thus, inhibition of cell-to-cell spread may be important when evaluating therapeutic antibodies or humoral responses to infection or immunization. In vitro CMV cell-to-cell spread is largely resistant to antibodies in fibroblast cultures but sensitive in endothelial cell cultures. In the present study antibodies in CMV hyperimmuneglobulin or seropositive human sera inhibited CMV cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures. Spread inhibition activity was quantitated with a GFP reporter assay employing GFP-tagged epithelialtropic variants of CMV strains Towne or AD169. Measurement of spread inhibition provides an additional parameter for the evaluation of candidate vaccines or immunotherapeutics and to further characterize the role of antibodies in controlling CMV transmission and disease. PMID:23669101

  13. NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

  14. Heat Shock Protein 27 Associates with Basolateral Cell Boundaries in Heat-Shocked and ATP-Depleted Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC A. SHELDEN; MICHAEL J. BORRELLI; FIONA M. POLLOCK; RITA BONHAM

    Heat stress alters epithelial barrier function, and heat stress preconditioning protects epithelial function from injury. Hsp27 is a small stress protein that has previously been shown to modulate actin assembly. Thus, by regulating actin filaments associated with cell junctions, hsp27 could alter epithelial function. To begin to address this hypothesis, the regulation and distribution of a human hsp27- green fluorescence

  15. Cytogenetics of malignant epithelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finerty, S.; Jarvis, J. E.; Epstein, M. A.; Trumper, P. A.; Ball, G.; Giovanella, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    The malignant epithelial cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and cells of lines derived form the lymphoid cells which infiltrate this tumour have been investigated cytogenetically. Chromosome spreads of lymphoblastoid cells of lines established from 7 different NPC biopsy specimens were examined after banding staining. Banding was also applied to the epithelial tumour cells of 5 further biopsy specimens freed from non-malignant infiltrating cells by passage through nude mice; epithelial cell spreads were obtained by in vivo splindle arrest. Five of the lymphoblastoid lines were found to be diploid, and 2 tetraploid; the karyotypes were essentially normal. The squamous epithelial nature of the cells in the nude-mouse-grown NPC tumours was established by light and electronmicroscopy, and 3 tumours were found to be near-triploid, and 2 near-diploid. The cells of the near-triploid tumours contained grossly abnormal chromosomes but those of the near-diploid tumours showed only relatively minor changes. Although abnormalities were observed which were specific for cells from each individual tumour, no discernible change was common to cells from all the tumours. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:629860

  16. Induction of mesenchymal cell phenotypes in lung epithelial cells by adenovirus E1A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Behzad; K. Morimoto; J. Gosselink; J. Green; J. C. Hogg; S. Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation is now recognised as an important feature of tissue remodelling. The present report concerns the role of adenovirus infection in inducing this transformation in an animal model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Guinea pig primary peripheral lung epithelial cells (PLECs) transfected with adenovirus E1A (E1A-PLECs) were compared to guinea pig normal lung fibroblasts (NLFs) transfected with E1A (E1A-NLFs).

  17. A 6-year-old girl with vaginal spotting who was diagnosed with perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm after vaginoscopic resection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kim, Chung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) is a rare tumor with unknown malignant potential. We report a case of a 6-year-old child with history of brain tumor (pineoblastoma), who presented with intermittent vaginal spotting for 6 months. A vaginoscopy revealed a 1.5×1.0-cm mass on the vaginal wall. Pathological examination demonstrated that the tumor was composed of clear cells with organoid patterns, which were immunohistochemically positive for HMB-45 and TFE3, and negative for CK, HNF1-B, SOX10, Melan A, and S-100 protein. These findings were consistent with PEComa arising from the vagina. Regular follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging has shown no signs of recurrence. This case shows that early detection of PEComa and subsequent regular follow-ups are important because of the neoplasm's unknown malignant potential. PMID:25264534

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Nasal Epithelial Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n?=?4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n?=?8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n?=?4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology. PMID:25268127

  19. Reduced microtubule acetylation in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rymut, Sharon M.; Harker, Alyssa; Corey, Deborah A.; Burgess, James D.; Sun, Hongtao; Clancy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to many cellular consequences, including perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol due to impaired endosomal transport. The hypothesis being tested is that CF-related perinuclear cholesterol accumulation due to disrupted endocytic trafficking occurs as a result of reduced microtubule (MT) acetylation. Here, it is identified that acetylated-?-tubulin (Ac-tub) content is reduced by ?40% compared with respective wild-type controls in both cultured CF cell models (IB3) and primary Cftr?/? mouse nasal epithelial tissue. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to regulate MT acetylation, which provides reasonable grounds to test its impact on reduced Ac-tub content on CF cellular phenotypes. Inhibition of HDAC6, either through tubastatin treatment or HDAC6 knockdown in CF cells, increases Ac-tub content and results in redistributed free cholesterol and reduced stimulation of NF-?B activity. Mechanistically, endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is widely reported in CF and leads to aggresome formation, is identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. F508del CFTR correction with C18 in primary airway epithelial cells restores MT acetylation and cholesterol transport. A significant role for phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase p110? is also identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. PMID:23873844

  20. Reduced microtubule acetylation in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rymut, Sharon M; Harker, Alyssa; Corey, Deborah A; Burgess, James D; Sun, Hongtao; Clancy, John P; Kelley, Thomas J

    2013-09-15

    Dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to many cellular consequences, including perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol due to impaired endosomal transport. The hypothesis being tested is that CF-related perinuclear cholesterol accumulation due to disrupted endocytic trafficking occurs as a result of reduced microtubule (MT) acetylation. Here, it is identified that acetylated-?-tubulin (Ac-tub) content is reduced by ?40% compared with respective wild-type controls in both cultured CF cell models (IB3) and primary Cftr-/- mouse nasal epithelial tissue. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to regulate MT acetylation, which provides reasonable grounds to test its impact on reduced Ac-tub content on CF cellular phenotypes. Inhibition of HDAC6, either through tubastatin treatment or HDAC6 knockdown in CF cells, increases Ac-tub content and results in redistributed free cholesterol and reduced stimulation of NF-?B activity. Mechanistically, endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is widely reported in CF and leads to aggresome formation, is identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. F508del CFTR correction with C18 in primary airway epithelial cells restores MT acetylation and cholesterol transport. A significant role for phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase p110? is also identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. PMID:23873844

  1. Fas antigen-mediated apoptosis of ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Quirk, S M; Cowan, R G; Huber, S H

    1997-11-01

    The Fas antigen is a cell surface receptor that, when engaged by Fas ligand or specific agonistic antibodies, triggers apoptosis. The effect of an agonistic monoclonal antibody to mouse Fas antigen (Fas mAb, clone J02) on the viability of cells from dispersed mouse corpora lutea (CL cultures) was tested. Cultures were prepared by enzymatic digestion of CL from day 4-7 pseudopregnant mice. Cultures were pretreated with 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml murine interferon-gamma (IFN) at 72 h of culture. IFN has been shown to increase Fas antigen expression in a number of cell types. At 96 h (time zero), cultures were treated with Fas mAb or IgG. By 4 h after Fas mAb treatment, discrete homogeneous patches of cells within the cultures showed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including blebbing of cell membranes, detachment, and disappearance from the culture. CL cultures contain luteal, stromal, and endothelial cells; fibroblasts; and surface epithelial cells (OSE). Cells dying in response to Fas mAb were identified as OSE. Affected cells had the cobblestone appearance and distinct nuclei typical of epithelial cells. Unlike luteal cells, OSE did not stain with the lipophilic dye, Nile red. The cells did not stain with acetylated low density lipoprotein conjugated to the fluorescent marker octadecyl indocarbocyanine, a marker for endothelial cells and monocytes. Cells in patches stained positively for cytokeratin, a marker for epithelial cells. Fas-mediated cytotoxicity was quantified by counting the number of cells present in discrete patches of OSE 0 and 8 h after Fas mAb treatment. Fas mAb treatment had no effect in cultures pretreated with 0 or 1 U/ml IFN, but induced significant death of OSE in cultures pretreated with 10, 100, and 1000 U/ml IFN (37 +/- 11%, 54 +/- 18%, and 60 +/- 11%, respectively). There was no apparent effect of Fas mAb on other cell types within the CL cultures. To confirm that cells dying in response to Fas mAb were OSE, experiments were also performed on enriched cultures of OSE prepared by enzymatic digestion of the outer surface of the ovary. In enriched OSE cultures pretreated with 200 U/ml IFN, there was 44% killing in response to Fas mAb, whereas in cells not pretreated with IFN, there was no effect. In situ fluorescent end labeling of DNA in CL cultures indicated that treatment with IFN and Fas mAb induced DNA fragmentation in OSE typical of apoptosis. Immunocytochemistry of CL cultures indicated that Fas antigen was expressed in OSE pretreated with IFN. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that IFN pretreatment increased Fas antigen messenger RNA levels 2.3-fold in enriched cultures of OSE. In summary, OSE in CL cultures and enriched cultures of OSE undergo apoptosis in response to Fas mAb when pretreated with IFN. In vivo, OSE undergo programmed cell death before ovulation and rapidly proliferate to repair the surface of the ovulatory follicle after ovulation. Most ovarian cancers are derived from the OSE. The results have implications for both normal ovarian function and oncogenesis in the ovary. PMID:9348178

  2. Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B

    2005-04-01

    Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations of reduced NPSH in renal epithelial cells than in hepatocytes. PMID:15725515

  3. Circulating CD4 and CD8 T Cells Have Little Impact on Host Defense against Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL L. FIDEL; MARIA E. LYNCH; ANDJACK D. SOBEL

    1995-01-01

    The etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in otherwise healthy women of child-bearing age remains an enigma. To date, results from both clinical studies and a murine model of vaginal candidiasis indicate that Candidavaginitis can occur in the presence ofCandida-specific Th1-type cell-mediated immunity expressed in the peripheral circulation. The present study was designed to determine the role of circulating CD4 and

  4. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  5. Water fluxes through aquaporin-9 prime epithelial cells for rapid wound healing.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Thommie; Lagerholm, B Christoffer; Vikström, Elena; Loitto, Vesa M; Magnusson, Karl-Eric

    2013-01-18

    Cells move along surfaces both as single cells and multi-cellular units. Recent research points toward pivotal roles for water flux through aquaporins (AQPs) in single cell migration. Their expression is known to facilitate this process by promoting rapid shape changes. However, little is known about the impact on migrating epithelial sheets during wound healing and epithelial renewal. Here, we investigate and compare the effects of AQP9 on single cell and epithelial sheet migration. To achieve this, MDCK-1 cells stably expressing AQP9 were subjected to migration assessment. We found that AQP9 facilitated cell locomotion at both the single and multi-cellular level. Furthermore, we identified major differences in the monolayer integrity and cell size upon expression of AQP9 during epithelial sheet migration, indicating a rapid volume-regulatory mechanism. We suggest a novel mechanism for epithelial wound healing based on AQP-induced swelling and expansion of the monolayer. PMID:23261438

  6. Sebocytes, multifaceted epithelial cells: lipid production and holocrine secretion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marlon R; Paus, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    Sebocytes are highly specialized, sebum-producing epithelial cells that release their content by rupture of the cell membrane and cellular degradation (holocrine secretion). These cells are most commonly found in the skin in association with hair follicles (forming the pilosebaceous unit), where they arise from hair follicle keratinocytes, but there are also sebaceous glands (SGs) not associated with a hair follicle. The latter have special functions as secretion of pheromones or corneal protection. While the full range of sebum functions in human skin remains to be clarified, sebum forms an integral component of the epidermal barrier and the skin immune system. Sebocyte formation is controlled by multiple molecular pathways (e.g. Blimp1, Wnt, C-myc, Hedgehog) and sebum synthesis is strongly regulated by hormones, in particular by androgens. Excessive sebum production is seen in acne vulgaris, one of the most common skin diseases, while deregulated sebocyte differentiation characterizes some rare benign and malignant tumors. PMID:19944183

  7. Characterization of bipotent mammary epithelial progenitor cells in normal adult human breast tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Stingl; Connie J. Eaves; Iman Zandieh; Joanne T. Emerman

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize primitive epithelial progenitor populations present in adult normal human mammary tissue using a combination of flow cytometry and in vitro colony assay procedures. Three types of human breast epithelial cell (HBEC) progenitors were identified: luminal-restricted, myoepithelial-restricted and bipotent progenitors. The first type expressed epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a6 integrin and

  8. Molecular signaling of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaoliang Ouyang; Zhe Wang; Xiaoguang Fang; Jia Liu; Chaoyong James Yang

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that allows polarized, well-differentiated\\u000a epithelial cells to convert to unpolarized, motile mesenchymal cells. EMT is critical for appropriate embryogenesis and plays\\u000a a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies revealed that there is a direct link between the EMT\\u000a program and the gain of epithelial stem

  9. CagA\\/cytotoxic strains of Helicobacter pylori and interleukin-8 in gastric epithelial cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J E Crabtree; S M Farmery; I J Lindley; N Figura; P Peichl; D S Tompkins

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate: (1) whether Helicobacter pylori directly induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) message expression and protein secretion in established gastric epithelial cell lines; and (2) if CagA\\/cytotoxin positive and negative strains of H pylori differ in their ability to induce epithelial IL-8. METHODS--Gastric epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with H pylori NCTC 11637 and 10 clinical isolates (four cytotoxic, six non-cytotoxic) and

  10. Hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Kato, Satomi; Colvocoresses-Dodds, Jennifer; Fifadara, Nimita H.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Helms, My N.; Carlton, David P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation is a pathological feature of lung diseases requiring oxygen therapy. One possible source for myofibroblasts is through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). To study the effects of oxygen on alveolar EMT, we used RLE-6TN and ex vivo lung slices and found that hyperoxia (85% O2, H85) decreased epithelial proteins, presurfactant protein B (pre-SpB), pro-SpC, and lamellar protein by 50% and increased myofibroblast proteins, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and vimentin by over 200% (P < 0.05). In AEC freshly isolated from H85-treated rats, mRNA for pre-SpB and pro-SpC was diminished by ?50% and ?-SMA was increased by 100% (P < 0.05). Additionally, H85 increased H2O2 content, and H2O2 (25–50 ?M) activated endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), as evident by H2DCFDA immunofluorescence and ELISA (P < 0.05). Both hyperoxia and H2O2 increased SMAD3 phosphorylation (260% of control, P < 0.05). Treating cultured cells with TGF-?1 inhibitors did not prevent H85-induced H2O2 production but did prevent H85-mediated ?-SMA increases and E-cadherin downregulation. Finally, to determine the role of TGF-?1 in hyperoxia-induced EMT in vivo, we evaluated AEC from H85-treated rats and found that vimentin increased ?10-fold (P < 0.05) and that this effect was prevented by intraperitoneal TGF-?1 inhibitor SB-431542. Additionally, SB-431542 treatment attenuated changes in alveolar histology caused by hyperoxia. Our studies indicate that hyperoxia promotes alveolar EMT through a mechanism that is dependent on activation of TGF-?1 signaling. PMID:24375795

  11. Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Strandberg, Kristi L; Brosnahan, Amanda J; Peterson, Marnie L; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Nephew, Karla R; Brunner, Kevin G; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Haase, Ashley T

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity. PMID:18838587

  12. Glycerol Monolaurate Does Not Alter Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Vaginal Lactobacilli and Is Safe for Chronic Use?

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Nephew, Karla R.; Brunner, Kevin G.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity. PMID:18838587

  13. Dendritic cell and epithelial cell interactions at the origin of murine asthma.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2014-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are ideally placed in the airways and lungs to capture inhaled allergens. Different subsets of DCs perform different tasks. Migratory conventional DCs (cDCs) expressing CD11b mediate Th2 priming to respiratory allergens, whereas cDCs expressing CD103 mediate tolerance to them. Monocyte-derived DCs are poorly migratory antigen-presenting cells that mainly produce proinflammatory chemokines and are necessary for maintaining allergic airway inflammation once initiated. The function of the airway DC network is closely controlled by cytokines released from airway epithelial cells. Airway epithelial cells react to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns released on allergen inhalation by producing pro-Th2 polarizing cytokines and chemokines that attract and activate DCs. This conceptual framework of epithelial and DC collaboration is very helpful in explaining the process of allergic sensitization and how this is influenced by genetics and environment. PMID:25525726

  14. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F

    2015-08-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu(2+)) or CuO particles of three different sizes: CuO NPs of 6nm (NP6), larger Poly-dispersed CuO NPs of <100nm (Poly) and CuO Micro particles of <5?m (Micro), at 200?M, equal to 12.7mgCu/L. Poly was significantly more toxic than NP6, Micro and Cu(2+) to A6 cells, causing DNA damage, decreased cell viability and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and eventually cell death. We show that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generation plays a key role and occurs early in Poly toxicity as Poly-induced DNA damage and cell death could be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Here we propose a model of the sequence of events explaining Poly toxicity. Briefly, the events include: cellular uptake, most likely via endocytosis, production of ROS, which cause DNA damage that activates a signaling pathway which eventually leads to cell death, mainly via apoptosis. PMID:25862124

  15. Effect of the extracellular matrix molecules fibronectin and laminin on the adhesion and growth of primary renal cortical epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry D. Oberley; Bruce W. Steinert

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Primary tubular epithelial cells were isolated from renal cortex following enzymatic dissociation with collagenase. These\\u000a cells were then grown in chemically defined media containing insulin, transferrin, selenium, tri-iodothyronine and either\\u000a fibronectin or laminin. The tubular epithelial cells were studied ultrastructurally and compared to another epithelial cell\\u000a type present in the renal cortex, the glomerular epithelial cell. In contrast to the

  16. Critical role of germ tube formation in the pathogenesis of candidal vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, J D; Muller, G; Buckley, H R

    1984-01-01

    A variant strain of Candida albicans incapable of hyphal production at 37 degrees C was used to study the role of germ tube formation in the pathogenesis of experimental vaginal candidiasis in rats. No difference was observed in the in vitro adherence at 25 degrees C of blastoconidia of the variant strain to vaginal epithelial cells when compared with the parent wild-type, germ tube-producing strain and multiple clinical isolates of C. albicans. However, after exposure to conditions favoring germ tube production, the adherence of the variant strain to epithelial cells was significantly less than that of germinated strains (P less than 0.01). In vivo animal studies revealed that the variant strain was less likely to result in vaginal colonization and infection than the wild-type strain and the other clinical isolates. Furthermore, infection, when established, was milder, often transient, and with significantly lower titers of cultured vaginal microorganisms obtained by lavage. Electron microscopic studies confirmed the failure of the variant strain to produce hyphae in vivo. The capacity of C. albicans to produce hyphae appears to be an important but nonessential virulence factor in the pathogenesis of candidal vaginitis. Images PMID:6327527

  17. Expression and function of fatty acid-binding protein 4 in epithelial cell of uterine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiuyuan; Jin, Yan; Wang, Peng; Wang, Hanzhi; Lu, Bingjian; Wang, Zhengping; Dong, Minyue

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate the expression of fatty-acid binding protein (FABP) 4 in human uterine endometrium and its function in the regulation of proliferation, migration and invasion of epithelial cells. Immunohistochenistry, immunofluorence and Western blotting were used to determine the expression and cellular localization of FABP4 in endometrium and endometrial epithelial cell lines. Interference of small ribonuclear acid (siRNA) and specific FABP4 inhibitor were used to inhibit FABP4. The proliferation, migration and invasion of epithelial cells were evaluated with CCK-8 assay, wound-healing test and transwell analysis respectively. We found that FABP4 was expressed by epithelial cells of proliferative endometrium and epithelial and stromal cells of secrectory endometrium. Epithelial cell lines Ishikawa and RL-952 expressed FABP4 and this expression was decreased by FABP4 siRNA. FABP4 siRNA and specific FABP4 inhibition significantly decreased the proliferation, migration and invasion of epithelial cell lines. We concluded that FABP4 is functionally expressed in endometrial epithelium and is necessary for maintaining the cell function of epithelial cells of endometrium. PMID:25572488

  18. Activated alveolar epithelial cells initiate fibrosis through autocrine and paracrine secretion of connective tissue growth factor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jibing; Velikoff, Miranda; Canalis, Ernesto; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Fibrogenesis involves a pathological accumulation of activated fibroblasts and extensive matrix remodeling. Profibrotic cytokines, such as TGF-?, stimulate fibroblasts to overexpress fibrotic matrix proteins and induce further expression of profibrotic cytokines, resulting in progressive fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a profibrotic cytokine that is indicative of fibroblast activation. Epithelial cells are abundant in the normal lung, but their contribution to fibrogenesis remains poorly defined. Profibrotic cytokines may activate epithelial cells with protein expression and functions that overlap with the functions of active fibroblasts. We found that alveolar epithelial cells undergoing TGF-?-mediated mesenchymal transition in vitro were also capable of activating lung fibroblasts through production of CTGF. Alveolar epithelial cell expression of CTGF was dramatically reduced by inhibition of Rho signaling. CTGF reporter mice demonstrated increased CTGF promoter activity by lung epithelial cells acutely after bleomycin in vivo. Furthermore, mice with lung epithelial cell-specific deletion of CTGF had an attenuated fibrotic response to bleomycin. These studies provide direct evidence that epithelial cell activation initiates a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation during progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of CTGF offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and limiting tissue fibrosis. PMID:24508728

  19. MIR99a and MIR99b Modulate TGF-? Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Plasticity in Normal Murine Mammary Gland Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluca Turcatel; Nicole Rubin; Ahmed El-Hashash; David Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key process during embryonic development and disease development and progression. During EMT, epithelial cells lose epithelial features and express mesenchymal cell markers, which correlate with increased cell migration and invasion. Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces EMT in multiple cell types. The TGF-? pathway is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs),

  20. Proteomic and Bioinformatic Profile of Primary Human Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Santosh K.; Yohannes, Elizabeth; Bebek, Gurkan; Weinberg, Aaron; Jiang, Bin; Willard, Belinda; Chance, Mark R.; Kinter, Michael T.; McCormick, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Wounding of the oral mucosa occurs frequently in a highly septic environment. Remarkably, these wounds heal quickly and the oral cavity, for the most part, remains healthy. Deciphering the normal human oral epithelial cell (NHOEC) proteome is critical for understanding the mechanism(s) of protection elicited when the mucosal barrier is intact, as well as when it is breached. Combining 2D gel electrophoresis with shotgun proteomics resulted in identification of 1662 NHOEC proteins. Proteome annotations were performed based on protein classes, molecular functions, disease association and membership in canonical and metabolic signaling pathways. Comparing the NHOEC proteome with a database of innate immunity-relevant interactions (InnateDB) identified 64 common proteins associated with innate immunity. Comparison with published salivary proteomes revealed that 738/1662 NHOEC proteins were common, suggesting that significant numbers of salivary proteins are of epithelial origin. Gene ontology analysis showed similarities in the distributions of NHOEC and saliva proteomes with regard to biological processes, and molecular functions. We also assessed the inter-individual variability of the NHOEC proteome and observed it to be comparable with other primary cells. The baseline proteome described in this study should serve as a resource for proteome studies of the oral mucosa, especially in relation to disease processes. PMID:23035736

  1. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  2. CAR regulates epithelial cell junction stability through control of E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E.; Hicks, Alexander; Nastos, Theodoros; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2013-01-01

    CAR (Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor) is the primary docking receptor for typeB coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR is a member of the JAM family of adhesion receptors and is located to both tight and adherens junctions between epithelial cells where it can assemble adhesive contacts through homodimerisation in trans. However, the role of CAR in controlling epithelial junction dynamics remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that levels of CAR in human epithelial cells play a key role in determining epithelial cell adhesion through control of E-cadherin stability at cell-cell junctions. Mechanistically, we show that CAR is phosphorylated within the C-terminus by PKC? and that this in turn controls Src-dependent endocytosis of E-cadherin at cell junctions. This data demonstrates a novel role for CAR in regulating epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24096322

  3. Simultaneous Stimulation with TGF-?1 and TNF-? Induces Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sumiko Kamitani; Yasuhiro Yamauchi; Shin Kawasaki; Kazutaka Takami; Hajime Takizawa; Takahide Nagase; Tadashi Kohyama

    2011-01-01

    Background: Airway remodeling is an important feature of chronic airway disease, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Recently, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) was reported to be associated with tissue fibrosis. TGF-?1, which is a potent inducer of EMT, is thought to be related to the pathogenesis of airway remodeling. We investigated whether TGF-?1 and\\/or TNF-? induce EMT in bronchial epithelial

  4. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  5. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  6. Oestrus and the vaginal smear cycle of the river otter, Lutra canadensis.

    PubMed

    Stenson, G B

    1988-07-01

    Vaginal smears of river otters contained specific cellular associations which can be used to monitor their reproductive cycle. The anoestrous period was identified by the presence of large intermediate epithelial cells while the onset of pro-oestrus was gradual and the duration difficult to determine. Oestrus was indicated by an influx of nucleated and non-nucleated cornified cells which continue after mating. The metoestrous smear was characterized by large quantities of leucocytes and mucus. PMID:3411554

  7. Interferon ? Inhibits Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Stimulated Cell Proliferation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutaka Takami; Noriko Takuwa; Hitoshi Okazaki; Masato Kobayashi; Takayuki Ohtoshi; Shin Kawasaki; Makoto Dohi; Kazuhiko Yamamoto; Toshikazu Nakamura; Mitsuru Tanaka; Kazuhiko Nakahara; Yoh Takuwa; Hajime Takizawa

    Proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells is an important bio- logic process in a variety of physiologic and pathologic condi- tions. In this study, we demonstrate that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulates proliferation of human bronchial epi- thelial cells obtained from healthy volunteers. The mitogenic effect of HGF is dependent on costimulation with serum and is completely abrogated by interferon- ?

  8. Expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in cells of non-epithelial origin.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Nakamura, H; Trapnell, B C; Chu, C S; Dalemans, W; Pavirani, A; Lecocq, J P; Crystal, R G

    1991-01-01

    Consistent with the fact that the clinical disorder cystic fibrosis (CF) is manifested on epithelial surfaces, active transcription of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and CFTR mRNA transcripts are detectable in a variety of epithelial cells, suggesting CFTR gene expression might be epithelial cell-specific. However, analysis of the CFTR gene promoter suggests it is a housekeeping gene, implying more widespread expression than only in epithelial cells. To evaluate the latter hypothesis, various human cells of non-epithelial origin, including lung fibroblasts, U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cells, K-562 erythroleukemia cells, HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells as well as freshly isolated blood lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages were examined for CFTR gene expression. Although Northern analysis failed to show CFTR mRNA transcripts in these cells, amplification of mRNA (after conversion to cDNA) by polymerase chain reaction combined with Southern analysis demonstrated the presence of CFTR mRNA transcripts at low levels in all cells evaluated except HL-60 cells. Comparative quantitative analysis showed fibroblasts contained 200-400 fold less CFTR mRNA transcripts than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma epithelial cell lines, but had similar levels of CFTR transcripts to those of other epithelial cell lines. Nuclear transcription run-on analyses demonstrated very low level CFTR gene transcription in fibroblasts and U-937 cells, similar to that of other epithelial cells, but lower than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, while chromatin DNA of fibroblasts had no DNase I hypersensitivity sites in the 5' flanking region of the CFTR gene, HT-29 chromatin DNA exhibited four DNase I accessible sites in the same region, suggesting that these sites may be related to more active transcription of the CFTR gene in the intestinal epithelial cells than in fibroblasts. Images PMID:1717947

  9. Induction of Gastric Epithelial Cell Apoptosis by Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma S. Krishna; Dawn A. Israel; Richard M. Peek

    2003-01-01

    Chronic gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori is a strong risk factor for the development of distal gastric adenocarcinoma. A specific host response to H. pylori that may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis is epithelial cell apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of H. pylori vacuolating toxin (VacA) to induce gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. When cocultured with

  10. Proton leak and CFTR in regulation of Golgi pH in respiratory epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Proton leak and CFTR in regulation of Golgi pH in respiratory epithelial cells GRISCHA CHANDY,1, and Terry E. Machen. Proton leak and CFTR in regulation of Golgi pH in respiratory epithelial cells. Am J engineered a pH-sensitive excitation ratiometric green fluorescent protein (pHERP) and targeted

  11. DECREASED INTRACELLULAR ZINC IN HUMAN TUMORIGENIC PROSTATE EPITHELIAL CELLS: A POSSIBLE ROLE IN PROSTATE CANCER PROGRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in tumorigenesis of prostate epithelia. Evidence has shown that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. We characterized the zinc homeostatic featur...

  12. Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Soonjo Kwon; interleukin-1 ; inter- feron- ; tumor necrosis factor- . Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive and perva demonstrated the potential for human lung epithelial cells to express inducible nitric oxide syn- thase (i

  13. Gingival Epithelial Cell Transcriptional Responses to Commensal and Opportunistic Oral Microbial Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Hasegawa; Jeffrey J. Mans; Song Mao; M. Cecilia Lopez; Henry V. Baker; Martin Handfield; Richard J. Lamont

    2007-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling and ontology tools were utilized to define the biological pathways of gingival epithelial cells modulated by coculture with the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii and the opportunistic commensal Fusobacterium nucleatum. Overall, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii perturbed the gingival epithelial cell transcriptome much less significantly than the oral pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans perturbed the transcriptome, indicating that

  14. Diet Does Not Affect Putative Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells in Pre-weaned Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overfeeding prepubertal heifers can impair mammary epithelial growth and development, processes that depend on stem cells. In this study we evaluated effects of diet composition on putative bovine mammary epithelial stem cell populations using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyrudine (BrdU; a thymidine analog) label...

  15. Induction of Apoptosis by Glyoxal in Human Embryonic Lung Epithelial Cell Line L132

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kasper; Cora Roehlecke; Martin Witt; Heinz Fehrenbach; Andreas Hofer; Toshio Miyata; Cora Weigert; Richard H. W. Funk; Erwin D. Schleicher

    2000-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and lung epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be a key event during fibrogenesis. Studies from various laboratories have indicated that metabolic conditions may initiate oxidative stress, thereby contributing to epithelial cell death. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that glyoxal, an

  16. Long Term Endocrine Regulation of Nucleoside Transporters in Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivette Aymerich; Marçal Pastor-Anglada; F. Javier Casado

    2004-01-01

    We studied the regulation of nucleoside transporters in intestinal epithelial cells upon exposure to either differentiating or proliferative agents. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (line IEC-6) were incubated in the presence of differentiating (glucocorticoids) or proliferative (EGF and TGF- ? ) agents. Nucleoside uptake rates and nucleoside transporter protein and mRNA levels were assessed. The signal transduction pathways used by the

  17. The Successful Culture and Autologous Transplantation of Rabbit Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on Amniotic Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Nakamura; Ken-Ichi Endo; Leanne J. Cooper; Nigel J. Fullwood; Noriko Tanifuji; Masakatsu Tsuzuki; Noriko Koizumi; Tsutomu Inatomi; Yoichiro Sano; Shigeru Kinoshita

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine the feasibility of using human amniotic membrane (AM) as a substrate for culturing oral epithelial cells and to investigate the possibility of using autologous cultivated oral epithelial cells in ocular surface reconstruction. METHODS. An ocular surface injury was created in one eye of each of eight adult albino rabbits by a lamellar keratectomy, and a conjunctival excision

  18. Milk lipid and protein traffic in mammary epithelial cells: joint and independent pathways

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review Milk lipid and protein traffic in mammary epithelial cells: joint and independent pathways, France Abstract -- In mammary epithelial cells, milk lipids and proteins are synthesised in the same com. These processes assure a relatively constant composition of milk but it is not known whether lipid and protein

  19. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  20. Phase I Study of Intravenous Triapine (IND # 68338) in Combination With Pelvic Radiation Therapy With or Without Weekly Intravenous Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical, Vaginal, or Pelvic Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  1. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Yan [Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Nanjing 210009 (China); Qin, Jizheng [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han, Xiaodong, E-mail: hanxd@nju.edu.cn [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  2. Stromal-epithelial crosstalk regulates kidney progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Das, Amrita; Tanigawa, Shunsuke; Karner, Courtney M.; Xin, Mei; Lum, Lawrence; Chen, Chuo; Olson, Eric N.; Perantoni, Alan O.; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Current models suggest that the fate of the kidney epithelial progenitors is solely regulated by signals from the adjacent ureteric bud. The bud provides signals that regulate the survival, renewal and differentiation of these cells. Recent data suggest that Wnt9b, a ureteric bud-derived factor, is sufficient for both progenitor cell renewal and differentiation. How the same molecule induces two seemingly contradictory processes is unknown. Here, we show that signals from the stromal fibroblasts cooperate with Wnt9b to promote differentiation of the progenitors. The atypical cadherin Fat4 encodes at least part of this stromal signal. Our data support a model whereby proper kidney size/function is regulated by balancing opposing signals from the ureteric bud and stroma to promote renewal and differentiation of the nehron progenitors. PMID:23974041

  3. Renal allograft rejection: investigation of alloantigen presentation by cultured human renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, J A; Ikuta, S; Clark, K; Proud, G; Lennard, T W; Taylor, R M

    1991-01-01

    Defined lines of primary human renal epithelial cells were established and their expression of class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens was up-regulated by culture with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The ability of these cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was compared with that of endothelial cells and splenic mononuclear cells. It was found that both endothelial and splenic cells stimulated lympho-proliferation but that cultured renal epithelial cells were non-stimulatory. The failure of proliferation by allogeneic lymphocytes in culture with epithelial cells was not overcome by treatment with interleukin-1 (IL-1) or indomethacin. However, addition of IL-2 to mixed cultures of allogeneic PBMC and renal epithelial cells stimulated lympho-proliferation and allowed the generation of lymphoid cell lines which mediated non-specific lysis of renal epithelial cell lines. Stimulation of PBMC by mixed lymphocyte culture yielded an allospecific T-cell line which was added either to renal epithelial cells from the same donor as the stimulator cells used in the priming reaction or from a third-party donor; lympho-proliferation was observed in the specific secondary reaction but not in the non-specific reaction. These findings indicate that class II MHC antigen-expressing epithelial cells within a renal allograft may not initially stimulate the proliferation of resting allospecific recipient lymphocytes. However, within a rejecting graft it is likely that high local concentrations of IL-2 are present and that many of the infiltrating allospecific lymphocytes will be primed by previous contact with donor antigen-presenting cells, such as vascular endothelial cells or dendritic cells. Therefore, expression of class II MHC antigens by epithelial cells within the microenvironment of a renal allograft may render such cells immunogenic and able to play a direct role in the lymphocyte-mediated intragraft rejection process. Images Figure 1 PMID:1827426

  4. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  5. Augmentation of Pulmonary Epithelial Cell IL8 Expression and Permeability by Pre-B-cell Colony Enhancing Factor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailong Li; Peng Liu; Javier Cepeda; Deyu Fang; R Blaine Easley; Brett A Simon; Li Qin Zhang; Shui Qing Ye

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in our lab have identified Pre-B-cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF) as a novel biomarker in acute lung injury (ALI). The molecular mechanism of PBEF involvement in the pathogenesis of ALI is still incompletely understood. This study examined the role of PBEF in regulating pulmonary alveolar epithelial cell IL-8 expression and permeability. METHODS: Human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells

  6. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis of the vulva associated with basal cell carcinoma in a patient with vaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia harboring HPV, type 42.

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kašpírková, Jana; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the vulva is rare. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a medical history of intravaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VaIN 3) who presented with a solitary whitish lesion sized 8x5 mm with a central desquamation located on the right labium majus. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical superficial and nodular BCC. Additionally, there were multiple remarkable foci of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH). These foci both merged with superficial BCC or were sharply demarcated from the tumor. Retrospective molecular-biological examination of all the available material revealed HPV type 42 in both condyloma acuminatum and VaIN 3 specimen but not in the BCC associated with EH. To our best knowledge, involvement of the lower female genitalia by EH is a rare finding with six cases published to date. Awareness of EH in this location and its distinction is important because it may be potentially misinterpreted as a viral condyloma. PMID:24758505

  7. Role of Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling in Epithelial Differentiation of Lung Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaowen; Lv, Tengfei; Xiang, Zou; Sun, Zhaorui; Qian, Weiping; Han, Xiaodong

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that stem cells have the ability to repair the lung tissue injuries following either injection of cultured cells or bone marrow transplantation. As a result, increasing attention has focused on the lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) for repairing damaged lung tissues. Meanwhile, some studies have revealed that Wnt/?-catenin signaling plays an important role in the epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the current study, our aim was to explore the roles of Wnt/?-catenin signaling on cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs. We have successfully isolated the stem cell antigen (Sca)-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells which were proposed to be LR-MSCs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of epithelial markers on LR-MSCs following indirect co-culture of these cells with alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, confirming the epithelial phenotype of LR-MSCs following co-culture. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanisms of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs, we measured the protein levels of several important members involved in Wnt/?-catenin signaling in the presence or absence of some canonical activators and inhibitors of the ?-catenin pathways. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Wnt/?-catenin signaling may be an essential mechanism underlying the regulation of epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1532-1539, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25546504

  8. Cell Size Correlates with Phenotype and Proliferative Capacity in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Li, De-Quan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether cell size correlates with phenotype and proliferative capacity in human corneal epithelial cells. Primary cultured human corneal epithelial cells were sorted by flow cytometry based on forward scatter profile in comparison with the profile of beads of known size. Four fractions (A, B, C, and D) of cells ranging in size from 10 to 16, 17 to 23, 24 to 30, and ?31 ?m in diameter, respectively, were collected to evaluate their 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) label retention properties, cell phenotype, and clonal growth capacity on a 3T3 fibroblast feeder layer. Among these four populations, cell size was shown to positively correlate with the expression of the differentiation markers keratin (K) 3, K12, and involucrin and inversely with the levels of stem cell–associated markers ?Np63 and ABCG2 and with colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and growth capacity. Population A with the smallest size, accounting for 11.0% ± 4.5% of the entire population, contained the greatest number of BrdU label-retaining slow-cycling cells, displayed the highest percentage of cells immunopositive to p63 and ABCG2 and negative to K3 and involucrin, expressed the highest levels of ?Np63 and ABCG2 mRNA and the lowest levels of K3, K12, and involucrin, and possessed the highest CFE and growth capacity. These findings suggest that cell size correlates with cell differentiation phenotypes and proliferative capacity in human corneal epithelial cells. The smallest cells in population A seem to be enriched for putative stem cells, and small cell size may represent one of the important properties of adult corneal epithelial stem cells. PMID:16123387

  9. Association between serum cortisol and progesterone concentrations and the infiltration of immune cells in the endometrium of gilts with vaginal discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atthaporn Roongsitthichai; Junpen Suwimonteerabutr; Kampon Kaeoket; Seri Koonjaenak; Padet Tummaruk

    The objective of the study was to investigate an association between serum cortisol and progesterone (P4) concentrations and the distribution of immune cells in the endometrium of the gilts with vaginal discharge. Genital organs\\u000a from 39 Landrace×Yorkshire crossbred gilts culled owing to vaginal discharge problem were collected from two commercial swine\\u000a herds in Thailand. The estrous stage and gross pathology

  10. Antibodies and Antibody-Secreting Cells in the Female Genital Tract after Vaginal or Intranasal Immunization with Cholera Toxin B Subunit or Conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EVA-LIZ JOHANSSON; CAROLA RASK; MARGARETA FREDRIKSSON; KRISTINA ERIKSSON; CECIL CZERKINSKY; JAN HOLMGREN

    1998-01-01

    We studied the antibody response including antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in the female genital tract of mice after mucosal immunizations with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin (rCTB) perorally, intraperito- neally, vaginally, and intranasally (i.n.). The strongest genital antibody responses as measured with a novel perfusion-extraction method were induced after vaginal and i.n. immunizations, and these routes also gave rise

  11. A FOXM1 Dependent Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Parul; Dodsworth, Benjamin Thomas; Sidders, Ben; Gutteridge, Alex; Michaelides, Christos; Duckworth, Joshua Kane; Whiting, Paul John; Benn, Caroline Louise

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of the epithelium is maintained by a complex but regulated interplay of processes that allow conversion of a proliferative state into a stably differentiated state. In this study, using human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells as a model; we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect attainment of the epithelial phenotype. We demonstrate that RPE undergo a Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition in culture before acquiring an epithelial phenotype in a FOXM1 dependent manner. We show that FOXM1 directly regulates proliferation of RPE through transcriptional control of cell cycle associated genes. Additionally, FOXM1 modulates expression of the signaling ligands BMP7 and Wnt5B which act reciprocally to enable epithelialization. This data uncovers a novel effect of FOXM1 dependent activities in contributing towards epithelial fate acquisition and furthers our understanding of the molecular regulators of a cell type that is currently being evaluated as a cell therapy. PMID:26121260

  12. Tension-oriented cell divisions limit anisotropic tissue tension in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly

    E-print Network

    Campinho, Pedro; Ranft, Jonas; Risler, Thomas; Minc, Nicolas; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial spreading is a common and fundamental aspect of various developmental and disease-related processes such as epithelial closure and wound healing. A key challenge for epithelial tissues undergoing spreading is to increase their surface area without disrupting epithelial integrity. Here we show that orienting cell divisions by tension constitutes an efficient mechanism by which the Enveloping Cell Layer (EVL) releases anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish epiboly. The control of EVL cell-division orientation by tension involves cell elongation and requires myosin II activity to align the mitotic spindle with the main tension axis. We also found that in the absence of tension-oriented cell divisions and in the presence of increased tissue tension, EVL cells undergo ectopic fusions, suggesting that the reduction of tension anisotropy by oriented cell divisions is required to prevent EVL cells from fusing. We conclude that cell-division orientation by tension constitutes a key ...

  13. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  14. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, ?-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell–cell communication, aberrant cell–extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization. PMID:12960393

  15. Aberrant epithelial GREM1 expression initiates colonic tumorigenesis from cells outside the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Davis, Hayley; Irshad, Shazia; Bansal, Mukesh; Rafferty, Hannah; Boitsova, Tatjana; Bardella, Chiara; Jaeger, Emma; Lewis, Annabelle; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Giner, Francesc C; Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Mallappa, Sreelakshmi; Clark, Susan; Thomas, Huw; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Novelli, Marco; Chetty, Runjan; Silver, Andrew; Sansom, Owen J; Greten, Florian R; Wang, Lai Mun; East, James E; Tomlinson, Ian; Leedham, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by the development of mixed-morphology colorectal tumors and is caused by a 40-kb genetic duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the gene encoding mesenchymal bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease to show that epithelial GREM1 disrupts homeostatic intestinal morphogen gradients, altering cell fate that is normally determined by position along the vertical epithelial axis. This promotes the persistence and/or reacquisition of stem cell properties in Lgr5-negative progenitor cells that have exited the stem cell niche. These cells form ectopic crypts, proliferate, accumulate somatic mutations and can initiate intestinal neoplasia, indicating that the crypt base stem cell is not the sole cell of origin of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we show that epithelial expression of GREM1 also occurs in traditional serrated adenomas, sporadic premalignant lesions with a hitherto unknown pathogenesis, and these lesions can be considered the sporadic equivalents of HMPS polyps. PMID:25419707

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Ex Vivo Tonsil Epithelial Cell Cultures of Asymptomatic Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Pegtel, Dirk M.; Middeldorp, Jaap; Thorley-Lawson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found frequently in certain epithelial pathologies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and oral hairy leukoplakia, indicating that the virus can infect epithelial cells in vivo. Recent studies of cell lines imply that epithelial cells may also play a role in persistent EBV infection in vivo. In this report, we show the establishment and characterization of an ex vivo culture model of tonsil epithelial cells, a likely site for EBV infection in vivo. Primary epithelial-cell cultures, generated from tonsil explants, contained a heterogeneous mixture of cells with an ongoing process of differentiation. Keratin expression profiles were consistent with the presence of cells from both surface and crypt epithelia. A small subset of cells could be latently infected by coculture with EBV-releasing cell lines, but not with cell-free virus. We also detected viral-DNA, -mRNA, and -protein expression in cultures from EBV-positive tonsil donors prior to in vitro infection. We conclude that these cells were either already infected at the time of explantation or soon after through cell-to-cell contact with B cells replicating EBV in the explant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the tonsil epithelium of asymptomatic virus carriers is able to sustain EBV infection in vivo. This provides an explanation for the presence of EBV in naso- and oropharyngeal pathologies and is consistent with epithelial cells playing a role in the egress of EBV during persistent infection. PMID:15507648

  17. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

  18. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-?B was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-?B activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-?B activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  19. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of alveolar epithelial cells: effects of misfolded surfactant protein.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Qian; Zhou, Beiyun; Ann, David K; Minoo, Parviz; Liu, Yixin; Banfalvi, Agnes; Krishnaveni, Manda S; Dubourd, Mickael; Demaio, Lucas; Willis, Brigham C; Kim, Kwang-Jin; duBois, Roland M; Crandall, Edward D; Beers, Michael F; Borok, Zea

    2011-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cell apoptosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that ER stress (either chemically induced or due to accumulation of misfolded proteins) is also associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). ER stress inducers, thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TN), increased expression of ER chaperone, Grp78, and spliced X-box binding protein 1, decreased epithelial markers, E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), increased the myofibroblast marker, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and induced fibroblast-like morphology in both primary AECs and the AT2 cell line, RLE-6TN, consistent with EMT. Overexpression of the surfactant protein (SP)-C BRICHOS mutant SP-C(?Exon4) in A549 cells increased Grp78 and ?-SMA and disrupted ZO-1 distribution, and, in primary AECs, SP-C(?Exon4) induced fibroblastic-like morphology, decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin and increased ?-SMA, mechanistically linking ER stress associated with mutant SP to fibrosis through EMT. Whereas EMT was evident at lower concentrations of TG or TN, higher concentrations caused apoptosis. The Src inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4]pyramidine) (PP2), abrogated EMT associated with TN or TG in primary AECs, whereas overexpression of SP-C(?Exon4) increased Src phosphorylation, suggesting a common mechanism. Furthermore, increased Grp78 immunoreactivity was observed in AT2 cells of mice after bleomycin injury, supporting a role for ER stress in epithelial abnormalities in fibrosis in vivo. These results demonstrate that ER stress induces EMT in AECs, at least in part through Src-dependent pathways, suggesting a novel role for ER stress in fibroblast accumulation in pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21169555

  20. Preneoplastic transformation of rat tracheal epithelial cells by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, D.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Stephens, N.D.; Griffith, W.C. (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The transforming potency of ozone for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells exposed in vivo or in vitro was determined. RTE cells isolated from rats exposed to ozone (0, 0.14, 0.6, or 1.2 ppm, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 1, 2, or 4 weeks) showed no increase in the frequency of preneoplastic transformation compared to cells isolated from unexposed rats, although ozone-induced morphologic changes were observed in exposed tracheas. In contrast, preneoplastic variants of RTE cells were induced by multiple, but not single, exposures of RTE cells to ozone in culture. RTE cells exposed biweekly to ozone ({approximately} 0.7 ppm for 40 min, nine total exposures) had approximately two fold increases in the frequency of preneoplastic transformation compared to that of concurrent controls exposed to air. Single, 40-min exposures to ozone ({approximately} 1 or {approximately} 10 ppm) did not induce preneoplastic variants. However, single, 40-min exposures of RTE cells to {approximately} 10 ppm ozone did result in {approximately} 40% decreases in colony-forming efficiency. In addition, single, 40-min exposures of RTE cells to {approximately} 1 ppm ozone reduced the transforming potency of a subsequent exposure to the direct-acting chemical carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). When multiple ozone exposures followed exposure to MNNG ({approximately} 0.7 ppm ozone for 40 min, nine biweekly exposures), an additive (or possibly a multiplicative) effect of ozone on MNNG-induced preneoplastic transformation was seen. These results demonstrate that ozone can, under some conditions, induce preneoplastic variants of RTE cells. In addition, depending on the sequence or combinations of exposures, ozone can reduce or, possibly, increase, the transforming potency of the carcinogen MNNG for rat tracheal cells in culture.

  1. Epithelial Cells as Active Player In Fibrosis: Findings from an In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Solange; Ebeling, Martin; Weibel, Franziska; Farina, Annarita; Araujo Del Rosario, Andrea; Hoflack, Jean Christophe; Pomposiello, Silvia; Prunotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Kidney fibrosis, a scarring of the tubulo-interstitial space, is due to activation of interstitial myofibroblasts recruited locally or systemically with consecutive extracellular matrix deposition. Newly published clinical studies correlating acute kidney injury (AKI) to chronic kidney disease (CKD) challenge this pathological concept putting tubular epithelial cells into the spotlight. In this work we investigated the role of epithelial cells in fibrosis using a simple controlled in vitro system. An epithelial/mesenchymal 3D cell culture model composed of human proximal renal tubular cells and fibroblasts was challenged with toxic doses of Cisplatin, thus injuring epithelial cells. RT-PCR for classical fibrotic markers was performed on fibroblasts to assess their modulation toward an activated myofibroblast phenotype in presence or absence of that stimulus. Epithelial cell lesion triggered a phenotypical modulation of fibroblasts toward activated myofibroblasts as assessed by main fibrotic marker analysis. Uninjured 3D cell culture as well as fibroblasts alone treated with toxic stimulus in the absence of epithelial cells were used as control. Our results, with the caveats due to the limited, but highly controllable and reproducible in vitro approach, suggest that epithelial cells can control and regulate fibroblast phenotype. Therefore they emerge as relevant target cells for the development of new preventive anti-fibrotic therapeutic approaches. PMID:23457584

  2. RNA Interference Targeting Snail Inhibits the Transforming Growth Factor ?2-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Jing, Jiaona; Hu, Jianyan; Guan, Huaijin

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-msenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to posterior capsule opacification (PCO) type of cataract. Transcription factors Snail is a key trigger of EMT activated by transforming growth factor ? (TGF?). This study was done to investigate the effect of Snail targeting siRNA on TGF?2-induced EMT in human lens epithelial cells. TGF?2 treatment of cultured human epithelial cell line (HLEB3) upregulated the expression of Snail and the EMT relevant molecules such as vimentin and ?-SMA but downregulated the expression of keratin and E-cadherin. After the stimulation of TGF?2, the HLEB3 cells became fibroblast-like in morphology, and the junctions of cell-cell disappeared. TGF?2 treatment also enhanced migration ability of HLEB3 cells. TGF?2-induced Snail expression and EMT were significantly inhibited by Snail siRNA. By analyzing the response characteristics of HLEB3 in TGF?2-induced EMT model with/without Snail-specific siRNA, we concluded that Snail is an element in the EMT of HLEB3 cells induced by TGF?2. Snail siRNA targeting can block the induced EMT and therefore has the potential to suppress the development of PCO. PMID:24163761

  3. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  4. Topical KGF treatment as a therapeutic strategy for vaginal atrophy in a model of ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Simona; D'Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Coluccio, Paolo; Matricardi, Pietro; di Gioia, Cira; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Frati, Luigi; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

    2014-09-01

    One of the most frequent complaints for post-menopausal women is vaginal atrophy, because of reduction in circulating oestrogens. Treatments based on local oestrogen administration have been questioned as topic oestrogens can reach the bloodstream, thus leading to consider their safety as controversial, especially for patients with a history of breast or endometrial cancers. Recently, growth factors have been shown to interact with the oestrogen pathway, but the mechanisms still need to be fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a known mitogen for epithelial cells, on human vaginal mucosa cells, and its potential crosstalk with oestrogen pathways. We also tested the in vivo efficacy of KGF local administration on vaginal atrophy in a murine model. We demonstrated that KGF is able to induce proliferation of vaginal mucosa, and we gained insight on its mechanism of action by highlighting its contribution to switch ER? signalling towards non-genomic pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that KGF restores vaginal trophism in vivo similarly to intravaginal oestrogenic preparations, without systemic effects. Therefore, we suggest a possible alternative therapy for vaginal atrophy devoid of the risks related to oestrogen-based treatments, and a patent (no. RM2012A000404) has been applied for this study. PMID:25088572

  5. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Giraud, Matthieu

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its ...

  6. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  7. Loss of Helicobacter pylori Hemagglutination with Serial Laboratory Passage and Correlation of Hemagglutination with Gastric Epithelial Cell Adherence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Hopkins; John C. Papadimitriou; Cinthia Drachenberg; Duane T. Smoot; Steven P. James; Pinaki Panigrahi

    1996-01-01

    Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to gastric epithelial cells is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of infection and may be essential to maintain lifelong colonization. However, the factors responsible for adherence to gastric epithelial cells in vivo have not been characterized, and the significance of adherence to standard epithelial cell lines is unclear. Hemagglutination is also thought to be

  8. Intrinsic lens forming potential of mouse lens epithelial versus newt iris pigment epithelial cells in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Andrea; Nakamura, Kenta; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-02-01

    Adult newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) are capable of complete lens regeneration that is mediated through dorsal iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells transdifferentiation. In contrast, higher vertebrates such as mice demonstrate only limited lens regeneration in the presence of an intact lens capsule with remaining lens epithelial cells. To compare the intrinsic lens regeneration potential of newt IPE versus mouse lens epithelial cells (MLE), we have established a novel culture method that uses cell aggregation before culture in growth factor-reduced Matrigel. Dorsal newt IPE aggregates demonstrated complete lens formation within 1 to 2 weeks of Matrigel culture without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation, including the establishment of a peripheral cuboidal epithelial cell layer, and the appearance of central lens fibers that were positive for ?A-crystallin. In contrast, the lens-forming potential of MLE cell aggregates cultured in Matrigel was incomplete and resulted in the formation of defined-size lentoids with partial optical transparency. While the peripheral cell layers of MLE aggregates were nucleated, cells in the center of aggregates demonstrated a nonapoptotic nuclear loss over a time period of 3 weeks that was representative of lens fiber formation. Matrigel culture supplementation with bFGF resulted in higher transparent bigger-size MLE aggregates that demonstrated increased appearance of ?B1-crystallin expression. Our study demonstrates that bFGF is not required for induction of newt IPE aggregate-dependent lens formation in Matrigel, while the addition of bFGF seems to be beneficial for the formation of MLE aggregate-derived lens-like structures. In conclusion, the three-dimensional aggregate culture of IPE and MLE in Matrigel allows to a higher extent than older models the indepth study of the intrinsic lens-forming potential and the corresponding identification of lentogenic factors. PMID:23672748

  9. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  10. Gentamicin sulphate permeation through porcine intestinal epithelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Gyetvai, Béla; Jerzsele, Ákos; Pászti-Gere, Erzsébet; Nagy, Gábor; Gálfi, Péter

    2015-03-01

    Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used in combination with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in topical drug formulations. It is not known, however, whether DMSO can enhance the permeation of gentamicin through biological membranes, leading to oto- and nephrotoxic side effects. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied for the quantitative determination of gentamicin collected from the apical and basolateral compartments of the porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 cell monolayer using fluorometric derivatisation of the analyte with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC) prior to chromatographic run in the presence and absence of 1% DMSO. The lack of change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) demonstrated that gentamicin and 1% DMSO did not affect IPEC-J2 cell monolayer integrity via the disruption of cell membranes. Chromatographic data also ascertained that gentamicin penetration across the cell monolayer even in the presence of 1% DMSO was negligible at 6 h after the beginning of apical gentamicin administration. This study further indicates that the addition of this organic solvent does not increase the incidence of toxic effects related to gentamicin permeation. PMID:25655415

  11. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-06-15

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition. PMID:25904329

  12. Epithelial cells derived from swine bone marrow express stem cell markers and support influenza virus replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M

    2011-01-01

    The bone marrow contains heterogeneous population of cells that are involved in the regeneration and repair of diseased organs, including the lungs. In this study, we isolated and characterized progenitor epithelial cells from the bone marrow of 4- to 5-week old germ-free pigs. Microscopically, the cultured cells showed epithelial-like morphology. Phenotypically, these cells expressed the stem cell markers octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), the alveolar stem cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (Ccsp), and the epithelial cell markers pan-cytokeratin (Pan-K), cytokeratin-18 (K-18), and occludin. When cultured in epithelial cell growth medium, the progenitor epithelial cells expressed type I and type II pneumocyte markers. Next, we examined the susceptibility of these cells to influenza virus. Progenitor epithelial cells expressed sialic acid receptors utilized by avian and mammalian influenza viruses and were targets for influenza virus replication. Additionally, differentiated type II but not type I pneumocytes supported the replication of influenza virus. Our data indicate that we have identified a unique population of progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow that might have airway reconstitution potential and may be a useful model for cell-based therapies for infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. PMID:22216319

  13. KSA Antigen Ep-CAM Mediates Cell-Cell Adhesion of Pancreatic Epithelial Cells: Morphoregulatory Roles in Pancreatic Islet Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Cirulli; L. Crisa; G. M. Beattie; M. I. Mally; A. D. Lopez; A. Fannon; A. Ptasznik; L. Inverardi; C. Ricordi; T. Deerinck; M. Ellisman; R. A. Reisfeld; A. Hayek

    1998-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are impor- tant mediators of cell-cell interactions and regulate cell fate determination by influencing growth, differentia- tion, and organization within tissues. The human pan- carcinoma antigen KSA is a glycoprotein of 40 kD orig- inally identified as a marker of rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Interestingly, most normal epithelia also express this antigen, although at

  14. Localization of epidermal-type fatty acid binding protein in the thymic epithelial cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Owada, Yuji; Suzuki, Ryoji; Iwasa, Hiroo; Spener, Friedrich; Kondo, Hisatake

    2002-01-01

    The immunoreactivity for epidermal-type fatty acid binding protein of epidermis type (E-FABP) was selectively localized in the epithelial cells of both cortex and medulla of mouse thymus. The cortical epithelial cytoreticulum was clearly visible with the intense immunoreactivity and the immunoreactive cytoreticulum extended intricately throughout the thymic cortex to enclose thymocytes. In the thymic medulla, the immunoreactivity was variable in intensity among the epithelial cells and there was a tendency that epithelial cells containing more numerous tonofilament bundles were less immunoreactive. Considering the possibility that FABPs function as intracellular carriers for unsaturated long chain fatty acids, the present finding suggests that E-FABP in the thymic epithelial cells, especially the cortical ones because of their extensive location, are intimately involved in the metabolic processes of fatty acids including production of bioactive substances, such as prostaglandin and leukotriene, which are known to exert some regulation of thymic immune responses. PMID:11819097

  15. Transforming Growth Factors Produced by Normal and Neoplastically Transformed Rat Liver Epithelial Cells in Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi Liu; Ming-Sound Isao; Joe W. Grisham

    The secretion of transforming growth factors (TGFs) a and ßby normal, chemically transformed, and malignant rat liver epithelial cell lines was investigated. The WB-F344 normal cultured rat liver epithelial cell line does not secrete an epidermal growth factor-like (putative!) TGF-a) activity, but several clonal cell strains derived from WB-F344 cells which had been treated with JV-methyl-\\/V'-nitro-AT-nitrosoguanidine, especially those that expressed

  16. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB-responsive gene associated with loss of cell anchorage. There is also a range of aneuploidy amongst the transformed clones and ongoing chromosomal analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization has identified single or two copy loss of the tumor suppressor gene FHIT, in 8 of 15 transformed clones. This is accompanied by a 6-fold reduction, overall, in FHIT gene expression amongst the 15 clones under examination. Interestingly, in spite of these changes at the molecular level, when implanted subcutaneously into immune-compromised mice, the transformed clones from the HBEC3 KT cell line do not form tumors. This suggests that additional hits are required for oncogenesis, at least in a subcutaneous model, and/or, 2-D tissue culture models to not adequately reflect the underlying biology. We have therefore, begun to examine transformation in a 3-D tissue culture model, bronchocysts, where HBEC cells ultimately differentiate and stop cycling. We have shown that cells in 3-D have reduced gene expression of key DNA repair genes, and are less effective at repairing complex damage. We are now irradiating at dose rates as low as 0.2 cGy/min to test the notion of an inverse dose rate effect for carcinogenesis by HZE particles. In our early experiments we have shown that as the dose rate dropped from 20 cGy/min to 0.2 cGy/min, for the same total dose (0.25 and 0.50 Gy) an increasing percentage of bronchocysts become mis-shapen, suggesting that some cells within the cyst have de-differentiated and have reentered the cell cycle. We are now testing whether those cells are, in fact, cycling and wherther they are transformed by disaggregating the cyst and placing the cells into soft agar culture.

  17. Morphogenetic Mechanisms of Epithelial Tubulogenesis: MDCK Cell Polarity Is Transiently Rearranged without Loss of Cell–Cell Contact during Scatter Factor\\/Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Induced Tubulogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne L. Pollack; Raymond B. Runyan; Keith E. Mostov

    1998-01-01

    Many organ systems are composed of networks of epithelial tubes. Recently, molecules that induce development of epithelial tubules and regulate sites of branching have been identified. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating cell rearrangements that are necessary for tubule formation. In this study we have used a scatter factor\\/hepatocyte growth factor-induced model system of MDCK epithelial cell tubulogenesis

  18. Comparative vaginal cytology of the estrous cycle of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), Siberian polecats (M. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Kwiatkowski, D R; Lutz, K; Anderson, S L

    1992-01-01

    Vaginal cytology and vulva size were used to characterize the reproductive cycle of female black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), Siberian polecats (M. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo). Emphasis was on black-footed ferrets because of the need to breed these critically endangered animals and on Siberian polecats because of the close taxonomic relationship to black-footed ferrets. Vaginal cytology of the 3 species of ferret is similar. Proestrus was characterized by an increasing percentage of superficial epithelial cells and enlargement of the vulva. During estrus, superficial cells were usually greater than or equal to 90% of epithelial cells in the vaginal lavage and after several days were fully keratinized. Neutrophils were more common during all stages of the estrous cycle in domestic ferrets than they were in the other species. Following copulation, percentage of superficial calls in the vagina declined and vulva swelling subsided. Large cells, probably of uterine symplasma origin, were observed in vaginal lavages following whelping or pseudopregnancy. Vaginal cytology is extremely useful in the reproductive management of black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats. Knowledge of normal vaginal cytology could be applied to the diagnosis of female reproductive abnormalities in all 3 species. PMID:1554767

  19. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Vaginal Cancer Key Points Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant ( ... to the pelvis . Stages of Vaginal Cancer Key Points After vaginal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are ...

  20. Use of lactobacilli and estriol combination in the treatment of disturbed vaginal ecosystem: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ünlü, Cihat; Donders, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    To maintain a healthy vaginal ecosystem or to restore any disturbance, sufficient estrogen levels, an intact mature vaginal epithelium, and physiological lactobacillary microflora are essential. Thus, a combination of beneficial lactobacilli and estrogen is an appealing treatment option. This article reviews the published data on the use of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus KS400 and a low dose of estriol (0.03 mg E3) in the form of vaginal tablets (Gynoflor®). In vitro studies demonstrated that L. acidophilus KS400 produces lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), inhibits the growth of relevant vaginal pathogens, and inhibits adherence of pathogens to epithelial cells. Topical administration of E3 for treatment of vaginal diseases is generally preferred, as this route of application of hormones produces a more significant local proliferative response and has no stimulating effect on the endometrium. Overall, 16 clinical studies have been published with the combination of L. acidophilus KS400 and 0.03 mg E3. The results of these trials have demonstrated that the combination improves the vaginal epithelium and the restoration of the lactobacillary microflora with an excellent safety profile, even during pregnancy. The combination can be used in pre- and postmenopausal women for the restoration of the vaginal flora after anti-infective therapy, for treatment of symptomatic vaginal atrophy, and for abnormal vaginal flora therapy. It can be also considered in repetitive therapy courses for the long-term prevention of recurrences of bacterial vaginosis, even though further clinical studies are needed to substantiate the benefit of this application. PMID:24592002

  1. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  2. Endocytotic activity of the free floating cells and epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac: an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Fukazawa, K; Sakagami, M; Matsunaga, T; Fujita, H

    1991-07-01

    The fine structure and its functional properties of both free floating cells and epithelial cells in the endolymphatic sac after injections of India ink particles or polystyrene latex beads, 0.24 micron in diameter, into the endolymphatic space, were studied using light and electron microscopy. Twenty-four to 48 hours after injections, these foreign materials had accumulated in the lumen of the endolymphatic sac and a large number of them were ingested into free floating cells, most of which appear to be macrophages. Granular leucocytes taking up the foreign materials into the cytoplasm were also recognized in the sac lumen. A few of these leucocytes passed through the epithelium and migrated to the subepithelial connective tissue, while the others were degenerated and phagocytosed by the free floating cells in the lumen of the sac. In addition to the free floating cells, ink particles, latex beads, and degenerated leucocytes were endocytosed into some of the epithelial cells. As we reported previously, the epithelial cells were clearly classified into two types; type-1 epithelial cells (cytoorganelle-rich cells) and type-2 epithelial cells (filament-rich cells). The foreign materials and degenerated cells were taken up mainly into the type-1 epithelial cells, while the type-2 epithelial cells did not show so marked endocytotic activity in comparison with the type-1 epithelial cells. Thus, it becomes clear that the endolymphatic sac plays an important role in the endocytotic activity for foreign materials and waste products, and both the free floating cells and the type-1 epithelial cells of the sac have strong endocytotic activity. PMID:1867416

  3. Fluid transport by cultured corneal epithelial cell layers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H; Reinach, P; Koniarek, J; Wang, Z; Iserovich, P; Fischbarg, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Fluid transport across the in vitro corneal epithelium is short lived, hence difficult to detect and characterise. Since stable rates of fluid transport across several cultured epithelial cell layers have been demonstrated, the behaviour of confluent SV40 transformed rabbit corneal epithelial cells (tRCEC) grown on permeable supports was examined.?METHODS—Fluid transport was determined with a nanoinjector volume clamp; the specific electrical resistance of the layers was 184 (SEM 9) ? cm2. tRCEC layers transported fluid (from basal to apical) against a pressure head of 3 cm H2O for 2-3 hours.?RESULTS—In the first hour, the rate of fluid transport was 5.2 (0.5) µl/h/cm?2 (n=23), which is comparable with that found in other epithelia. Fluid transport was completely inhibited in 15-30 minutes by either 100 µM ouabain (n=6), 50 µM bumetanide (n=6), or 1 µM endothelin-1 (ET-1; n=6). Preincubation with 10 µM BQ123 (an ETA receptor antagonist) obviated inhibition by ET-1 (n=6). ET-1 also caused a 22% decrease in specific resistance.?CONCLUSIONS—Fluid transport appears to depend on transepithelial Cl transport since (1) their directions are the same (stroma?tear), and (2) both bumetanide and ouabain inhibit it with similar time course. tRCEC appear useful to investigate aspects of the physiology and pharmacology of fluid transport across this layer, including receptor mediated control of this process.?? PMID:10655198

  4. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Modulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Responses to Bacterial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, J. L.; Salim, S. Y.; Albert, E. J.; Hotte, N.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells and antigen-presenting cells orchestrate mucosal innate immunity. This study investigated the role of bacterial DNA in modulating epithelial and bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells (BM-APCs) and subsequent T-lymphocyte responses. Murine MODE-K epithelial cells and BM-APCs were treated with DNA from either Bifidobacterium breve or Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin directly and under coculture conditions with CD4+ T cells. Apical stimulation of MODE-K cells with S. Dublin DNA enhanced secretion of cytokines from underlying BM-APCs and induced interleukin-17 (IL-17) and gamma interferon (IFN-?) secretion from CD4+ T cells. Bacterial DNA isolated from either strain induced maturation and increased cytokine secretion from BM-APCs. Conditioned medium from S. Dublin-treated MODE-K cells elicited an increase in cytokine secretion similar to that seen for S. Dublin DNA. Treatment of conditioned medium from MODE-K cells with RNase and protease prevented the S. Dublin-induced increased cytokine secretion. Oral feeding of mice with B. breve DNA resulted in enhanced levels of colonic IL-10 and transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) compared with what was seen for mice treated with S. Dublin DNA. In contrast, feeding mice with S. Dublin DNA increased levels of colonic IL-17 and IL-12p70. T cells from S. Dublin DNA-treated mice secreted high levels of IL-12 and IFN-? compared to controls and B. breve DNA-treated mice. These results demonstrate that intestinal epithelial cells are able to modulate subsequent antigen-presenting and T-cell responses to bacterial DNA with pathogenic but not commensal bacterial DNA inducing effector CD4+ T lymphocytes. PMID:22615241

  5. Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, El?d; Szabó, András

    2013-01-01

    We report a spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell-cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. PMID:24363603

  6. Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8?1010 cells?ml?1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g?·?l?1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

  7. Spatio-Temporal Regulation of Rac1 Localization and Lamellipodia Dynamics during Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason S. Ehrlich; Marc D. H. Hansen; W. James Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Cadherin-dependent epithelial cell-cell adhesion is thought to be regulated by Rho family small GTPases and PI 3-kinase, but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Using time-lapse microscopy and quantitative image analysis, we show that cell-cell contact in MDCK epithelial cells coincides with a spatio-temporal reorganization of plasma membrane Rac1 and lamellipodia from noncontacting to contacting surfaces. Within contacts, Rac1 and

  8. TGF-  and the Smad Signaling Pathway Support Transcriptomic Reprogramming during Epithelial-Mesenchymal Cell Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Valcourt; Marcin Kowanetz; Hideki Niimi; Carl-Henrik Heldin; Aristidis Moustakas

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to normal tissue patterning and carcinoma invasiveness. We show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-\\/activin members, but not bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) members, can induce EMT in normal human and mouse epithelial cells. EMT correlates with the ability of these ligands to induce growth arrest. Ectopic expression of all type I receptors of the TGF- superfamily establishes

  9. EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS MILKING AND BST SUPPLEMENTATION ON MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELL TURNOVER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to determine effects of continuous milking (CM) and bST administration on 1) mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation, apoptosis, and ultrastructure during late gestation and early lactation, 2) expression of genes associated with proliferation, and apoptosis in mammary epithelial...

  10. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikio; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K(+) channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K(+) channels in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (KCa 3.1), KCNMA1 (KCa 1.1), KCNQ1 (Kv 7.1), KCNH2 (Kv 11.1), KCNH5 (Kv 10.2), KCNT1 (KCa 4.1), KCNT2 (KCa 4.2), and KCNK5 (K 2P 5.1). We will give an overview of K(+) channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K(+) channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K(+) channels may be of importance. PMID:23962792

  11. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Mikio; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K+ channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K+ channels in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (KCa3.1), KCNMA1 (KCa1.1), KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), KCNH2 (Kv11.1), KCNH5 (Kv10.2), KCNT1 (KCa4.1), KCNT2 (KCa4.2), and KCNK5 (K2P5.1). We will give an overview of K+ channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K+ channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion and pancreatic pathologies, including pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and cancer, in which the dysregulation or altered expression of K+ channels may be of importance. PMID:23962792

  12. How tubular epithelial cells dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Kevin; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The main threat to a kidney injury, whatever its cause and regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, is the initiation of a process of renal fibrogenesis, since fibrosis can auto-perpetuate and is of high prognostic significance in individual patients. In the clinic, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate correlates better with tubulointerstitial damage than with glomerular injury. Accumulation of the extracellular matrix should not be isolated from other significant cellular changes occurring in the kidney, such as infiltration by inflammatory cells, proliferation of myofibroblasts, obliteration of peritubular capillaries and atrophy of tubules. The aim of this review is to focus on tubular epithelial cells (TEC), which, necessarily involved in the repair process, eventually contribute to accelerating fibrogenesis. In the context of injury, TEC rapidly exhibit phenotypic and functional changes that recall their mesenchymal origin, and produce several growth factors known to activate myofibroblasts. Because they are high-demanding energy cells, TEC will subsequently suffer from the local hypoxia that progressively arises in a microenvironment where the matrix increases and capillaries become rarified. The combination of hypoxia and metabolic acidosis may induce a vicious cycle of sustained inflammation, at the center of which TEC dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis.

  13. Studies on the differentiation pathway and growth characteristics of epithelial culture cells of the human prostate.

    PubMed

    Planz, B; Tabatabaei, S; Kirley, S D; Aretz, H T; Wang, QiFa; Lin, C-W; McDougal, W S; Marberger, M

    2004-01-01

    We established explant primary cultures in order to study the growth and hormone responsiveness, and the differentiation process of prostatic epithelial cells. Cell outgrowth was achieved from explant tissue by using a new DU145-cell-conditioned medium and special plastic coverslips. To define the present model, proliferation assays were tested by [3H]thymidine assay and planimetric analysis. Cells were analyzed using immunocytochemistry, light, phase contrast and electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, telomerase ELISA and immunoassay (PSA). Morphology and electron microscopy revealed typical epithelial differentiation. Immunocytochemistry showed the content of basal and secretory epithelial cells, endocrine paracrine cells and a high level of proliferation. With increasing culture time, mature epithelial differentiation (PSA) increases and the initial increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) decreases again. After further passaging, alpha-SMA expression is no longer detected and PSA expression decreases. Furthermore, epithelial cells showed both androgen responsiveness and androgen receptor expression. These findings show the presence of epithelial cells in a process of differentiation with endocrine paracrine cells and a high level of proliferation. This model may maintain the cellular and functional properties more closely related to the human prostate and may provide a valuable tool for studying stem cells and differentiation characteristics. PMID:14999242

  14. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Ming Li; Hong Zhou; Qian Cai; Guang-Xia Xiao

    AIM: To study the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cell line SW-480 was established. Cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin-V and PI double- stained flow cytometry and DNA gel electrophoresis. Morphological changes were examined with light and electron microscopy. For other observations, mitochondrial function, cytochrome

  15. Antioxidant Enzyme Regulation and Resistance to Oxidants of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Cultured under Hyperoxic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra Pietarinen-Runtti; Kari O. Raivio; Mika Saksela; Tiina M. Asikainen; Vuokko L. Kinnula

    1998-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first cells to encounter high concentrations of inspired oxygen, and their damage is a typical feature in many airway diseases. The direct effect of oxygen on the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) in human bronchial epithelial cells is unknown. We investigated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide

  16. Membrane antigens of human bronchial epithelial cells identified by monoclonal antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bernal; K. Weinberg; M. Kakefuda; R. Stahel; C. O'Hara; Y. C. Wong

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Subpopulations of normal bronchial epithelial cells were identified using a series of murine monoclonal antibodies. These\\u000a antibodies were used to stain intact bronchial epithelial cells in culture by indirect immunofluorescence. LAM 2 reacted with\\u000a 80%, LAM 6 with 75%, LAM 7 with 60%, and LAM 8 with 5% of these cells. Sections of human bronchial epithelium were also stained\\u000a with

  17. Plasma Membrane Surface Increases with Tonic Stretch of Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob L. Fisher; Irena Levitan; Susan S. Margulies

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic stretch stimulates numerous responses in alveolar epithelial cells—some beneficial, some injurious—often through mechano- sensitive membrane-associated proteins such as stretch-activated ion channels. Tonic stretch, in contrast, stimulates only some of these responses. In this study, we hypothesized that the plasma membranes of alveolar epithelial cells expand during tonic stretch, not only through cell surface unfolding, but also through recruit- ment

  18. Vaginal colonization and activity of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum L23 in a murine model of vaginal tract infection.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Liliana; Ruiz, Francisco; Giordano, Walter; Barberis, Isabel Lucila

    2010-03-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum L23, was selected from among 100 strains isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy, non-pregnant, pre-menopausal women. L. fermentum L23 was chosen on the basis of its bacteriocinogenic ability and its properties relevant to colonization, i.e. self-aggregation, adherence to vaginal epithelial cells and co-aggregation with bacterial pathogens. The antimicrobial preventative and curative effects produced by the probiotic L. fermentum L23 administered locally against Escherichia coli in a murine vaginal tract infection model were studied. One dose of the human strain L23 containing 10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1) colonized and persisted in the vaginal tract of the female BALB/c mice for 5 days. Infection with the pathogen at 10(6) c.f.u. ml(-1) in the vaginal tract was maintained for more than 7 days. A single dose of L23 administered 24 h pre-infection inhibited E. coli growth on day 3 post-infection, showing the preventative effect displayed by this Lactobacillus strain. Treatment with L. fermentum L23 during the post-infection period showed complete inhibition of pathogen growth from day 5. Thus, this in vivo study indicated that the probiotic bacterium L. fermentum L23 produced both preventative and curative effects on E. coli growth. The beneficial properties and the production of antimicrobial metabolites may act in situ to inhibit a pathogenic micro-organism within the vaginal environment. Strain L23 could be a good natural alternative to other therapies used for genital infections. PMID:19926731

  19. Metaplastic breast carcinomas are enriched in markers of tumor-initiating cells and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhong Zhang; Kathy A Toy; Celina G Kleer

    2012-01-01

    Metaplastic breast carcinomas constitute a distinct aggressive form of invasive breast cancer with histological evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition toward spindle, chondroid, or osseous cell types. During tumorigenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition promotes invasion and metastasis and has been linked to the presence of stem cells. We hypothesized that metaplastic carcinomas may express epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers and

  20. Filamin acts as a key regulator in epithelial defence against transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Mihoko; Sugimura, Kaoru; Ohoka, Atsuko; Burden, Jemima; Suganuma, Hitomi; Ikegawa, Masaya; Shimada, Takashi; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Shindoh, Masanobu; Ishikawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Saitoh, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu; Kikuta, Junichi; Maijima, Yumiko; Ishii, Masaru; Tada, Masazumi; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that certain types of transformed cells are extruded from an epithelial monolayer. However, it is not known whether and how neighbouring normal cells play an active role in this process. In this study, we demonstrate that filamin A and vimentin accumulate in normal cells specifically at the interface with Src- or RasV12-transformed cells. Knockdown of filamin A or vimentin in normal cells profoundly suppresses apical extrusion of the neighbouring transformed cells. In addition, we show in zebrafish embryos that filamin plays a positive role in the elimination of the transformed cells. Furthermore, the Rho/Rho kinase pathway regulates filamin accumulation and filamin acts upstream of vimentin in the apical extrusion. This is the first report demonstrating that normal epithelial cells recognize and actively eliminate neighbouring transformed cells and that filamin is a key mediator in the interaction between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:25079702

  1. CDK5 regulates cell adhesion and migration in corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun; Negash, Sewite; Guo, Hong Tao; Ledee, Dolena; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Zelenka, Peggy

    2002-11-01

    CDK5 and its activator, p35, are expressed in mouse corneal epithelium and can be coimmunoprecipited from corneal epithelial cell lysates. Immunostaining shows CDK5 and p35 in all layers of the corneal epithelium, especially along the basal side of the basal cells. Stable transfection of corneal epithelial cells with CDK5, which increases CDK5 kinase activity by approximately 33%, also increases the number of cells adhering to fibronectin and the strength of adhesion. CDK5 kinase activity seems to be required for this effect, because the kinase inactive mutation, CDK5-T33, either reduces adhesion or has no significant effect, depending on the level of expression. Using an in vitro scrape wound in confluent cultures of stably transfected cells to examine the effect of CDK5 on cell migration, we show that reoccupation of the wound area is significantly decreased by CDK5 and increased by CDK5-T33. These findings indicate that CDK5 may be an important regulator of adhesion and migration of corneal epithelial cells. PMID:12496365

  2. Autotaxin induces lung epithelial cell migration through lysoPLD activity-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; He, Donghong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Zhong, Mintao; Salgia, Ravi; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Lung cell migration is a crucial step for re-epithelialization that in turn is essential for remodeling and repair after lung injury. We hypothesize that secreted autotaxin (ATX), which exhibits lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, stimulates lung epithelial cell migration through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) generation-dependent and -independent pathways. Release of endogenous ATX protein and activity was detected in lung epithelial cell culture medium. ATX with V5 tag (ATX-V5) overexpressed conditional medium had higher LPA levels compared to control medium and stimulated cell migration through G?i-coupled LPA receptors, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation of PKC? and cortactin at the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of PKC? attenuated ATX-V5 overexpressed conditional medium-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin. In addition, a recombinant ATX mutant, lacking lysoPLD activity, or heat-inactived ATX also induced lung epithelial cell migration. Extracelluar ATX bound to LPA receptor and integrin ?4 complex on A549 cell surface. Finally, intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide into mouse airway induced ATX release and LPA production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggested a significant role for ATX in lung epithelial cell migration and remodeling through its ability to induce LPA production-mediated phosphorylation of PKC? and cortactin. In addition we also demonstrated assocation of ATX with epithelial cell surface LPA receptor and integrin ?4. PMID:21696367

  3. Vaccination against tumor cells expressing breast cancer epithelial tumor antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Hareuveni, M; Gautier, C; Kieny, M P; Wreschner, D; Chambon, P; Lathe, R

    1990-01-01

    Ninety-one percent of breast tumors aberrantly express an epithelial tumor antigen (ETA) identified by monoclonal antibody H23. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing tumor antigens have considerable promise in the active immunotherapy of cancer, and we have evaluated the potential of vaccinia recombinants expressing the secreted (S) and cell-associated (transmembrane, T) forms of H23 ETA to elicit immunity to tumor cells expressing ETA. Tumorigenic ras-transformed Fischer rat fibroblast lines FR-S and FR-T, expressing the S or T form of H23 ETA, respectively, were constructed for use in challenge experiments. Expression of H23 ETA in these lines was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. When challenged by subcutaneous seeding of tumor cells, 97% (FR-S) and 91% (FR-T) of syngeneic Fischer rats rapidly developed tumors that failed to regress. Vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing ETA-T prior to challenge prevented tumor development in 82% of animals seeded with FR-T cells but in only 61% of animals seeded with FR-S. The vaccinia recombinant expressing the S form was a less effective immunogen, and vaccination protected only 29-30% of animals from developing tumors upon challenge with either FR-S or -T cells. The increased immunogenicity of the recombinant expressing ETA-T was reflected in elevated levels of ETA-reactive antibody in vaccinated animals, confirming that secreted antigens expressed from vaccinia virus are less effective immunogens than their membrane-associated counterparts. Images PMID:2251291

  4. Action of cholera toxin in the intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    The primary event in the action of cholera toxin on the isolated chick intestinal epithelial cell is its interaction with the cell membrane. This involves a large number (17 million per cell) of high affinity binding sites which belong to a single class. Binding of biologically active /sup 125/I-labeled toxin is rapid, temperature-dependent, reversible, and saturable over a wide range of concentrations and includes only a small contribution from nonspecific sites. A characteristic lag phase of 10 min occurs following the complete binding of toxin before any increase in cellular cAMP levels can be detected in the isolated cells. The response (elevation of cellular cAMP) of the enterocytes to cholera toxin is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eight-fold increase over control levels at steady stae. cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Cl/sup -/-independent Na/sup +/ influx into the isolated enterocytes whereas chlorporomazine (CPZ) which completely abolishes toxin-induced elevation of cAMP both reverses and prevents the cAMP-mediated inhibition of Na/sup +/ entry. Correlation between cellular cAMP levels and the magnitude of Na/sup +/ influx into the enterocytes provides evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal Na/sup +/ uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT and Na/sup +/ during induction of intestinal secretion. The effect of cAMP on Na/sup +/ but no Cl/sup -/ influx in our villus cell preparation can be partially explained in terms of a cAMP-regulated Na/sup +//H/sup +/ neutral exchange system.

  5. Helicobacter pylori Protein JHP0290 Exhibits Proliferative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Raquel; Pathak, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and signaling pathways contributes to the development of infection-associated diseases. Here we report that JHP0290, which is a poorly functionally characterized protein from H. pylori, regulates multiple responses in human gastric epithelial cells. The differential expression and release of JHP0290 homologues was observed among H. pylori strains. JHP0290 existed in monomeric and dimeric forms in H. pylori cell extracts and culture broth. Recombinant purified JHP0290 (rJHP0290) also showed monomeric and dimeric forms, whereas the rJHP0290 C162A mutant exhibited only a monomeric form. The dimeric form of the protein was found to bind more efficiently to gastric epithelial cells than the monomeric form. The exposure of gastric epithelial cells to rJHP0290 induced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Faster progression into the cell cycle was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, we detected an anti-apoptotic effect of rJHP0290 in gastric epithelial cells when the cells were treated with rJHP0290 in combination with Camptothecin (CPT), which is an inducer of apoptosis. CPT-induced caspase 3 activation was significantly reduced in the presence of rJHP0290. In addition, the activation of ERK MAPK and the transcription factor NF?B was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells lines. Our results suggest that JHP0290 may affect H. pylori-induced gastric diseases via the regulation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. PMID:25879227

  6. Snail Involves in the Transforming Growth Factor ?1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Fang; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background The proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells resulting from an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which leads to complex retinal detachment and the loss of vision. Genes of Snail family encode the zinc finger transcription factors that have been reported to be essential in EMT during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. However, the function of Snail in RPE cells undergoing EMT is largely unknown. Principal Findings Transforming growth factor beta(TGF-?)-1 resulted in EMT in human RPE cells (ARPE-19), which was characterized by the expected decrease in E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1) expression, and the increase in fibronectin and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, as well as the associated increase of Snail expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, TGF-?1 treatment caused a significant change in ARPE-19 cells morphology, with transition from a typical epithelial morphology to mesenchymal spindle-shaped. More interestingly, Snail silencing significantly attenuated TGF-?1-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells by decreasing the mesenchymal markers fibronectin and a-SMA and increasing the epithelial marker E-cadherin and ZO-1. Snail knockdown could effectively suppress ARPE-19 cell migration. Finally, Snail was activated in epiretinal membranes from PVR patients. Taken together, Snail plays very important roles in TGF-?-1-induced EMT in human RPE cells and may contribute to the development of PVR. Significance Snail transcription factor plays a critical role in TGF-?1-induced EMT in human RPE cells, which provides deep insight into the pathogenesis of human PVR disease. The specific inhibition of Snail may provide a new approach to treat and prevent PVR. PMID:21853110

  7. Concise review: the relevance of human stem cell-derived organoid models for epithelial translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Hynds, Robert E; Giangreco, Adam

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial organ remodeling is a major contributing factor to worldwide death and disease, costing healthcare systems billions of dollars every year. Despite this, most fundamental epithelial organ research fails to produce new therapies and mortality rates for epithelial organ diseases remain unacceptably high. In large part, this failure in translating basic epithelial research into clinical therapy is due to a lack of relevance in existing preclinical models. To correct this, new models are required that improve preclinical target identification, pharmacological lead validation, and compound optimization. In this review, we discuss the relevance of human stem cell-derived, three-dimensional organoid models for addressing each of these challenges. We highlight the advantages of stem cell-derived organoid models over existing culture systems, discuss recent advances in epithelial tissue-specific organoids, and present a paradigm for using organoid models in human translational medicine. PMID:23203919

  8. Centrioles in the cell cycle. I. Epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of the structure of the centrosome in the cell cycle in a nonsynchronous culture of pig kidney embryo (PE) cells. In the spindle pole of the metaphase cell there are two mutually perpendicular centrioles (mother and daughter) which differ in their ultrastructure. An electron-dense halo, which surrounds only the mother centriole and is the site where spindle microtubules converge, disappears at the end of telophase. In metaphase and anaphase, the mother centriole is situated perpendicular to the spindle axis. At the beginning of the G1 period, pericentriolar satellites are formed on the mother centriole with microtubules attached to them; the two centrioles diverge. The structures of the two centrioles differ throughout interphase; the mother centriole has appendages, the daughter does not. Replication of the centrioles occurs approximately in the middle of the S period. The structure of the procentrioles differs sharply from that of the mature centriole. Elongation of procentrioles is completed in prometaphase, and their structure undergoes a number of successive changes. In the G2 period, pericentriolar satellites disappear and some time later a fibrillar halo is formed on both mother centrioles, i.e., spindle poles begin to form. In the cells that have left the mitotic cycle (G0 period), replication of centrioles does not take place; in many cells, a cilium is formed on the mother centriole. In a small number of cells a cilium is formed in the S and G2 periods, but unlike the cilium in the G0 period it does not reach the surface of the cell. In all cases, it locates on the centriole with appendages. At the beginning of the G1 period, during the G2 period, and in nonciliated cells in the G0 period, one of the centrioles is situated perpendicular to the substrate. On the whole, it takes a mature centriole a cycle and a half to form in PE cells. PMID:7119006

  9. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenfu Zhao; Lu Meng; Hongyu Hu; Xudong Wang; Fangyu Shi; Yajuan Wang; Qianqian Li; Aixing Lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs) is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs) and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. RESULTS: BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary

  10. The Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation in Drosophila Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Fred; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Großhans, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial cell rearrangement is important for many processes in morphogenesis. During germband extension in early gastrulation of Drosophila embryos, exchange of neighbors is achieved by junction remodeling that follows a topological T1 process. Its first step is the constriction of dorsal-ventral junctions and fusion of two 3x vertices into a 4x vertex a process believed to be junction autonomous. We established a high throughput imaging pipeline, by which we recorded, segmented and analysed more than 1000 neighbor exchanges in drosophila embryos. Characterizing the dynamics of junction lengths we find that the constriction of cell contacts follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. (1) The mean contact length decreases approximately as a square root of time to collapse. (2) The time dependent variance of contact lengths is proportional to the square of the mean. (3) The time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations are sufficient to derive a stochastic differential equation for contact length that captures the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. Supported by the German Research Foundation.

  11. Characterization of an Epstein-Barr virus receptor on human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) adsorption to human B lymphocytes is mediated by the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp350/220, which binds to the cell surface protein, CD21, also known as the CR2 complement receptor. Human epithelial cells also express an EBV receptor. A candidate surface molecule of 195 kD has previously been identified on an epithelial cell line and explanted epithelial tissue by reactivity with the CD21 specific monoclonal antibody (mAb), HB-5a. In experiments to further characterize the epithelial cell EBV receptor, we have found that two human epithelial cell lines, RHEK-1 and HeLa, specifically bind intact EB virions. A 145-kD protein, similar in size to B lymphocyte CD21, was specifically precipitated from surface iodinated RHEK-1 cells using the HB-5a mAb, or using purified soluble gp350/220 coupled to agarose beads. The previously identified 195-kD protein did not bind to gp350/220 or react with two other anti-CD21 mAbs. CD21 homologous RNA, similar in size to the B lymphocyte CD21 mRNA, was detected in both RHEK-1 and HeLa cells. The nucleotide sequence of the epithelial cell cDNA was identical to B lymphocyte CD21. The longest clone differs from previously reported CD21 cDNAs in having additional 5' untranslated sequence. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of RHEK-1- or B lymphoblastoid-derived cDNA verified that most CD21 transcripts are initiated at least 30-50 nucleotides upstream of the previously reported mRNA cap site. These experiments demonstrate that human epithelial cells can express CD21, and that CD21 is likely to mediate EBV adsorption to epithelial cells. PMID:1383386

  12. Pre-existing Epithelial Diversity in Normal Human Livers: A Tissue-tethered Cytometric Analysis in Portal/Periportal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Isse, Kumiko; Lesniak, Andrew; Grama, Kedar; Maier, John; Specht, Susan; Castillo-Rama, Marcela; Lunz, John; Roysam, Badrinath; Michalopoulos, George; Demetris, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Routine light microscopy identifies two distinct epithelial cell populations in normal human livers: hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells (BEC). Considerable epithelial diversity, however, arises during disease states when a variety of hepatocyte-BEC hybrid cells appear. This has been attributed to activation and differentiation of putative hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) residing in the Canals of Hering and/or metaplasia of pre-existing mature epithelial cells. A novel analytic approach consisting of multiplex labeling, high resolution whole slide imaging (WSI), and automated image analysis was used to determine if more complex epithelial cell phenotypes pre-existed in normal adult human livers, which might provide an alternative explanation for disease-induced epithelial diversity. “Virtually digested” WSI enabled quantitative cytometric analyses of individual cells displayed in a variety of formats (e.g. scatter plots) while still tethered to the WSI and tissue structure. We employed biomarkers specifically-associated with mature epithelial forms (HNF4? for hepatocytes, CK19 and HNF1? for BEC) and explored for the presence of cells with hybrid biomarker phenotypes. Results showed abundant hybrid cells in portal bile duct BEC, canals of Hering, and immediate periportal hepatocytes. These bi-potential cells likely serve as a reservoir for the epithelial diversity of ductular reactions, appearance of hepatocytes in bile ducts, and the rapid and fluid transition of BEC to hepatocytes, and vice versa. Conclusion Novel imaging and computational tools enable increased information extraction from tissue samples and quantify the considerable pre-existent hybrid epithelial diversity in normal human liver. This computationally-enabled tissue analysis approach offers much broader potential beyond the results presented here. PMID:23150208

  13. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Watanabe, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiromichi; Hamada, Shin; Satoh, Kennichi [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki [Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Department of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered by treatment with anti-TGF-{beta}-neutralizing antibody, excluding a central role of TGF-{beta} in this process. In conclusion, PSCs promoted EMT in pancreatic cancer cells suggesting a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells.

  14. Intermediate filaments in muscle and epithelial cells of nematodes

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Current concepts of the developmentally controlled multigene family of intermediate filament (IF) proteins expect the origin of their complexity in evolutionary precursors preceding all vertebrate classes. Among invertebrates, however, firm ultrastructural as well as molecular documentation of IFs is restricted to some giant axons and to epithelia of a few molluscs and annelids. As Ascaris lumbricoides is easily dissected into clean tissues, IF expression in this large nematode was analyzed by electron microscopic and biochemical procedures and a monoclonal antibody reacting with all mammalian IF proteins. We document for the first time the presence of IFs in muscle cells of an invertebrate. They occur in three muscle types (irregular striated pharynx muscle, obliquely striated body muscle, uterus smooth muscle). IFs are also found in the epithelia studied (syncytial epidermis, intestine, ovary, testis). Immunoblots on muscles, pharynx, intestine, uterus, and epidermis identify a pair of polypeptides (with apparent molecular masses of 71 and 63 kD) as IF constituents. In vitro reconstitution of filaments was obtained with the proteins purified from body muscle. In the small nematode Caenorhabditis elegans IF proteins are so far found only in the massive desmosome-anchored tonofilament bundles which traverse a special epithelial cell type, the marginal cells of the pharynx. We speculate that IFs may occur in most but perhaps not all invertebrates and that they may not occur in all cells in large amounts. As electron micrographs of the epidermis of a planarian--a member of the Platyhelminthes--reveal IFs, the evolutionary origin of this cytoplasmic structure can be expected either among the lowest metazoa or already in some unicellular eukaryotes. PMID:3519620

  15. Helicobacter pylori Initiates a Mesenchymal Transition through ZEB1 in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Jessica; Varon, Christine; Chabas, Sandrine; Chambonnier, Lucie; Darfeuille, Fabien; Staedel, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Chronic Helicobacter pylori infection provokes an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, at high risk for ulcer and cancer development. The most virulent strains harbor the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) encoding a type 4 secretion system, which allows delivery of bacterial effectors into gastric epithelial cells, inducing pro-inflammatory responses and phenotypic alterations reminiscent of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study characterizes EMT features in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells, and investigates their relationship with NF-?B activation. Cultured human gastric epithelial cell lines were challenged with a cagPAI+ H. pylori strain or cag isogenic mutants. Morphological changes, epithelial and mesenchymal gene expression and EMT-related microRNAs were studied. H. pylori up-regulates mesenchymal markers, including ZEB1. This transcription factor is prominently involved in the mesenchymal transition of infected cells and its up-regulation depends on cagPAI and NF-?B activation. ZEB1 expression and NF-?B activation were confirmed by immunohistochemistry in gastric mucosa from cagPAI+ H. pylori-infected patients. Gastric epithelial cell lines express high miR-200 levels, which are linked to ZEB1 in a reciprocal negative feedback loop and maintain their epithelial phenotype in non-infected conditions. However, miR-200b/c were increased upon infection, despite ZEB1 up-regulation and mesenchymal morphology. In the miR-200b-200a-429 cluster promoter, we identified a functional NF-?B binding site, recruiting NF-?B upon infection and trans-activating the microRNA cluster transcription. In conclusion, in gastric epithelial cells, cagPAI+ H. pylori activates NF-?B, which transactivates ZEB1, subsequently promoting mesenchymal transition. The unexpected N-F?B-dependent increase of miR-200 levels likely thwarts the irreversible loss of epithelial identity in that critical situation. PMID:23565224

  16. Feedback Interactions between Cell-Cell Adherens Junctions and Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Newt Lung Epithelial Cellsh V

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare M. Waterman-Storer; Wendy C. Salmon; E. D. Salmon

    2000-01-01

    To test how cell- cell contacts regulate microtubule (MT) and actin cytoskeletal dynamics, we examined dynamics in cells that were contacted on all sides with neighboring cells in an epithelial cell sheet that was undergoing migration as a wound-healing response. Dynamics were recorded using time-lapse digital fluorescence microscopy of microinjected, labeled tubulin and actin. In fully contacted cells, most MT

  17. Self-organizing actomyosin patterns on the cell cortex at epithelial cell-cell junctions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Thomas; Wu, Selwin K; Michael, Magdalene; Yap, Alpha S; Gomez, Guillermo A; Neufeld, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    The behavior of actomyosin critically determines morphologically distinct patterns of contractility found at the interface between adherent cells. One such pattern is found at the apical region (zonula adherens) of cell-cell junctions in epithelia, where clusters of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin concentrate in a static pattern. Meanwhile, E-cadherin clusters throughout lateral cell-cell contacts display dynamic movements in the plane of the junctions. To gain insight into the principles that determine the nature and organization of these dynamic structures, we analyze this behavior by modeling the 2D actomyosin cell cortex as an active fluid medium. The numerical simulations show that the stability of the actin filaments influences the spatial structure and dynamics of the system. We find that in addition to static Turing-type patterns, persistent dynamic behavior occurs in a wide range of parameters. In the 2D model, mechanical stress-dependent actin breakdown is shown to produce a continuously changing network of actin bridges, whereas with a constant breakdown rate, more isolated clusters of actomyosin tend to form. The model qualitatively reproduces the dynamic and stable patterns experimentally observed at the junctions between epithelial cells. PMID:25468344

  18. Cytoskeletal proteins in thymic epithelial cells of the Australian lungfish Neoceratodus forsteri

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad G; Raftos, David A; Joss, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The vertebrate thymus consists of distinctive subpopulations of epithelial cells that contain a diverse repertoire of cytoskeletal proteins. In this study of the thymus in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, immunohistochemistry was used to distinguish the cytoskeletal proteins present in each class of thymic epithelial cell. A panel of antibodies (Abs), each specific for a different cytoskeletal polypeptide (keratins, vimentin, desmin, actin and tubulins), was used on paraffin and ultrathin resin sections of thymus. Ab AE I (reactive against human type I cytokeratins (CK) 14, 16 and 19) selectively stained the cytoplasm of capsular, trabecular and the outermost epithelial cells of Hassall's corpuscles. Anti-CK 10 Abs strongly labelled the capsular epithelial cells and less than 20% of cortical and medullary epithelial cells. The anti-50-kDa desmin Ab did not react with any thymic cells, whereas the anti-53-kDa desmin Ab labelled some capsular, cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells. The anti-vimentin Ab stained most of the capsular and ?60% of the cortical epithelium. Thymic nurse cells and Hassall's corpuscles were found to be devoid of actin, which was strongly detected in medullary and perivascular epithelium. Both ? and ? tubulins were detected in all thymic cells. This study extends the concept of thymic epithelial heterogeneity. The complexity of thymic epithelium in N. forsteri may indicate a relationship between thymic epithelial subpopulations and the thymic microenvironment. These data identify anti-keratin Abs as a valuable tool for studying differentiation and ontogeny of the thymic epithelium in N. forsteri. PMID:19166477

  19. Glomerular hypertrophy aggravates epithelial cell injury in nephrotic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P L; Scholey, J W; Rennke, H G; Meyer, T W

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular function and structure were assessed after reduction of nephron number and restriction of protein intake in rats with adriamycin nephrosis. Rats received an injection of adriamycin and were divided into three groups with similar values for albuminuria after 4 wk. Group 1 rats then served as controls, group 2 rats were subjected to four-fifths renal ablation, and group 3 rats were placed on a low protein diet (8% protein) while group 1 and group 2 rats remained on a standard diet (24% protein). Micropuncture and morphometric studies were performed 10 d later. Estimated single-nephron albuminuria (SNalb) was increased by renal ablation in group 2 and decreased by protein restriction in group 3 (group 1, 20 +/- 2 micrograms/d; group 2, 68 +/- 7 micrograms/d; group 3, 12 +/- 1 microgram/d, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb was associated with increased glomerular volume in group 2 and reduced SNalb was associated with reduced glomerular volume in group 3. (group 1, 1.44 +/- 0.04 x 10(6) microns 3; group 2, 1.66 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) microns 3; group 3, 1.26 +/- 0.03 x 10(6) microns 3, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb in group 2 was not associated with an increase in glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The area of epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall was markedly increased in group 2 but not perceptibly altered in group 3 (group 1, 16 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; group 2, 65 +/- 17 x 10(2) microns 2; group 3, 18 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; P less than 0.05 group 2 vs. 1). These studies show that glomerular hypertrophy is associated with increased epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall and with increased remnant nephron albuminuria after reduction of nephron number in rats with established nephrosis. Images PMID:2318969

  20. Vaginal anus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fidel Ruiz-Moreno; Amable Gerdo-Ceballo; Gilberto Lozano-Saldivar

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described by which congenital ectopic anorectum with normal intestinal tissue opening into the vulva (“vaginal\\u000a anus”) was successfully corrected in two teen-age patients. The technique has several advantages: a new anal canal is formed\\u000a and the wounds heal promptly with little postoperative pain and reduced risk of postoperative anal stenosis.

  1. DIFFERENTIAL ACTIVATION OF AP-1 IN HUMAN BLADDER EPITHELIAL CELLS BY INORGANIC AND METHYLATED ARSENICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential Activation of AP-1 in Human Bladder Epithelial Cells by Inorganic and Methylated Arsenicals Zuzana Drobna, Ilona Jaspers, David J. Thomas, and Miroslav Styblo ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have linked chronic ingestion of drinking water contai...

  2. Effects of Carbon Nanotubes in Barrier Epithelial Cells via Effects on Lipid Bilayers Shanta Lewis1

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    of Science; 2 Department of Physics, Purdue School of Science; 3 Department of Cellular & Integrative to humans, specifically to our barrier epithelial cells. We measured the effects of CNTs on human airway School of science #12;

  3. Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    LETTERS Epithelial-cell-intrinsic IKK-b expression regulates intestinal immune homeostasis Colby homeostasis by promoting mucosal immunity and lim- iting chronic inflammation. The mucosal surface of the GI

  4. Optimizing tubal epithelial cell growth promotes mouse embryo hatching in coculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonna Frasor; Richard Sherbahn; Barbara Soltes; Mary Wood Molo; Zvi Binor; Ewa Radwanska; Richard G. Rawlins

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the relationship between human tubal epithelial cell growth characteristics and mouse embryonic development to determine which cellular requirements should be preferentially provided in a coculture system.

  5. Branching Morphogenesis of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells in Three-Dimensional Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kaisani, Aadil; Delgado, Oliver; Fasciani, Gail; Kim, Sang Bum; Wright, Woodring E.; Minna, John D.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2014-01-01

    While mouse models have contributed in our understanding of lung development, repair and regeneration, inherent differences between the murine and human airways requires the development of new models using human airway epithelial cells. In this study, we describe a three-dimensional model system using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane. HBECs form complex budding and branching structures on reconstituted basement membrane when co-cultured with human lung fetal fibroblasts. These structures are reminiscent of the branching epithelia during lung development. The HBECs also retain markers indicative of epithelial cell types from both the central and distal airways suggesting their multipotent potential. In addition, we illustrate how the model can be utilized to understand respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. The 3D novel cell culture system recapitulates stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro that can be utilized to understand important aspects of lung development and diseases. PMID:24830354

  6. Sequestration and Segregation of Receptor Kinases in Epithelial Cells: Implications for ErbB2 Oncogenesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Coralie A. Carothers Carraway (University of Miami School of Medicine; Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Cell Biology and Anatomy REV)

    2007-04-10

    The development of cancer is a complex process involving multiple stages. This Review, with 2 figures and 49 references, describes how changes in cellular morphology or shape can contribute to oncogenesis. The focus is epithelial cell shape and how the various specialized membrane regions sequester receptor subunits and may segregate receptors from their ligands, thereby controlling cell behavior. When epithelial cell morphology is disrupted, aberrant signaling leading to cell proliferation and transition from an epithelial to a more motile mesenchymal phenotype may occur. We further suggest that this mechanism for oncogenesis recapitulates a normal epithelial response to sense and repair damage. We focus on the receptors of the epidermal growth factor family and transforming growth factor–? family as examples of receptor sequestration and segregation, and we describe how these two receptors may contribute to oncogenesis.

  7. Role of Allergen Source-Derived Proteases in Sensitization via Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Protease activity is a characteristic common to many allergens. Allergen source-derived proteases interact with lung epithelial cells, which are now thought to play vital roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Allergen source-derived proteases act on airway epithelial cells to induce disruption of the tight junctions between epithelial cells, activation of protease-activated receptor-2, and the production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These facilitate allergen delivery across epithelial layers and enhance allergenicity or directly activate the immune system through a nonallergic mechanism. Furthermore, they cleave regulatory cell surface molecules involved in allergic reactions. Thus, allergen source-derived proteases are a potentially critical factor in the development of allergic sensitization and appear to be strongly associated with heightened allergenicity. PMID:22523502

  8. Matriptase/epithin participates in mammary epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis through HGF activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheau-Ling; Huang, Pao-Yi; Roller, Peter; Cho, Eun-Gyung; Park, Dongeun; Dickson, Robert B

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial-derived, type II transmembrane serine protease matriptase, the mouse homologue of which is epithin, has been shown to be involved in epidermal differentiation, hair formation, and thymus function. We show in this study that epithin/matriptase (Epi/MTP) plays a significant role in mammary epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis. Epi/MTP is expressed at low level in the mouse mammary epithelium of young animals and it accumulates at the terminal end-bud of the growing ducts. The level of Epi/MTP is elevated in the mammary glands at stages when epithelial proliferation and modeling occur. It is primarily present in the luminal epithelial cells of mouse mammary ducts and lobules. Using an ex vivo three-dimensional culture system for mammary epithelial functional assays, we show that mammary epithelial growth and morphogenesis in the presence of the latent form hepatocyte growth factor (pro-HGF) are blocked either by an inhibitor of the Epi/MTP protease activity or by siRNA knockdown of the Epi/MTP expression. These studies demonstrate that Epi/MTP participates in mammary epithelial growth and modeling through activation of pro-HGF. Our findings reveal an important pathway in normal mammary epithelial morphogenesis which may participate in breast cancer progression. PMID:19853659

  9. CELL CYCLE SYNCHRONIZATION OF MOUSE LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS BY ELUTRIATION CENTRIFUGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlman, Andrew L.; Bartholomew, James C.

    1980-06-01

    Detailed methods are described for the sorting and cell cycle synchronization by means of centrifugal elutriation of an established mouse liver epithelial cell line(NMuLi). In a comparison between three different elutriation media and between two different temperatures(4° and 20° C), the NMuLi cells were found to be most reproducibly sorted in the cell cycle when run in growth medium in the absence of serum and at the lower temperature. Under these conditions. and using decrements of rotor speed calculated from an empirically derived algorithm as described in the text an initially asynchronous population (38% G{sub 1}, 36% S, and 28% G{sub 2}M) was sorted into fractions enriched to 60% G{sub 1}, 75% S, and 50% G{sub 2}M. Of the cells loaded into the rotor, 30% were lost in the elutriation process, and about 20% recovered as aggregates. The remainder appeared in the various synchronized fractions. Epithelial cells sorted in this manner demonstrated no loss of viability, and upon replating showed significant movement in the cell cycle by 6 hrs post elutriation. The degree of synchronous movement through the cell cycle achieved by elutriation depended on the part of the cell cycle from which the original elutriated fraction came. Cells collected as late S and G{sub 2}M moved through the cell cycle with the tightest sychrony.

  10. Nedd4–2 does not regulate wt-CFTR in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chapline, Chris; Sato, J. Denry; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl? channel in airway epithelial cells, plays an important role in maintaining the volume of the airway surface liquid and therefore mucociliary clearance of respiratory pathogens. A recent study has shown that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Neural precursor cells expressed developmentally downregulated (Nedd4–2) ubiquitinates ?F508-CFTR in pancreatic epithelial cells and that siRNA-mediated silencing of Nedd4–2 increases plasma membrane ?F508-CFTR. Because the role of Nedd4–2 in regulating wild-type (wt)-CFTR in airway epithelial cells is unknown, studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that Nedd4–2 also ubiquitinates wt-CFTR and regulates its plasma membrane abundance. We found that Nedd4–2 did not affect wt-CFTR Cl? currents in Xenopus oocytes. Likewise, overexpression of Nedd4–2 in human airway epithelial cells did not alter the amount of ubiquitinated wt-CFTR. siRNA knockdown of Nedd4–2 in human airway epithelial cells had no effect on ubiquitination or apical plasma membrane abundance of wt-CFTR. Thus Nedd4–2 does not ubiquitinate and thereby regulate wt-CFTR in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:22904170

  11. Alterations in Helicobacter pylori Triggered by Contact with Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori lives within the mucus layer of the human stomach, in close proximity to gastric epithelial cells. While a great deal is known about the effects of H. pylori on human cells and the specific bacterial products that mediate these effects, relatively little work has been done to investigate alterations in H. pylori that may be triggered by bacterial contact with human cells. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of changes in bacterial physiology and morphology that occur when H. pylori is in contact with gastric epithelial cells. Several studies have reported that cell contact causes alterations in H. pylori gene transcription. In addition, H. pylori contact with gastric epithelial cells promotes the formation of pilus-like structures at the bacteria–host cell interface. The formation of these structures requires multiple genes in the cag pathogenicity island, and these structures are proposed to have an important role in the type IV secretion system-dependent process through which CagA enters host cells. Finally, H. pylori contact with epithelial cells can promote bacterial replication and the formation of microcolonies, phenomena that are facilitated by the acquisition of iron and other nutrients from infected cells. In summary, the gastric epithelial cell surface represents an important niche for H. pylori, and upon entry into this niche, the bacteria alter their behavior in a manner that optimizes bacterial proliferation and persistent colonization of the host. PMID:22919609

  12. Role of foxj1 and estrogen receptor alpha in ciliated epithelial cell differentiation of the neonatal oviduct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Okada; Y Ohta; S L Brody; H Watanabe; A Krust; P Chambon; T Iguchi

    2004-01-01

    Estrogen regulates proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells in the mammalian oviduct, but pathways for cell-specific differentiation are not well understood. In the epithelial cells of the developing rat oviduct, we found estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed at birth and persists in all cells through neonatal day (ND) 7 when ciliated cells appear. To determine a specific function of ER

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of miglustat in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dechecchi, Maria Cristina; Nicolis, Elena; Norez, Caroline; Bezzerri, Valentino; Borgatti, Monica; Mancini, Irene; Rizzotti, Paolo; Ribeiro, Carla M P; Gambari, Roberto; Becq, Frederic; Cabrini, Giulio

    2008-11-01

    The role of CFTR deficiency in promoting inflammation remains unclear. Perez et al. [A. Perez, A.C. Issler, C.U. Cotton, T.J. Kelley, A.S. Verkman and P.B. Davis, CFTR inhibition mimics the cystic fibrosis inflammatory profile. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007; 292:L383-L395.] recently demonstrated that the inhibition of function of w/t CFTR produces an inflammatory profile that resembles that observed in CF patients, whereas we found that correction of F508del-CFTR function with MPB-07 down-modulates the inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa in CF bronchial cells [M.C. Dechecchi, E. Nicolis, V. Bezzerri, A. Vella, M. Colombatti, B.M. Assael, et al., MPB-07 reduces the inflammatory response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis bronchial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2007; 36, 615-624.]. Since both evidence support a link between CFTR function and inflammation, we extended our investigation to other F508del-CFTR correctors, such as miglustat (Norez, 2006), an approved drug for Gaucher disease, in comparison with the galactose analogue NB-DGJ. We report here that miglustat but not NB-DGJ restores F508del-CFTR function in CF bronchial epithelial IB3-1 and CuFi-1 cells. Miglustat and NB-DGJ reduce the inflammatory response to P. aeruginosa in both CF and non-CF bronchial cells, indicating that the anti-inflammatory effect is independent of the correction of F508del-CFTR function. Miglustat also inhibits the inflammatory response induced by the supernatant of mucopurulent material obtained from the lower airway tract of cystic fibrosis patients with chronic bacterial colonization (Ribeiro, 2005). Both compounds do not interfere with the adherence of P. aeruginosa to the cells and reduce the expression of IL-8 not only after challenge with P. aeruginosa but also after exposure to TNF alpha or IL-1 beta, suggesting an effect on transduction proteins downstream and in common with different receptors for pathogens. Finally, miglustat has no major effects on overall binding activity of transcription factors NF-kappaBNF-kB and AP-1. Since miglustat is an approved drug, it could be investigated as a novel anti-inflammatory molecule to ameliorate lung inflammation in CF patients. PMID:18815075

  14. Transition between proliferation and differentiation for lens epithelial cells is regulated by Src family kinases.

    PubMed

    Walker, Janice L; Zhang, Liping; Menko, A Sue

    2002-08-01

    As in many cell types, lens cells must withdraw from the cell cycle before they initiate their differentiation. The involvement of Src family kinases (SFKs) in this key initiating event in cell differentiation was examined in lens epithelial cell cultures. SFK activity was suppressed with the specific inhibitor PP1. This induced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p27 and p57 and suppressed lens epithelial cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of SFK activity created conditions permissive for undifferentiated lens epithelial cells to withdraw from the cell cycle. Growth of the lens epithelial cell cultures in the presence of PP1 induced expression of filensin and CP49, lens differentiation-specific intermediate filament proteins, providing evidence that suppression of SFK activity also promoted the initiation of lens cell differentiation. The mechanism by which PP1 signaled cell cycle withdrawal and commitment to differentiation was shown to involve induction of N-cadherin cell-cell junction assembly and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton from stress fibers to cortical filaments. This result was supported by the compaction of the epithelial monolayer in response to PP1, a morphogenetic change that we have previously shown to be dependent on N-cadherin function and a hallmark of the commencement of the lens differentiation program in culture. The results presented in this study suggest that the decision of lens epithelial cells to withdraw from the cell cycle and initiate differentiation requires inhibition of SFKs and the formation of N-cadherin cell-cell junctions. PMID:12203728

  15. Vaginal histological changes after using intravaginal sponges for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Manes, J; Campero, C; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the histological and cytological vaginal changes generated by the use of intravaginal sponge (IS) applied in oestrous synchronization treatments in ewes during mid-non-breeding season. Thirty-five multiparous ewes were allocated to three experimental groups according to the moment in which the samples were taken: (i) ewes treated with IS containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days, sampled the day of IS removal (group ISR; n = 10), (ii) or after sponge removal at time of oestrus or 72 h after removal (group AR; n = 14) and (iii) ewes without sponge treatment that were sampled at the day of IS removal of the other groups (group CG; n = 11). Vaginal biopsies and cytological samples were taken from the anterior vaginal fornix area. The vagina of the CG group had a stratified squamous epithelium with a moderate degree of cellular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propia. Treated ewes (ISR and AR) had epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ISR ewes had haemorrhage and perivascular infiltrate and an increased number of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and erythrocytes at IS removal. The use of IS generated histological and cytological alterations in the vaginal wall when used for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes. PMID:25604995

  16. CXCL8 modulates human intestinal epithelial cells through a CXCR1 dependent pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Sturm; Daniel C. Baumgart; Johanna Harder d'Heureuse; Angelika Hotz; Bertram Wiedenmann; Axel U. Dignass

    2005-01-01

    Background: CXCL8 (previously known as Interleukin-8), a member of the ?-chemokine family of chemotactic cytokines, stimulates intestinal neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. As intestinal epithelial cells have been recently shown to produce CXCL8, the aim of this study was to identify functional activities of CXCL8 on intestinal epithelial cells. Methods: The expression of CXCL8 receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 was assessed by

  17. The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells: A Coalition Against Cancer Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett G. Hollier; Kurt Evans; Sendurai A. Mani

    2009-01-01

    During cancer progression, some cells within the primary tumor may reactivate a latent embryonic program known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal\\u000a transition (EMT). Through EMT, transformed epithelial cells can acquire the mesenchymal traits that seem to facilitate metastasis.\\u000a Indeed, there is accumulating evidence that EMT and mesenchymal-related gene expression are associated with aggressive breast\\u000a cancer subtypes and poor clinical outcome in breast cancer

  18. E. coli Nissle 1917 Affects Salmonella Adhesion to Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Schierack; Sylvia Kleta; Karsten Tedin; Julius Tachu Babila; Sibylle Oswald; Tobias A. Oelschlaeger; Rico Hiemann; Susanne Paetzold; Lothar H. Wieler; Leonardo A. Sechi

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been shown to interfere in a human in vitro model with the invasion of several bacterial pathogens into epithelial cells, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not known.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of EcN on Salmonella Typhimurium invasion of porcine intestinal epithelial cells, focusing on EcN effects

  19. Model bile and bile salts accelerate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Henriëtte Klinkspoor; Rahul Kuver; Christopher E. Savard; Dolphine Oda; Hanna Azzouz; Guido N. J. Tytgat; Albert K. Groen; Sum P. Lee

    1995-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hypersecretion of gallbladder mucin has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in gallstone formation. We investigated whether mucin secretion is modulated by biliary constituents using normal, well-differentiated dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Methods: Model biles or bile salts were applied to monolayers of epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labeled glycoproteins. Results: Model

  20. Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single strand breaks in respiratory epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth J. McDonald; Lester C. Pan; Judith A. St. George; Dallas M. Hyde; Jonathan M. Ducore

    1993-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium is often exposed to oxidant gases, including ozone from photochemical smog and toxic oxygen metabolites released from neutrophils recruited in conditions of airway inflammation. We evaluated DNA single strand break formation by alkaline elution as a measure of oxidant-induced DNA damage to bronchial epithelial cells. Human AdenoSV-40-transformed bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS), subclone R1.4 or nonhuman primate bronchial

  1. Cilomilast counteracts the effects of cigarette smoke in airway epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabetta Pace; Maria Ferraro; Carina Gabriela Uasuf; Antonino Giarratano; Stefania La Grutta; Giuseppe Liotta; Malcolm Johnson; Mark Gjomarkaj

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter TLR4 expression and activation in bronchial epithelial cells. Cilomilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, inhibits cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia.This study was aimed to explore whether cilomilast, in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE), counteracted CSE effects. In particular, TLR4 expression, IP-10 and IL-8 release, lymphocyte and neutrophil chemotactic activity and ERK and IkBa phosphorylation in CSE and

  2. Helicobacter pylori Water Extract Induces Interleukin8 Production by Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyoichi Kassai; Toshikazu Yoshikawa; Norimasa Yoshida; Akira Hashiramoto; Motoharu Kondo; Hironobu Murase

    1999-01-01

    In Helicobacter pylori-associated gastricmucosal injury, interleukin (IL)-8, a potent leukocytechemoattractant, is produced by epithelial cellsinfected by H. pylori and directs neutrophils to thegastric mucosa. According to previous studies, the IL-8production requires direct contact between the bacteriaand epithelial cells. The aims of the present study wereto determine whether an H. pylori water extract (HPE) induces IL-8 production by gastricepithelial cells and

  3. Cell Surface Glycoprotein of Reactive Stromal Fibroblasts as a Potential Antibody Target in Human Epithelial Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar Garin-Chesa; Lloyd J. Old; Wolfgang J. Rettig

    1990-01-01

    The F19 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein (M_r, 95,000) of human sarcomas and proliferating, cultured fibroblasts that is absent from resting fibroblasts in normal adult tissues. Normal and malignant epithelial cells are also F19^-. The present immunohistochemical study describes induction of F19 in the reactive mesenchyme of epithelial tumors. F19^+ fibroblasts were found in primary and metastatic carcinomas, including

  4. Modulation of human bronchial epithelial cells by pneumococcal choline binding protein A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ju Cao; Yi Gong; Bei Cai; Weihua Feng; Yongkang Wu; Lixin Li; Yuangao Zou; Binwu Ying; Lanlan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Choline binding protein A (CbpA) is an important adhesin and a determinant of virulence for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Binding to epithelial cells of host mucosal surfaces by pneumococcal CbpA is essential for pneumococcus to initiate colonization and to trigger subsequent invasive pneumococcal infections. In this study, we examined the immunopathologic mechanisms for the activation of human bronchial epithelial cells by CbpA

  5. Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation of WB-F344 Rat Liver Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle J. Hooth; William B. Coleman; Sharon C. Presnell; Kristen M. Borchert; Joe W. Grisham; Gary J. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Several studies have shown that cultured rat liver epithelial cells transform spontaneously after chronic maintenance in a confluent state in vitro .I n the present study, multiple independent lineages of low- passage WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells were initiated and subjected in parallel to selection for spontaneous transformation to determine whether spontaneous acquisition of tumorigenicity was the result of

  6. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin enhances tight-junction barrier function of human nasal epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryuta Kamekura; Takashi Kojima; Jun-ichi Koizumi; Noriko Ogasawara; Makoto Kurose; Mitsuru Go; Atsushi Harimaya; Masaki Murata; Satoshi Tanaka; Hideki Chiba; Tetsuo Himi; Norimasa Sawada

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) triggers dendritic cell (DC)-mediated Th2-type inflammatory responses\\u000a and is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the expression and induction of TSLP and\\u000a the effects of TSLP on the tight-junctional barrier of human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) have been investigated in order\\u000a to elucidate the role of TSLP in allergic rhinitis.

  7. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on complement-mediated glomerular epithelial cell injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Jordi Goldstein; David C Wheeler; David J Salant

    1996-01-01

    Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on complement-mediated glomerular epithelial cell injury. To define the mechanisms by which fish oil protects rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN) from proteinuria in vivo, we investigated whether omega-3 fatty acid substitution of glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) in culture alters their susceptibility or response to complement-mediated sublethal injury. The results show that GECs can be

  8. Different fates of Legionella pneumophila pmi and mil mutants within macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lian-Yong Gao; Barbara J. Stone; Joan K. Brieland; Yousef Abu Kwaik

    1998-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells, which constitute the majority of the alveolar surface, may represent a potential niche for intracellular replication ofLegionella pneumophilathat has been largely overlooked. We examined the phenotypes of a bank of 121 macrophage-defective mutants ofL. pneumophila(designated aspmiandmil) for their cytopathogenicity to and intracellular survival and replication within human alveolar epithelial cells. Our data showed that 91 of 121

  9. Slug Is a Mediator of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Cell Transformation in the Developing Chicken Heart

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura A. Romano; Raymond B. Runyan

    1999-01-01

    An epithelial–mesenchymal cell transformation occurs during the development of the endocardial cushions in the atrioventricular (AV) canal of the heart. We hypothesized that the transcription factor Slug is required for this epithelial–mesenchymal cell transformation since Slug is required for similar transformations during gastrulation and neural crest differentiation in chicken embryos. We found by RT-PCR and immunostaining that the temporal and

  10. Mucin gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Buisine, M; Desreumaux, P; Leteurtre, E; Copin, M; Colombel, J; Porchet, N; Aubert, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin. It is characterised by chronic mucosal ulcerations which affect any part of the intestine but most commonly are found in the ileum and proximal colon.?AIMS—Studies were undertaken to provide information regarding cell specific expression of mucin genes in the ileum of patients with CD.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Expression of mucin genes was analysed in the ileal mucosa of patients with CD and controls by in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry.?RESULTS—In healthy ileal mucosa, patients with CD showed a pattern identical to normal controls with main expression of MUC2 and MUC3, lesser expression of MUC1 and MUC4, and no expression of MUC5AC, MUC5B, MUC6, or MUC7. In the involved mucosa, the pattern was somewhat comparable although heterogeneous to that observed in healthy ileal mucosa. Importantly, a particular mucin gene expression pattern was observed in ileal mucosa close to the ulcer margins in ulcer associated cell lineage, with the appearance of MUC5AC and MUC6 mRNAs and peptides, which are normally restricted to the stomach (MUC5AC and MUC6) and duodenum (MUC6), and disappearance of MUC2.?CONCLUSIONS—Our results suggest that gel forming mucins (more particularly MUC5AC and MUC6) may have a role in epithelial wound healing after mucosal injury in inflammatory bowel diseases in addition to mucosal protection.???Keywords: mucins; MUC genes; Crohn's disease; ulcer associated cell lineage PMID:11559653

  11. Epithelial dysplasia immediately adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Shear, M

    1985-08-01

    A number of workers have attempted to identify dysplastic features which may be predictors of malignant change, by prospective studies of dysplastic lesions. In the present study we have looked at dysplastic changes immediately adjacent to established squamous carcinomas in an attempt to determine whether any predictors can be identified in this way. Eighty cases were included in the study for whom information on tobacco usage was known. Clinical details were recorded. Histological features in epithelium immediately adjacent to the carcinoma were studied in representative sections. Eighteen specific histological characteristics were noted as present or absent. Data were transferred by Conversational Monitoring System (CMS) terminal, processed and analyzed by the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) Computer package. Only 8 patients were non-smokers (10%). Dysplastic changes in adjacent epithelium were frequently multicentric. Changes appear to occur first in the basal layer in the form of disturbance of polarity or basal cell hyperplasia, while other dysplastic features are absent. The feature referred to as basal cell hyperplasia appears, in fact, to represent disturbed epithelial maturation. In 80% of cases increased nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appears to result from a decrease in cytoplasmic volume rather than increased nuclear size. A defect in RNA synthesis may be a factor. A sharp decrease in inflammatory cells in the lamina propria of adjacent epithelium, compared with that of the carcinoma, was observed. Russell bodies were noted in 5 of the 8 lesions in non-smokers (63%) and in 16 of 72 lesions in smokers (22%) (p less than 0.001; Chi2 17.65). PMID:3928850

  12. Lowe Syndrome Protein OCRL1 Supports Maturation of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam G. Grieve; Rachel D. Daniels; Elena Sanchez-Heras; Matthew J. Hayes; Stephen E. Moss; Karl Matter; Martin Lowe; Timothy P. Levine; Quansheng Du

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL1 cause Lowe Syndrome, leading to cataracts, mental retardation and renal failure. We noted that cell types affected in Lowe Syndrome are highly polarized, and therefore we studied OCRL1 in epithelial cells as they mature from isolated individual cells into polarized sheets and cysts with extensive communication between neighbouring cells. We show that a

  13. Bone marrow cells expressing clara cell secretory protein increase epithelial repair after ablation of pulmonary clara cells.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Martha L; Mura, Marco; Marcus, Paula; Hwang, David; Ludkovski, Olga; Wong, Amy P; Waddell, Thomas K

    2013-06-01

    We have previously reported a subpopulation of bone marrow cells (BMC) that express Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP), generally felt to be specific to lung Clara cells. Ablation of lung Clara cells has been reported using a transgenic mouse that expresses thymidine kinase under control of the CCSP promoter. Treatment with ganciclovir results in permanent elimination of CCSP(+) cells, failure of airway regeneration, and death. To determine if transtracheal delivery of wild-type bone marrow CCSP(+) cells is beneficial after ablation of lung CCSP(+) cells, transgenic mice were treated with ganciclovir followed by transtracheal administration of CCSP(+) or CCSP(-) BMC. Compared with mice administered CCSP(-) cells, mice treated with CCSP(+) cells had more donor cells lining the airway epithelium, where they expressed epithelial markers including CCSP. Although donor CCSP(+) cells did not substantially repopulate the airway, their administration resulted in increased host ciliated cells, better preservation of airway epithelium, reduction of inflammatory cells, and an increase in animal survival time. Administration of CCSP(+) BMC is beneficial after permanent ablation of lung Clara cells by increasing bronchial epithelial repair. Therefore, CCSP(+) BMC could be important for treatment of lung diseases where airways re-epithelialization is compromised. PMID:23609017

  14. The effect of vitamin D on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Parastou; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood; Rashidi, Iran; Delaviz, Hamdollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most of the women suffer from vaginal atrophy and dryness, and therefore, efficient and safe treatment is needed to improve vaginal lubrication. Vitamin D has several important functions which may be effective in proliferation and repair of the epithelial tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D vaginal suppositories on maturation index, pH, and dryness in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Women were enrolled in this double-blind clinical trial, in whom menopause occurred at least one year ago. Those women who had an abnormal Papanicolaou smear, had undergone hormonal treatment, or have had vaginal infection in the previous year were excluded. Forty-four women who found eligible were randomized into two equal groups, the treatment and control groups, which received vitamin D and placebo vaginal suppository daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Vaginal pH and maturation value were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Pain, dryness, and paleness were assessed before treatment and at the end of the 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results: In the treatment group, the number (Mean ± SD) of superficial cells increased (69.76 ± 12.4) and vaginal pH decreased (1.42 ± 0.67) significantly compared to the control group after 56 days. The mean pain significantly reduced after 8 weeks in the treatment group (1.23 ± 0.53) compared to the control group 1.95 ± 0.74 (P < 0.001). The mean of dryness and paleness reduced significantly in the treatment group versus control at 56 days. Conclusions: Vitamin D is effective in improving the maturation index and decreased the pH and dryness of the vaginal atrophy due to menopause. PMID:25878698

  15. Expression of human ?-defensin 5 (HD5) mRNA in nasal and bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Frye, M; Bargon, J; Dauletbaev, N; Weber, A; Wagner, T; Gropp, R

    2000-01-01

    Background/Aims—Human defensins are antibiotic peptides expressed in myeloid and epithelial cells. Human ?-defensin 5 (HD5) has been detected in Paneth cell granules in the crypts of Lieberkühn and has recently been identified in the female reproductive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of HD5 mRNA in nasal and bronchial epithelial cells. Methods/Results—Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) analysis showed that HD5 mRNA was expressed infrequently and to varying degrees in bronchial and nasal epithelial cells. In situ hybridisation resulted in a positive signal in the epithelial layer of nasal polyps. HD5 mRNA was locally restricted to a specific area of epithelial cells and also occurred in submucosal glands. Conclusions—HD5 mRNA expression in nasal and bronchial epithelial cells is rare and seemed to be locally induced. The results indicate that HD5 might play a role in innate defence in nasal and bronchial epithelia. Key Words: antimicrobial peptides • human ?-defensin 5 • mRNA • expression • airways PMID:11064671

  16. Human intestinal epithelial cells express interleukin-10 through Toll-like receptor 4-mediated epithelial-macrophage crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jinhee; Romero, Laura; Riveron, Reldy; Flores, Claudia; Kanagavelu, Saravana; Chung, Kristina D; Alonso, Ana; Sotolongo, John; Ruiz, Jose; Manukyan, Armine; Chun, Sally; Singh, Gaurav; Salas, Pedro; Targan, Stephan R; Fukata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, interaction between epithelial cells and macrophages (M?s) create a unique immunoregulatory microenvironment necessary to maintain local immune and tissue homeostasis. Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been shown to express interleukin (IL)-10, which keeps epithelial integrity. We have demonstrated that bacterial signaling through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 induces 15-deoxy-?-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) synthesis in intestinal M?s by cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 expression. Here, we show that TLR4 signaling generates crosstalk between IECs and M?s that enhances IL-10 expression in IECs. Direct stimulation of TLR4 leads to the expression of IL-10 in IECs, while the presence of M?s in a Transwell system induces another peak in IL-10 expression in IECs at a later time point. The second peak of the IL-10 expression is two times greater than the first peak. This late induction of IL-10 depends on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? that is accumulated in IECs by TLR4-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. TLR4 signaling in M?s in turn synthesizes 15d-PGJ2 through p38 and ERK activation and Cox-2 induction, which activates PPAR? in IECs. These results suggest that TLR4 signaling maintains IL-10 production in IECs by generating epithelial-M?s crosstalk, which is an important mechanism in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis mediated through host-bacterial interactions. PMID:25171731

  17. Extracellular matrix regulates glomerular epithelial cell survival and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bijian, Krikor; Takano, Tomoko; Papillon, Joan; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Cybulsky, Andrey V

    2004-02-01

    Glomerular epithelial cell (GEC) injury and apoptosis may contribute to sclerosis in glomerulonephritis. The present study addresses signals that regulate survival of GEC in culture and in the acute puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN) model of GEC injury in vivo. Compared with GEC on plastic substratum, adhesion to collagen increased activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, and ERK and facilitated survival (prevented apoptosis). GEC on plastic exhibited increased caspase-8 and -9 activities, increased expression of the proapoptotic protein, Bax, and decreased the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-XL, compared with collagen. Stable expression of constitutively active mutants of FAK (CD2-FAK) or MEK (R4F-MEK) activated the ERK pathway and supplanted the requirement of collagen for survival. In contrast, expression of a Ras mutant that activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but blocks ERK activation or pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway decreased survival on collagen. Glomeruli isolated from rats with PAN revealed increased beta1-integrin expression, along with increased activation of FAK, c-Src, and ERK, compared with controls. EGF receptor activation was undetectable in PAN. Therefore, adhesion to collagen, resulting in activation of FAK and the Ras-ERK pathway, supports GEC survival. Analogous signals for GEC survival are activated in PAN. PMID:14559718

  18. Polarizing intestinal epithelial cells electrically through Ror2

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lin; McCaig, Colin D.; Scott, Roderick H.; Zhao, Siwei; Milne, Gillian; Clevers, Hans; Zhao, Min; Pu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The apicobasal polarity of enterocytes determines where the brush border membrane (apical membrane) will form, but how this apical membrane faces the lumen is not well understood. The electrical signal across the epithelium could serve as a coordinating cue, orienting and polarizing enterocytes. Here, we show that applying a physiological electric field to intestinal epithelial cells, to mimic the natural electric field created by the transepithelial potential difference, polarized phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein ezrin, increased expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI, a differentiation marker) and remodeled the actin cytoskeleton selectively on the cathode side. In addition, an applied electric field also activated ERK1/2 and LKB1 (also known as STK11), key molecules in apical membrane formation. Disruption of the tyrosine protein kinase transmembrane receptor Ror2 suppressed activation of ERK1/2 and LKB1 significantly, and subsequently inhibited apical membrane formation in enterocytes. Our findings indicate that the endogenous electric field created by the transepithelial potential difference might act as an essential coordinating signal for apical membrane formation at a tissue level, through activation of LKB1 mediated by Ror2–ERK signaling. PMID:24928904

  19. Differential activation of human T cells to allogeneic endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the direct pathway, T cells recognize intact donor major histocompatability complexes and allogeneic peptide on the surface of donor antigen presenting cells (APCs). Indirect allorecognition results from the recognition of processed alloantigen by self MHC complexes on self APCs. In this study, we wished to evaluate the relative contribution of different intragraft cells to the alloactivation of nave and memory T cells though the direct and the indirect pathway of allorecognition. Methods The processing of membrane fragments from IFN-treated single donor endothelial cells (EC), fibroblasts or renal epithelial cells (RPTEC) was evaluated by DiOC labeling of each cell type and flow cytometry following interaction with PBMC. Direct pathway activation of nave CD45RA+ or memory CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells was evaluated following coculture with IFN-treated and MHC class II-expressing EC, fibroblasts or RPTEC. Indirect pathway activation was assessed using CD45RA+ or CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells cocultured with autologous irradiated APCs in the absence or presence of sonicates derived from IFN-treated allogeneic EC, fibroblasts or RPTEC. Activation of T cells was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation and by ELISpot assays. Results We find that CD14+ APCs readily acquire membrane fragments from fibroblasts and RPTEC, but fail to acquire membrane fragments from intact EC. However, APCs process membranes from EC undergoing apoptosis.There was a notable direct pathway alloproliferative response of CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells to IFN-treated EC, but not to fibroblasts or RPTEC. Also, there was a minimal direct pathway response of CD45RA+ CD4+ T cells to all cell types. In contrast, we found that both CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells proliferated following coculture with autologous APCs in the presence of sonicates derived from IFN-treated EC, fibroblasts or RPTEC. By ELISpot, we found that these T cells stimulated via the indirect pathway also produced the cytokines IFN, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5. Conclusions Recipient APCs may readily process membrane fragments from allogeneic intragraft cells, but not from EC unless they are undergoing apoptosis. This processing is sufficient for indirect pathway alloactivation of both CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ CD4+ T cells. Only graft vascular EC mediate direct pathway reactivation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:23369287

  20. Exo70 Isoform Switching upon Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Mediates Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hezhe; Liu, Jianglan; Liu, Shujing; Zeng, Jingwen; Ding, Deqiang; Carstens, Russ P.; Cong, Yusheng; Xu, Xiaowei; Guo, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental process hijacked by cancer cells for their dissemination. Here we show that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, undergoes isoform switching mediated by ESRP1, a pre-mRNA splicing factor that regulates EMT. Expression of the epithelial isoform of Exo70 affects the levels of key EMT transcriptional regulators such as Snail and ZEB2, and is sufficient to drive the transition to epithelial phenotypes. Differential Exo70 isoforms expression in human tumors correlates with cancer progression, and increased expression of the epithelial isoform of Exo70 inhibits tumor metastasis in mice. At the molecular level, the mesenchymal but not the epithelial isoform of Exo70 interacts with the Arp2/3 complex and stimulates actin polymerization for tumor invasion. Our findings provide a mechanism by which the exocyst function and actin dynamics are modulated for EMT and tumor invasion. PMID:24331928

  1. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  2. Human gastric epithelial cells contribute to gastric immune regulation by providing retinoic acid to dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Bimczok, D; Kao, J Y; Zhang, M; Cochrun, S; Mannon, P; Peter, S; Wilcox, C M; Mönkemüller, K E; Harris, P R; Grams, J M; Stahl, R D; Smith, P D; Smythies, L E

    2015-05-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule retinol (ROL), and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of ROL synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric dendritic cells (DCs). Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  3. Cell shape regulates global histone acetylation in human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Le Beyec, Johanne; Xu, Ren; Lee, Sun-Young; Nelson, Celeste M.; Rizki, Aylin; Alcaraz, Jordi; Bissell, Mina J.

    2007-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cell morphology and gene expression in vivo; these relationships are maintained in three-dimensional (3D) cultures of mammary epithelial cells. In the presence of laminin-rich ECM (lrECM), mammary epithelial cells round up and undergo global histone deacetylation, a process critical for their functional differentiation. However, it remains unclear whether lrECM-dependent cell rounding and global histone deacetylation are indeed part of a common physical-biochemical pathway. Using 3D cultures as well as nonadhesive and micropatterned substrata, here we showed that the cell ‘rounding’ caused by lrECM was sufficient to induce deacetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the absence of biochemical cues. Microarray and confocal analysis demonstrated that this deacetylation in 3D culture is associated with a global increase in chromatin condensation and a reduction in gene expression. Whereas cells cultured on plastic substrata formed prominent stress fibers, cells grown in 3D lrECM or on micropatterns lacked these structures. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D phenocopied the lrECM-induced cell rounding and histone deacetylation. These results reveal a novel link between ECM-controlled cell shape and chromatin structure, and suggest that this link is mediated by changes in the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:17524393

  4. Tumour cell invasion: an emerging role for basal epithelial cell extrusion

    PubMed Central

    Slattum, Gloria M.; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, but it is unclear how cancer cells escape their primary sites in epithelia and disseminate to other sites in the body. One emerging possibility is that transformed epithelial cells could invade the underlying tissue by a process called cell extrusion, which epithelia use to remove cells without disrupting their barrier function. Typically, during normal cell turnover, live cells extrude apically from the epithelium into the lumen and later die by anoikis; however, several oncogenic mutations shift cell extrusion basally, towards the tissue that the epithelium encases. Tumour cells with high levels of survival and motility signals could use basal extrusion to escape from the tissue and migrate to other sites within the body. PMID:24943812

  5. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  6. Bradykinin increases intracellular calcium levels in a human bronchial epithelial cell line via the B 2 receptor subtype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. M. Ricciardolo; M. Lovett; D. A. Halliday; J. A. Nadel; T. Kaneko; N. W. Bunnett; P. Geppetti

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine which types of kinin receptor are present in human bronchial epithelial cells we studied the capability of bradykinin to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+] i) in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE cells).¶Material: Human bronchial epithelial cell line transformed with an original defective simian virus 40 (SV40).¶Treatment: Bradykinin (0.1 pM to 0.1 7M), des-Arg9 bradykinin (1 7M),

  7. Lowe Syndrome Protein OCRL1 Supports Maturation of Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Heras, Elena; Hayes, Matthew J.; Moss, Stephen E.; Matter, Karl; Lowe, Martin; Levine, Timothy P.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL1 cause Lowe Syndrome, leading to cataracts, mental retardation and renal failure. We noted that cell types affected in Lowe Syndrome are highly polarized, and therefore we studied OCRL1 in epithelial cells as they mature from isolated individual cells into polarized sheets and cysts with extensive communication between neighbouring cells. We show that a proportion of OCRL1 targets intercellular junctions at the early stages of their formation, co-localizing both with adherens junctional components and with tight junctional components. Correlating with this distribution, OCRL1 forms complexes with junctional components ?-catenin and zonula occludens (ZO)-1/2/3. Depletion of OCRL1 in epithelial cells growing as a sheet inhibits maturation; cells remain flat, fail to polarize apical markers and also show reduced proliferation. The effect on shape is reverted by re-expressed OCRL1 and requires the 5?-phosphatase domain, indicating that down-regulation of 5-phosphorylated inositides is necessary for epithelial development. The effect of OCRL1 in epithelial maturation is seen more strongly in 3-dimensional cultures, where epithelial cells lacking OCRL1 not only fail to form a central lumen, but also do not have the correct intracellular distribution of ZO-1, suggesting that OCRL1 functions early in the maturation of intercellular junctions when cells grow as cysts. A role of OCRL1 in junctions of polarized cells may explain the pattern of organs affected in Lowe Syndrome. PMID:21901156

  8. Productive infection of a cervical epithelial cell line with human immunodeficiency virus: implications for sexual transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, X; Pearce-Pratt, R; Phillips, D M

    1993-01-01

    The human cervix-derived epithelial cell line (ME180) used in this study displays a characteristics epithelial morphology, including numerous desmosomes, tonofilaments, and epidermal filaments. When T-cell lines infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are added to epithelial cultures, they rapidly adhere to the epithelial monolayer. Within a few minutes, the T cells shed numerous virions into narrow spaces formed between the epithelial cell and the adherent T cells. Virions subsequently enter the ME180 cells via large vesicles. A few days after infection, cytopathic effects and syncytium formation were observed. Infected clones of ME180 cells have remained infected for 8 months. p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and infectivity assays show that one subclone of the cell line produces virus titers equivalent to those of high-secreting HIV-infected T-cell lines. Electron microscopy reveals numerous virions budding from both the basal and apical surfaces of the epithelium. These observations suggest that cervical epithelium has the potential to serve as a site of HIV infection. Images PMID:8411347

  9. Active Cell Edge and Movements of Concanavalin A Receptors of the Surface of Epithelial and Fibroblastic Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Vasiliev; I. M. Gelfand; L. V. Domnina; N. A. Dorfman; O. Y. Pletyushkina

    1976-01-01

    Movements of the receptors of concanavalin A on various parts of the surfaces of substrate-attached cells were compared. Cultured mouse embryo cells of several types were used: epithelial kidney cells and normal and transformed fibroblasts. Initial distribution of receptors was random on the cells of all types. Binding of concanavalin A induced patching of its receptors on all the cell

  10. The Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Phillip W.; Clarke, Donald N.; Weis, William I.; Lowe, Christopher J.; Nelson, W. James

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A simple epithelium forms a barrier between the outside and the inside of an organism, and is the first organized multicellular tissue found in evolution. We examine the relationship between the evolution of epithelia and specialized cell-cell adhesion proteins comprising the classical cadherin/?-catenin/?-catenin complex (CCC). A review of the divergent functional properties of the CCC in metazoans and non-metazoans, and an updated phylogenetic coverage of the CCC using recent genomic data reveal: 1) The core CCC likely originated before the last common ancestor of unikonts and their closest bikont sister taxa. 2) Formation of the CCC may have constrained sequence evolution of the classical cadherin cytoplasmic domain and ?-catenin in metazoa. 3) The ?-catenin binding domain in ?-catenin appears to be the favored mutation site for disrupting ?-catenin function in the CCC. 4) The ancestral function of the ?/?-catenin heterodimer appears to be an actin-binding module. In some metazoan groups, more complex functions of ?-catenin were gained by sequence divergence in the non-actin binding (N-, M-) domains. 5) Allosteric regulation of ?-catenin, rather than loss of function mutations, may have evolved for more complex regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24210433

  11. Epithelial cell senescence impairs repair process and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genotoxic stress, such as by exposure to bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and cigarette smoke, induces premature cell senescence. Recent evidence indicates that cellular senescence of various types of cells is accelerated in COPD patients. However, whether the senescence of airway epithelial cells contributes to the development of airway diseases is unknown. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that premature senescence of airway epithelial cells (Clara cells) impairs repair processes and exacerbates inflammation after airway injury. Methods C57/BL6J mice were injected with the Clara-cell-specific toxicant naphthalene (NA) on days 0, 7, and 14, and each NA injection was followed by a daily dose of BrdU on each of the following 3 days, during which regenerating cells were allowed to incorporate BrdU into their DNA and to senesce. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 was injected 30 minutes before each BrdU dose. Mice were sacrificed at different times until day 28 and lungs of mice were obtained to investigate whether Clara cell senescence impairs airway epithelial regeneration and exacerbates airway inflammation. NCI-H441 cells were induced to senesce by exposure to BrdU or the telomerase inhibitor MST-312. Human lung tissue samples were obtained from COPD patients, asymptomatic smokers, and nonsmokers to investigate whether Clara cell senescence is accelerated in the airways of COPD patients, and if so, whether it is accompanied by p38 MAPK activation. Results BrdU did not alter the intensity of the airway epithelial injury or inflammation after a single NA exposure. However, after repeated NA exposure, BrdU induced epithelial cell (Clara cell) senescence, as demonstrated by a DNA damage response, p21 overexpression, increased senescence-associated ?-galactosidase activity, and growth arrest, which resulted in impaired epithelial regeneration. The epithelial senescence was accompanied by p38 MAPK-dependent airway inflammation. Senescent NCI-H441 cells impaired epithelial wound repair and secreted increased amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner. Clara cell senescence in COPD patients was accelerated and accompanied by p38 MAPK activation. Conclusions Senescence of airway epithelial cells impairs repair processes and exacerbates p38 MAPK-dependent inflammation after airway injury, and it may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:21663649

  12. Molecular analysis of the vaginal response to estrogens in the ovariectomized rat and postmenopausal woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott A Jelinsky; Sung E Choe; Judy S Crabtree; Monette M Cotreau; Ewa Wilson; Kathryn Saraf; Andrew J Dorner; Eugene L Brown; Bryan J Peano; Xiaochun Zhang; Richard C Winneker; Heather A Harris

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vaginal atrophy (VA) is the thinning of the vaginal epithelial lining, typically the result of lowered estrogen levels during menopause. Some of the consequences of VA include increased susceptibility to bacterial infection, pain during sexual intercourse, and vaginal burning or itching. Although estrogen treatment is highly effective, alternative therapies are also desired for women who are not candidates for

  13. Vaginal effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized rat preclinical model of menopause.

    PubMed

    Unkila, Mikko; Kari, Seppo; Yatkin, Emrah; Lammintausta, Risto

    2013-11-01

    Ospemifene is a unique tissue-selective estrogen agonist/antagonist (also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator [SERM]) with demonstrated efficacy in Phase 3 studies of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). This report describes preclinical studies on the effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of menopause. Ospemifene (10mg/kg/day) and the SERM comparator, raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) were administered for 2 weeks and both increased vaginal weight; ospemifene was more effective than raloxifene. In addition, ospemifene had a greater effect on increasing vaginal epithelial height compared with raloxifene. The effect on uterine weight was less pronounced for both ospemifene and raloxifene. The ED50 of ospemifene on vaginal epithelial height was 0.39mg/kg/day and the magnitude was nearly the same as was seen with the positive control, 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). In a histological analysis of ospemifene-treated rat vaginas, basal cells were overlaid by 2 to 3 cell layers of thickened goblet-like mucified cells apically; however, the cornification observed with EE2 was absent. Estrogenic activity of ospemifene was confirmed by upregulation of progesterone receptors in vaginal epithelium and stroma. Ospemifene showed similar affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER-?, but an overall lower affinity than estradiol. Ospemifene antagonized estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated transactivation on MCF-7 cells, confirming its anti-estrogenic activity in breast cancer cells. The dose response for ospemifene in the rat is consistent with that observed in clinical studies of ospemifene 30 and 60mg, showing that the OVX rat is a highly predictive model of SERM activity in postmenopausal VVA. PMID:23665515

  14. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cell Dysfunction in Rat Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Fallon, Michael B.; Zhang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-?, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064) induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25419825

  15. Gene Expression Correlations in Human Cancer Cell Lines Define Molecular Interaction Networks for Epithelial Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Kurt W.; Zeeberg, Barry M.; Reinhold, William C.; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute’s CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:24940735

  16. Comparison of methods for the isolation of human breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zubeldia-Plazaola, Arantzazu; Ametller, Elisabet; Mancino, Mario; Prats de Puig, Miquel; López-Plana, Anna; Guzman, Flavia; Vinyals, Laia; Pastor-Arroyo, Eva M; Almendro, Vanessa; Fuster, Gemma; Gascón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Two lineages, epithelial, and myoepithelial cells are the main cell populations in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer. Traditionally, cancer research has been performed using commercial cell lines, but primary cell cultures obtained from fresh breast tissue are a powerful tool to study more reliably new aspects of mammary gland biology, including normal and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the methods described to date have some technical problems in terms of cell viability and yield, which hamper work with primary mammary cells. Therefore, there is a need to optimize technology for the proper isolation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. For this reason, we compared four methods in an effort to improve the isolation and primary cell culture of different cell populations of human mammary epithelium. The samples were obtained from healthy tissue of patients who had undergone mammoplasty or mastectomy surgery. We based our approaches on previously described methods, and incorporated additional steps to ameliorate technical efficiency and increase cell survival. We determined cell growth and viability by phase-contrast images, growth curve analysis and cell yield, and identified cell-lineage specific markers by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence in 3D cell cultures. These techniques allowed us to better evaluate the functional capabilities of these two main mammary lineages, using CD227/K19 (epithelial cells) and CD10/K14 (myoepithelial cells) antigens. Our results show that slow digestion at low enzymatic concentration combined with the differential centrifugation technique is the method that best fits the main goal of the present study: protocol efficiency and cell survival yield. In summary, we propose some guidelines to establish primary mammary epithelial cell lines more efficiently and to provide us with a strong research instrument to better understand the role of different epithelial cell types in the origin of breast cancer. PMID:26052514

  17. Comparison of methods for the isolation of human breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zubeldia-Plazaola, Arantzazu; Ametller, Elisabet; Mancino, Mario; Prats de Puig, Miquel; López-Plana, Anna; Guzman, Flavia; Vinyals, Laia; Pastor-Arroyo, Eva M.; Almendro, Vanessa; Fuster, Gemma; Gascón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Two lineages, epithelial, and myoepithelial cells are the main cell populations in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer. Traditionally, cancer research has been performed using commercial cell lines, but primary cell cultures obtained from fresh breast tissue are a powerful tool to study more reliably new aspects of mammary gland biology, including normal and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the methods described to date have some technical problems in terms of cell viability and yield, which hamper work with primary mammary cells. Therefore, there is a need to optimize technology for the proper isolation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. For this reason, we compared four methods in an effort to improve the isolation and primary cell culture of different cell populations of human mammary epithelium. The samples were obtained from healthy tissue of patients who had undergone mammoplasty or mastectomy surgery. We based our approaches on previously described methods, and incorporated additional steps to ameliorate technical efficiency and increase cell survival. We determined cell growth and viability by phase-contrast images, growth curve analysis and cell yield, and identified cell-lineage specific markers by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence in 3D cell cultures. These techniques allowed us to better evaluate the functional capabilities of these two main mammary lineages, using CD227/K19 (epithelial cells) and CD10/K14 (myoepithelial cells) antigens. Our results show that slow digestion at low enzymatic concentration combined with the differential centrifugation technique is the method that best fits the main goal of the present study: protocol efficiency and cell survival yield. In summary, we propose some guidelines to establish primary mammary epithelial cell lines more efficiently and to provide us with a strong research instrument to better understand the role of different epithelial cell types in the origin of breast cancer. PMID:26052514

  18. Inhibitory kappaB kinase 2 activates airway epithelial cells to stimulate bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Biji; Park, Gye Young; Cao, Hongmei; Azim, Anser C; Wang, Xuerong; Van Breemen, Richard B; Sadikot, Ruxana T; Christman, John W

    2007-05-01

    It has not been resolved whether macrophages or airway epithelial cells primarily respond to infectious and inflammatory stimuli and initiate a cell-to-cell inflammatory interaction within the airways. We hypothesized that the airway epithelial cells are primary responders that activate macrophages in response to environmental stimuli. To investigate the unilateral contribution of airway epithelial cells in the activation of macrophages, we developed an in vitro system in which the primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were incubated together for a brief period of time in a Transwell culture plate. MTEC were transfected with adenoviral vectors that express a constitutively active form of IKK2 (Ad-cIKK2), Ad-beta-Gal, or PBS for 48 h before incubating with the macrophages. Macrophage activation was determined by measuring surface expression of CD11b, activation of NF-kappaB, phagocytic activity and production of reactive oxygen species, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and production of prostaglandins. Macrophage adherence to epithelial layer was confirmed by CD68 immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. MTEC cells transfected with Ad-cIKK2 produced increased amounts of IL-6, mouse GRO-alpha, TNF-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)E2. Exposure of BMDM to MTEC, transfected with Ad-cIKK2, led to an increase in the CD11b expression and increased adherence of macrophages to the epithelial cell layer. NF-kappaB activation, COX-2 gene expression, and PGD2 synthesis were also increased in BMDM that were incubated with MTEC transfected with Ad-cIKK2. These data suggest that airway epithelial cells potentially play a primary role in generating inflammatory signals that result in activation of macrophages. PMID:17204585

  19. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S.I.; Leikauf, G.D.; Robbins, R.A. (Research Service, Omaha Veterans Administration Medical Center, NE (USA))

    1991-08-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers of monocytes compared to media alone and the number of monocytes attracted increased in a time dependent manner. Endotoxin and smoke extract induced a dose and time dependent release of monocyte chemotactic activity compared with cells cultured in media (52.5 {plus minus} 2.6 (endotoxin), 30.5 {plus minus} 2.3 (smoke) vs 20.5 {plus minus} 2.2 cells/high power field (HPF) p less than 0.001). The released activity was chemotactic by checkerboard analysis. Stimulation of the epithelial cells by opsonized zymosan, calcium ionophore (A23187), and PMA also resulted in an increase in monocyte chemotactic activity (p less than 0.01). Because the release of activity was blocked by the lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and diethycarbamazine, epithelial cell monolayers were cultured with 3 microCi (3H)arachidonic acid for 24 h and then exposed to A23187, PMA, or both stimuli, for 4, 8, and 24 h. Analysis of the released 3H activity was performed with reverse-phase HPLC and revealed that the major lipoxygenase product was leukotriene B4. These data suggest that monocytes may be recruited into airways in response to chemotactic factors released by bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. Cell-Matrix Interactions Modulate 92-kD Gelatinase Expression by Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pin Mei Yao; Christophe Delclaux; Marie Pia d'Ortho; Bernard Maitre; Alain Harf; Chantal Lafuma

    1998-01-01

    We have previously reported that primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) cultured on types I 1 III collagen were able to differentially regulate the production of major constitutive 92-kD gelatinase, mi- nor 72-kD gelatinase, and their tissue-specific inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that HBECs may be in- volved in vivo

  1. Epithelial Cells Activate Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Improving Their Anti-HIV Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Rodriguez Rodrigues; Mercedes Cabrini; Federico Remes Lenicov; Juan Sabatté; Ana Ceballos; Carolina Jancic; Silvina Raiden; Matías Ostrowski; Claudia Silberstein; Jorge Geffner

    2011-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in anti-viral immunity by virtue of their ability to produce high amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to viral infections. Since recent studies have established that pDCs accumulate at the site of virus entry in the mucosa, here we analyzed whether epithelial

  2. Influenza Virus Receptor Specificity and Cell Tropism in Mouse and Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aida Ibricevic; Andrew Pekosz; Michael J. Walter; Celeste Newby; John T. Battaile; Earl G. Brown; Michael J. Holtzman; Steven L. Brody

    2006-01-01

    Recent human infections caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 strains emphasize an urgent need for assessment of factors that allow viral transmission, replication, and intra-airway spread. Important determinants for virus infection are epithelial cell receptors identified as glycans terminated by an 2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) that preferentially bind avian strains and glycans terminated by an 2,6-linked SA

  3. Surface area of apical and basolateral plasmalemma of epithelial cells of the ductuli efferentes testis of the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; R. C. Jones; J. Clulow

    1994-01-01

    Serial sectioning was used to determine the occurrence of ciliated cells, and a morphological technique was used to estimate the relative and absolute surface areas of apical and basolateral membrane of the epithelial cells lining the ductuli efferentes of the rat. It was found that the ciliated cells constitute 15% of the epithelial cells and occur as groups of mainly

  4. Tumor Cell Marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4) Is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Measles Virus

    PubMed Central

    Noyce, Ryan S.; Bondre, Daniel G.; Ha, Michael N.; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Sisson, Gary; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Richardson, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Vaccine and laboratory adapted strains of measles virus can use CD46 as a receptor to infect many human cell lines. However, wild type isolates of measles virus cannot use CD46, and they infect activated lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages via the receptor CD150/SLAM. Wild type virus can also infect epithelial cells of the respiratory tract through an unidentified receptor. We demonstrate that wild type measles virus infects primary airway epithelial cells grown in fetal calf serum and many adenocarcinoma cell lines of the lung, breast, and colon. Transfection of non-infectable adenocarcinoma cell lines with an expression vector encoding CD150/SLAM rendered them susceptible to measles virus, indicating that they were virus replication competent, but lacked a receptor for virus attachment and entry. Microarray analysis of susceptible versus non-susceptible cell lines was performed, and comparison of membrane protein gene transcripts produced a list of 11 candidate receptors. Of these, only the human tumor cell marker PVRL4 (Nectin 4) rendered cells amenable to measles virus infections. Flow cytometry confirmed that PVRL4 is highly expressed on the surfaces of susceptible lung, breast, and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Measles virus preferentially infected adenocarcinoma cell lines from the apical surface, although basolateral infection was observed with reduced kinetics. Confocal immune fluorescence microscopy and surface biotinylation experiments revealed that PVRL4 was expressed on both the apical and basolateral surfaces of these cell lines. Antibodies and siRNA directed against PVRL4 were able to block measles virus infections in MCF7 and NCI-H358 cancer cells. A virus binding assay indicated that PVRL4 was a bona fide receptor that supported virus attachment to the host cell. Several strains of measles virus were also shown to use PVRL4 as a receptor. Measles virus infection reduced PVRL4 surface expression in MCF7 cells, a property that is characteristic of receptor-associated viral infections. PMID:21901103

  5. Epithelial Cell Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Decellularized Lung Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Julio J.; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of appropriate donor cell types is important for lung cell therapy and for lung regeneration. Previous studies have indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) and from human adipose tissue (hAT-MSCs) may have the ability to trans-differentiate into lung epithelial cells. However, these data remain controversial. Herein, the ability of hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs to repopulate acellular rodent lung tissue was evaluated. hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and lipoaspirate, respectively. Rat lungs were decellularized with CHAPS detergent, followed by seeding the matrix with hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs. Under appropriate culture conditions, both human MSC populations attached to and proliferated within the lung tissue scaffold. In addition, cells were capable of type 2 pneumocyte differentiation, as assessed by marker expression of surfactant protein C (pro-SPC) at the protein and the RNA level, and by the presence of lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, hAT-MSCs contributed to Clara-like cells that lined the airways in the lung scaffolds, whereas the hBM-MSCs did not. We also tested the differentiation potential of MSCs on different extracellular matrix components in vitro, and found that protein substrate influences MSC epithelial differentiation. Together our data show the capacity for human MSCs to differentiate toward lung epithelial phenotypes, and the possibility of using these cells for lung cell therapies and tissue engineering. PMID:24393055

  6. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ju; Jin, Guoxiang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zai; Lin, Raozhou; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2015-07-17

    Polarization of epithelial cells requires vectorial sorting and transport of polarity proteins to apical or basolateral domains. Kif5b is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC). To investigate the function of Kif5b in epithelial cells, we examined the phenotypes of Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate, profound changes in cell morphology, loss of epithelial cell marker, and gain of mesenchymal marker, as well as increased cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis abilities. E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells, and their expression levels were decreased in Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA in Kif5b depleted MDCK cells could decrease mesenchymal marker expression and cell migration ability. These results indicate that stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells can lead to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is mediated by defective E-cadherin and NMMIIA expression. PMID:26002460

  7. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that high linear-energy transfer (LET) charged particles can be more effective than x-rays and gamma-rays in inducing oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumors in animals. Based on these results, experiments were designed and performed with an immortal human mammary epithelial cell line (H184B5), and several clones transformed by heavy ions were obtained. Cell fusion experiments were subsequently done, and results indicate that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. Chromosome analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques also showed additional translocations in transformed human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, studies with these cell lines indicate that heavy ions can effectively induce deletion, break, and dicentrics. Deletion of tumor suppressor gene(s) and/or formation of translocation through DNA double strand breaks is a likely mechanism for the initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells.

  10. Differential Sensitivity of Epithelial Cells to Extracellular Matrix in Polarity Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Yonemura, Shigenobu

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of apical-basal polarity is crucial for epithelial sheets that form a compartment in the body, which function to maintain the environment in the compartment. Effects of impaired polarization are easily observed in three-dimensional (3-D) culture systems rather than in two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems. Although the mechanisms for establishing the polarity are not completely understood, signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) are considered to be essential for determining the basal side and eventually generating polarity in the epithelial cells. To elucidate the common features and differences in polarity establishment among various epithelial cells, we analyzed the formation of epithelial apical-basal polarity using three cell lines of different origin: MDCK II cells (dog renal tubules), EpH4 cells (mouse mammary gland), and R2/7 cells (human colon) expressing wild-type ?-catenin (R2/7 ?-Cate cells). These cells showed clear apical-basal polarity in 2-D cultures. In 3-D cultures, however, each cell line displayed different responses to the same ECM. In MDCK II cells, spheroids with a single lumen formed in both Matrigel and collagen gel. In R2/7 ?-Cate cells, spheroids showed similar apical-basal polarity as that seen in MDCK II cells, but had multiple lumens. In EpH4 cells, the spheroids displayed an apical-basal polarity that was opposite to that seen in the other two cell types in both ECM gels, at least during the culture period. On the other hand, the three cell lines showed the same apical-basal polarity both in 2-D cultures and in 3-D cultures using the hanging drop method. The three lines also had similar cellular responses to ECM secreted by the cells themselves. Therefore, appropriate culture conditions should be carefully determined in advance when using various epithelial cells to analyze cell polarity or 3-D morphogenesis. PMID:25393292

  11. Point mutations in EBV gH that abrogate or differentially affect B cell and epithelial cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liguo [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology and Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States); Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology and Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130 (United States)]. E-mail: lhuttf@lsuhsc.edu

    2007-06-20

    Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial cell coreceptor and is blocked by excess gp42. We show here that gp42 interacts directly with gH and that point mutations in the region of gH recognized by an antibody that differentially inhibits epithelial and B cell fusion significantly impact both the core fusion machinery and cell-specific events. Substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 594 completely abrogates fusion with either B cells or epithelial cells. Substitution of alanine for glutamic acid at residue 595 reduces fusion with epithelial cells, greatly enhances fusion with B cells and allows low levels of B cell fusion even in the absence of gL.

  12. Culture and Characterization of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on a Fibrin Gel for Ocular Surface Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Radhika; Neale, Michael H; Shortt, Alex J; Massie, Isobel; Vernon, Amanda J; Daniels, Julie T

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Aim of the study: To develop a clinical grade fibrin gel for the culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMEC) intended for ocular surface reconstruction in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Materials and methods: Transparent fibrin gels composed of fibrinogen and thrombin were developed for the culture of epithelial cells. Oral mucosa was harvested from the buccal region of healthy volunteers and cultured as explants on fibrin gels. Tranexamic acid (TA), a clinically approved anti-fibrinolytic agent was added to prevent the fibrin gel from digesting due to cellular activity. The gels were stained for p63? (as a marker of poorly differentiated epithelial cells), CK19, CK13 and CK3 (expressed by OMEC). Epithelial cell stratification was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: Addition of TA prevented gels from dissolving during the culture period. OMEC proliferated on the fibrin gel and attained confluence over a 2-week period (±2?d) and exhibited a typical epithelial, cobblestone morphology. Basal OMEC exhibited positive staining for p63? while the superficial cells exhibited positive staining for CK3. The cells expressed a strong immunoreactivity for CK19 and CK13 suggesting that they retained a normal oral epithelial phenotype. Conclusion: Fibrin gels, maintained in the presence of TA, to control the rate of substrate degradation, provide a more robust yet transparent substrate for the culture and transplantation of cultured OMEC. The fibrin gels are easily standardized, the components commercially available, and produced from clinically approved materials. The resulting stratified OMEC-derived epithelium displays characteristics similar to that of a human cornea, e.g. CK3 expression. The conventional dependence on a murine feeder layer for support of epithelial cells is unnecessary with this technique and hence, provides for an attractive alternative for treatment of LSCD. PMID:25380127

  13. Transcriptional mechanisms link epithelial plasticity to adhesion and differentiation of epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Briana; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro; Fallahi, Magid; Ovadia, Jeremy; Sun, Peng; Yu, Qian-Chun; Ito, Seiji; Sinha, Satrajit; Nie, Qing; Dai, Xing

    2014-01-01

    During epithelial tissue morphogenesis, developmental progenitor cells undergo dynamic adhesive and cytoskeletal remodeling to trigger proliferation and migration. Transcriptional mechanisms that restrict such mild form of epithelial plasticity to maintain lineage-restricted differentiation in committed epithelial tissues are poorly understood. Here we report that simultaneous ablation of transcriptional repressor-encoding Ovol1 and Ovol2 results in expansion and blocked terminal differentiation of embryonic epidermal progenitor cells. Conversely, mice overexpressing Ovol2 in their skin epithelia exhibit precocious differentiation accompanied by smaller progenitor cell compartments. We show that Ovol1/2-deficient epidermal cells fail to undertake ?-catenin–driven actin cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesive maturation, and exhibit changes that resemble epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Remarkably, these alterations as well as defective terminal differentiation are reversed upon depletion of EMT-promoting transcriptional factor Zeb1. Collectively, our findings reveal Ovol-Zeb1-?-catenin sequential repression and highlight functions of Ovol as gatekeepers of epithelial adhesion and differentiation by inhibiting progenitor-like traits and epithelial plasticity. PMID:24735878

  14. Epithelial differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Brzoska; Helmut Geiger; Stefan Gauer; Patrick Baer

    2005-01-01

    Adult human stem cells are employed in novel treatments and bio-artificial devices. Recent studies have identified an abundant source of stem cells termed adipose-derived adult stem (ADAS)-cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Under appropriate culture conditions ADAS-cells differentiate to various cell types, including chondrocytes, adipocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Aiming at epithelial differentiation this study investigated the effect of all-trans

  15. Selective functionalization of nanofiber scaffolds to regulate salivary gland epithelial cell proliferation and polarity

    PubMed Central

    Cantara, Shraddha I.; Soscia, David A.; Sequeira, Sharon; Jean-Gilles, Riffard; Castracane, James; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cell types typically lose apicobasal polarity when cultured on 2D substrates, but apicobasal polarity is required for directional secretion by secretory cells, such as salivary gland acinar cells. We cultured salivary gland epithelial cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds that mimic the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix, and examined cell proliferation and apicobasal polarization. Although cells proliferated on nanofibers, chitosan-coated nanofiber scaffolds stimulated proliferation of salivary gland epithelial cells. Although apicobasal cell polarity was promoted by the nanofiber scaffolds relative to flat surfaces, as determined by the apical localization of ZO-1, it was antagonized by the presence of chitosan. Neither salivary gland acinar nor ductal cells fully polarized on the nanofiber scaffolds, as determined by the homogenous membrane distribution of the mature tight junction marker, occludin. However, nanofiber scaffolds chemically functionalized with the basement membrane protein, laminin-111, promoted more mature tight junctions, as determined by apical localization of occludin but did not affect cell proliferation. To emulate the multifunctional capabilities of the basement membrane, bifunctional PLGA nanofibers were generated. Both acinar and ductal cell lines responded to signals provided by bifunctional scaffolds coupled to chitosan and laminin-111, demonstrating the applicability of such scaffolds for epithelial cell types. PMID:22938763

  16. A Gata6Wnt pathway required for epithelial stem cell development and airway regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuzhen Zhang; Ashley M Goss; Ethan David Cohen; Rachel Kadzik; John J Lepore; Karthika Muthukumaraswamy; Jifu Yang; Francesco J DeMayo; Jeffrey A Whitsett; Michael S Parmacek; Edward E Morrisey

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial organs, including the lung, are known to possess regenerative abilities through activation of endogenous stem cell populations, but the molecular pathways regulating stem cell expansion and regeneration are not well understood. Here we show that Gata6 regulates the temporal appearance and number of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) in the lung, its absence in Gata6-null lung epithelium leading to the

  17. A three-dimensional model of differentiation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melville B. Vaughan; Ruben D. Ramirez; Woodring E. Wright; John D. Minna; Jerry W. Shay

    2006-01-01

    A therapeutic approach being investigated for a variety of pathologies is tissue regeneration using a patient's own cells. Such studies have been hampered due to the difficulty in growing epithelial cells for prolonged periods in culture. Replicative senescence due to short telomeres and p16 induced by culture stress work together to inhibit cell growth. Forced expression of telomerase (hTERT) can

  18. OZONE-INDUCED RELEASE OF CYTOKINES AND FIBRONECTIN BY ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AND AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although airway epithelial cells appear damaged following exposure of humans and animals to ozone, the contribution of these cells to inflammation observed after ozone exposure is unclear. ince human airway cells are infrequently available for in vitro studies, we have investigat...

  19. Combined optical and electronic sensing of epithelial cells using planar organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Ramuz, Marc; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Owens, Róisín M

    2014-11-01

    A planar, conducting-polymer-based transistor for combined optical and electronic monitoring of live cells provides a unique platform for monitoring the health of cells in vitro. Monitoring of MDCK-I epithelial cells over several days is shown, along with a demonstration of the device for toxicology studies, of use in future drug discovery or diagnostics applications. PMID:25179835

  20. The Ability of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Enter Bovine Epithelial Cells Is Influenced by Preexposure to a Hyperosmolar Environment and Intracellular Passage in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dilip; Danelishvili, Lia; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Alonso, Marta; Paustian, Michael L.; Bannantine, John P.; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Bermudez, Luiz E.

    2006-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the cause of Johne's disease in cattle and other ruminants. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of the bovine host is not well understood; however, it is assumed that crossing the bovine intestinal mucosa is important in order for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to establish infection. To examine the ability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis to infect bovine epithelial cells in vitro, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells were exposed to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. It was observed that bacteria can establish infection and replicate within MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis also has been reported to infect mammary tissue and milk, and we showed that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infects bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T cell line). Using polarized MAC-T cell monolayers, it was also determined that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis crosses apical and basolateral surfaces with approximately the same degree of efficiency. Because M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can be delivered to the naïve host by milk, it was investigated whether incubation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with milk has an effect on invasion of MDBK cells. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to milk entered epithelial cells with greater efficiency than M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposed to broth medium or water (P < 0.01). Growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis within MAC-T cells also resulted in augmented ability to subsequently infect bovine MDBK cells (P < 0.001). Microarray analysis of intracellular M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis RNA indicates the increased transcription of genes which might be associated with an invasive phenotype. PMID:16622223

  1. Intracellular Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Buccal Epithelial Cells Collected from Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, Joel D.; Chen, Ruoqiong; Sedgewick, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    The mouth may provide an accessible model for studying bacterial interactions with human cells in vivo. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and laser scanning confocal microscopy, we found that human buccal epithelial cells from 23 of 24 subjects were infected with intracellular bacteria, including the periodontal pathogens Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, as well as other species which have yet to be identified. Buccal cell invasion may allow fastidious anaerobes to establish themselves in aerobic sites that otherwise present an unfavorable environment. Exfoliated buccal epithelial cells might provide a protected route for bacterial transmission between different oral sites within and between hosts. PMID:11254637

  2. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Garreis, Fabian; Sahlmüller, Monika; Reinach, Peter S; Paulsen, Friedrich; Pleyer, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins such as TRPV1-TRPV4 are all heat-activated non-selective cation channels that are modestly permeable to Ca(2+). TRPV1, TRPV3, and TRPV4 functional expression were previously identified in human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC). However, the membrane currents were not described underlying their activation by either selective agonists or thermal variation. This study characterized the membrane currents and [Ca(2+)](i) transients induced by thermal and agonist TRPV1 and 4 stimulation. TRPV1 and 4 expressions were confirmed by RT-PCR and TRPV2 transcripts were also detected. In fura2-loaded HCEC, a TRPV1-3 selective agonist, 100 µM 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), induced intracellular Ca(2+) transients and an increase in non-selective cation outward currents that were suppressed by ruthenium-red (RuR) (10-20 µM), a non-selective TRPV channel blocker. These changes were also elicited by rises in ambient temperature from 25 to over 40 °C. RuR (5 µM) and a selective TRPV1 channel blocker capsazepine CPZ (10 µM) or another related blocker, lanthanum chloride (La(3+)) (100 µM) suppressed these temperature-induced Ca(2+) increases. Planar patch-clamp technique was used to characterize the currents underlying Ca(2+) transients. Increasing the temperature to over 40 °C induced reversible rises in non-selective cation currents. Moreover, a hypotonic challenge (25%) increased non-selective cation currents confirming TRPV4 activity. We conclude that HCEC possess in addition to thermosensitive TRPV3 activity TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 activity. Their activation confers temperature sensitivity at the ocular surface, which may protect the cornea against such stress. PMID:21506114

  3. Sepiapterin reductase mediates chemical redox cycling in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Gray, Joshua P; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2013-06-28

    In the lung, chemical redox cycling generates highly toxic reactive oxygen species that can cause alveolar inflammation and damage to the epithelium, as well as fibrosis. In this study, we identified a cytosolic NADPH-dependent redox cycling activity in mouse lung epithelial cells as sepiapterin reductase (SPR), an enzyme important for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Human SPR was cloned and characterized. In addition to reducing sepiapterin, SPR mediated chemical redox cycling of bipyridinium herbicides and various quinones; this activity was greatest for 1,2-naphthoquinone followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Whereas redox cycling chemicals inhibited sepiapterin reduction, sepiapterin had no effect on redox cycling. Additionally, inhibitors such as dicoumarol, N-acetylserotonin, and indomethacin blocked sepiapterin reduction, with no effect on redox cycling. Non-redox cycling quinones, including benzoquinone and phenylquinone, were competitive inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction but noncompetitive redox cycling inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPR C-terminal substrate-binding site (D257H) completely inhibited sepiapterin reduction but had minimal effects on redox cycling. These data indicate that SPR-mediated reduction of sepiapterin and redox cycling occur by distinct mechanisms. The identification of SPR as a key enzyme mediating chemical redox cycling suggests that it may be important in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the lung. This activity, together with inhibition of sepiapterin reduction by redox-active chemicals and consequent deficiencies in tetrahydrobiopterin, may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:23640889

  4. Expression of lactoperoxidase in differentiated mouse colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Esworthy, R Steven; Hahn, Maria A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Chu, Fong-Fong

    2012-05-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is known to be present in secreted fluids, such as milk and saliva. Functionally, LPO teams up with dual oxidases (DUOXs) to generate bactericidal hypothiocyanite in the presence of thiocyanate. DUOX2 is expressed in intestinal epithelium, but there is little information on LPO expression in this tissue. To fill the gap of knowledge, we have analyzed Lpo gene expression and its regulation in mouse intestine. In wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) mouse intestine, an appreciable level of mouse Lpo gene expression was detected in the colon, but not the ileum. However, in B6 mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and -2, GPx1/2-double-knockout (DKO), which had intestinal pathology, the colon Lpo mRNA levels increased 5- to 12-fold depending on mouse age. The Lpo mRNA levels in WT and DKO 129S1/SvlmJ (129) colon were even higher, 9- and 5-fold, than in B6 DKO colon. Higher levels of Lpo protein and enzymatic activity were also detected in the 129 mouse colon compared to B6 colon. Lpo protein was expressed in the differentiated colon epithelial cells, away from the crypt base, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Similar to human LPO mRNA, mouse Lpo mRNA had multiple spliced forms, although only the full-length variant 1 was translated. Higher methylation was found in the 129 than in the B6 strain, in DKO than in control colon, and in older than in juvenile mice. However, methylation of the Lpo intragenic CpG island was not directly induced by inflammation, because dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis did not increase DNA methylation in B6 DKO colon. Also, Lpo DNA methylation is not correlated with gene expression. PMID:22343415

  5. Sepiapterin Reductase Mediates Chemical Redox Cycling in Lung Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaojun; Jan, Yi-Hua; Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    In the lung, chemical redox cycling generates highly toxic reactive oxygen species that can cause alveolar inflammation and damage to the epithelium, as well as fibrosis. In this study, we identified a cytosolic NADPH-dependent redox cycling activity in mouse lung epithelial cells as sepiapterin reductase (SPR), an enzyme important for the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin. Human SPR was cloned and characterized. In addition to reducing sepiapterin, SPR mediated chemical redox cycling of bipyridinium herbicides and various quinones; this activity was greatest for 1,2-naphthoquinone followed by 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, 1,4-naphthoquinone, menadione, and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone. Whereas redox cycling chemicals inhibited sepiapterin reduction, sepiapterin had no effect on redox cycling. Additionally, inhibitors such as dicoumarol, N-acetylserotonin, and indomethacin blocked sepiapterin reduction, with no effect on redox cycling. Non-redox cycling quinones, including benzoquinone and phenylquinone, were competitive inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction but noncompetitive redox cycling inhibitors. Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPR C-terminal substrate-binding site (D257H) completely inhibited sepiapterin reduction but had minimal effects on redox cycling. These data indicate that SPR-mediated reduction of sepiapterin and redox cycling occur by distinct mechanisms. The identification of SPR as a key enzyme mediating chemical redox cycling suggests that it may be important in generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species in the lung. This activity, together with inhibition of sepiapterin reduction by redox-active chemicals and consequent deficiencies in tetrahydrobiopterin, may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:23640889

  6. Postintegration HIV-1 Infection of Cervical Epithelial Cells Mediates Contact-Dependent Productive Infection of T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Micsenyi, Amanda M.; Zony, Chati; Alvarez, Raymond A.; Durham, Natasha D.; Chen, Benjamin K.; Klotman, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The female genital epithelium plays a protective role against invading pathogens; however, sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) still occurs in healthy women. To model virus–cell interactions in this barrier during sexual transmission, we studied the uptake and infection of ectocervical and endocervical cell lines with cell-free fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant HIV-1 carrying primary transmitted/founder envelope genes. We observed that a subset of both the ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells become productively infected with cell-free HIV-1 in a CD4-independent manner. In addition, the ability of the semen-derived enhancer of virus infection (SEVI) to enhance virus-epithelial cell interactions was studied. This infection is increased approximately 2–5 fold when inoculation occurs in the presence of SEVI fibrils. Once infected, the epithelial cells are capable of transmitting the virus to target CD4 T cells in coculture in a contact-dependent manner that uses conventional CD4- and coreceptor-dependent entry. The infection of target CD4 T cells only occurs when de novo HIV-1 is produced within the epithelial cells. These findings suggest that a subset of cervical epithelial cells may be actively involved in establishing a systemic HIV infection and should be a target when designing prevention strategies to protect against HIV-1 sexual transmission. PMID:23908485

  7. Fractionation of subcellular membrane vesicles of epithelial and non-epithelial cells by OptiPrep™ density gradient ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuhang; Donowitz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) is widely used for physical isolation (enrichment rather than purification) of subcellular membrane vesicles. It has been a valuable tool to study specific subcellular localization and dynamic trafficking of proteins. While sucrose has been the main component of density gradients, several years ago, synthetic OptiPrep™ (iodixanol) began being used for separation of organelles due to its iso-osmotic property. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for density gradient fractionation of various mammalian subcellular vesicles, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus, endosomes, and lipid rafts, as well as apical and basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. PMID:24947376

  8. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid?Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post?explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13?52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20?53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin?secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. PMID:25937205

  9. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui-Hsu Yang, Tracy; Craise, Laurie M.; Prioleau, John C.; Stampfer, Martha R.; Rhim, Johng S.

    1992-07-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  10. Differential Expression of Wnt Signaling Molecules Between Pre- and Postmenopausal Endometrial Epithelial Cells Suggests a Population of Putative Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells Reside in the Basalis Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hong P. T.; Sprung, Carl N.

    2012-01-01

    The human endometrium undergoes extensive monthly regeneration in response to fluctuating levels of circulating estrogen and progesterone in premenopausal (Pre-M) women. In contrast, postmenopausal (Post-M) endometrium is thin and quiescent with low mitotic activity, similar to the Pre-M endometrial basalis layer. Clonogenic epithelial stem/progenitor (ESP) cells, likely responsible for regenerating endometrial epithelium, have been identified in Pre-M and Post-M endometrium, but their location is unknown. We undertook transcriptional profiling of highly purified epithelial cells from full-thickness Pre-M and Post-M endometrium to identify differentially regulated genes that may indicate a putative ESP cell population resides in the basalis of Pre-M and basalis-like Post-M endometrium. Of 1077 differentially expressed genes identified, the Wnt signaling pathway, important in endometrial development and stem cell regulation, was one of the main gene families detected, including 22 Wnt-associated genes. Twelve genes were validated using quantitative RT-PCR, and all were concordant with microarray data. Immunostaining showed glandular epithelial location of Wnt-regulated genes, Axin-related protein 2 and ?-catenin. Axin2 localized to the nucleus of basalis Pre-M and Post-M and cytoplasm of functionalis Pre-M endometrium, suggesting that it regulates ?-catenin. Comparison of our Post-M gene profile with published gene microarray datasets revealed similarities to Pre-M basalis epithelial profiles. This differential expression of multiple Wnt-associated genes in human Pre-M and Post-M endometrial epithelial cells and the similar gene profile of Post-M and Pre-M basalis epithelium suggests that a population of putative endometrial ESP may reside in the basalis of Pre-M endometrium, which may be responsible for regenerating glandular epithelium each month. PMID:22474188

  11. Expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 in normal human bronchial epithelial cells and activation by ethanol in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothee M. Runge; Thomas W. Stock; Thomas Lehmann; Christiane Taege; Ulrike Bernauer; Donna Beer Stolz; Stefan Hofmann; Heidi Foth

    2001-01-01

    Serum-free primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells and freshly isolated samples of human bronchial epithelium were used to investigate basal expression of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 and its activation or induction by ethanol in bronchial epithelial cells. The cultures consisted of ⃋% cells of epithelial characteristics as determined by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. Monolayers were obtained

  12. Matriptase\\/epithin participates in mammary epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis through HGF activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheau-Ling Lee; Pao-Yi Huang; Peter Roller; Eun-Gyung Cho; Robert B. Dickson

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial-derived, type II transmembrane serine protease matriptase, the mouse homologue of which is epithin, has been shown to be involved in epidermal differentiation, hair formation, and thymus function. We show in this study that epithin\\/matriptase (Epi\\/MTP) plays a significant role in mammary epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis. Epi\\/MTP is expressed at low level in the mouse mammary epithelium of

  13. Putrescine stimulates growth of human bronchial epithelial cells in primary culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary D. Stoner; Curtis C. Harris; Gwendolyn A. Myers; Benjamin F. Trump; Robert D. Connor

    1980-01-01

    Summary  Explants of adult human bronchus were cultured in CMRL-1066 medium supplemented with heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum,\\u000a hormones, antibiotics,