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Sample records for vaginal epithelial cells

  1. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of plexin‑B1 expression in vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated the integral role of plexin‑B1 in Sema4D‑induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest a non‑redundant role of Sema4D in the postnatal tissue remodeling process in five‑week‑old BALB/c mice, which involves the induction of vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis through Sema4D binding to plexin‑B1. PMID:25351707

  2. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    ITO, TAKUJI; BAI, TAO; TANAKA, TETSUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; UEYAMA, TAKASHI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; KAWASAKI, TAKAHIKO; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of β-estradiol to infant Sema4D-deficient (Sema4D−/−) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β-estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin-B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five-week-old WT and Sema4D−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin-B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase-3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five-week-old Sema4D−/− mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D−/− vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis-inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of plexin-B1 expression in vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated the integral role of plexin-B1 in Sema4D-induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest a non-redundant role of Sema4D in the postnatal tissue remodeling process in five-week-old BALB/c mice, which involves the induction of vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis through Sema4D binding to plexin-B1. PMID:25351707

  3. Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Status in Nonspecific Vaginitis and Its Role in Vaginal Epithelial Cells Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaojie; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific vaginitis (NSV), also named bacterial vaginosis, is one of the most common genital system diseases in women during their reproductive years. The specific pathogenic mechanism of NSV is not clear yet. Upon the balance alteration, large amount of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is generated and accumulated in the genital tract, and thus resulting in oxidative stress, which has been reported to be an important trigger of mitochondrial pathway cell apoptosis. In this study, the antioxidant secretion level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the vaginal discharge were evaluated to analyze the oxidative status in the vaginal tract of NSV patients. The effect of oxidative stress on the vaginal mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis was then studied. The role of oxidative stress on NSV development was uncovered; thus open new direction for the prevention and treatment of NSV by providing antiradical agents was revealed. PMID:26558281

  4. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17β -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  5. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. PMID:26477544

  6. Papanicolaou staining of exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells facilitates the prediction of ovulation in the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Durrant, B; Czekala, N; Olson, M; Anderson, A; Amodeo, D; Campos-Morales, R; Gual-Sill, F; Ramos-Garza, J

    2002-04-15

    The giant panda is seasonally monoestrus, experiencing a single estrous with spontaneous ovulation in the spring. Therefore, accurate monitoring of the estrous cycle to pinpoint the time of ovulation is critical for the success of timed mating or artificial insemination. Analysis of exfoliated vaginal epithelial cells is a simple technique that rapidly yields information about the estrous status of a panda. Vaginal swabs were obtained during five estrous cycles of two nulliparous females. Cells were stained with the trichrome Papanicolaou and classified as basophils, intermediates or superficials. The color of stained cells, basophilic, acidophilic or keratinized, was recorded as a characteristic independent of the three standard cell types. The day urinary conjugates of estrogen fell from peak levels was considered the day of ovulation. A chromic shift occurred 8-9 days before ovulation when the majority of exfoliated vaginal cells changed from basophilic (blue) to acidophilic (pink) without accompanying nuclear or cytoplasmic changes. A second chromic shift was consistently observed 2 days prior to ovulation when keratinized (orange) cells replaced acidophils as the majority of vaginal cells. Monochrome staining of vaginal cells is sufficient to quantify superficial cells, which is a useful adjunct to behavioral and endocrinological data in determining estrous in the giant panda. However, the timing and duration of superficial cell elevations are substantially different between and within individual females, which limits the accuracy of timing ovulation for artificial insemination. The predictive value of vaginal cytology was greatly enhanced with the trichrome stain and evaluation of cell color. PMID:12041689

  7. Trichomonas vaginalis adherence mediates differential gene expression in human vaginal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kucknoor, Ashwini; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Trichomonas vaginalis, an ancient protist, colonizes the vaginal mucosa causing trichomonosis, a vaginitis that sometimes leads to severe health complications. Preparatory to colonization of the vagina is the adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by trichomonads. We hypothesized that VECs alter the gene expression to form a complex signalling cascade in response to trichomonal adherence. In order to identify the genes that are upregulated, we constructed a subtraction cDNA library after contact with parasites that is enriched for differentially expressed genes from the immortalized MS-74 VECs. Sixty cDNA clones were sequenced and to our knowledge for the first time, differentially regulated genes were identified in response to early trichomonal infection. The identified genes were found to encode functional proteins with specific functions associated with cell structure maintenance and extracellular matrix components, proinflammatory molecules and apoptosis. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed expression of selected genes. Further, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein expression was analysed using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Data suggest that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and tyrosine kinases play a role in COX-2 induction. Finally, T. vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus but not Pentatrichomonas hominis induce expression of COX-2. This is a first attempt at elucidating the basis of interaction of trichomonads with host cells and the corresponding host responses triggered by the parasites. PMID:15888089

  8. Oral and Vaginal Epithelial Cell Lines Bind and Transfer Cell-Free Infectious HIV-1 to Permissive Cells but Are Not Productively Infected

    PubMed Central

    Moyes, David L.; Murciano, Celia; Shen, Chengguo; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Naglik, Julian R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells. PMID:24857971

  9. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  10. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F.; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  11. Evidence for Gardnerella vaginalis uptake and internalization by squamous vaginal epithelial cells: implications for the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Marrs, Christy N.; Knobel, Susan M.; Zhu, Wen Qin; Sweet, Stephanie D.; Chaudhry, Ahsen R.; Alcendor, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common condition seen in premenopausal women, is associated with preterm labor, pelvic inflammatory disease, and delivery of low birth weight infants. Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant bacterial species associated with BV, although its exact role in the pathology of BV is unknown. Using immunofluorescence, confocal and transmission electron microscopy, we found that VK2 vaginal epithelial cells take up G. vaginalis after exposure to the bacteria. Confocal microscopy also indicated the presence of internalized G. vaginalis within vaginal epithelial cells obtained from a subject with BV. Using VK2 cells and 35S labeled bacteria in an invasion assay, we found that a 1 h uptake of G. vaginalis was 21.8-fold higher than heat-killed G. vaginalis, 84-fold compared to Lactobacillus acidophilus and 6.6-fold compared to Lactobacillus crispatus. Internalization was inhibited by pre-exposure of cells to cytochalasin-D. In addition, the cytoskeletal protein vimentin was upregulated in VK2 cells exposed to G. vaginalis, but there was no change in actin cytoskeletal polymerization/rearrangements or vimentin subcellular relocalization post exposure. Cytoskeletal protein modifications could represent a potential mechanism for G. vaginalis mediated internalization by vaginal epithelial cells. Finally, understanding vaginal bacteria/host interactions will allow us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of BV pathogenesis. PMID:22227318

  12. Enterococcus faecalis Inhibits Superantigen Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1-Induced Interleukin-8 from Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells through Tetramic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Merriman, Joseph A.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Ford, Bradley; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    The vaginal mucosa can be colonized by many bacteria including commensal organisms and potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Some strains of S. aureus produce the superantigen toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, which can penetrate the vaginal epithelium to cause toxic shock syndrome. We have observed that a female was mono-colonized with Enterococcus faecalis vaginally as tested in aerobic culture, even upon repeated culture for six months, suggesting this organism was negatively influencing colonization by other bacteria. In recent studies, we demonstrated an “outside-in” mechanism of cytokine signaling and consequent inflammation that facilitates the ability of potential pathogens to initiate infection from mucosal surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that this strain of E. faecalis may make anti-inflammatory factors which block disease progression of more pathogenic organisms. E. faecalis MN1 inhibited interleukin-8 production from human vaginal epithelial cells in response to the vaginal pathogens Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, as well as to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. We further demonstrated that this organism secretes two tetramic acid compounds which appear responsible for inhibition of interleukin-8 production, as well as inhibition of T cell proliferation due to toxic shock syndrome toxin-1. Microbicides that include anti-inflammatory molecules, such as these tetramic acid compounds naturally produced by E. faecalis MN1, may be useful in prevention of diseases that develop from vaginal infections. PMID:23613823

  13. Innate Immunity in the Vagina (Part I): Estradiol Inhibits HBD2 and Elafin Secretion by Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mickey V.; Fahey, John V.; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Method of study Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. Results E2 significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E2-treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E2/P4-treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. Conclusion The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E2, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. PMID:23398087

  14. Distinct Proinflammatory Host Responses to Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection in Immortalized Human Cervical and Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fichorova, Raina Nakova; Desai, Pragnya Jasvantrai; Gibson, Frank C.; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2001-01-01

    In this study we utilized immortalized morphologically and functionally distinct epithelial cell lines from normal human endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina to characterize gonococcal epithelial interactions pertinent to the lower female genital tract. Piliated, but not nonpiliated, N. gonorrhoeae strain F62 variants actively invaded these epithelial cell lines, as demonstrated by an antibiotic protection assay and confocal microscopy. Invasion of these cells by green fluorescent protein-expressing gonococci was characterized by colocalization of gonococci with F actin, which were initially detected 30 min postinfection. In all three cell lines, upregulation of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (CD54), and the nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (CD66c) were detected 4 h after infection with piliated and nonpiliated gonococci. Furthermore, stimulation of all three cell lines with gonococcal whole-cell lysates resulted in a similar upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8, confirming that bacterial uptake is not essential for this response. Increased levels of IL-1 were first detected 8 h after infection with gonococci, suggesting that the earlier IL-8 and IL-6 responses were not mediated through the IL-1 signaling pathway. The IL-1 response was limited to cultures infected with piliated gonococci and was more vigorous in the endocervical epithelial cells. The ability of gonococci to stimulate distinct proinflammatory host responses in these morphologically and functionally different compartments of the lower female genital tract may contribute directly to the inflammatory signs and symptoms characteristic of disease caused by N. gonorrhoeae. PMID:11500462

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells could acquire the phenotypes of epithelial cells and accelerate vaginal reconstruction combined with small intestinal submucosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanan; Liu, Fangfang; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Mingle; Cao, Shanjin; Li, Yachai; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xianghua; Xu, Yanfang

    2015-11-01

    Grafting material for vaginal reconstruction commonly includes the bowel, peritoneum, skin, and amniotic membrane. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential of multilineage differentiation into a variety of cells and have been widely explored in tissue engineering. In the current study, we examined whether MSCs could be differentiated to vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) upon co-culturing with VECs. We also examined whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in such differentiation. Co-culture of MSCs with VECs using a transwell insert system (with no direct contact) induced the expression of VECs marker AE1/AE3 in MSCs. MSCs combined with small intestinal submucosa (SIS) scaffold were implanted in place of the native vagina in rats to observe the implications for vaginal reconstruction in vivo. Anatomic repair of neovagina was assessed by histological staining for H/E and Masson's Trichrome. GSK-3β and β-catenin, main members of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, in MSCs were increased upon co-culturing with VECs. Exposure of co-cultured MSCs to a Wnt/β-catenin signaling activator, lithium chloride (LiCl, 20 µM) increased phosphorylated GSK-3β and β-catenin and enhanced expression of AE1/AE3. In vivo-grafted cells displayed significant matrix infiltration and expressed epithelial markers in neovagina. These findings suggest that MSCs could acquire the phenotype of VECs when co-cultured with VECs, possibly via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MSCs provide an alternative cell source for potential use in vaginal tissue engineering. PMID:26018040

  16. Mannose-binding lectin is produced by vaginal epithelial cells and its level in the vaginal fluid is influenced by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bulla, R; De Seta, F; Radillo, O; Agostinis, C; Durigutto, P; Pellis, V; De Santo, D; Crovella, S; Tedesco, F

    2010-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a recognition molecule of the complement (C) system and binds to carbohydrate ligands present on a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. MBL has been detected in the cervico-vaginal cavity where it can provide a first-line defence against infectious agents colonizing the lower tract of the reproductive system. Analysis of the cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) obtained from 11 normal cycling women at different phases of the menstrual cycle revealed increased levels of MBL in the secretive phase. Part of this MBL derives from the circulation as indicated by the presence of transferrin in CVL tested as a marker of vascular and tissue permeability. The local synthesis of MBL is suggested by the finding that its level is substantially higher than that of transferrin in the secretive phase. The contribution of endometrium is negligible since the MBL level did not change before and after hysterectomy. RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR analysis showed that the vaginal tissue, and in particular the basal layer of the epithelium, is a source of MBL which binds to the basal membrane and to cells of the outer layers of the epithelium. In conclusion, we have shown that MBL detected in CVL derives both from plasma as result of transudation and from local synthesis and its level is progesterone dependent increasing in the secretive phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:20728220

  17. Vaginal Epithelial Cell-Derived S100 Alarmins Induced by Candida albicans via Pattern Recognition Receptor Interactions Are Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Acute Neutrophil Response during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E.; Eberle, Karen E.; Peters, Brian M.; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9−/− mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways. PMID:24478092

  18. Lactobacilli require physical contact to reduce staphylococcal TSST-1 secretion and vaginal epithelial inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Staphylococcus aureusbiofilms can be found on vaginal epithelia, secreting toxins and causing inflammation. The co-vaginal species ITALIC! Lactobacilluscan alter staphylococcal-induced epithelial secretion of inflammatory cytokines and quench staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion. It is hypothesized that these effects of lactobacilli require direct physical contact between lactobacilli, staphylococci and the epithelium. Indeed, lactobacilli only reduced ITALIC! S. aureus-induced inflammatory cytokine expression when allowed physical contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Furthermore, a reduction in toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 secretion only occurred when a probiotic ITALIC! Lactobacillusstrain was allowed contact, but not when being physically separated from ITALIC! S. aureus Bacterial-probe atomic force microscopy demonstrated that lactobacilli and staphylococci strongly adhere to epithelial cells, while lactobacilli adhere stronger to staphylococci than staphylococci to each other, giving lactobacilli opportunity to penetrate and reside in staphylococcal biofilms, as visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy with fluorescence ITALIC! in situhybridization probes. These results identify that physical contact and biochemical signaling by lactobacilli are intrinsically linked mechanisms that reduce virulence of ITALIC! S. aureusbiofilm. PMID:27060097

  19. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  20. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M; Ryan, Christopher M; Johnson, Patricia J; O'Keefe, Barry R; Secor, W Evan; Anderson, Deborah J; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  1. Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pyles, Richard B.; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Baum, Marc M.; Elsom, Barry; Miller, Aaron L.; Maxwell, Carrie; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Li, Guangyu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Ferguson, Monique R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for modeling of the symbiotic and at times dysbiotic relationship established between bacterial microbiomes and human mucosal surfaces. In particular clinical studies have indicated that the complex vaginal microbiome (VMB) contributes to the protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens including the life-threatening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The human microbiome project has substantially increased our understanding of the complex bacterial communities in the vagina however, as is the case for most microbiomes, very few of the community member species have been successfully cultivated in the laboratory limiting the types of studies that can be completed. A genetically controlled ex vivo model system is critically needed to study the complex interactions and associated molecular dialog. We present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic VMB from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. The immortalized vaginal epithelial cells used in the model and VMB cryopreservation methods provide the opportunity to reproducibly create replicates for lab-based evaluations of this important mucosal/bacterial community interface. The culture system also contains HIV-1 susceptible cells allowing us to study the impact of representative microbiomes on replication. Our results show that our culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of HIV-1. Further, we show the utility of the system to predict unwanted alterations in efficacy or bacterial community profiles following topical application of a front line antiretroviral. PMID:24676219

  2. Intracellular Mycoplasma genitalium infection of human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells elicits distinct patterns of inflammatory cytokine secretion and provides a possible survival niche against macrophage-mediated killing

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen that has been associated with significant reproductive tract inflammatory syndromes in women. In addition, the strong association between severity of M. genitalium infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) shedding from the cervix suggests that innate responses to M. genitalium may influence pathogenesis of other sexually transmitted infections. Epithelial cells (ECs) of the reproductive mucosa are the first cells contacted by sexually transmitted pathogens. Therefore, we first characterized the dynamics of intracellular and extracellular localization and resultant innate immune responses from human vaginal, ecto- and endocervical ECs to M. genitalium type strain G37 and a low-pass contemporary isolate, M2300. Results Both M. genitalium strains rapidly attached to vaginal and cervical ECs by 2 h post-infection (PI). By 3 h PI, M. genitalium organisms also were found in intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles of which approximately 60% were adjacent to the nucleus. Egress of M. genitalium from infected ECs into the culture supernatant was observed but, after invasion, viable intracellular titers were significantly higher than extracellular titers at 24 and 48 h PI. All of the tested cell types responded by secreting significant levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a pattern consistent with recruitment and stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Based on the elaborated cytokines, we next investigated the cellular interaction of M. genitalium with human monocyte-derived macrophages and characterized the resultant cytokine responses. Macrophages rapidly phagocytosed M. genitalium resulting in a loss of bacterial viability and a potent pro-inflammatory response that included significant secretion of IL-6 and other cytokines associated with enhanced HIV-1 replication. The macrophage-stimulating capacity of M. genitalium was independent of bacterial viability but was sensitive to heat denaturation and proteinase-K digestion suggesting that M. genitalium protein components are the predominant mediators of inflammation. Conclusion Collectively, the data indicated that human genital ECs were susceptible and immunologically responsive to M. genitalium infection that likely induced cellular immune responses. Although macrophage phagocytosis was an effective method for M. genitalium killing, intracellular localization within vaginal and cervical ECs may provide M. genitalium a survival niche and protection from cellular immune responses thereby facilitating the establishment and maintenance of reproductive tract infection. PMID:19602269

  3. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Orna; Sobel, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon form of chronic purulent vaginitis. It occurs mainly in Caucasians with a peak occurrence in the perimenopause. Symptoms and signs are nonspecific; DIV is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of purulent vaginitis should be excluded. The main symptoms include purulent discharge, vestibulo-vaginal irritation, and dyspareunia. Examination of vaginal walls shows signs of inflammation with increased erythema and petechiae. Through microscopy (wet mount) of the vaginal secretions, DIV is defined by an increase in inflammatory cells and parabasal epithelial cells (immature squamous cells). Vaginal flora is abnormal and pH is always elevated above 4.5. Although etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, the favorable response to anti-inflammatory agents suggests that the etiology is immune mediated. Either local vaginal clindamycin or vaginal corticosteroids are adequate treatment. As a chronic condition, maintenance treatment should be considered as relapse is common. PMID:25132275

  4. Vaginal Microbiome and Epithelial Gene Array in Post-Menopausal Women with Moderate to Severe Dryness

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Jo-Anne; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Gloor, Gregory B.; Reid, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness) were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation. PMID:22073175

  5. Spindle cell epithelioma: a rare vaginal tumor -a clinico pathologic report.

    PubMed

    K, Nivedita; Sowmya; Shanthini, Fatima

    2013-08-01

    Spindle cell epithelioma is a very rare benign tumour of the vagina, which contains epithelial and mesenchymal components and co-expresses the markers for both. It has its origin in the epithelial cells of the remnants of the vestibular gland. The presence of glandular structures and the pattern of immunostaining, help in the differentiation of these tumours from the other common vaginal tumours. PMID:24086899

  6. Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Vargas, Gracie; Motamedi, Massoud

    2012-11-01

    We have explored the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool for assessing the toxicity of topical microbicides, products used to prevent HIV, by monitoring the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. A novel feature-based segmentation algorithm using a nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to monitor changes in the morphology of vaginal epithelium. The two-step automated algorithm yielded OCT images with a clearly defined epithelial layer, enabling differentiation of normal and damaged tissue. The algorithm was robust in that it was able to discriminate the epithelial layer from underlying stroma as well as residual microbicide product on the surface. This segmentation technique for OCT images has the potential to be readily adaptable to the clinical setting for noninvasively defining the boundaries of the epithelium, enabling quantifiable assessment of microbicide-induced damage in vaginal tissue.

  7. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J.; de Leij, Lou M.F.H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of ?40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally lower level than carcinoma cells. In early studies, EpCAM was proposed to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule. However, recent insights revealed a more versatile role for EpCAM that is not limited only to cell adhesion but includes diverse processes such as signaling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Cell surface expression of EpCAM may actually prevent cell-cell adhesion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on EpCAM biology in relation to other cell adhesion molecules. We discuss the implications of the newly identified functions of EpCAM in view of its prognostic relevance in carcinoma, inflammatory pathophysiology, and tissue development and regeneration as well as its role in normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17600130

  8. NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Dampen Vaginal CD8 T Cell Responses following Local Immunization with a Cholera Toxin-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luci, Carmelo; Bekri, Selma; Bihl, Franck; Pini, Jonathan; Bourdely, Pierre; Nouhen, Kelly; Malgogne, Angélique; Walzer, Thierry; Braud, Véronique M.; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of local dendritic cells (DC). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of lymphocytes localized in epithelial tissues that have important immune functions against pathogens and in tissue homeostasis. Their contribution to vaccine-induced mucosal T cell responses is an important issue for the design of protective vaccines. We report here that the vaginal mucosa contains a heterogeneous population of NKp46+ ILC that includes conventional NK cells and ILC1-like cells. We show that vaginal NKp46+ ILC dampen vaccine-induced CD8 T cell responses generated after local immunization. Indeed, in vivo depletion of NKp46+ ILC with anti-NK1.1 antibody or NKG2D blockade increases the magnitude of vaginal OVA-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, such treatments also increase the number of DC in the vagina. NKG2D ligands being expressed by vaginal DC but not by CD8 T cells, these results support that NKp46+ ILC limit mucosal CD8 T cell responses indirectly through the NKG2D-dependent elimination of vaginal DC. Our data reveal an unappreciated role of NKp46+ ILC in the regulation of mucosal CD8 T cell responses. PMID:26630176

  9. Integrins and epithelial cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica L.; Streuli, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell polarity is characterised by differences in structure, composition and function between at least two poles of a cell. In epithelial cells, these spatial differences allow for the formation of defined apical and basal membranes. It has been increasingly recognised that cell–matrix interactions and integrins play an essential role in creating epithelial cell polarity, although key gaps in our knowledge remain. This Commentary will discuss the mounting evidence for the role of integrins in polarising epithelial cells. We build a model in which both inside-out signals to polarise basement membrane assembly at the basal surface, and outside-in signals to control microtubule apical–basal orientation and vesicular trafficking are required for establishing and maintaining the orientation of epithelial cell polarity. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the basal integrin polarity axis to cancer. This article is part of a Minifocus on Establishing polarity. For further reading, please see related articles: ‘ERM proteins at a glance’ by Andrea McClatchey (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3199–3204). ‘Establishment of epithelial polarity – GEF who's minding the GAP?’ by Siu Ngok et al. (J. Cell Sci. 127, 3205–3215). PMID:24994933

  10. Unique roles of estrogen-dependent Pten control in epithelial cell homeostasis of mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, S; Sato, M; Sudo, T; Yamada, G; Iguchi, T

    2015-02-19

    Numerous studies support a role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) as a tumor suppressor gene that controls epithelial cell homeostasis to prevent tumor formation. Mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. We analyzed vaginal epithelium-specific Pten conditional knockout (CKO) mice to provide new insights into Pten/phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt function. The vaginal epithelium of ovariectomized (OVX) mice (control) was composed of 1-2 layers of cuboidal cells, whereas OVX CKO mice exhibited epithelial hyperplasia in the suprabasal cells with increased cell mass and mucin production. This is possibly due to misactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin and mitogen-activated protein kinase. Intriguingly, estrogen administration to OVX Pten CKO mice induced stratification and keratinized differentiation in the vaginal epithelium, as in estrogen-treated controls. We found that Pten is exclusively expressed in the suprabasal cells in the absence of estrogens, whereas estrogen administration induced Pten expression in the basal cells. This suggests that Pten acts to prevent excessive cell proliferation as in the case of other squamous tissues. Thus, Pten exhibits a dual role on the control of vaginal homeostasis, depending on whether estrogens are present or absent. Our results provide new insights into how Pten functions in tissue homeostasis. PMID:24632614

  11. Epithelial cell contributions to intestinal immunity.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lora V

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the mammalian intestine interface directly with the external environment and thus continuously encounter pathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The intestinal epithelium is also closely associated with complex communities of symbiotic microorganisms. Intestinal epithelial cells are thus faced with the unique challenge of directly interacting with enormous numbers of microbes that include both pathogens and symbionts. As a result, gut epithelia have evolved an array of strategies that contribute to host immunity. This chapter considers the various mechanisms used by epithelial cells to limit microbial invasion of host tissues, shape the composition of indigenous microbial communities, and coordinate the adaptive immune response to microorganisms. Study of intestinal epithelial cells has contributed fundamental insights into intestinal immune homeostasis and has revealed how impaired epithelial cell function can contribute to inflammatory disease. PMID:25727289

  12. Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

  13. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  14. Evidence for a unique expression of CD4 on murine vaginal CD4+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Wormley, F L; Scott, M; Luo, W; Baker, M; Chaiban, J; Fidel, P L

    2000-01-01

    Mucosal cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by CD4+ T cells is postulated to be important for host defence against several vaginal pathogens. In addition to the recognized phenotypic distinctions of resident vaginal T lymphocytes, we recently provided evidence by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) that murine vaginal CD4+ T lymphocytes, are differentially recognized by two epitope-distinct anti-CD4 antibodies, suggesting that the CD4 protein on vaginal CD4+ cells is atypically expressed. In the present study, we confirm this by FACS and immunohistochemistry under non-denaturing conditions using two additional anti-CD4 antibodies. However, positive immunohistochemical staining of vaginal CD4+ cells under denaturing conditions revealed that the CD4 epitope in question is indeed present within the CD4 protein. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, amplification of CD3, T-cell receptor-β (TCR-β), and TCR-δ mRNA from lymph node and vaginal tissue, and CD4 mRNA from lymph node tissue was demonstrable. In contrast, amplification of CD4 mRNA from vaginal tissue, vaginal enriched lymphoid cells, or a purified (FACS-sorted) population of vaginal-specific CD4+ cells using two distinct primer sets was not demonstrable. Altogether, our results provide evidence that the CD4 protein on vaginal CD4+ T cells is conformationally distinct compared with its systemic counterpart, either as a result of a unique CD4 mRNA sequence or from a stable interaction of soluble CD4 with the surface of vaginal T cells. PMID:10929051

  15. Human glomerular epithelial cell proteoglycans

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.J.; Jenner, L.; Mason, R.M.; Davies, M. )

    1990-04-01

    Proteoglycans synthesized by cultures of human glomerular epithelial cells have been isolated and characterized. Three types of heparan sulfate were detected. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan I (HSPG-I; Kav 6B 0.04) was found in the cell layer and medium and accounted for 12% of the total proteoglycans synthesized. HSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.25) accounted for 18% of the proteoglycans and was located in the medium and cell layer. A third population (9% of the proteoglycan population), heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan (HS-GAG; Kav 6B 0.4-0.8), had properties consistent with single glycosaminoglycan chains or their fragments and was found only in the cell layer. HSPG-I and HSPG-II from the cell layer had hydrophobic properties; they were released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. HS-GAG lacked these properties, consisted of low-molecular-mass heparan sulfate oligosaccharides, and were intracellular. HSPG-I and -II released to the medium lacked hydrophobic properties. The cells also produced three distinct types of chondroitin sulfates. The major species, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan I (CSPG-I) eluted in the excluded volume of a Sepharose CL-6B column, accounted for 30% of the proteoglycans detected, and was found in both the cell layer and medium. Cell layer CSPG-I bound to octyl-Sepharose. It was released from the cell layer by mild trypsin treatment. CSPG-II (Kav 6B 0.1-0.23) accounted for 10% of the total 35S-labeled macromolecules and was found predominantly in the culture medium. A small amount of CS-GAG (Kav 6B 0.25-0.6) is present in the cell extract and like HS-GAG is intracellular. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that HSPG-I and -II and CSPG-I and -II are lost from the cell layer either by direct release into the medium or by internalization where they are metabolized to single glycosaminoglycan chains and subsequently to inorganic sulfate.

  16. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    SciTech Connect

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Vaginal laparoscopically assisted radical trachelectomy in cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Iacoponi, Sara; Diestro, Maria Dolores; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Serrano, María; Santiago, Javier De

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5–10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4–9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24244219

  18. Vaginal laparoscopically assisted radical trachelectomy in cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iacoponi, Sara; Diestro, Maria Dolores; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Serrano, María; Santiago, Javier De

    2013-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5-10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4-9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24244219

  19. Myb permits multilineage airway epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jie-hong; Adair-Kirk, Tracy L.; Patel, Anand C.; Huang, Tao; Yozamp, Nicholas S.; Xu, Jian; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Byers, Derek E.; Pierce, Richard A.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brody, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the pulmonary airway is specially differentiated to provide defense against environmental insults, but also subject to dysregulated differentiation that results in lung disease. The current paradigm for airway epithelial differentiation is a one-step program whereby a p63+ basal epithelial progenitor cell generates a ciliated or secretory cell lineage, but the cue for this transition and whether there are intermediate steps is poorly defined. Here we identify transcription factor Myb as a key regulator that permits early multilineage differentiation of airway epithelial cells. Myb+ cells were identified as p63− and therefore distinct from basal progenitor cells, but were still negative for markers of differentiation. Myb RNAi treatment of primary-culture airway epithelial cells and Myb gene deletion in mice resulted in a p63− population with failed maturation of Foxj1+ ciliated cells, as well as Scbg1a1+ and Muc5ac+ secretory cells. Consistent with these findings, analysis of whole genome expression of Myb-deficient cells identified Myb-dependent programs for ciliated and secretory cell differentiation. Myb+ cells were rare in human airways but were increased in regions of ciliated cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in samples from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Together, the results show that a p63− Myb+ population of airway epithelial cells represents a distinct intermediate stage of differentiation that is required under normal conditions and may be heightened in airway disease. PMID:25103188

  20. Cell Division Drives Epithelial Cell Rearrangements during Gastrulation in Chick.

    PubMed

    Firmino, Joao; Rocancourt, Didier; Saadaoui, Mehdi; Moreau, Chloe; Gros, Jerome

    2016-02-01

    During early embryonic development, cells are organized as cohesive epithelial sheets that are continuously growing and remodeled without losing their integrity, giving rise to a wide array of tissue shapes. Here, using live imaging in chick embryo, we investigate how epithelial cells rearrange during gastrulation. We find that cell division is a major rearrangement driver that powers dramatic epithelial cell intercalation events. We show that these cell division-mediated intercalations, which represent the majority of epithelial rearrangements within the early embryo, are absolutely necessary for the spatial patterning of gastrulation movements. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these intercalation events result from overall low cortical actomyosin accumulation within the epithelial cells of the embryo, which enables dividing cells to remodel junctions in their vicinity. These findings uncover a role for cell division as coordinator of epithelial growth and remodeling that might underlie various developmental, homeostatic, or pathological processes in amniotes. PMID:26859350

  1. Desquamated epithelial cells covered with a polymicrobial biofilm typical for bacterial vaginosis are present in randomly selected cryopreserved donor semen.

    PubMed

    Swidsinski, Alexander; Dörffel, Yvonne; Loening-Baucke, Vera; Mendling, Werner; Verstraelen, Hans; Dieterle, Stefan; Schilling, Johannes

    2010-08-01

    We tested whether the bacterial biofilm typical for bacterial vaginosis (BV) can be found on desquamated epithelial cells in cryopreserved donor semen. Bacteria were detected with FISH. Bacterial biofilm, covering the epithelial layer in vaginal biopsies of 20 women with BV, was evaluated on desquamated epithelial cells found in the urine of these same women and their male partners (N=20) and compared with the bacterial biofilm found on desquamated epithelial cells in randomly selected cryopreserved semen samples (N=20). Urine from 20 healthy women of laboratory and clinic personnel and urine from their partners were used as controls. Desquamated epithelial cells covered with a polymicrobial Gardnerella biofilm were identified in urine samples from all women with BV and 13 of their male partners and in none of the female controls and their partners. Gardnerella biofilm, typical for BV, was found in the semen of three of the 20 donors. Donor semen might be a vector for BV. PMID:20497224

  2. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  3. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  4. Biodegradable Film for the Targeted Delivery of siRNA-Loaded Nanoparticles to Vaginal Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Yang, Sidi; Ho, Emmanuel A

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to develop and characterize a novel intravaginal film platform for targeted delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells as a potential gene therapy for the prevention of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/polyethylenimine (PEI)/siRNA NP (siRNA-NP) were fabricated using a modified emulsion-solvent evaporation method and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and siRNA release. siRNA-NP were decorated with anti-HLA-DR antibody (siRNA-NP-Ab) for targeting delivery to HLA-DR+ dendritic cells (DCs) and homogeneously dispersed in a biodegradable film consisting of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and λ-carrageenan. The siRNA-NP-Ab-loaded film (siRNA-NP-Ab-film) was transparent, displayed suitable physicomechanical properties, and was noncytotoxic. Targeting activity was evaluated in a mucosal coculture model consisting of a vaginal epithelial monolayer (VK2/E6E7 cells) and differentiated KG-1 cells (HLA-DR+ DCs). siRNA-NP-Ab were rapidly released from the film and were able to penetrate the epithelial layer to be taken up by differentiated KG-1 cells. siRNA-NP-Ab demonstrated higher targeting activity and significantly higher knockdown of synaptosome-associated 23-kDa protein (SNAP-23) mRNA and protein when compared to siRNA-NP without antibody conjugation. Overall, these data suggest that our novel siRNA-NP-Ab-film may be a promising platform for preventing HIV infection within the female genital tract. PMID:26099315

  5. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  6. Cyclical Changes of Vaginal Cytology in the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jennifer N.; Valli, V. E.; Lumsden, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Vaginal smears from seven cats were examined at two-day intervals for 32 days in order to describe the cyclical pattern of epithelial cells exfoliated throughout the stages of the estrus cycle. Vaginal epithelial cells were classified as parabasal, intermediate and superficial (nucleate and anucleate) cells, and their dimensions were measured for the purpose of definition. The percentages of the epithelial cell populations (i.e. Maturation Index) from Wright's stained smears, were determined at all stages of the estrus cycle. The Eosinophilic Index was estimated on Papanicolaou stained smears. Smears of cats in estrus were populated almost entirely with nucleate and anucleate superficial epithelial cells. Proestrus was characterized by intermediate epithelial cells with increasing eosinophilia, and rare neutrophils. Metestrus was associated with desquamation of intermediate and parabasal epithelial cells, neutrophils and debris. In the anestrus period, groups of intermediate cells and some parabasal epithelial cells were exfoliated. Two cats in the study did not cycle and exhibited anestrus. Of the five cats cycling, eight estrus periods were observed of two to five days duration. The cycles were of 15 to 17 days interval in three normal cats. Two cats did not show a second estrus within 30 days, and were subsequently found to have bacterial growth on the culture of vaginal swabs, however the presence of an initial ovular estrus cannot be ruled out. The rare presence of erythrocytes was associated with vaginal bacterial infections and discharge in two cats. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4. PMID:570881

  7. Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Son, Hwajin

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which epithelial cells acquire the characteristics of invasive mesenchymal cells. EMT has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis as well as the formation of many tissues and organs during development. Epithelial cells undergoing EMT lose cell-cell adhesion structures and polarity, and rearrange their cytoskeletons. Several oncogenic pathways such as transforming growth factor (TGF) -?, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways, have been shown to induce EMT. These pathways have activated transcription factors including Snail, Slug, and the ZEB family which work as transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, thereby making epithelial cells motile and resistant to apoptosis. Mounting evidence shows that EMT is associated with cell invasion and tumor progression.In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of EMT, pathways leading to EMT, and the role of EMT in cell invasion. Three topics are addressed in this review: (1) Definition of EMT, (2) Signaling pathways leading to EMT, (3) Role of EMT in cell invasion. Understanding the role of EMT in cell invasion will provide valuable information for establishing strategies to develop anti-metastatic therapeutics which modulate malignant cellular processes mediated by EMT. PMID:24278531

  8. Vaginal tumors

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most cancerous vaginal tumors occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Primary vaginal cancer is rare. Most primary vaginal cancers start ...

  9. Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. M.; Duckworth, C. A.; Burkitt, M. D.; Watson, A. J. M.; Campbell, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed. PMID:25428410

  10. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer? There are several types of vaginal cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas . These cancers begin in the squamous cells that ...

  11. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  12. Replication of cultured lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guzowski, D.; Bienkowski, R.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have investigated the conditions necessary to support replication of lung type 2 epithelial cells in culture. Cells were isolated from mature fetal rabbit lungs (29d gestation) and cultured on feeder layers of mitotically inactivated 3T3 fibroblasts. The epithelial nature of the cells was demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescent staining for keratin and by polyacid dichrome stain. Ultrastructural examination during the first week showed that the cells contained myofilaments, microvilli and lamellar bodies (markers for type 2 cells). The following changes were observed after the first week: increase in cell size; loss of lamellar bodies and appearance of multivesicular bodies; increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum and golgi; increase in tonafilaments and well-defined junctions. General cell morphology was good for up to 10 wk. Cells cultured on plastic surface degenerated after 1 wk. Cell replication was assayed by autoradiography of cultures exposed to (/sup 3/H)-thymidine and by direct cell counts. The cells did not replicate during the first week; however, between 2-10 wk the cells incorporated the label and went through approximately 6 population doublings. They have demonstrated that lung alveolar epithelial cells can replicate in culture if they are maintained on an appropriate substrate. The coincidence of ability to replicate and loss of markers for differentiation may reflect the dichotomy between growth and differentiation commonly observed in developing systems.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takashi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Lamichhane, Aayam; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kamioka, Mariko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Matsuki, Takahiro; Setoyama, Hiromi; Imaoka, Akemi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Domino, Steven E.; Kulig, Paulina; Becher, Burkhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host–microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria–dependent and –independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. PMID:25214634

  14. Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takashi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Lamichhane, Aayam; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kamioka, Mariko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Matsuki, Takahiro; Setoyama, Hiromi; Imaoka, Akemi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Domino, Steven E; Kulig, Paulina; Becher, Burkhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2014-09-12

    Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. PMID:25214634

  15. Identification and characterization of bacterial vaginosis-associated pathogens using a comprehensive cervical-vaginal epithelial coculture assay.

    PubMed

    Eade, Colleen R; Diaz, Camila; Wood, Matthew P; Anastos, Kathryn; Patterson, Bruce K; Gupta, Phalguni; Cole, Amy L; Cole, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most commonly treated female reproductive tract affliction, characterized by the displacement of healthy lactobacilli by an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. BV can contribute to pathogenic inflammation, preterm birth, and susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections. As the bacteria responsible for BV pathogenicity and their interactions with host immunity are not understood, we sought to evaluate the effects of BV-associated bacteria on reproductive epithelia. Here we have characterized the interaction between BV-associated bacteria and the female reproductive tract by measuring cytokine and defensin induction in three types of FRT epithelial cells following bacterial inoculation. Four BV-associated bacteria were evaluated alongside six lactobacilli for a comparative assessment. While responses differed between epithelial cell types, our model showed good agreement with clinical BV trends. We observed a distinct cytokine and human β-defensin 2 response to BV-associated bacteria, especially Atopobium vaginae, compared to most lactobacilli. One lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus vaginalis, induced an immune response similar to that elicited by BV-associated bacteria, stimulating significantly higher levels of cytokines and human β-defensin 2 than other lactobacilli. These data provide an important prioritization of BV-associated bacteria and support further characterization of reproductive bacteria and their interactions with host epithelia. Additionally, they demonstrate the distinct immune response potentials of epithelial cells from different locations along the female reproductive tract. PMID:23166828

  16. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  17. Adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Steiner, S; Witek, T; Balish, E

    1990-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human axillae were tested for their capacity to adhere to buccal epithelial cells, immortalized human epithelial (HEp-2) cells, and undifferentiated and differentiated human epithelial cells. In general, both aerobic and anaerobic diphtheroids adhered better to differentiated human epithelial cells than to HEp-2 and undifferentiated human epithelial cells (P less than 0.05). Mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin were also assayed for their capacity to inhibit the adherence of diphtheroids to human epithelial cells. A great deal of variability was observed in the capacity of the latter compounds to inhibit the attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated and differentiated epithelial cells. Overall, mannose appeared to be best at inhibiting the adherence of the aerobic diphtheroids to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. Galactose, fucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and fibronectin showed a greater capacity to inhibit attachment of aerobic diphtheroids to differentiated than to undifferentiated human epithelial cells. The inhibition of adherence to differentiated human epithelial cells varied with the microorganism and the compound tested; however, the highest and most consistent inhibition of adherence (76.1 to 88.6%) was observed with a 5% solution of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The in vitro adherence and adherence inhibition assays presented here demonstrate that a number of adhesins and receptors are involved in the adherence of skin bacteria to human epithelial cells and receptors on human epithelial cells are apparently altered during differentiation. PMID:2298877

  18. EDAC: Epithelial defence against cancer-cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Mihoko; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    During embryonic development or under certain pathological conditions, viable but suboptimal cells are often eliminated from the cellular society through a process termed cell competition. Cell competition was originally identified in Drosophila where cells with different properties compete for survival; 'loser' cells are eliminated from tissues and consequently 'winner' cells become dominant. Recent studies have shown that cell competition also occurs in mammals. While apoptotic cell death is the major fate for losers in Drosophila, outcompeted cells show more variable phenotypes in mammals, such as cell death-independent apical extrusion and cellular senescence. Molecular mechanisms underlying these processes have been recently revealed. Especially, in epithelial tissues, normal cells sense and actively eliminate the neighbouring transformed cells via cytoskeletal proteins by the process named epithelial defence against cancer (EDAC). Here, we introduce this newly emerging research field: cell competition in mammals. PMID:25991731

  19. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  20. Hyaluronan Rafts on Airway Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Abbadi, Amina; Lauer, Mark; Swaidani, Shadi; Wang, Aimin; Hascall, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Many cells, including murine airway epithelial cells, respond to a variety of inflammatory stimuli by synthesizing leukocyte-adhesive hyaluronan (HA) cables that remain attached to their cell surfaces. This study shows that air-liquid interface cultures of murine airway epithelial cells (AECs) also actively synthesize and release a majority of their HA onto their ciliated apical surfaces to form a heavy chain hyaluronan (HC-HA) matrix in the absence of inflammatory stimuli. These matrices do not resemble the rope-like HA cables but occur in distinct sheets or rafts that can capture and embed leukocytes from cell suspensions. The HC-HA modification involves the transfer of heavy chains from the inter-α-inhibitor (IαI) proteoglycan, which has two heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) on its chondroitin sulfate chain. The transesterification transfer of HCs from chondroitin sulfate to HA is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-induced gene 6 (TSG-6), which is up-regulated in inflammatory reactions. Because the AEC cultures do not have TSG-6 nor serum, the source of IαI, assays for HCs and TSG-6 were done. The results show that AECs synthesize TSG-6 and their own heavy chain donor (pre-IαI) with a single heavy chain 3 (HC3), which are also constitutively expressed by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. These leukocyte adhesive HC3-HA structures were also found in the bronchoalveolar lavage of naïve mice and were observed on their apical ciliated surfaces. Thus, these leukocyte-adhesive HA rafts are now identified as HC3-HA complexes that could be part of a host defense mechanism filling some important gaps in our current understanding of murine airway epithelial biology and secretions. PMID:26601955

  1. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  2. Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Al-Samadi, A; Drozd, A; Salem, A; Hietanen, J; Häyrinen-Immonen, R; Konttinen, Y T

    2015-07-01

    A recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) is a common inflammatory ulcerative lesion affecting oral mucosa. We studied the eventual apoptosis of epithelial cells from the point of view of ulcer and inflammation. RAU lesions and healthy mucosa samples were immunostained for caspase-3 and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). DNA nicks were identified using TUNEL staining. We studied the effects of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interferon γ (IFNγ) on the toll-like receptor 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) expression of human oral SCC-25 keratinocytes. We also studied the effects of self-DNA, all-thiol-HMGB1, and disulfide-HMGB1 on epithelial cells, with or without IFNγ. At the edge of RAU lesions, all epithelial cell layers were caspase-3(+), TUNEL(+), and HMGB-1(+) and had widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, healthy epithelial cells were negative for caspase-3 and TUNEL staining. HMGB1 was seen in only the basal cell layers, and the cells retained close cell-to-cell contacts. Self-DNA increased TNF-α mRNA (P = 0.02) in SCC-25 cells. Both TNFα and IFNγ (P = 0.01) increased TLR2. Upon TNFα stimulation, SCC-25 cells lost their nuclear HMGB1 staining. HMGB1 did not increase IL-8, IL-6, or TNF-α mRNA in SCC-25 cells, which was unaffected by the presence of IFNγ. We conclude that in healthy epithelium, the most superficial cells at the end of their life cycle are simply desquamated. In contrast, RAU is characterized by top-to-bottom apoptosis such that dead cells may slough off, leading to an ulcer. Because of a lack of scavenging anti-inflammatory macrophages, apoptotic cells probably undergo secondary necrosis releasing proinflammatory danger signals, which may contribute to the peripheral inflammatory halo. This is supported by self-DNA-induced TNFα synthesis. In contrast to TLR4- and TLR2-binding lipopolysaccharide used as a positive control, disulfide-HMGB1 did not stimulate proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:25861801

  3. Adherence of Group A Streptococci to Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartelt, Margaret A.; Duncan, James L.

    1978-01-01

    The adherence of group A streptococci to epithelial cells was studied by using streptococcal strains labeled with [3H]uridine or fluorescein isothiocyanate. The ability of the labeled organisms to adhere to Detroit 562 epithelial cells, derived from a human pharyngeal carcinoma, as well as to epithelial cells scraped from the oral cavity was determined. Adherence to monolayer cultures or cell suspensions of Detroit cells compared favorably with adherence to suspensions of human oral epithelial cells. Initial experiments to determine the optimal conditions for adherence showed that adherence was temperature dependent and that the optimal incubation time was 15 min for adherence to epithelial cells in suspension and 30 to 60 min for monolayer cultures. Both streptococci and epithelial cells exhibited specificity in the adherence process. Different streptococcal strains varied in their ability to adhere. Adherence was also affected by the growth stage of the bacterial cultures. Trypsin treatment of the streptococci slightly decreased adherence, whereas hyaluronidase treatment increased the adherence of some strains. Streptococci were found to adhere to only about half of the epithelial cells. Those epithelial cells apparently have a limited number of receptor sites since they can be saturated by adding increasing concentrations of bacteria. Further support for limited receptor sites was provided by competition experiments. Adherence was inhibited by trypsin treatment of the epithelial cells, suggesting that proteins in the epithelial cell membrane may play a role in streptococcal adherence. Images PMID:352928

  4. RAC1 overexpression promotes the proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jing; Li, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cataract is a main cause of blindness worldwide. RAC1 has been reported to have a close relationship with the proliferation and migration of cells. However, the relationship between RAC1 and cataract is not yet clear. The proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells are key factors in the formation of cataract as well as in the complication of cataract surgery. In this study, the effect of RAC1 overexpression on the proliferation and migration of lens epithelial cells was explored. Results showed that RAC1 overexpression promoted the proliferation of lens epithelial cells and increased the protein level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen. RAC1 overexpression also promoted migration and invasion of lens epithelial cells and had an influence on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. These results indicate that RAC1 may become a therapeutic target of cataract and inhibition of RAC1 may become a promising way for the therapy of cataract. PMID:26617787

  5. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans. PMID:26627458

  6. Generation of Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kasinski, Andrea L.; Slack, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Although in vivo models are excellent for assessing various facets of whole organism physiology, pathology, and overall response to treatments, evaluating basic cellular functions, and molecular events in mammalian model systems is challenging. It is therefore advantageous to perform these studies in a refined and less costly setting. One approach involves utilizing cells derived from the model under evaluation. The approach to generate such cells varies based on the cell of origin and often the genetics of the cell. Here we describe the steps involved in generating epithelial cells from the lungs of KrasLSL-G12D/+; p53LSL-R172/+ mice (Kasinski and Slack, 2012). These mice develop aggressive lung adenocarcinoma following cre-recombinase dependent removal of a stop cassette in the transgenes and subsequent expression of Kra-G12D and p53R172. While this protocol may be useful for the generation of epithelial lines from other genetic backgrounds, it should be noted that the Kras; p53 cell line generated here is capable of proliferating in culture without any additional genetic manipulation that is often needed for less aggressive backgrounds.

  7. Preservative cytotoxicity to cultured corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neville, R; Dennis, P; Sens, D; Crouch, R

    1986-05-01

    Cultured human and rat corneal epithelial cells with 51Cr incorporated were used as a model to test the cytolytic action of four common preservatives. Benzalkonium chloride, chlorohexidine and thimerosol were all found to lyse greater than 40% cells when incubated for fifteen minutes at concentrations in clinical use in topical ophthalmic medications. Chlorobutanol is the only preservative tested which has a low level of cytotoxicity (10%) and which, under these conditions, can be considered a safe preservative using cytolytic activity as the means of criteria. PMID:3720343

  8. Immortalization of bovine pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Marino, L R; Cotton, C U

    1996-04-01

    Pancreatic duct cell lines have been isolated from a number of animal and human tumors, but none appear to express ion transport properties expected for differentiated pancreatic duct epithelial cells. We sought to generate an immortalized ductal cell line from well-differentiated primary cultures of bovine pancreatic duct epithelium. Epithelial cells from the main duct of the bovine pancreas were isolated and immortalized by transfection with a DNA construct encoding simian virus 40 large T antigen. A single clone (BPD1) survived negative selection and was maintained in culture for > 100 passages over 2 yr. The cells grow readily in culture as monolayers and express several properties characteristic of differentiated pancreatic ductal epithelium. The cells do not appear to form a functional tight junction complex, since the transepithelial resistance of the monolayer cultures grown on a permeable support is < 10 omega.cm2. Northern blot analysis revealed that the cells continue to express simian virus 40 large T antigen and contain significant levels of mRNA for proteins thought to be important in transepithelial bicarbonate secretion [carbonic anhydrase II, Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, Na+/H+ exchanger, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)]. In vivo pancreatic ductal secretion is stimulated by the peptide hormone secretin. The secretin receptor is expressed and functionally coupled to adenylate cyclase in the immortalized cells, since secretin caused a dose-dependent accumulation of adenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP; approximately 20-fold increase over basal levels) with a mean effective concentration of 15 nM. Elevation of intracellular cAMP by exposure of the cells to forskolin (10 microM) or secretin (0.1 microM) increase plasma membrane Cl- permeability, most likely mediated by activation of CFTR. The results of these studies demonstrate that the pancreatic duct cell line (BPD1) retains several properties exhibited by the secretory epithelial cells that line the pancreatic ductal tree. This cell line should prove useful for studies of expression, function, and regulation of pancreatic duct cell proteins. PMID:8928798

  9. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  10. Hippo signaling in epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Meng-Xin; Zhang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, discoveries on Hippo signaling have revealed a complex signaling network integrating various signaling pathways to modulate tissue homeostasis, organ size control, tissue repair, and regeneration. Malfunction of the Hippo pathway is associated with tumor and cancer development. Moreover, Hippo signaling has been proposed to act in numerous stem cells in a variety of organisms. Recently, more attention has been paid to define the functions of the Hippo pathway in tissue-specific stem cells, which have great potential to be used in cell-based therapies. Here we provide an overview of its roles in regulating stem cells in epithelial tissues and its potential implications in related cancers. PMID:25476205

  11. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  12. [Recurrent cystitis and vaginitis: role of biofilms and persister cells. From pathophysiology to new therapeutic strategies].

    PubMed

    Graziottin, A; Zanello, P P; D'Errico, G

    2014-10-01

    Recurrent vaginitis and cystitis are a daily challenge for the woman and the physician. The recurrence worsens the symptoms' severity, increases comorbidities, both pelvic (provoked vestibulodynia, bladder pain syndrome, levator ani hyperactivity, introital dyspareunia, obstructive constipation, chronic pelvic pain) and cerebral (neuroinflammation and depression), increases health costs, worsens the quality of life. Antibiotics increase the risk of bacterial resistences and devastate the ecosystems: intestinal, vaginal and mucocutaneous. Pathogenic biofilms are the (still) neglected etiology of recurrences. Biofilms are structured communities of bacteria and yeasts, protected by a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to a living or inert structures, such as medical devices. Biofims can be intra or extracellular. Pathogens live in a resting state in the deep biofilm layers as "persister cells", resistant to antibiotics and host defences and ready to re-attack the host. The paper updates the evidence on biofilms and introduces new non-antibiotic strategies of preventing and modulating recurrent vaginitis and cystitis. PMID:25245998

  13. Scrib is required for epithelial cell identity and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamben, Idella F; Rachel, Rivka A; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E

    2013-12-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depend on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, ?SMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of ?SMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGF? signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGF? target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGF? signaling. PMID:24095903

  14. Scrib is Required for Epithelial Cell Identity and Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yamben, Idella F.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depends on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling. PMID:24095903

  15. Ouabain modulates ciliogenesis in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Larre, Isabel; Castillo, Aida; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Contreras, Ruben G; Galvan, Ivan; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesus; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-12-20

    The exchange of substances between higher organisms and the environment occurs across transporting epithelia whose basic features are tight junctions (TJs) that seal the intercellular space, and polarity, which enables cells to transport substances vectorially. In a previous study, we demonstrated that 10 nM ouabain modulates TJs, and we now show that it controls polarity as well. We gauge polarity through the development of a cilium at the apical domain of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, epithelial dog kidney). Ouabain accelerates ciliogenesis in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Claudin-2, a molecule responsible for the Na(+) and H(2)O permeability of the TJs, is also present at the cilium, as it colocalizes and coprecipitates with acetylated α-tubulin. Ouabain modulates claudin-2 localization at the cilium through ERK1/2. Comparing wild-type and ouabain-resistant MDCK cells, we show that ouabain acts through Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. Taken together, our previous and present results support the possibility that ouabain constitutes a hormone that modulates the transporting epithelial phenotype, thereby playing a crucial role in metazoan life. PMID:22143774

  16. Ouabain modulates ciliogenesis in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Castillo, Aida; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Contreras, Ruben G.; Galvan, Ivan; Muñoz-Estrada, Jesus; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    The exchange of substances between higher organisms and the environment occurs across transporting epithelia whose basic features are tight junctions (TJs) that seal the intercellular space, and polarity, which enables cells to transport substances vectorially. In a previous study, we demonstrated that 10 nM ouabain modulates TJs, and we now show that it controls polarity as well. We gauge polarity through the development of a cilium at the apical domain of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK, epithelial dog kidney). Ouabain accelerates ciliogenesis in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Claudin-2, a molecule responsible for the Na+ and H2O permeability of the TJs, is also present at the cilium, as it colocalizes and coprecipitates with acetylated α-tubulin. Ouabain modulates claudin-2 localization at the cilium through ERK1/2. Comparing wild-type and ouabain-resistant MDCK cells, we show that ouabain acts through Na+,K+-ATPase. Taken together, our previous and present results support the possibility that ouabain constitutes a hormone that modulates the transporting epithelial phenotype, thereby playing a crucial role in metazoan life. PMID:22143774

  17. Th17 Cells Are Preferentially Infected Very Early after Vaginal Transmission of SIV in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Stieh, Daniel J; Matias, Edgar; Xu, Huanbin; Fought, Angela J; Blanchard, James L; Marx, Preston A; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J

    2016-04-13

    The difficulty in detecting rare infected cells immediately after mucosal HIV transmission has hindered our understanding of the initial cells targeted by the virus. Working with the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal challenge model, we developed methodology to identify discrete foci of SIV (mac239) infection 48 hr after vaginal inoculation. We find infectious foci throughout the reproductive tract, from labia to ovary. Phenotyping infected cells reveals that SIV has a significant bias for infection of CCR6+ CD4+ T cells. SIV-infected cells expressed the transcriptional regulator RORγt, confirming that the initial target cells are specifically of the Th17 lineage. Furthermore, we detect host responses to infection, as evidenced by apoptosis, cell lysis, and phagocytosis of infected cells. Thus, our analysis identifies Th17-lineage CCR6+ CD4+ T cells as primary targets of SIV during vaginal transmission. This opens new opportunities for interventions to protect these cells and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:27078070

  18. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  19. CsrRS and environmental pH regulate group B streptococcus adherence to human epithelial cells and extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Eun; Jiang, Shengmei; Wessels, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts and an important cause of invasive infections in newborn infants and in adults with predisposing chronic conditions or advanced age. Attachment to epithelial surfaces at mucosal sites is a critical step in the successful colonization of a human host, and regulation of this process is likely to play an important role in both commensalism and dissemination to cause invasive disease. We found that inactivation of the CsrRS (or CovRS) two-component system increased GBS adherence to epithelial cells derived from human vaginal, cervical, and respiratory epithelium, as well as increasing adherence to extracellular matrix proteins and increasing biofilm formation on polystyrene. Neutral (as opposed to acidic) pH enhanced GBS binding to vaginal epithelial cells and to fibrinogen and fibronectin, effects that were partially dependent on CsrRS. The regulatory effects of CsrRS and environmental pH on bacterial adherence correlated with their effects on the expression of multiple surface adhesins, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We conclude that GBS adherence to epithelial and abiotic surfaces is regulated by the CsrRS two-component system and by environmental pH through their regulatory effects on the expression of bacterial surface adhesins. Dynamic regulation of GBS adherence enhances the organism's adaptability to survival in multiple niches in the human host. PMID:22949550

  20. CsrRS and Environmental pH Regulate Group B Streptococcus Adherence to Human Epithelial Cells and Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Eun; Jiang, Shengmei

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal and genital tracts and an important cause of invasive infections in newborn infants and in adults with predisposing chronic conditions or advanced age. Attachment to epithelial surfaces at mucosal sites is a critical step in the successful colonization of a human host, and regulation of this process is likely to play an important role in both commensalism and dissemination to cause invasive disease. We found that inactivation of the CsrRS (or CovRS) two-component system increased GBS adherence to epithelial cells derived from human vaginal, cervical, and respiratory epithelium, as well as increasing adherence to extracellular matrix proteins and increasing biofilm formation on polystyrene. Neutral (as opposed to acidic) pH enhanced GBS binding to vaginal epithelial cells and to fibrinogen and fibronectin, effects that were partially dependent on CsrRS. The regulatory effects of CsrRS and environmental pH on bacterial adherence correlated with their effects on the expression of multiple surface adhesins, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. We conclude that GBS adherence to epithelial and abiotic surfaces is regulated by the CsrRS two-component system and by environmental pH through their regulatory effects on the expression of bacterial surface adhesins. Dynamic regulation of GBS adherence enhances the organism's adaptability to survival in multiple niches in the human host. PMID:22949550

  1. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  2. Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently unknown. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying the impact of EGC upon IEC transcriptome by performing microarray studies. Results EGC induced significant changes in gene expression profiling of proliferating IEC after 24 hours of co-culture. 116 genes were identified as differentially expressed (70 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) in IEC cultured with EGC compared to IEC cultured alone. By performing functional analysis of the 116 identified genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we showed that EGC induced a significant regulation of genes favoring both cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion as well as cell differentiation. Consistently, functional studies showed that EGC induced a significant increase in cell adhesion. EGC also regulated genes involved in cell motility towards an enhancement of cell motility. In addition, EGC profoundly modulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival, although no clear functional trend could be identified. Finally, important genes involved in lipid and protein metabolism of epithelial cells were shown to be differentially regulated by EGC. Conclusion This study reinforces the emerging concept that EGC have major protective effects upon the IEB. EGC have a profound impact upon IEC transcriptome and induce a shift in IEC phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. This concept needs to be further validated under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:19883504

  3. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2013-11-14

    Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. Here we present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. After the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts in repairing epithelial injury. Single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. By contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate is inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may have a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  4. Dedifferentiation of committed epithelial cells into stem cells in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Purushothama Rao; Mou, Hongmei; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Zhao, Rui; Prabhu, Mythili; Prabhu, Mythili; Law, Brandon M.; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Cho, Josalyn L.; Breton, Sylvie; Sahay, Amar; Medoff, Benjamin D.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cellular plasticity contributes to the regenerative capacity of plants, invertebrates, teleost fishes, and amphibians. In vertebrates, differentiated cells are known to revert into replicating progenitors, but these cells do not persist as stable stem cells. We now present evidence that differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo. Following the ablation of airway stem cells, we observed a surprising increase in the proliferation of committed secretory cells. Subsequent lineage tracing demonstrated that the luminal secretory cells had dedifferentiated into basal stem cells. Dedifferentiated cells were morphologically indistinguishable from stem cells and they functioned as well as their endogenous counterparts to repair epithelial injury. Indeed, single secretory cells clonally dedifferentiated into multipotent stem cells when they were cultured ex vivo without basal stem cells. In contrast, direct contact with a single basal stem cell was sufficient to prevent secretory cell dedifferentiation. In analogy to classical descriptions of amphibian nuclear reprogramming, the propensity of committed cells to dedifferentiate was inversely correlated to their state of maturity. This capacity of committed cells to dedifferentiate into stem cells may play a more general role in the regeneration of many tissues and in multiple disease states, notably cancer. PMID:24196716

  5. The role of fibroblast growth factors on the differentiation of vaginal epithelium of neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Hayashi, Shinji; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2011-07-01

    The uterus and upper 3/5 of the vagina originate from the Müllerian duct; however, these organs show quite distinct characteristics in morphology and function. To investigate factors controlling vaginal epithelial cell differentiation from a single layer of pseudostratified epithelium to a multi-layered stratified epithelium with keratin, we focused on fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs). Transformation related protein 63 (Trp63) expression, a marker of stratified epithelium, increased in the Müllerian vaginal epithelial cells from days 0 to 5, and keratin 14 (Krt14) was expressed from day 5, suggesting that Trp63-negative vaginal epithelial cells can differentiate into Trp63-positive cells after birth. Fgf7 and Fgf10 were localized in the vaginal stroma but their receptor, Fgf receptor 2IIIb (Fgfr2IIIb), was localized in the vaginal epithelium. Both Fgf9 and its receptor, Fgfr2IIIc, were localized in the vaginal epithelium. Vaginae cultured with FGF10 or anti-FGF9 antibody showed stratified epithelium with an intense Krt14 expression; however, an inhibitor of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 (MAPK1/3) canceled the effect of FGF10 and anti-FGF9 antibody. Thus, Fgf10 stimulates the differentiation of pseudostratified epithelial cells into stratified cells via MAPK1/3 pathway, and Fgf9 inhibits this differentiation in the neonatal mouse vagina. PMID:21530063

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  7. Neonatal Estrogen Receptor β Is Important in the Permanent Inhibition of Epithelial Cell Proliferation in the Mouse Uterus.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Tanimoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Masami; Chambon, Pierre; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) plays a pivotal role in the mouse uterine and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation stimulated by estrogen, whereas ERβ inhibits cell proliferation. ERβ mRNA is expressed in neonatal uteri and vaginae; however, its functions in neonatal tissues have not been ascertained. In this study, we investigated the ontogenic mRNA expression and localization of ERβ, and its roles in cell proliferation in neonatal uteri and vaginae of ERβ knockout (βERKO) mice. ERβ mRNA and protein were abundant in the uterine and vaginal epithelia of 2-day-old mice and decreased with age. In uterine and vaginal epithelia of 2-day-old βERKO mice, cell proliferation was greater than that in wild-type animals and in uterine epithelia of 90- and 365-day-old βERKO mice. In addition, p27 protein, known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was decreased in the uteri of 90- and 365-day-old βERKO mice. Inhibition of neonatal ERs by ICI 182780 (an ER antagonist) treatment stimulated cell proliferation and decreased p27 protein in the uterine luminal epithelium of 90-day-old mice but not in the vaginal epithelium. These results suggest that neonatal ERβ is important in the persistent inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation with accumulation of p27 protein in the mouse uterus. Thus, suppression of ERβ function in the uterine epithelium during the neonatal period may be responsible for a risk for proliferative disease in adults. PMID:26020796

  8. Attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, J M; Miller, C H

    1980-01-01

    A standardized assay was used to measure the attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 12104 to washed human buccal epithelial cells. Treatment of the A. naeslundii cells with hyaluronidases, wheat germ lipase, protease, trypsin, heat, or sonic oscillation significantly reduced their ability to attach to epithelial cells. Treatment of the epithelial cells with the above enzymes did not influence the attachment of A. naeslundii. Extraction of A. naeslundii with NaOH also significantly reduced the ability of the bacterium to attach to human buccal epithelial cells. The neutralized and dialyzed NaOH extract contained both carbohydrate and protein substances in a ratio of about 1:1. Adding this extract back to the extracted bacterial cells partially restored their ability to attach to epithelial cells. When the NaOH extract was preincubated with epithelial cells and residual extract was removed by washing, attachment of normal A. naeslundii was partially blocked. The ability of the extracted material to block attachment was significantly reduced when treated with hyaluronidases or with wheat germ lipase. Treatment with heat, protease, or trypsin did not significantly reduce the ability of the extracted materials to block attachment. Pretreatment of the epithelial cells with hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulfate also reduced subsequent attachment of normal A. naeslundii cells. Pretreatment of epithelial cells with dextrans, proteins, or unpure mannose did not influence subsequent attachment of A. naeslundii. Pretreatment of A. naeslundii with galactose and lactose significantly inhibited attachment to normal epithelial cells. The results suggest that the attachment of A. naeslundii to human buccal epithelial cells may involve mucopolysaccharides similar to hyaluronic acid on the surface of the bacterial cells. Other attachment mechanisms may also be operative. PMID:7000708

  9. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial cells participate in angiotensin II-mediated control of the glomerular filtration barrier.

  10. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.; Duncan, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell–Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell–derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell–Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell–derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  11. Klebsiella pneumoniae Is Able to Trigger Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process in Cultured Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Laura; Mazzetta, Francesca; Martinelli, Daniela; Valente, Sabatino; Alimandi, Maurizio; Raffa, Salvatore; Santino, Iolanda

    2016-01-01

    The ability of some bacterial pathogens to activate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition normally is a consequence of the persistence of a local chronic inflammatory response or depends on a direct interaction of the pathogens with the host epithelial cells. In this study we monitored the abilities of the K. pneumoniae to activate the expression of genes related to EMT-like processes and the occurrence of phenotypic changes in airway epithelial cells during the early steps of cell infection. We describe changes in the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and increased HIF-1α mRNA expression in cells exposed to K. pneumoniae infection. We also describe the upregulation of a set of transcription factors implicated in the EMT processes, such as Twist, Snail and ZEB, indicating that the morphological changes of epithelial cells already appreciable after few hours from the K. pneumoniae infection are tightly regulated by the activation of transcriptional pathways, driving epithelial cells to EMT. These effects appear to be effectively counteracted by resveratrol, an antioxidant that is able to exert a sustained scavenging of the intracellular ROS. This is the first report indicating that strains of K. pneumoniae may promote EMT-like programs through direct interaction with epithelial cells without the involvement of inflammatory cells. PMID:26812644

  12. Danazol enhances Fas-mediated apoptosis in human endometrial epithelial cells within normal physiology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tetsuji; Umesaki, Naohiko

    2009-02-01

    Local danazol therapy reduces the signs and symptoms of endometriosis without inhibition of regular ovulation and menstruation and without atrophic changes to the endometrium or vaginal wall. It has been suggested that danazol has possible non-cytotoxic direct actions on eutopic endometrial cells and endometriotic cells. We have investigated the direct effects of danazol on a human endometrial epithelial cell line, HHUA, which is believed to retain many normal intracellular signaling pathways. A thoroughly dissolved solution of danazol enhanced Fas-mediated apoptosis in HHUA cells without inhibiting cell proliferation. Semi-quantitative flow cytometric analysis revealed that danazol did not enhance cell surface expression of Fas antigens. The enhancement of Fas-mediated apoptosis by endometrial cytokines such as EGF, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma was not additively enhanced by danazol; nor did danazol enhance growth suppression by anticancer drugs such as paclitaxel, carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Moreover, danazol did not enhance the irradiation-induced cell growth suppression of radiation-sensitive human cervical squamous cancer ME180 cells. These results indicate that danazol may regulate endometrial epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis within normal physiology. PMID:19148548

  13. Uranium induces apoptosis in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Ravichandran, Prabakaran; Sadanandan, Bindu; Sharma, Chidananda S.; Ramesh, Vani; Hall, Joseph C.; Thomas, Renard; Wilson, Bobby L.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive material present everywhere in the environment. It is toxic because of its chemical or radioactive properties. Uranium enters environment mainly from mines and industry and cause threat to human health by accumulating in lungs as a result of inhalation. In our previous study, we have shown the effectiveness of antioxidant system response to the oxidative stress induced by uranyl acetate (UA) in rat lung epithelial (LE) cells. As part of our continuing studies; here, we investigated the mechanism underlying when LE cells are exposed to different concentration of UA. Oxidative stress may lead to apoptotic signaling pathways. LE cells treated with 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM of UA results in dose and time-dependent increase in activity of both caspases-3 and -8. Increase in the concentration of cytochrome-c oxidase in cytosol was seen in LE cells treated with 1 mM UA as a result of mitochondria membrane permeability. The cyto-chrome-c leakage may trigger the apoptotic pathway. TUNEL assay performed in LE cells treated with 1 mM of UA showed significant incorporation of dNTPs in the nucleus after 24 h. In the presence of the caspase inhibitors, we observed the significant decrease in the activity of caspases-8 and -3 in 0.5 and 1 mM UA-treated LE cells. PMID:19096828

  14. Urogenital epithelial cells as simple markers of estrogen response in infants: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Adgent, Margaret A; Flake, Gordon P; Umbach, David M; Stallings, Virginia A; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rogan, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to estrogen-mimicking chemicals during critical periods of development, such as infancy, may have adverse effects. However, these effects can be difficult to characterize in most epidemiologic studies. For example, growth of reproductive organs may be susceptible to estrogenic chemicals, but measuring it requires skilled ultrasound examination; timing of pubertal onset may be altered, but observing it requires long-term follow up. To address the need for a simple marker of response to estrogenic exposures in infants, we propose a novel application of a classic marker of estrogen response in adult women: cytological evaluation of urogenital epithelial cells. In this cross-sectional study of 34 female and 41 male infants, we demonstrate that epithelial cells can be obtained from swabs of the vaginal introitus (females) and urethral meatus (males), as well as from spun urine, and that these cells respond to differential estrogenic conditions, as indicated by the relative abundance of the superficial epithelial cell type. To model varying estrogen exposure, we sampled from infants who were either newborn (highly exposed to maternal estrogens), or 12 weeks old (12 W) (negligibly exposed to estrogen). Newborns had a higher percentage of superficial cells (%S), as compared to 12 W (mean ± standard error: 8.3 ± 1.8 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2) (p < 0.01), consistent with an estrogen response. This difference in %S from newborn to 12 W was observed similarly for swab (-7.6 ± 1.7) and urine (-7.3 ± 2.6) specimens and for males (-9.6 ± 2.9) and females (-5.2 ± 2.1). Examination of urogenital epithelial cells can successfully demonstrate estrogen response in both sexes, using cell specimens collected from either swab or urine sampling. In future studies, this simple, non-invasive method may be applied to assess whether estrogen-mimicking chemicals produce an estrogenic response in infants. PMID:24146956

  15. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining. ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts are the most common. These may form as a result of injury to the vaginal walls during ...

  16. Multi-functionality and plasticity characterize epithelial cells in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Buzgariu, W; Al Haddad, S; Tomczyk, S; Wenger, Y; Galliot, B

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial sheets, a synapomorphy of all metazoans but porifers, are present as 2 layers in cnidarians, ectoderm and endoderm, joined at their basal side by an extra-cellular matrix named mesoglea. In the Hydra polyp, epithelial cells of the body column are unipotent stem cells that continuously self-renew and concomitantly express their epitheliomuscular features. These multifunctional contractile cells maintain homeostasis by providing a protective physical barrier, by digesting nutrients, by selecting a stable microbiota, and by rapidly closing wounds. In addition, epithelial cells are highly plastic, supporting the adaptation of Hydra to physiological and environmental changes, such as long starvation periods where survival relies on a highly dynamic autophagy flux. Epithelial cells also play key roles in developmental processes as evidenced by the organizer activity they develop to promote budding and regeneration. We propose here an integrative view of the homeostatic and developmental aspects of epithelial plasticity in Hydra. PMID:26716072

  17. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L.; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID:26778835

  18. Sonic Hedgehog regulates thymic epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, José Ignacio; Solanki, Anisha; Lau, Ching-In; Sahni, Hemant; Ross, Susan; Furmanski, Anna L; Ono, Masahiro; Holländer, Georg; Crompton, Tessa

    2016-04-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the thymus, where it regulates T cell development. Here we investigated the influence of Shh on thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development. Components of the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway were expressed by TEC, and use of a Gli Binding Site-green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic reporter mouse demonstrated active Hh-dependent transcription in TEC in the foetal and adult thymus. Analysis of Shh-deficient foetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC) showed that Shh is required for normal TEC differentiation. Shh-deficient foetal thymus contained fewer TEC than wild type (WT), the proportion of medullary TEC was reduced relative to cortical TEC, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules was increased on both cortical and medullary TEC populations. In contrast, the Gli3-deficient thymus, which shows increased Hh-dependent transcription in thymic stroma, had increased numbers of TEC, but decreased cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on both cortical and medullary TEC. Neutralisation of endogenous Hh proteins in WT FTOC led to a reduction in TEC numbers, and in the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC, but an increase in cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC. Likewise, conditional deletion of Shh from TEC in the adult thymus resulted in alterations in TEC differentiation and consequent changes in T cell development. TEC numbers, and the proportion of mature Aire-expressing medullary TEC were reduced, and cell surface expression of MHC Class II molecules on medullary TEC was increased. Differentiation of mature CD4 and CD8 single positive thymocytes was increased, demonstrating the regulatory role of Shh production by TEC on T cell development. Treatment of human thymus explants with recombinant Shh or neutralising anti-Shh antibody indicated that the Hedgehog pathway is also involved in regulation of differentiation from DP to mature SP T cells in the human thymus. PMID:26778835

  19. Cervical Mucins Carry α(1,2)Fucosylated Glycans that Partly Protect from Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Domino, Steven E.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Thomsson, Kristina A.; Karnak, David M.; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M.; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2009-01-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple α(1,2)fucosylated glycans, but α(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for α(1,2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of α(1,2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed α(1,2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden. PMID:19326211

  20. Observing planar cell polarity in multiciliated mouse airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Lee, Yin Loon; Stearns, Tim; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The concerted movement of cilia propels inhaled contaminants out of the lungs, safeguarding the respiratory system from toxins, pathogens, pollutants, and allergens. Motile cilia on the multiciliated cells (MCCs) of the airway epithelium are physically oriented along the tissue axis for directional motility, which depends on the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. The MCCs of the mouse respiratory epithelium have emerged as an important model for the study of motile ciliogenesis and the PCP signaling mechanism. Unlike other motile ciliated or planar polarized tissues, airway epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible and primary cultures faithfully model many of the essential features of the in vivo tissue. There is growing interest in understanding how cells acquire and polarize motile cilia due to the impact of mucociliary clearance on respiratory health. Here, we present methods for observing and quantifying the planar polarized orientation of motile cilia both in vivo and in primary culture airway epithelial cells. We describe how to acquire and evaluate electron and light microscopy images of ciliary ultrastructural features that reveal planar polarized orientation. Furthermore, we describe the immunofluorescence localization of PCP pathway components as a simple readout for airway epithelial planar polarization and ciliary orientation. These methods can be adapted to observe ciliary orientation in other multi- and monociliated cells and to detect PCP pathway activity in any tissue or cell type. PMID:25837385

  1. Recycling of galectin-3 in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hönig, Ellena; Schneider, Katharina; Jacob, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Galectins, a family of β-galactoside binding proteins, do not possess a signalling sequence to enter the endoplasmic reticulum as a starting point for the classical secretory pathway. They use a so-called unconventional secretion mechanism for translocation across the plasma membrane and/or into the lumen of transport vesicles. The β-galactoside binding protein galectin-3 is highly expressed in a variety of epithelial cell lines. Polarized MDCK cells secrete this lectin predominantly into the apical medium. The lectin re-enters the cell by non-clathrin mediated endocytosis and passages through endosomal organelles. This internalized galectin-3 plays an important role in apical protein trafficking by directing the subcellular targeting of apical glycoproteins via oligomerization into high molecular weight clusters, a process that can be fine-tuned by changes in the environmental pH. Following release at the apical plasma membrane, the lectin can reenter the cell for another round of recycling and apical protein sorting. This review will briefly address galectin-3-functions in epithelia and focus on distinct phases in apical recycling of the lectin. PMID:26059399

  2. A study of the osmotic characteristics, water permeability, and cryoprotectant permeability of human vaginal immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhiquan; Hughes, Sean M; Fang, Cifeng; Huang, Jinghua; Fu, Baiwen; Zhao, Gang; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian; Gao, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Cryopreservation of specimens taken from the genital tract of women is important for studying mucosal immunity during HIV prevention trials. However, it is unclear whether the current, empirically developed cryopreservation procedures for peripheral blood cells are also ideal for genital specimens. The optimal cryopreservation protocol depends on the cryobiological features of the cells. Thus, we obtained tissue specimens from vaginal repair surgeries, isolated and flow cytometry-purified immune cells, and determined fundamental cryobiological characteristics of vaginal CD3(+) T cells and CD14(+) macrophages using a microfluidic device. The osmotically inactive volumes of the two cell types (Vb) were determined relative to the initial cell volume (V0) by exposing the cells to hypotonic and hypertonic saline solutions, evaluating the equilibrium volume, and applying the Boyle van't Hoff relationship. The cell membrane permeability to water (Lp) and to four different cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions (Ps) at room temperature were also measured. Results indicated Vb values of 0.516 V0 and 0.457 V0 for mucosal T cells and macrophages, respectively. Lp values at room temperature were 0.196 and 0.295 μm/min/atm for T cells and macrophages, respectively. Both cell types had high Ps values for the three CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG) and ethylene glycol (EG) (minimum of 0.418 × 10(-3) cm/min), but transport of the fourth CPA, glycerol, occurred 50-150 times more slowly. Thus, DMSO, PG, and EG are better options than glycerol in avoiding severe cell volume excursion and osmotic injury during CPA addition and removal for cryopreservation of human vaginal immune cells. PMID:26976225

  3. A study of the osmotic characteristics, water permeability, and cryoprotectant permeability of human vaginal immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Hughes, Sean M.; Fang, Cifeng; Huang, Jinghua; Fu, Baiwen; Zhao, Gang; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian; Gao, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of specimens taken from the genital tract of women is important for studying mucosal immunity during HIV prevention trials. However, it is unclear whether the current, empirically developed cryopreservation procedures for peripheral blood cells are also ideal for genital specimens. The optimal cryopreservation protocol depends on the cryobiological features of the cells. Thus, we obtained tissue specimens from vaginal repair surgeries, isolated and flow cytometry-purified immune cells, and determined fundamental cryobiological characteristics of vaginal CD3+ T cells and CD14+ macrophages using a microfluidic device. The osmotically inactive volumes of the two cell types (Vb) were determined relative to the initial cell volume (V0) by exposing the cells to hypotonic and hypertonic saline solutions, evaluating the equilibrium volume, and applying the Boyle van't Hoff relationship. The cell membrane permeability to water (Lp) and to four different cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions (Ps) at room temperature were also measured. Results indicated Vb values of 0.516 V0 and 0.457 V0 for mucosal T cells and macrophages, respectively. Lp values at room temperature were 0.196 and 0.295 μm/min/atm for T cells and macrophages, respectively. Both cell types had high Ps values for the three CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG) and ethylene glycol (EG) (minimum of 0.418 × 10−3 cm/min), but transport of the fourth CPA, glycerol, occurred 50–150 times more slowly. Thus, DMSO, PG, and EG are better options than glycerol in avoiding severe cell volume excursion and osmotic injury during CPA addition and removal for cryopreservation of human vaginal immune cells. PMID:26976225

  4. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with (14C)leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with (3H)leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form.

  5. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... some women have no symptoms. Common causes are bacterial infections, trichomoniasis, and yeast infections. Some other causes of vaginal symptoms include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems depends on the cause.

  6. Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during digestive tract development and epithelial stem cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Ludovic; Marchal, Stéphane; Faure, Sandrine; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract develops from a simple and uniform tube into a complex organ with specific differentiation patterns along the anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral axes of asymmetry. It is derived from all three germ layers and their cross-talk is important for the regulated development of fetal and adult gastrointestinal structures and organs. Signals from the adjacent mesoderm are essential for the morphogenesis of the overlying epithelium. These mesenchymal-epithelial interactions govern the development and regionalization of the different gastrointestinal epithelia and involve most of the key morphogens and signaling pathways, such as the Hedgehog, BMPs, Notch, WNT, HOX, SOX and FOXF cascades. Moreover, the mechanisms underlying mesenchyme differentiation into smooth muscle cells influence the regionalization of the gastrointestinal epithelium through interactions with the enteric nervous system. In the neonatal and adult gastrointestinal tract, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions are essential for the maintenance of the epithelial regionalization and digestive epithelial homeostasis. Disruption of these interactions is also associated with bowel dysfunction potentially leading to epithelial tumor development. In this review, we will discuss various aspects of the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions observed during digestive epithelium development and differentiation and also during epithelial stem cell regeneration. PMID:26126787

  7. Cell Chirality Induces Collective Cell Migration in Epithelial Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    During early development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a uniform direction. Here, we address how this collective migration can occur without breaking the cell-to-cell attachments. Repeated contraction and expansion of the cell-to-cell interfaces enables the cells to rearrange their positions autonomously within the sheet. We show that when the interface tension is strengthened in a direction that is tilted from the body axis, cell rearrangements occur in such a way that unidirectional movement is induced. We use a vertex model to demonstrate that such anisotropic tension can generate the unidirectional motion of cell sheets. Our results suggest that cell chirality facilitates collective cell migration during tissue morphogenesis.

  8. Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

  9. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Cytosolic Salmonella in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Knodler, Leigh A.; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol. PMID:24400108

  11. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  12. Clinical implications of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Luis A; Blanco, Moisés; Castosa, Raquel; Concha, Ángel; Valladares, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Figueroa, Angélica

    2015-09-28

    In the last few years, the role of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer biology research has gained increasing attention. This concept refers to the ability of the epithelial cells to dynamically switch between different phenotypic cellular states. This programme is particularly relevant during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression. During colonization, epithelial cells first activate the EMT programme to disseminate from a primary tumour to reach a distant tissue site. During this process, cells are transported into the circulation and are able to escape the immune system of the host. Then, a reverse process called mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occurs on cells that settle in the distant organs. Although epithelial cell plasticity has an important impact on tumour biology, the clinical relevance of this concept remains to be recapitulated. In this review, we will update the current state of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression and its clinical implications for the design of therapeutic strategies, the acquisition of multidrug resistance, and future perspectives for the management of cancer patients. PMID:26099173

  13. Serum-Induced Differentiation of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David A.; Liu, Yang; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Green, Karin M.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Hatton, Mark P.; Liu, Shaohui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that culturing immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells in serum-containing medium will induce their differentiation. The purpose of this investigation was to begin to test our hypothesis, and explore the impact of serum on gene expression and lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Methods. Immortalized and primary human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured in the presence or absence of serum. Cells were evaluated for lysosome and lipid accumulation, polar and neutral lipid profiles, and gene expression. Results. Our results support our hypothesis that serum stimulates the differentiation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This serum-induced effect is associated with a significant increase in the expression of genes linked to cell differentiation, epithelium development, the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, and lysosomes, and a significant decrease in gene activity related to the cell cycle, mitochondria, ribosomes, and translation. These cellular responses are accompanied by an accumulation of lipids within lysosomes, as well as alterations in the fatty acid content of polar and nonpolar lipids. Of particular importance, our results show that the molecular and biochemical changes of immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells during differentiation are analogous to those of primary cells. Conclusions. Overall, our findings indicate that immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells may serve as an ideal preclinical model to identify factors that control cellular differentiation in the meibomian gland. PMID:24867579

  14. Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

  15. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  16. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  17. SWCNTs induced autophagic cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being actively introduced in electronics, computer science, aerospace, and other industries. Thus, the urgent need for toxicological studies on CNTs is mounting. In this study, we investigated the alterations in cellular response with morphological changes induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. At 24h after exposure, SWCNTs rapidly decreased ATP production and cell viability as well a slight increase in the number of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases. In addition, SWCNTs increased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, but not SOD-2, and the number of cells generating ROS. The concentration of Cu and Zn ions also increased in a dose-dependent manner in cells exposed to SWCNTs. SWCNTs significantly enhanced the release of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and up-regulated the expression of chemokine- and cytokine-related genes. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy-related genes, especially the DRAM1 gene, and the autophagosome formation-related proteins, were clearly up-regulated together with an increase of autophagosome-like vacuoles. Based on these results, we suggest that SWCNTs induce autophagic cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic damage in human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:24389112

  18. The Contribution of the Airway Epithelial Cell to Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Stanke, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    In the context of cystic fibrosis, the epithelial cell has been characterized in terms of its ion transport capabilities. The ability of an epithelial cell to initiate CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport has been recognized early as a means to regulate the thickness of the epithelial lining fluid and recently as a means to regulate the pH, thereby determining critically whether or not host defense proteins such as mucins are able to fold appropriately. This review describes how the epithelial cell senses the presence of pathogens and inflammatory conditions, which, in turn, facilitates the activation of CFTR and thus directly promotes pathogens clearance and innate immune defense on the surface of the epithelial cell. This paper summarizes functional data that describes the effect of cytokines, chemokines, infectious agents, and inflammatory conditions on the ion transport properties of the epithelial cell and relates these key properties to the molecular pathology of cystic fibrosis. Recent findings on the role of cystic fibrosis modifier genes that underscore the role of the epithelial ion transport in host defense and inflammation are discussed. PMID:26185361

  19. Characterization of primary cultures of adult human epididymis epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Leir, Shih-Hsing; Browne, James A.; Eggener, Scott E.; Harris, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish cultures of epithelial cells from all regions of the human epididymis to provide reagents for molecular approaches to functional studies of this epithelium. Design Experimental laboratory study. Setting University research institute. Patient(s) Epididymis from seven patients undergoing orchiectomy for suspected testicular cancer without epididymal involvement. Intervention(s) Human epididymis epithelial cells harvested from adult epididymis tissue. Main Outcome Measure(s) Establishment of a robust culture protocol for adult human epididymal epithelial cells. Result(s) Cultures of caput, corpus, and cauda epithelial cells were established from epididymis tissue of seven donors. Cells were passaged up to eight times and maintained differentiation markers. They were also cryopreserved and recovered successfully. Androgen receptor, clusterin, and cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 were expressed in cultured cells, as shown by means of immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The distribution of other epididymis markers was also shown by means of qRT-PCR. Cultures developed transepithelial resistance (TER), which was androgen responsive in the caput but androgen insensitive in the corpus and cauda, where unstimulated TER values were much higher. Conclusion(s) The results demonstrate a robust in vitro culture system for differentiated epithelial cell types in the caput, corpus, and cauda of the human epididymis. These cells will be a valuable resource for molecular analysis of epididymis epithelial function, which has a pivotal role in male fertility. PMID:25542823

  20. Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

  1. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells. However, only virions that passed through the fetal cells – and not those that passed through the adult cells – remained infectious. Analysis of expression of anti-HIV innate proteins beta-defensins 2 and 3, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in adult, fetal, and infant oral epithelia showed that their expression is predominantly in the adult oral epithelium. Retention of HIV infectivity after transmigration correlated inversely with the expression of these innate proteins. Inactivation of innate proteins in adult oral keratinocytes restored HIV infectivity. These data suggest that high-level innate protein expression may contribute to the resistance of the adult oral epithelium to HIV transmission. PMID:21056450

  2. Stochastic Terminal Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Grosshans, Joerg; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We found that the constriction of epithelial cell contacts during intercalation in germ band extension in Drosophila embryos follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. The mean contact length < L > follows < L > (t) ~(T - t) α , where T is the finite collapse time; the time dependent variance of contact length is proportional to the square of the mean; finally the time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations suggest that the dynamics of contact collapse can be captured by a stochastic differential equation analytically tractable in small noise approximation. Here, we present such a model, providing an effective description of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. All model parameters are fixed by measurements of time dependent mean and variance of contact lengths. The model predicts the contact length covariance function that we obtain in closed form. The contact length covariance function closely matches experimental observations suggesting that the model well captures the dynamics of contact collapse.

  3. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  4. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line. PMID:20400167

  5. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kenneth B.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2013-01-01

    Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3 × 106 Da per monomer) whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ∼1 μm in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, cysteine string protein, heat shock protein 70, and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the generation of DAG and of IP3 that releases calcium from apical ER. Stimulated secretion requires activation of the low affinity calcium sensor Synaptotagmin-2, while a corresponding high affinity calcium sensor in basal secretion is not known. The core exocytic machinery is comprised of the SNARE proteins VAMP8, SNAP23, and an unknown Syntaxin protein, together with the scaffolding protein Munc18b. Common and distinct features of this exocytic system in comparison to neuroendocrine cells and neurons are highlighted. PMID:24065956

  6. Effect of freezing on lens epithelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Y; Hara, T; Hara, T; Iwata, S

    1988-05-01

    The effect of freezing on the growth of rat lens epithelial cells was studied in vitro. We found that 80% of the lens epithelial cells died after freezing at -45 degrees C for two hours and that the surviving cells could grow with the addition of growth factors or when placed on a sheet of type 4 collagen, but not when placed on a plain plastic culture dish. These results suggest that the surviving cells are at the Go phase of the cell cycle and that type 4 collagen or growth factors can initiate cell division. PMID:3294380

  7. Salmonella typhi stimulation of human intestinal epithelial cells induces secretion of epithelial cell-derived interleukin-6.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, D L; O'Neill, B L; Metcalf, E S

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been shown to be associated with both systemic and tissue-specific responses within the host. Moreover, IL-6 is produced by both lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells and has been identified as a growth-inducing, growth-inhibiting, and differentiation-inducing factor for these cells. Recent studies of uropathogenic and upper respiratory pathogens have suggested that epithelial cell-derived IL-6 plays a role in mucosal host-parasite interactions. Since many mucosal enteric pathogens enter the host through the epithelial cells of the distal small intestine, a role for intestinal epithelial cell-derived IL-6 in the initial interaction between bacteria and host might also be predicted. However, no studies to date have determined whether the interaction of any bacteria with the epithelial cells that line the small intestine of the host can induce IL-6. To address this issue, we have established an in vitro model to evaluate the capacity of the gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhi to induce IL-6 in the small intestine epithelial cell line Int407 and in other intestinal epithelial cell lines. The results demonstrate that both wild-type and live, attenuated S. typhi vaccine strains induce small and large intestine epithelial cells to secrete IL-6, and kinetic analysis suggests that IL-6 may be one of the earliest responses following adherence and invasion of enteric organisms. Thus, these studies suggest a physiologic role for epithelial cell-derived IL-6 in the initial interactions between host and bacterium in the small intestine. PMID:9009288

  8. ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

  9. Fully interlocking: a story of teamwork among breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Caroline M; Joshi, Purna A; Khokha, Rama

    2014-01-27

    In this issue of Developmental Cell, Forster etal. (2014) show that the basal myoepithelial cell layer directs the final maturation of the adjacent luminal cell sheet during pregnancy. Do all mammary epithelial cells both give and take instructions from others to create the milk production machinery? PMID:24480641

  10. Left-right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-12-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left-right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left-right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left-right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction.

  11. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    PubMed Central

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:24009546

  12. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  13. Control of Francisella tularensis Intracellular Growth by Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Savannah; Takeda, Kazuyo; Stark, Felicity; Meierovics, Anda I.; Yabe, Idalia; Cowley, Siobhan C.

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of F. tularensis is often associated with its ability to grow in macrophages, although recent studies show that Francisella proliferates in multiple host cell types, including pulmonary epithelial cells. Thus far little is known about the requirements for killing of F. tularensis in the non-macrophage host cell types that support replication of this organism. Here we sought to address this question through the use of a murine lung epithelial cell line (TC-1 cells). Our data show that combinations of the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-17A activated murine pulmonary epithelial cells to inhibit the intracellular growth of the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) and the highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strain. Although paired combinations of IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-17A all significantly controlled LVS growth, simultaneous treatment with all three cytokines had the greatest effect on LVS growth inhibition. In contrast, Schu S4 was more resistant to cytokine-induced growth effects, exhibiting significant growth inhibition only in response to all three cytokines. Since one of the main antimicrobial mechanisms of activated macrophages is the release of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) via the activity of iNOS, we investigated the role of RNI and iNOS in Francisella growth control by pulmonary epithelial cells. NOS2 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in infected, cytokine-treated pulmonary epithelial cells in a manner that correlated with LVS and Schu S4 growth control. Treatment of LVS-infected cells with an iNOS inhibitor significantly reversed LVS killing in cytokine-treated cultures. Further, we found that mouse pulmonary epithelial cells produced iNOS during in vivo respiratory LVS infection. Overall, these data demonstrate that lung epithelial cells produce iNOS both in vitro and in vivo, and can inhibit Francisella intracellular growth via reactive nitrogen intermediates. PMID:26379269

  14. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with {sup 3}H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-{beta} did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 {times} 10{sup 6} sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined.

  15. Oral epithelial cells and their interactions with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Moyes, D L; Islam, A; Kohli, A; Naglik, J R

    2016-04-01

    As the AIDS pandemic has continued, our understanding of the events that occur during the entry and infection of conventional, susceptible cells has increased dramatically, leading to the development of control therapies for HIV-infected individuals. However, an ongoing hole in our understanding is how HIV crosses the mucosal barriers to gain access to permissive cells, despite how important this information would be in developing successful vaccines and other preventative measures such as topical anti-HIV microbicides. In particular, our knowledge of the role that epithelial cells of the mucosal surfaces play in infection - both during early phases and throughout the life of an infected individual, is currently hazy at best. However, several studies in recent years suggest that HIV can bind to and traverse these mucosal epithelial cells, providing a reservoir of infection that can subsequently infect underlying permissive cells. Despite this interaction with epithelial cells, evidence suggests HIV-1 does not productively infect these cells, although they are capable of transferring surface-bound and transcytosed virus to other, permissive cells. Further, there appear to be key differences between adult and infant epithelial cells in the degree to which HIV can transcytose and infect the epithelium. Thus, it is clear that, whilst not primary targets for infection and virus replication, epithelial cells play an important role in the infection cycle and improving our understanding of their interactions with HIV could potentially provide key insights necessary to develop effective preventative therapies. PMID:26879550

  16. Inhibition of corneal epithelial cell migration by cadmium and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Osgood, T.B. Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee )

    1991-02-01

    In a previous comparative study of corneal healing in fish, the authors observed that corneal epithelial healing occurs very rapidly in vivo in the marine teleost Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus (longhorn sculpin) with a 6-mm diameter wound on the mammalian cornea. This rapid healing which permits prompt restoration of the epithelial barrier is apparently an adaptation to the large ionic and osmotic gradients between the environment and the intraocular fluids of the fish. These observations suggested that epithelial healing in the sculpin cornea might be useful model in aquatic biomedical toxicology if an in vitro method for measurement of healing rates could be developed. In this report the authors demonstrate that sculpin eyes maintained in short-term organ culture have a rapid corneal epithelial healing response and that this model can be used to demonstrate the toxic effects of heavy metals on epithelial cell migration.

  17. Rat glomerular epithelial cells in culture. Parietal or visceral epithelial origin

    SciTech Connect

    Norgaard, J.O.

    1987-09-01

    Isolated glomeruli from rats were explanted under standard culture conditions and outgrowths were studied by light and electron microscopy in order to identify the cells. Rat glomerular samples contained 20 to 30% structurally well-preserved encapsulated glomeruli which had a large rate of attachment to the substrate and very constantly gave rise to cellular outgrowth. In order to label cells from which outgrowth originated the glomerular incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine was studied in the preattachment phase. By light and electron microscope autoradiograph it was demonstrated that label was located only over visceral and parietal epithelial cells during the first 3 days of culture. Incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine was seen in mesangial cells after 5 days, i.e., after the glomeruli had attached to the culture vessels and the initial outgrowth had appeared. Consequently the first cells to grow out were of epithelial origin. Glomeruli were then incubated with (/sup 3/H)thymidine for the first 2 1/2 days of culture in order to label the epithelial cells, then were allowed to attach to the substrate and induce cell outgrowth. By light microscope autoradiography performed with the outgrowths in situ two types of cells with labeled nuclei were seen: (a) a small, polyhedral ciliated cell which grew in colonies where the cells were joined by junctional complexes (type I), and (b) a second very large, often multinucleated cell (type II). Based on the structural resemblance with their counterparts in situ and on comparisons with positively identified visceral epithelial cells in outgrowths from other species it is suggested that type I cells are derived from the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule and type II cells from the visceral epithelium.

  18. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. Βeta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a Βeta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  19. The Epithelial Cell in Lung Health and Emphysema Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Becky A.; Lemaître, Vincent; Powell, Charles A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of the irreversible lung disease emphysema. Historically, inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils have been studied for their role in emphysema pathology. However, recent studies indicate that the lung epithelium is an active participant in emphysema pathogenesis and plays a critical role in the lung’s response to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke increases protease production and alters cytokine expression in isolated epithelial cells, suggesting that these cells respond potently even in the absence of a complete inflammatory program. Tobacco smoke also acts as an immunosuppressant, reducing the defense function of airway epithelial cells and enhancing colonization of the lower airways. Thus, the paradigm that emphysema is strictly an inflammatory-cell based disease is shifting to consider the involvement of resident epithelial cells. Here we review the role of epithelial cells in lung development and emphysema. To better understand tobacco-epithelial interactions we performed microarray analyses of RNA from human airway epithelial cells exposed to smoke extract for 24 hours. These studies identified differential regulation of 425 genes involved in diverse biological processes, such as apoptosis, immune function, cell cycle, signal transduction, proliferation, and antioxidants. Some of these genes, including VEGF, glutathione peroxidase, IL-13 receptor, and cytochrome P450, have been previously reported to be altered in the lungs of smokers. Others, such as pirin, cathepsin L, STAT1, and BMP2, are shown here for the first time to have a potential role in smoke-associated injury. These data broaden our understanding of the importance of epithelial cells in lung health and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. PMID:19662102

  20. DA-6034 Induces [Ca2+]i Increase in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, HyeWon; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo

    2014-01-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca2+ signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca2+]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca2+ entry from extracellular and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca2+ stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling via extracellular Ca2+ entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores in epithelial cells. PMID:24757369

  1. Phototoxic aptamers selectively enter and kill epithelial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cátia S. M.; Cheung, Melissa C.; Missailidis, Sotiris; Bisland, Stuart; Gariépy, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The majority of cancers arise from malignant epithelial cells. We report the design of synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are only internalized by epithelial cancer cells and can be precisely activated by light to kill such cells. Specifically, phototoxic DNA aptamers were selected to bind to unique short O-glycan-peptide signatures on the surface of breast, colon, lung, ovarian and pancreatic cancer cells. These surface antigens are not present on normal epithelial cells but are internalized and routed through endosomal and Golgi compartments by cancer cells, thus providing a focused mechanism for their intracellular delivery. When modified at their 5′ end with the photodynamic therapy agent chlorin e6 and delivered to epithelial cancer cells, these aptamers exhibited a remarkable enhancement (>500-fold increase) in toxicity upon light activation, compared to the drug alone and were not cytotoxic towards cell types lacking such O-glycan-peptide markers. Our findings suggest that these synthetic oligonucleotide aptamers can serve as delivery vehicles in precisely routing cytotoxic cargoes to and into epithelial cancer cells. PMID:19103663

  2. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON ; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  3. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  4. Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients†

    PubMed Central

    Scherber, Cally; Aranyosi, Alexander J.; Kulemann, Birte; Thayer, Sarah P.; Toner, Mehmet; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epithelial cells often migrate away from the primary tumor to invade into the surrounding tissues. Their migration is commonly assumed to be directed by pre-existent spatial gradients of chemokines and growth factors in the target tissues. Unexpectedly however, we found that the guided migration of epithelial cells is possible in vitro in the absence of pre-existent chemical gradients. We observed that both normal and cancer epithelial cells can migrate persistently and reach the exit along the shortest path from microscopic mazes filled with uniform concentrations of media. Using microscale engineering techniques and biophysical models, we uncovered a self-guidance strategy during which epithelial cells generate their own guiding cues under conditions of biochemical confinement. The self-guidance strategy depends on the balance between three interdependent processes: epidermal growth factor (EGF) uptake by the cells (U), the restricted transport of EGF through the structured microenvironment (T), and cell chemotaxis toward the resultant EGF gradients (C). The UTC self-guidance strategy can be perturbed by inhibition of signalling through EGF-receptors and appears to be independent from chemokine signalling. Better understanding of the UTC self-guidance strategy could eventually help devise new ways for modulating epithelial cell migration and delaying cancer cell invasion or accelerating wound healing. PMID:22314635

  5. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bergstralh, Dan T; Lovegrove, Holly E; St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelium; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions. PMID:26414404

  6. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  7. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  8. Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, DM; Cheng, D; Schafenacker, AM; Paik, DY; Goldstein, AS; Witte, ON; Jaroszewicz, A; Pellegrini, M; Memarzadeh, S

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM+CD44+ITGA6hiThy1−PECAM1−PTPRC−Ter119−, comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multi-lineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Co-administration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

  9. Cholera toxin stimulation of human mammary epithelial cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, M.R.

    1982-06-01

    Addition of cholera toxin to human mammary epithelial cultures derived from reduction mammoplasties and primary carcinomas greatly stimulated cell growth and increased the number of times the cells could be successfully subcultured. Other agents known to increase intracellular cAMP levels were also growth stimulatory. The increased growth potential conferred by cholera toxin enhances the usefulness of this cell culture system.

  10. Mechanobiology in Lung Epithelial Cells: Measurements, Perturbations, and Responses

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Christopher M.; Roan, Esra; Navajas, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells of the lung are located at the interface between the environment and the organism and serve many important functions including barrier protection, fluid balance, clearance of particulate, initiation of immune responses, mucus and surfactant production, and repair following injury. Because of the complex structure of the lung and its cyclic deformation during the respiratory cycle, epithelial cells are exposed to continuously varying levels of mechanical stresses. While normal lung function is maintained under these conditions, changes in mechanical stresses can have profound effects on the function of epithelial cells and therefore the function of the organ. In this review, we will describe the types of stresses and strains in the lungs, how these are transmitted, and how these may vary in human disease or animal models. Many approaches have been developed to better understand how cells sense and respond to mechanical stresses, and we will discuss these approaches and how they have been used to study lung epithelial cells in culture. Understanding how cells sense and respond to changes in mechanical stresses will contribute to our understanding of the role of lung epithelial cells during normal function and development and how their function may change in diseases such as acute lung injury, asthma, emphysema, and fibrosis. PMID:23728969

  11. FOXM1 confers to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wen-Tai; Huang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Huei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chin; Chang, Chang-Hwa; Huang, Soon-Cen; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs substantially reduces survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a stem cell phenotype in ovarian cancer cells. Chemoresistance was associated with the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers, EMT-related transcription factors, and cancer stem cell markers, which enhanced invasion and sphere formation ability. Overexpression of FOXM1 increased cisplatin-resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-sensitive and low FOXM1-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, depletion of FOXM1 via RNA interference reduced cisplatin resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-resistant and high FOXM1-expressing cells. Overexpression of FOXM1 also increased the expression, nuclear accumulation, and activity of β-CATENIN in chemoresistant cells, whereas downregulation of FOXM1 suppressed these events. The combination of cisplatin and the FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton inhibited the expression of stem cell markers in chemoresistant cells and subcutaneous ovarian tumor growth in mouse xenografts. In an analysis of 106 ovarian cancer patients, high FOXM1 levels in tumors were associated with cancer progression and short progression-free intervals. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of FOXM1 in chemoresistance and suggest that FOXM1 inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25537512

  12. Epithelial cell detachment by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cultures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lijia; van Loveren, Cor; Ling, Junqi; Wei, Xi; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

    2016-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is present as a biofilm at the sites of periodontal infections. The detachment of gingival epithelial cells induced by P. gingivalis biofilms was examined using planktonic cultures as a comparison. Exponentially grown planktonic cultures or 40-h biofilms were co-incubated with epithelial cells in a 24-well plate for 4 h. Epithelial cell detachment was assessed using imaging. The activity of arginine-gingipain (Rgp) and gene expression profiles of P. gingivalis cultures were examined using a gingipain assay and quantitative PCR, respectively. P. gingivalis biofilms induced significantly higher cell detachment and displayed higher Rgp activity compared to the planktonic cultures. The genes involved in gingipain post-translational modification, but not rgp genes, were significantly up-regulated in P. gingivalis biofilms. The results underline the importance of including biofilms in the study of bacterial and host cell interactions. PMID:26963862

  13. Lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling limits mucosal damage through driving IL-23 production by epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Macho-Fernandez, Elise; Koroleva, Ekaterina P.; Spencer, Cody M.; Tighe, Michael; Torrado, Egidio; Cooper, Andrea M.; Fu, Yang-Xin; Tumanov, Alexei V.

    2015-01-01

    The immune mechanisms regulating epithelial cell repair after injury remain poorly defined. We demonstrate here that lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells promotes self-repair after mucosal damage. Using a conditional gene-targeted approach, we demonstrate that LTβR signaling in intestinal epithelial cells is essential for epithelial IL-23 production and protection against epithelial injury. We further show that epithelial-derived IL-23 promotes mucosal wound healing by inducing the IL-22-mediated proliferation and survival of epithelial cells and mucus production. Additionally, we identified CD4−CCR6+T-bet−RORγt+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells as the main producers of protective IL-22 after epithelial damage. Thus, our results reveal a novel role for LTβR signaling in epithelial cells in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis to limit mucosal damage. PMID:25183367

  14. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  15. Serratia marcescens internalization and replication in human bladder epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Schwarz, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Background Serratia marcescens, a frequent agent of catheterization-associated bacteriuria, strongly adheres to human bladder epithelial cells in culture. The epithelium normally provides a barrier between lumal organisms and the interstitium; the tight adhesion of bacteria to the epithelial cells can lead to internalization and subsequent lysis. However, internalisation was not shown yet for S. marcescens strains. Methods Elektronmicroscopy and the common gentamycin protection assay was used to assess intracellular bacteria. Via site directed mutagenesis, an hemolytic negative isogenic Serratia strain was generated to point out the importance of hemolysin production. Results We identified an important bacterial factor mediating the internalization of S. marcescens, and lysis of epithelial cells, as the secreted cytolysin ShlA. Microtubule filaments and actin filaments were shown to be involved in internalization. However, cytolysis of eukaryotic cells by ShlA was an interfering factor, and therefore hemolytic-negative mutants were used in subsequent experiments. Isogenic hemolysin-negative mutant strains were still adhesive, but were no longer cytotoxic, did not disrupt the cell culture monolayer, and were no longer internalized by HEp-2 and RT112 bladder epithelial cells under the conditions used for the wild-type strain. After wild-type S. marcescens became intracellular, the infected epithelial cells were lysed by extended vacuolation induced by ShlA. In late stages of vacuolation, highly motile S. marcescens cells were observed in the vacuoles. S. marcescens was also able to replicate in cultured HEp-2 cells, and replication was not dependent on hemolysin production. Conclusion The results reported here showed that the pore-forming toxin ShlA triggers microtubule-dependent invasion and is the main factor inducing lysis of the epithelial cells to release the bacteria, and therefore plays a major role in the development of S. marcescens infections. PMID:15189566

  16. Porphyromonas gingivalis invades oral epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sandros, J; Papapanou, P; Dahlén, G

    1993-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the adhesive and invasive potential of a number of P. gingivalis strains, in an in vitro system utilizing cultures of human oral epithelial cells (KB cell line, ATCC CCL 17). P. gingivalis strains W50 and FDC 381 (laboratory strains) and OMGS 1738, 1743 and 1439 (clinical isolates) as well as E. coli strain HB 101 (non-adhering, non-invasive control) were used. Adherence was assessed by means of scintillation counting and light microscopy, after incubation of radiolabelled bacteria with epithelial cells. In the invasion assay, monolayers were infected with the P. gingivalis and E. coli strains and further incubated with an antibiotic mixture (metronidazole 0.1 mg/ml and gentamicin 0.5 mg/ml). Invasion was evaluated by (i) assessing presence of bacteria surviving the antibiotic treatment, and (ii) electron microscopy. All P. gingivalis strains adhered to and entered into the oral epithelial cells. After 3 hours of incubation, bacteria were frequently identified intracellularly by means of electron microscopy. The cellular membranes, encapsulating the microorganisms in early stages of the invasive process, appeared later to disintegrate. The presence of coated pits on the epithelial cell surfaces suggested that internalization of P. gingivalis was associated with receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). Formation of outer membrane vesicles (blebs) by intracellular bacteria indicated that internalized P. gingivalis was able to retain its viability. E. coli strain HB 101 neither adhered to nor invaded epithelial cells. PMID:8388449

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis Fimbriae Bind to Cytokeratin of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Sharma, Ashu; Genco, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    The adherence of Porphyromonas gingivalis to host cells is likely a prerequisite step in the pathogenesis of P. gingivalis-induced periodontal disease. P. gingivalis binds to and invades epithelial cells, and fimbriae are shown to be involved in this process. Little is known regarding epithelial receptor(s) involved in binding of P. gingivalis fimbriae. Using an overlay assay with purified P. gingivalis fimbriae as a probe, two major epithelial cell proteins with masses of 50 and 40 kDa were identified by immunoblotting with fimbria-specific antibodies. Iodinated purified fimbriae also bound to the same two epithelial cell proteins. An affinity chromatography technique was utilized to isolate and purify the epithelial components to which P. gingivalis fimbriae bind. Purified fimbriae were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B, and the solubilized epithelial cell extract proteins bound to the immobilized fimbriae were isolated from the column. A major 50-kDa component and a minor 40-kDa component were purified and could be digested with trypsin, suggesting that they were proteins. These affinity-eluted 50- and 40-kDa proteins were then subjected to amino-terminal sequencing, and no sequence could be determined, suggesting that these proteins have blocked amino-terminal residues. CNBr digestion of the 50-kDa component resulted in an internal sequence homologous to that of Keratin I molecules. Further evidence that P. gingivalis fimbriae bind to cytokeratin molecule(s) comes from studies showing that multicytokeratin rabbit polyclonal antibodies cross-react with the affinity-purified 50-kDa epithelial cell surface component. Also, binding of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae to epithelial components can be inhibited in an overlay assay by multicytokeratin rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Furthermore, we showed that biotinylated purified fimbriae bind to purified human epidermal keratin in an overlay assay. These studies suggest that the surface-accessible epithelial cytokeratins may act as receptor(s) for P. gingivalis fimbriae. We hypothesize that adherence of P. gingivalis fimbriae to cytokeratin may be important for colonization of oral mucous membranes and possibly also for activation of epithelial cells. PMID:11748168

  18. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  19. The mesenchymal substrate influences the epithelial phenotype in a three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Merne, Marina; Syrjänen, Stina

    2003-09-01

    Cell-matrix interactions are thought to influence epithelial structure, growth, and differentiation. Three-dimensional cell cultures were used to study the effects of the composition of the dermal equivalent on the morphology of epithelium grown from HaCaT skin keratinocytes. Three commercial preparations, a basement membrane preparation from a tumor (matrix 1), two preparations consisting of collagen type I and III (matrix 3 and 4) and a noncommercial preparation containing collagen type I (matrix 2) were investigated. The effects of fibroblasts of different origin (vaginal mucosa, oral buccal mucosa, and skin) were investigated in connection with matrix 4. The histomorphology and expression of the proteins PCNA, Ki-67, p53, p21, pankeratin, involucrin, cytokeratin 10 (Ck10), Ck17, Ck19 and collagen type IV were evaluated. Three-dimensional cultures of HaCaT cells gave rise to an epithelium with an immature and hyperproliferative character, showing active proliferation with intense PCNA staining. Both matrix 1 and matrix 2 resulted in an epithelium with budding into the matrix and some degree of layering. These epithelia showed only scattered Ck17 and Ck19 expression but a low terminal differentiation potential as indicated by scattered Ck10 and involucrin staining. The epithelia of cocultures with matrices 3 and 4 were positive for Ck17 and Ck19. However, the epithelium on matrix 3 showed strong expression of the terminal differentiation marker Ck10 and involucrin. This methodological study provides evidence of the importance of standardization of the composition of the matrix to avoid confounding effects on epithelial morphology and protein expression in studies using a three-dimensional epithelial culture model. PMID:12898149

  20. Establishment and characterization of immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaixuan; Koike, Chika; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Fathy, Moustafa; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Saito, Shigeru; Nikaido, Toshio

    2013-02-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEs) have a low immunogenic profile and possess potent immunosuppressive properties. HAEs also have several characteristics similar to stem cells, and they are discarded after parturition. Thus, they could potentially be used in cell therapy with fewer ethical problems. HAEs have a short life, so our aim is to establish and characterize immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells (iHAEs). HAEs were introduced with viral oncogenes E6/E7 and with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to create iHAEs. These iHAEs have proliferated around 200 population doublings (PDs) for at least 12 months. High expression of stem cell markers (Oct 3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4) and epithelial markers (CK5, CK18) were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These iHAEs were expanded in ultra-low-attachment dishes to form spheroids similarly to epithelial stem/precursor cells. High expression of mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) and somatic (CD24, CD29, CD271, Nestin) stem cell markers was detected by flow cytometry. The iHAEs showed adipogenic, osteogenic, neuronal, and cardiac differentiation abilities. In conclusion, the immortalization of HAEs with the characteristics of stem cells has been established, allowing these iHAEs to become useful for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:23298399

  1. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixuan; Koike, Chika; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Fathy, Moustafa; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Saito, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEs) have a low immunogenic profile and possess potent immunosuppressive properties. HAEs also have several characteristics similar to stem cells, and they are discarded after parturition. Thus, they could potentially be used in cell therapy with fewer ethical problems. HAEs have a short life, so our aim is to establish and characterize immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells (iHAEs). HAEs were introduced with viral oncogenes E6/E7 and with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to create iHAEs. These iHAEs have proliferated around 200 population doublings (PDs) for at least 12 months. High expression of stem cell markers (Oct 3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4) and epithelial markers (CK5, CK18) were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These iHAEs were expanded in ultra-low-attachment dishes to form spheroids similarly to epithelial stem/precursor cells. High expression of mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) and somatic (CD24, CD29, CD271, Nestin) stem cell markers was detected by flow cytometry. The iHAEs showed adipogenic, osteogenic, neuronal, and cardiac differentiation abilities. In conclusion, the immortalization of HAEs with the characteristics of stem cells has been established, allowing these iHAEs to become useful for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:23298399

  2. Extracellular matrix proteins regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qike K.; Lee, KangAe; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse mammary epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) upon treatment with matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3). In rigid microenvironments, MMP3 upregulates expression of Rac1b, which translocates to the cell membrane to promote induction of reactive oxygen species and EMT. Here we examine the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in this process. Our data show that the basement membrane protein laminin suppresses the EMT response in MMP3-treated cells, whereas fibronectin promotes EMT. These ECM proteins regulate EMT via interactions with their specific integrin receptors. α6-integrin sequesters Rac1b from the membrane and is required for inhibition of EMT by laminin. In contrast, α5-integrin maintains Rac1b at the membrane and is required for the promotion of EMT by fibronectin. Understanding the regulatory role of the ECM will provide insight into mechanisms underlying normal and pathological development of the mammary gland. PMID:23660532

  3. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers

    PubMed Central

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium1,2. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelia; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside of the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells appears to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelia layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions. PMID:26414404

  4. Transcriptional PROFILING OF MUCOCILIARY DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in the appropriate medium, primary human airway epithelial cells form a polarized, pseudostratified epithelium composed of ciliated and mucus-secreting cells. This culture system provides a useful tool for the in vitro study of...

  5. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  6. Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Kinnin, Leslie A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

  7. [Isolation, purification and identification of epithelial cells derived from fetal islet-like cell clusters].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yun; Yang, Chun-Rong; Xiao, Mei; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this article is to provide methods for the isolation and identification of pancreatic stem cells and cell source for research and therapy of diabetes. ICCs were isolated by collagenase IV digesting and then cultured; epithelial cells were purified from monolayer cultured ICCs. The growth curve of the epithelial cells was measured by MTT. The expression of molecular markers in the cells was identified by immunohistochemical staining. The surface markers in the epithelial cells were analyzed by FACS. Epithelial cells were purified from isolated human fetal ICCs and passaged 40 times, and 10(6) - 10(8) cells were cryopreservated per passage. The growth curve demonstrated that the epithelial cells proliferated rapidly. The epithelial cells expressed PDX-1, PCNA, CK-7, CK-19, Nestin, Glut2, and Vimentin, but Insulin was undetected. The cells expressed CD29, CD44, and CD166, but did not express CD11a, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD90, CD105, and CD117. Taken together, these results indicate that self-renewable epithelial cells can be isolated and purified from human fetal pancreas. These also show that the epithelial cells originate from ducts and have the characteristics of pancreatic stem cells. PMID:17460896

  8. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the LESC hypothesis. PMID:25815115

  9. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation regulates necroptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Koo, Michael Jakun; Rooney, Kristen T; Choi, Mary E; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K; Moon, Jong-Seok

    2015-08-28

    Cellular metabolism can impact cell life or death outcomes. While metabolic dysfunction has been linked to cell death, the mechanisms by which metabolic dysfunction regulates the cell death mode called necroptosis remain unclear. Our study demonstrates that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activates programmed necrotic cell death (necroptosis) in human lung epithelial cells. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis induced the phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and necroptotic cell death. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting from impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS, regulates necroptotic cell death. These results suggest that impaired mitochondrial OXPHOS contributes to necroptosis in human lung epithelial cells. PMID:26187663

  10. [The role of the epithelial cell in asthma].

    PubMed

    Mota Pinto, Anabela; Todo-Bom, Ana

    2009-01-01

    It is done a review of the intervention of the epithelial bronchial cell in the pathophysiology of asthma. The respiratory epithelium acts as a physical barrier that separates the external environment from the pulmonary internal environment. It controls the intercellular and trans -cellular permeability and this way the accessibility of the inhaled pathogens to the antigen presenting cells involved in the immuno -inflammatory response. Epithelial cells connected by tight junctions contribute to the barrier function of the airways. They express a poliovirus receiver - related protein (PRR), toll like receptors (TLRs) and protease- -activated receptors (PARs), which recognize bacterial agents and allergens. Its dysfunction turns them into important sources of inflammatory mediators. The bidirectional interaction between the epithelium and other bronchial wall elements with inhaled particles originates a structure with its own identity, the designated EMTU - Epithelial Mesenchymal Trophic Unit. These observations support a central role for the epithelial cell in chronic inflammation and in the remodelling of the asthmatic process. Infectious diseases and environmental stress can activate different cell receptors and signalling pathways that induce changes in the cell surface modifying their response to future stimulations, namely to other infectious aggressions. The bronchial epithelium has barrier functions with selective permeability; it has metabolic activity producing cytokines and chemokines stimulating the cell's recruitment and activation, increasing the bronchial reactivity and the remodelling of the airways. PMID:19401795

  11. Isolation and culture of bovine mammary epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Xia; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Li-Bing; Sun, Jian-Hong; Yin, Bao-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Bovine mammary epithelial stem cells (MESCs) are very important in agricultural production and bioengineering. In the present study, we compared different isolation and culture methods for MESCs and observed their growth and differentiation characteristics. MESCs have an extremely weak proliferation capacity, and it is very difficult to obtain and prolong subculture of a bovine mammary epithelial stem cell line. We obtained some multipotent MESC aggregates that looked like spherical colonies. These colonies were only derived from suspension culture and were induced to differentiate into epithelial-like cells, myoepithelial-like cells and secretory cells and to establish a ductal-like structure. In contrast, MESCs cultured in adherent culture displayed low morphogenetic competence and only differentiated into epithelial-like cells. MESCs are often identified by testing their differentiation in vivo; however, herein, we have demonstrated the in vitro differentiation potential of bovine MESCs. In our study, beta 1-integrin and alpha 6-integrin which are expressed by human epidermal stem cells, were found in bovine, which shows that bovine MESCs share the same molecular signature as human MESCs. PMID:19194071

  12. Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Contreras, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite of about 10 trillion human-self cells plus non-self cells from autochthonous or indigenous microbes that outnumber human cells 10:1. Hence, the homeostasis of epithelial cells that line mucosal surfaces relies on a fine-tuned immune system that patrols the boundaries between human and microbial cells. In the case of the intestine, the epithelial layer is composed of at least six epithelial cell lineages that act as a physiological barrier in addition to aiding digestion and the absorption of nutrients, water and electrolytes. In this review, we highlight the immense role of the intestinal epithelium in coordinating the mucosal innate immune response. PMID:21104188

  13. Early Response of Mucosal Epithelial Cells During Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chia-Hsin; Chockalingam, Annapoorani; Leifer, Cynthia A.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune response of mucosal epithelial cells during pathogen invasion plays a central role in immune regulation in the gut. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a protozoan intracellular parasite that is usually transmitted through oral infection. Although much of the information on immunity to T. gondii has come from intraperitoneal infection models, more recent studies have revealed the importance of studying immunity following infection through the natural per-oral route. Oral infection studies have identified many of the key players in the intestinal response; however, they have relied on responses detected days to weeks following infection. Much less is known about how the gut epithelial layer senses and reacts during initial contact with the pathogen. Given the importance of epithelial cells during pathogen invasion, this study uses an in vitro approach to isolate the key players and examine the early response of intestinal epithelial cells during infection by T. gondii. We show that human intestinal epithelial cells infected with T. gondii elicit rapid MAPK phosphorylation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and secretion of interleukin (IL)-8. Both ERK1/2 activation and IL-8 secretion responses were shown to be MyD88 dependent and TLR2 was identified to be involved in the recognition of the parasite regardless of the parasite genotype. Furthermore, we were able to identify additional T. gondii-regulated genes in the infected cells using a pathway-focused array. Together, our findings suggest that intestinal epithelial cells were able to recognize T. gondii during infection, and the outcome is important for modulating intestinal immune responses. PMID:19917706

  14. Apical trafficking in epithelial cells: signals, clusters and motors

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Ora A.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Summary In the early days of epithelial cell biology, researchers working with kidney and/or intestinal epithelial cell lines and with hepatocytes described the biosynthetic and recycling routes followed by apical and basolateral plasma membrane (PM) proteins. They identified the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes as the compartments that carried out apical-basolateral sorting. They described complex apical sorting signals that promoted association with lipid rafts, and simpler basolateral sorting signals resembling clathrin-coated-pit endocytic motifs. They also noticed that different epithelial cell types routed their apical PM proteins very differently, using either a vectorial (direct) route or a transcytotic (indirect) route. Although these original observations have generally held up, recent studies have revealed interesting complexities in the routes taken by apically destined proteins and have extended our understanding of the machinery required to sustain these elaborate sorting pathways. Here, we critically review the current status of apical trafficking mechanisms and discuss a model in which clustering is required to recruit apical trafficking machineries. Uncovering the mechanisms responsible for polarized trafficking and their epithelial-specific variations will help understand how epithelial functional diversity is generated and the pathogenesis of many human diseases. PMID:19923269

  15. Sp3 regulates fas expression in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, H; Miranda, K; Fine, A

    1998-01-01

    By transducing an apoptotic signal in immune effector cells, Fas has been directly implicated in the control of immunological activity. Expression and functional results, however, have also suggested a role for Fas in regulating cell turnover in specific epithelial populations. To characterize factors responsible for Fas expression in epithelial cells, approximately 3 kb of the 5' flanking region of the mouse Fas gene was isolated. By rapid amplification of cDNA ends and primer extension, transcriptional start sites were identified within 50 bp upstream of the translation start site. Transient transfection of promoter-luciferase constructs in a mouse lung epithelial cell line, MLE-15, localized promoter activity to the first 77 bp of upstream sequence. By using a 60 bp DNA probe (-18 to -77) in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays, three shifted complexes were found. Incubation with excess cold Sp1 oligonucleotide or an anti-Sp3 antibody inhibited complex formation. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Sp1 site resulted in 60-70% loss of promoter activity. In Drosophila SL-2 cells, promoter activity was markedly increased by co-transfection of an Sp3 expression construct. These results show that the Sp3 protein is involved in regulating Fas gene expression in lung epithelial cells. PMID:9639581

  16. Keratins are novel markers of renal epithelial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Djudjaj, Sonja; Papasotiriou, Marios; Bülow, Roman D; Wagnerova, Alexandra; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Cohen, Clemens D; Strnad, Pavel; Goumenos, Dimitrios S; Floege, Jürgen; Boor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Keratins, the intermediate filaments of the epithelial cell cytoskeleton, are up-regulated and post-translationally modified in stress situations. Renal tubular epithelial cell stress is a common finding in progressive kidney diseases, but little is known about keratin expression and phosphorylation. Here, we comprehensively describe keratin expression in healthy and diseased kidneys. In healthy mice, the major renal keratins, K7, K8, K18, and K19, were expressed in the collecting ducts and K8, K18 in the glomerular parietal epithelial cells. Tubular expression of all 4 keratins increased by 20- to 40-fold in 5 different models of renal tubular injury as assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The up-regulation became significant early after disease induction, increased with disease progression, was found de novo in distal tubules and was accompanied by altered subcellular localization. Phosphorylation of K8 and K18 increased under stress. In humans, injured tubules also exhibited increased keratin expression. Urinary K18 was only detected in mice and patients with tubular cell injury. Keratins labeled glomerular parietal epithelial cells forming crescents in patients and animals. Thus, all 4 major renal keratins are significantly, early, and progressively up-regulated upon tubular injury regardless of the underlying disease and may be novel sensitive markers of renal tubular cell stress. PMID:26924053

  17. Apoptotic cell clearance by bronchial epithelial cells critically influences airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juncadella, Ignacio J.; Kadl, Alexandra; Sharma, Ashish K.; Shim, Yun M.; Hochreiter-Hufford, Amelia; Borish, Larry; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2013-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells can influence immune responses to airway allergens1,2. Airway epithelial cells also undergo apoptosis after encountering environmental allergens3; yet, relatively little is known about how these are cleared, and their effect on airway inflammation. Here we show that airway epithelial cells efficiently engulf apoptotic epithelial cells and secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines, dependent upon intracellular signalling by the small GTPase Rac1. Inducible deletion of Rac1 expression specifically in airway epithelial cells in a mouse model resulted in defective engulfment by epithelial cells and aberrant anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Intranasal priming and challenge of these mice with house dust mite extract or ovalbumin as allergens led to exacerbated inflammation, augmented Th2 cytokines and airway hyper-responsiveness, with decreased interleukin (IL)-10 in bronchial lavages. Rac1-deficient epithelial cells produced much higher IL-33 upon allergen or apoptotic cell encounter, with increased numbers of nuocyte-like cells1,4,5. Administration of exogenous IL-10 ‘rescued’ the airway inflammation phenotype in Rac1-deficient mice, with decreased IL-33. Collectively, these genetic and functional studies suggest a new role for Rac1-dependent engulfment by airway epithelial cells and in establishing the anti-inflammatory environment, and that defects in cell clearance in the airways could contribute to inflammatory responses towards common allergens. PMID:23235830

  18. High mobility group box 1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ching; Statt, Sarah; Wu, Reen; Chang, Hao-Teng; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Wang, Chien-Neng; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lee, Chen-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in bronchial remodeling and loss of lung function in chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Previous studies showed the involvement of the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathology of chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases. However, the role of HMGB1 in EMT of human airway epithelial cells is still unclear. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to show that HMGB1 treatment regulated EMT-related gene expression in human primary-airway epithelial cells. The top five upregulated genes were SNAI2, FGFBP1, VIM, SPARC (osteonectin), and SERPINE1, while the downregulated genes included OCLN, TJP1 (ZO-1), FZD7, CDH1 (E-cadherin), and LAMA5. We found that HMGB1 induced downregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1, and upregulation of vimentin mRNA transcription and protein translation in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, we observed that HMGB1 induced AKT phosphorylation, resulting in GSK3β inactivation, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin to induce EMT in human airway epithelial cells. Treatment with PI3K inhibitor (LY294006) and β-catenin shRNA reversed HMGB1-induced EMT. Moreover, HMGB1 induced expression of receptor for advanced glycation products (RAGE), but not that of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 or TLR4, and RAGE shRNA inhibited HMGB1-induced EMT in human airway epithelial cells. In conclusion, we found that HMGB1 induced EMT through RAGE and the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26739898

  19. Serine-Rich Repeat Proteins and Pili Promote Streptococcus agalactiae Colonization of the Vaginal Tract ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Tamsin R.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Wang, Nai-Yu; Banerjee, Anirban; van Sorge, Nina M.; Doran, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the female rectovaginal tract and is capable of producing severe disease in susceptible hosts, including newborns and pregnant women. The vaginal tract is considered a major reservoir for GBS, and maternal vaginal colonization poses a significant risk to the newborn; however, little is known about the specific bacterial factors that promote GBS colonization and persistence in the female reproductive tract. We have developed in vitro models of GBS interaction with the human female cervicovaginal tract using human vaginal and cervical epithelial cell lines. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in cell surface organelles such as pili and serine-rich repeat (Srr) proteins shows that these factors contribute to host cell attachment. As Srr proteins are heavily glycosylated, we confirmed that carbohydrate moieties contribute to the effective interaction of Srr-1 with vaginal epithelial cells. Antibody inhibition assays identified keratin 4 as a possible host receptor for Srr-1. Our findings were further substantiated in an in vivo mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, where mice inoculated with an Srr-1-deficient mutant exhibited decreased GBS vaginal persistence compared to those inoculated with the wild-type (WT) parental strain. Furthermore, competition experiments in mice showed that WT GBS exhibited a significant survival advantage over the ΔpilA or Δsrr-1 mutant in the vaginal tract. Our results suggest that these GBS surface proteins contribute to vaginal colonization and may offer new insights into the mechanisms of vaginal niche establishment. PMID:21984789

  20. Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; McNeil, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research. PMID:23619298

  1. Molecular Aspects of Epithelial γδ T Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Witherden, Deborah A; Havran, Wendy L

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells lie at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity, sharing features with both arms of the immune system. The vast majority of γδ T cells reside in epithelial layers of tissues such as skin, gut, lung, tongue and reproductive tract. Here they provide a first line of defense against environmental attack. While the existence of epithelial resident γδ T cells has been known for over 20 years, understanding the molecular events regulating development and function of these cells is still in progress. Here we review recent advances in the field, with a particular emphasis on the γδ T cell population resident in mouse epidermis. These studies have enhanced our knowledge and understanding of the life cycle of this enigmatic population of cells. PMID:21481636

  2. Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Sedzinski, Jakub; Hannezo, Edouard; Tu, Fan; Biro, Maté; Wallingford, John B

    2016-01-11

    Epithelial sheets are crucial components of all metazoan animals, enclosing organs and protecting the animal from its environment. Epithelial homeostasis poses unique challenges, as addition of new cells and loss of old cells must be achieved without disrupting the fluid-tight barrier and apicobasal polarity of the epithelium. Several studies have identified cell biological mechanisms underlying extrusion of cells from epithelia, but far less is known of the converse mechanism by which new cells are added. Here, we combine molecular, pharmacological, and laser-dissection experiments with theoretical modeling to characterize forces driving emergence of an apical surface as single nascent cells are added to a vertebrate epithelium in vivo. We find that this process involves the interplay between cell-autonomous actin-generated pushing forces in the emerging cell and mechanical properties of neighboring cells. Our findings define the forces driving this cell behavior, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26766441

  3. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  4. [Methotrexate as inducer of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Morón-Medina, Alejandra; Viera, Ninoska; de Morales, Thaís Rojas; Alcocer, Sirley; Bohorquez, Dinorath

    2014-03-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a drug commonly used in childhood cancer, has also been indicated as a cytotoxic agent of the oral mucosa, which can trigger the inflammatory process and increase the vascularity of epithelial tissues during the early stages of oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to determine the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6 y TNF-alpha in epithelial cell cultures treated with MTX. Epithelial cells of human larynx, obtained from the cell line Hep-2, were cultured with different doses of MTX during different incubation times. The drug cytotoxicity was analyzed by means of the colorimetric test, which is based on the metabolic reduction of the bromide of 3-(4, 5-dimetiltiazol-2-ilo)-2,5-difeniltetrazol (MTT); and the proinflammatory cytokines production by the test enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cultures of HEp-2 cells showed increased production of proinflammatory cytokines at 72 hours with 0.32 microM of MTX. These results suggest that depending on the dose and exposure time, MTX alters the physiology of human epithelial cells, which may play an important role during the phases of initiation and development of oral mucositis. PMID:24758098

  5. Epithelial progenitor cells in the rat trachea

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.; Hubbs, A.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Highly pure populations of basal and secretory cells from the rat trachea have been inoculated into denuded tracheal grafts to determine the differentiation pathways of these two cell types. The basal cell inoculum resulted in an epithelium comprised of only basal and ciliated cells, while the secretory cell inoculum gave rise to an epithelium comprised of secretory, basal, and ciliated cells. These results show that, in the rat trachea, the secretory cell is the major progenitorial cell type and the basal cell has only limited progenitorial capacity.

  6. Lung epithelial cell death induced by oil-dispersant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Shi, Yongli; Major, Danielle; Yang, Zhanjun

    2012-08-01

    The dispersants used in oil spill disasters are claimed to be safe, but increased solubility of high-molecular-weight components in crude oil is of public health concern. The water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of crude oil mixed with dispersants may become airborne and cause lung epithelial damage when inhaled. This study was designed to examine the cell death and related death pathways of lung epithelial cells in response to WAF. Cultured A549 cells were treated for 2 or 24h with different concentrations of WAF. The WAF was prepared by mixing each of the dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and Corexit EC9580A) with crude oil for extraction with PBS. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay, morphology and cleaved caspase 9 protein, and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 were all used to measure cell viability, necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy quantitation, respectively. Results showed that the WAF of oil-dispersant mixtures caused cell death in the lung epithelial cells, in a dose-dependent manner, with the major cellular pathways of necrosis and apoptosis involved. Autophagy also occurred in cells exposed to WAF mixtures at lower concentrations before any detectable cell death, indicating greater sensitivity to WAF exposure. The three types of cell behavior, namely necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, may play different roles in oil spill-related respiratory disorders. PMID:22504303

  7. Cytotoxic effects of air freshener biocides in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Taek; Lee, Mimi; Seo, Gun-Baek; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Doo-Hee; Kim, Taksoo; Seo, Jung Kwan; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of mixtures of citral (CTR) and either benzisothiazolinone (BIT, Mix-CTR-BIT) or triclosan (TCS, Mix-CTR-TCS) in human A549 lung epithelial cells. We investigated the effects of various mix ratios of these common air freshener ingredients on cell viability, cell proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and DNA damage. Mix-CTR-BIT and Mix-CTR-TCS significantly decreased the viability of lung epithelial cells and inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, both mixtures increased ROS generation, compared to that observed in control cells. In particular, cell viability, growth, and morphology were affected upon increase in the proportion of BIT or TCS in the mixture. However, comet analysis showed that treatment of cells with Mix-CTR-BIT or Mix-CTR-TCS did not increase DNA damage. Taken together, these data suggested that increasing the content of biocides in air fresheners might induce cytotoxicity, and that screening these compounds using lung epithelial cells may contribute to hazard assessment. PMID:24273871

  8. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    PubMed Central

    Bjaelde, Randi G.; Arnadottir, Sigrid S.; Overgaard, Morten T.; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A.

    2013-01-01

    Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30), which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1) cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin) reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%)-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1) and vesicular transport (nocodazole). These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ~90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP) or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50%) or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8 and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells. PMID:24065923

  9. Nerve invasion by epithelial cells in benign breast diseases.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Jan; Chen, Shan-Long

    2009-03-01

    Nerve invasion by glandular epithelial cells in a lesion is usually regarded as invasive carcinoma. However, some benign conditions in the pancreas, prostate, breast and other organs may show involvement of nerve bundles by benign epithelial cells. We report an 18-year-old female with nerve invasion in benign breast disease. The lesion in her right breast revealed fibrocystic changes with ductal hyperplasia and stromal sclerosis. Perineural and intraneural involvement by bland-looking small ducts lined by 2 layers of cells including an outer layer of myoepithelial cells were found, suggestive of benign nerve invasion. There was no evidence of malignant cells in any of the sections. The patient remains well after 31 months of follow-up. About 44 cases of nerve invasion in benign breast diseases have been reported in the literature. It is necessary to carefully evaluate nerve involvement in breast lesions to avoid over-diagnosis and inappropriate operation. PMID:19299223

  10. In vitro culture and expansion of human limbal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Indumathi; Maddileti, Savitri; Savy, Soumya; Tiwari, Shubha; Gaddipati, Subhash; Fatima, Anees; Sangwan, Virender S; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2010-08-01

    Limbal stem cells (LSCs) have an important role in the maintenance of the corneal surface epithelium, and autologous cultured limbal epithelial cell transplantations have contributed substantially to the treatment of the visually disabling condition known as LSC deficiency. In this protocol, we describe a method of establishing human limbal epithelial cell cultures by a feeder-free explant culture technique using a small limbal biopsy specimen and human amniotic membrane (hAM) as the culture substrate. This protocol is free of animal-derived products and involves the use of human recombinant growth factors. In addition, the recombinant cell dissociation enzyme TrypLE is used to replace trypsin and autologous serum replaces FBS. It takes approximately 2 weeks to establish a confluent monolayer from which approximately 3 x 10(6) cells can be harvested. This procedure can be adopted for both basic research purposes and clinical applications. PMID:20671730

  11. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  12. Interactions between Periodontal Bacteria and Human Oral Epithelial Cells: Fusobacterium nucleatum Adheres to and Invades Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yiping W.; Shi, Wenyuan; Huang, George T.-J.; Kinder Haake, Susan; Park, No-Hee; Kuramitsu, Howard; Genco, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Bacteria are causative agents of periodontal diseases. Interactions between oral bacteria and gingival epithelial cells are essential aspects of periodontal infections. Using an in vitro tissue culture model, a selected group of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria frequently associated with periodontal diseases, including Bacteroides forsythus, Campylobacter curvus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, were examined for their ability to adhere to and invade primary cultures of human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). The effects of these bacteria on the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8), a proinflammatory chemokine, were also measured. These studies provided an initial demonstration that F. nucleatum adhered to and invaded HGEC and that this was accompanied by high levels of IL-8 secretion from the epithelial cells. The attachment and invasion characteristics of F. nucleatum were also tested using KB cells, an oral epithelial cell line. The invasion was verified by transmission electron microscopy and with metabolic inhibitors. Invasion appeared to occur via a “zipping” mechanism and required the involvement of actins, microtubules, signal transduction, protein synthesis, and energy metabolism of the epithelial cell, as well as protein synthesis by F. nucleatum. A spontaneous mutant, lam, of F. nucleatum, isolated as defective in autoagglutination, was unable to attach to or invade HGEC or KB cells, further indicating the requirement of bacterial components in these processes. Sugar inhibition assays indicated that lectin-like interactions were involved in the attachment of F. nucleatum to KB cells. Investigation of these new virulence phenotypes should improve our understanding of the role of F. nucleatum in periodontal infections. PMID:10816455

  13. Structural anomalies of highly malignant respiratory tract epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, R.L.; Heckman, C.A.

    1982-11-01

    These studies were designed to determine whether cytostructural changes were related to malignancy and the loss of growth control in epithelial cells. Three highly malignant cell lines were derived from transplantable carcinomas of the respiratory tract and compared with three respiratory tract epithelial lines of negligible malignancy. Keratin cytoskeletons were visualized by indirect immunofluorescence staining, and sample photomicrographs representing each line were prepared. The criteria used in making the classifications to identify the features common to the highly malignant lines included the nonuniform spacing of cells in the field of view, the cell shape, and the presence of nonfluorescent areas in the lamellar cytoplasm. Since the nonuniformity of keratin distribution in the periphery of the malignant cells suggested a structural anomaly, the cell lines were also examined by scanning electron microscopy. Unlike cells from the lines of negligible malignancy, cells from two of the highly malignant lines showed thickenings in the subterminal portions of the lamellar cytoplasm. The results suggested that specific architectural changes at the cellular level might be linked to the process of epithelial transformation and tumor progression.

  14. Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

  15. miR-124 regulates fetal pulmonary epithelial cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Huang, Chaoqun; Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Xi, Dong; Weng, Tingting; Liu, Lin

    2015-08-15

    MicroRNAs are a family of small noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of their target proteins at the posttranscriptional level. Their functions cover almost every aspect of cell physiology. However, the roles of microRNAs in fetal lung development are not completely understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation and molecular mechanisms of alveolar epithelial cell maturation during fetal lung development by miR-124. We discovered that miR-124 was downregulated during rat fetal lung development and predominantly expressed in the epithelial cells at late stage of the lung development. Overexpression of miR-124 with an adenovirus vector led to the inhibition of epithelial maturation in rat fetal lung organ cultures and fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells, as demonstrated by a decrease in the type II cell marker expression and an increase in glycogen content. We further demonstrated by luciferase reporter assays that miR-124 inhibited the NF-κB, cAMP/PKA, and MAPK/ERK pathways. In addition, nuclear factor I/B (NFIB), a critical protein in fetal lung maturation, was validated as a direct target of miR-124. Furthermore, miR-124 expression was induced by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through a direct interaction of LEF1 and the miR-124 promoter region. We concluded that miR-124 downregulation is critical to fetal lung epithelial maturation and miR-124 inhibits this maturation process at least partially through the inhibition of NFIB. PMID:26071557

  16. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  17. Thrombin promotes epithelial ovarian cancer cell invasion by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yi-Cun; Zhang, Ting; Di, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Over-expression of thrombin in ovarian cancer cells is associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the role of thrombin in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SKOV3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Methods After thrombin treatment SKOV3 cells were subjected to western blots, reverse-transcription PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantify EMT-related proteins, mRNA expression of SMAD2, DKK1, and sFRP1, and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokines. Meanwhile, invasion ability was evaluated using transwell assays. Results The results indicated a dose- and time-dependent down-regulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin in thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells, compared with the thrombin-free control group (p<0.05). There was a dose- and time-dependent increase in the levels of SMAD2 and DKK1 mRNAs and a decrease in the levels of sFRP1 mRNA in thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells compared to control cells (p<0.05). Thrombin-treated SKOV3 cells exhibited increased secretion of MMP-9, MMP-2, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-6 and increased invasion compared to untreated cells (p<0.05). Thrombin altered the morphology of SKOV3 cells to a spindle-like phenotype. Addition of hirudin to thrombin-treated cells reversed the effects of thrombin. Conclusion Thrombin induced EMT and promoted the invasion of SKOV3 cells, possibly via distinct signaling pathways. Hirudin inhibited the effects of thrombin, suggesting that anticoagulant therapy could be a novel therapeutic strategy for ovarian carcinoma. PMID:23875077

  18. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  19. Acid production by vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of vaginal acidification.

    PubMed

    Boskey, E R; Telsch, K M; Whaley, K J; Moench, T R; Cone, R A

    1999-10-01

    Perinatally, and between menarche and menopause, increased levels of estrogen cause large amounts of glycogen to be deposited in the vaginal epithelium. During these times, the anaerobic metabolism of the glycogen, by the epithelial cells themselves and/or by vaginal flora, causes the vagina to become acidic (pH approximately 4). This study was designed to test whether the characteristics of acid production by vaginal flora in vitro can account for vaginal acidity. Eight vaginal Lactobacillus isolates from four species-L. gasseri, L. vaginalis, L. crispatus, and L. jensenii-acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (3.2 to 4.8) that matches the range seen in the Lactobacillus-dominated human vagina (pH 3.6 to 4.5 in most women) (B. Andersch, L. Forssman, K. Lincoln, and P. Torstensson, Gynecol. Obstet. Investig. 21:19-25, 1986; L. Cohen, Br. J. Vener. Dis. 45:241-246, 1969; J. Paavonen, Scand. J. Infect. Dis. Suppl. 40:31-35, 1983; C. Tevi-Bénissan, L. Bélec, M. Lévy, V. Schneider-Fauveau, A. Si Mohamed, M.-C. Hallouin, M. Matta, and G. Grésenguet, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:367-374, 1997). During exponential growth, all of these Lactobacillus species acidified their growth medium at rates on the order of 10(6) protons/bacterium/s. Such rates, combined with an estimate of the total number of lactobacilli in the vagina, suggest that vaginal lactobacilli could reacidify the vagina at the rate observed postcoitally following neutralization by the male ejaculate (W. H. Masters and V. E. Johnson, Human sexual response, p. 93, 1966). During bacterial vaginosis (BV), there is a loss of vaginal acidity, and the vaginal pH rises to >4.5. This correlates with a loss of lactobacilli and an overgrowth of diverse bacteria. Three BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis, Prevotella bivia, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, acidified their growth medium to an asymptotic pH (4.7 to 6.0) consistent with the characteristic elevated vaginal pH associated with BV. Together, these observations are consistent with vaginal flora, rather than epithelial cells, playing a primary role in creating the acidity of the vagina. PMID:10496892

  20. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration. PMID:26649819

  1. Differentiation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells into epithelial cells as a potential therapeutic application to facilitate epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Kelsey; Pankajakshan, Divya; Kim, Min-Jung; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial denudation is one of the characteristics of chronic asthma. To restore its functions, the airway epithelium has to rapidly repair the injuries and regenerate its structure and integrity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into many cell lineages. However, the differentiation of MSCs into epithelial cells has not been fully studied. Here, we examined the differentiation of MSCs into epithelial cells using three different media compositions with various growth supplementations. The MSCs were isolated from porcine bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation. The isolated MSCs were CD11(-) CD34(-) CD45(-) CD44(+) CD90(+) and CD105(+) by immunostaining and flow cytometry. MSCs were stimulated with EpiGRO (Millipore), BEpiCM (ScienCell) and AECGM (PromoCell) media for 5 and 10 days, and epithelial differentiation was assessed by qPCR (keratin 14, 18 and EpCAM), fluorometry (cytokeratin 7-8, cytokeratin 14-15-16-19 and EpCAM), western blot analysis (pancytokeratin, EpCAM) and flow cytometry (cytokeratin 7-8, cytokeratin 14-15-16-19 and EpCAM). The functional marker MUC1 was also assessed after 10 days of air-liquid interface (ALI) culture in optimized media. Cells cultured in BEpiCM containing fibroblast growth factor and prostaglandin E2 showed the highest expression of the epithelial markers: CK7-8 (85.90%); CK-14-15-16-19 (10.14%); and EpCAM (64.61%). The cells also expressed functional marker MUC1 after ALI culture. The differentiated MSCs when cultured in BEpiCM medium ex vivo in a bioreactor on a decellularized trachea for 10 days retained the epithelial-like phenotype. In conclusion, porcine bone marrow-derived MSCs demonstrate commitment to the epithelial lineage and might be a potential therapy for facilitating the repair of denuded airway epithelium. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696537

  2. Adrenomedullin Expression by Gastric Epithelial Cells in Response to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Allaker, Robert P.; Kapas, Supriya

    2003-01-01

    Many surface epithelial cells express adrenomedullin, a multifunctional peptide found in a wide number of body and cell systems. Recently, we and others have proposed that adrenomedullin has an important novel role in host defense. This peptide has many properties in common with other cationic antimicrobial peptides, including the human β-defensins. Upon exposure of human gastric epithelial cells to viable cells of invasive or noninvasive strains of Helicobacter pylori, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, or Streptococcus bovis, a significant increase in adrenomedullin secretion from these cells was demonstrated. Adrenomedullin gene expression was also increased in response to these microorganisms. Similar observations were noted when these cells were incubated with proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide. In cultured cells and an animal infection model, increased adrenomedullin peptide and gene expression was demonstrated when exposed to E. coli or Mycobacterium paratuberculosis, respectively. The data suggest there is a strong association between epithelial infection, inflammation, and adrenomedullin expression, which may have clinical relevance. The regulation of adrenomedullin expression may have therapeutic applications, such as improving or enhancing mucosal immunity. PMID:12853384

  3. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2007-06-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system's response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. PMID:17124605

  4. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system’s response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. PMID:17124605

  5. Bidirectional entry of poliovirus into polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tucker, S P; Thornton, C L; Wimmer, E; Compans, R W

    1993-01-01

    The interactions of viruses with polarized epithelial cells are of some significance to the pathogenesis of disease because these cell types comprise the primary barrier to many virus infections and also serve as the sites for virus release from the host. Poliovirus-epithelial cell interactions are of particular interest since this virus is an important enteric pathogen and the host cell receptor has been identified. In this study, poliovirus was observed to adsorb to both the apical and basolateral surfaces of polarized monkey kidney (Vero C1008) and human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelial cells but exhibited preferential binding to the basolateral surfaces of both cell types. Localization of the poliovirus receptor by a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody (D171) revealed a similar distribution predominantly on basolateral membranes, and treatment of cells with antibody D171 inhibited virus adsorption to both membrane surfaces. Poliovirus was able to initiate infection with similar efficiency following adsorption to either surface, and infection was blocked at both surfaces by D171, indicating that functional receptor molecules are expressed on both surfaces at sufficient density to mediate efficient infection at the apical and basolateral plasma membranes. Poliovirus infection resulted in a decrease in transepithelial resistance which was inhibited by prior treatment with monoclonal antibody D171 and occurred prior to other visible cytopathic effects. These results have interesting implications for viral pathogenesis in the human gut. PMID:8380076

  6. Cytolysis of corneal epithelial cells by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Hayden, B J; Zhu, L; Sens, D; Tapert, M J; Crouch, R K

    1990-01-01

    Superoxide radicals or products generated by these radicals in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system lyse cultured rat and human corneal epithelial cells as measured in a chromium-51 release assay. Partial protection from this lysis is afforded by superoxide dismutase and complete protection is obtained with catalase. Hydrogen peroxide, a product of the dismutation of superoxide radicals, lyses these cells directly and is implicated as the toxic agent in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction. Hydrogen peroxide also decreases cell proliferation and decreases the intact DNA. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide appears to be toxic to corneal epithelial cells. The implications of these data on the safety of hydrogen peroxide as a contact lens disinfectant are discussed. PMID:2307190

  7. Inactivation of Rb in stromal fibroblasts promotes epithelial cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Adam; Cichon, Ann-Christin; Barry, Anna; Kieran, Declan; Patel, Daksha; Hamilton, Peter; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; James, Jacqueline; McCance, Dennis J

    2012-07-18

    Stromal-derived growth factors are required for normal epithelial growth but are also implicated in tumour progression. We have observed inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), through phosphorylation, in cancer-associated fibroblasts in oro-pharyngeal cancer specimens. Rb is well known for its cell-autonomous effects on cancer initiation and progression; however, cell non-autonomous functions of Rb are not well described. We have identified a cell non-autonomous role of Rb, using three-dimensional cultures, where depletion of Rb in stromal fibroblasts enhances invasive potential of transformed epithelia. In part, this is mediated by upregulation of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), which is produced by the depleted fibroblasts. KGF drives invasion of epithelial cells through induction of MMP1 expression in an AKT- and Ets2-dependent manner. Our data identify that stromal fibroblasts can alter the invasive behaviour of the epithelium, and we show that altered expression of KGF can mediate these functions. PMID:22643222

  8. Iron upregulates melanogenesis in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wolkow, Natalie; Li, Yafeng; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Song, Ying; Alekseev, Oleg; Iacovelli, Jared; Song, Delu; Lee, Jennifer C.; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our studies was to examine the relationship between iron and melanogenesis in retinal pigment epithelial cells, as prior observations had suggested that iron may promote melanogenesis. This relationship has potential clinical importance, as both iron overload and hyperpigmentation are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells and ARPE-19 cells were treated with iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate, after which quantitative RT-PCR and electron microscopy were performed. Melanogenesis genes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3, premelanosome protein and dopachrome tautomerase were upregulated, as was the melanogenesis-controlling transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Iron-treated cells had increased pigmentation and melanosome number. Multiple transcription factors upstream of MITF were upregulated by iron. PMID:25277027

  9. Salmonella enterica: living a double life in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Knodler, Leigh A

    2015-02-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens can occupy a membrane-bound vacuole or live freely within the cytosol of mammalian cells. Many studies have shown that the enteric bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), is a vacuolar pathogen. Recent data, however, have revealed that within epithelial cells there are subpopulations of vacuolar and cytosolic Salmonella. Release from the Salmonella-containing vacuole leads to transcriptional reprogramming of bacteria and their robust replication in the cytosol. Eventually, epithelial cell death via pyroptosis results in cell lysis, proinflammatory cytokine release and escape of the cytosolic bacteria into the extracellular space, providing a potential mechanism of dissemination. This review focuses on the current understanding of this newly described intracellular population of Salmonella. PMID:25461569

  10. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  11. Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. )

    1990-10-01

    Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

  12. Epithelial stem cells in adult skin.

    PubMed

    Tadeu, Ana Mafalda Baptista; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the first line of defense against dehydration and external environmental aggressions. It constantly renews itself throughout adult life mainly due to the activity of tissue-specific stem cells. In this review, we discuss fundamental characteristics of different stem cell populations within the skin and how they are able to contribute to normal skin homeostasis. We also examine the most recent results regarding the cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic components of the stem cell niche within the adult skin epithelium. Finally, we address the recent efforts to understand how abnormal regulation of stem cell activity contributes to the initiation and progression of skin-associated cancers. PMID:24439804

  13. Vangl2 Regulates E-Cadherin in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Begum, Khadiza; hafiz, Khandakar musabbir bin; Kishi, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin belongs to the classic cadherin subfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules and is crucial for the formation and function of epithelial adherens junctions. In this study, we demonstrate that Vangl2, a vertebrate regulator of planar cell polarity (PCP), controls E-cadherin in epithelial cells. E-cadherin co-immunoprecipitates with Vangl2 from embryonic kidney extracts, and this association is also observed in transfected fibroblasts. Vangl2 enhances the internalization of E-cadherin when overexpressed. Conversely, the quantitative ratio of E-cadherin exposed to the cell surface is increased in cultured renal epithelial cells derived from Vangl2Lpt/+ mutant mice. Interestingly, Vangl2 is also internalized through protein traffic involving Rab5- and Dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Taken together with recent reports regarding the transport of Frizzled3, MMP14 and nephrin, these results suggest that one of the molecular functions of Vangl2 is to enhance the internalization of specific plasma membrane proteins with broad selectivity. This function may be involved in the control of intercellular PCP signalling or in the PCP-related rearrangement of cell adhesions. PMID:25373475

  14. Normal and tumour cervical cells respond differently to vaginal lactobacilli, independent of pH and lactate.

    PubMed

    Motevaseli, Elahe; Shirzad, Mahdieh; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Mousavi, Azam-Sadat; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-07-01

    Cervical cancer is a human papilloma virus (HPV)-related cancer, but most HPV infections are transient or intermittent and resolve spontaneously. Thus, other factors, such as cervical microflora, which are dominated by lactobacilli, must be involved in invasive cervical carcinoma development after HPV infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that lactobacilli have antitumour effects, and it is possible that vaginal lactobacilli prevent cervical cancer. Here we examined the proliferative and apoptotic responses of normal and tumour cervical cells to common vaginal lactobacilli components by investigating human normal fibroblast-like cervical (normal cervical) and HeLa (cervical tumour) cell responses to Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus crispatus. The effects of different lactobacilli components, such as culture supernatants, cytoplasmic extracts, cell-wall extracts and live cells, were determined by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, trypan blue staining, lactate dehydrogenase assay and colorimetric caspase-3 activity assay. Changes in caspase-3 and human chorionic gonadotropin β (hCGβ) expression were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. Tumour cell growth inhibition by culture supernatants was higher than that by pH- and lactate-adjusted controls. However, the effects of the supernatants on normal cells were similar to those of lactate-adjusted controls. Apoptosis was inhibited by supernatants, which was consistent with higher hCGβ expression since hCG inhibits apoptosis. Our study demonstrated that common vaginal lactobacilli exert cytotoxic effects on cervical tumour cells, but not on normal cells, and that this cytotoxicity is independent of pH and lactate. Our results encourage further studies on the interaction between lactobacilli and cervical cells, and administration of common vaginal lactobacilli as probiotics. PMID:23618799

  15. Generation of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Satoru; Yasuda, Miyuki; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Tetsu; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Okano, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto

    2011-01-01

    Background Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. Methodology/Principal Findings We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method) with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets. PMID:22174914

  16. Cytokeratin changes in cell culture systems of epithelial cells isolated from oral mucosa: a short review.

    PubMed

    Gasparoni, Alberto; Squier, Christopher Alan; Fonzi, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    In the past three decades, many studies have analyzed ultrastructural and molecular markers of differentiation in squamous stratified epithelial tissues. In these tissues, epithelial cells migrating from the basal layer to the upper layers undergo drastic changes, which involve membrane-associated proteins, DNA synthesis, phenotypic aspects, lipid composition, and cytoskeletal components. Cytoskeletal components include a large and heterogeneous group, including intermediate filaments, components of the cornified envelope, and of the stratum corneum. When grown in mono- and multilayer cell cultures, epithelial cells isolated from the oral mucosa may reproduce many of the biochemical and morphological aspects of epithelial tissue in vivo. In the present paper, we examine phenotypic changes, development of suprabasal layer, and Involucrin expression occurring in differentiating oral epithelial cells, based on literature review and original data. PMID:16277157

  17. Temporal Monitoring of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells Using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Cornelia; Reale, Riccardo; Held, Marie; Millar, Timothy M.; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.; Morgan, Hywel; Swindle, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The airway epithelium is exposed to a variety of harmful agents during breathing and appropriate cellular responses are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence has highlighted the contribution of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the development of many chronic respiratory diseases. Despite intense research efforts, the responses of the airway barrier to environmental agents are not fully understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models that recapitulate the complex in vivo situation accurately. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we describe a novel dynamic 3D in vitro model of the airway epithelium, incorporating fully differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface and a basolateral microfluidic supply of nutrients simulating the interstitial flow observed in vivo. Through combination of the microfluidic culture system with an automated fraction collector the kinetics of cellular responses by the airway epithelium to environmental agents can be analysed at the early phases for the first time and with much higher sensitivity compared to common static in vitro models. Following exposure of primary differentiated epithelial cells to pollen we show that CXCL8/IL–8 release is detectable within the first 2h and peaks at 4–6h under microfluidic conditions, a response which was not observed in conventional static culture conditions. Such a microfluidic culture model is likely to have utility for high resolution temporal profiling of toxicological and pharmacological responses of the airway epithelial barrier, as well as for studies of disease mechanisms. PMID:26436734

  18. Retinoic acid promotes primary fetal alveolar epithelial type II cell proliferation and differentiation to alveolar epithelial type I cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rui-wei; Kong, Xiang-yong; Zhu, Xiao-xi; Zhu, Guo-qing; Ma, Jin-shuai; Liu, Xiu-xiang

    2015-05-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) plays an important role in lung development and maturation. Many stimuli can induce alveolar epithelial cell damage which will result in the injury of lung parenchyma. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of RA on the proliferation and differentiation of primary fetal alveolar epithelial type II cells (fAECIIs). Primary fAECIIs were isolated from fetal rats at 19 d of gestation and purified by a differential centrifugation and adhesion method. The cells were randomly divided into control (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) and RA groups. Cell proliferation, viability, apoptosis, cycle, and expression of target protein were examined at 24, 48, and 72 h. We found that the proliferation and viability of cells in the RA-exposed group significantly increased compared with the DMSO control group. The proportion (%) of cells in the G2 and S phases in the RA group was significantly higher than that in control group cells. The proportion (%) of both early apoptotic cells and late apoptotic cells decreased significantly in cells exposed to RA compared with cells exposed to DMSO. RA significantly enhanced the expression of aquaporin 5 (AQP5). The expression level of pulmonary surfactant C (SPC) was elevated after cells were exposed to RA for 24 and 72 h but was inhibited when cells were exposed to RA for 48 h. These results suggest that RA promotes fAECII proliferation by improving cell viability, promoting S phase entry and inhibiting apoptosis and RA promotes fAECIIs differentiation to alveolar epithelial type I cells (AECIs). PMID:25515249

  19. Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginal microbiota of healthy women inhibit Prevotella bivia and Gardnerella vaginalis in coculture and cell culture.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Fabrice; Brassart, Dominique; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Servin, Alain L

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how human vaginal isolates of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus jensenii, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus crispatus inhibit the vaginosis-associated pathogens Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia. Results show that all the strains in coculture condition reduced the viability of G. vaginalis and P. bivia, but with differing degrees of efficacy. The treatment of G. vaginalis- and P. bivia-infected cultured human cervix epithelial HeLa cells with L. gasseri strain KS120.1 culture or cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) results in the killing of the pathogens that are adhering to the cells. The mechanism of the killing activity is not attributable to low pH and the presence of lactic acid alone, but rather to the presence of hydrogen peroxide and proteolytic enzyme-resistant compound(s) present in the CFCSs. In addition, coculture of G. vaginalis or P. bivia with L. gasseri KS120.1 culture or KS120.1 bacteria results in inhibition of the adhesion of the pathogens onto HeLa cells. PMID:17059467

  20. Role of epithelial-stem cell interactions during dental cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Makiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Yamada, Aya; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Masahiro; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fukumoto, Satoshi

    2012-03-23

    Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulate the growth and morphogenesis of ectodermal organs such as teeth. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a part of dental mesenchyme, derived from the cranial neural crest, and differentiate into dentin forming odontoblasts. However, the interactions between DPSCs and epithelium have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we established a mouse dental pulp stem cell line (SP) comprised of enriched side population cells that displayed a multipotent capacity to differentiate into odontogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic cells. We also analyzed the interactions between SP cells and cells from the rat dental epithelial SF2 line. When cultured with SF2 cells, SP cells differentiated into odontoblasts that expressed dentin sialophosphoprotein. This differentiation was regulated by BMP2 and BMP4, and inhibited by the BMP antagonist Noggin. We also found that mouse iPS cells cultured with mitomycin C-treated SF2-24 cells displayed an epithelial cell-like morphology. Those cells expressed the epithelial cell markers p63 and cytokeratin-14, and the ameloblast markers ameloblastin and enamelin, whereas they did not express the endodermal cell marker Gata6 or mesodermal cell marker brachyury. This is the first report of differentiation of iPS cells into ameloblasts via interactions with dental epithelium. Co-culturing with dental epithelial cells appears to induce stem cell differentiation that favors an odontogenic cell fate, which may be a useful approach for tooth bioengineering strategies. PMID:22298769

  1. Transcriptional Regulation of Tlr11 Gene Expression in Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhenyu; Shi, Zhongcheng; Sanchez, Amir; Zhang, Tingting; Liu, Mingyao; Yang, Jianghua; Wang, Fen; Zhang, Dekai

    2009-01-01

    As sensors of invading microorganisms, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed not only on macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) but also on epithelial cells. In the TLR family, Tlr11 appears to have the unique feature in that it is expressed primarily on epithelial cells, although it is also expressed on DCs and macrophages. Here, we demonstrate that transcription of the Tlr11 gene is regulated through two cis-acting elements, one Ets-binding site and one interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-binding site. The Ets element interacts with the epithelium-specific transcription factors, ESE-1 and ESE-3, and the IRF motif interacts with IRF-8. Thus, Tlr11 expression on epithelial cells is regulated by the transcription factors that are presumably distinct from transcription factors that regulate the expression of TLRs in innate immune cells such as macrophages and DCs. Our results imply that the distinctive transcription regulatory machinery for TLRs on epithelium may represent a promising new avenue for the development of epithelia-specific therapeutic interventions. PMID:19801549

  2. Calcium oscillations in gingival epithelial cells infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Belton, Carol M; Goodwin, Paul C; Fatherazi, Sahba; Schubert, Mark M; Lamont, Richard J; Izutsu, Kenneth T

    2004-04-01

    The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis modulates epithelial cell signal transduction pathways including Ca2+ signaling, and internalizes within the host cell cytoplasm. Since nuclear and cytoplasmic [Ca2+] increases can induce different host cell responses, P. gingivalis-related [Ca2+] changes in these compartments were measured by digital fluorescent imaging microscopy. Non-deconvolved and deconvolved fura-2 images showed that P. gingivalis exposure caused human gingival epithelial cells cultured in physiologic [Ca2+] levels to undergo sustained oscillations of [Ca2+] in nuclear and cytoplasmic spaces. However, P. gingivalis invasion was not tightly correlated with intracellular [Ca2+] oscillations, since invasion could significantly precede, or even occur in the absence of, oscillations. [Ca2+] oscillations required a Ca2+ influx, which was completely inhibited by La3+ or 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate), indicating Ca2+ entry was via a Ca(2+)-permeable channel. Ca2+ entry was likely not via a store-operated channel, since Ca2+ release from intracellular stores was not observed during cellular uptake of P. gingivalis. Hence, uptake of P. gingivalis in gingival epithelial cells induces oscillations in nuclear and cytoplasmic spaces by activating a Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels. PMID:15109958

  3. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  4. Borrelia burgdorferi bind to epithelial cell proteoglycans.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, R D

    1994-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to mammalian cells in vitro but neither the ligand(s) nor the receptor(s) has (have) been clearly established. Using an in vitro attachment-inhibition assay, a B. burgdorferi attachment mechanism has been identified. Heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate reduced the attachment of virulent B. burgdorferi strain 297 to HeLa cells by approximately 60%. In addition, virulent, but not avirulent, B. burgdorferi strains B31, N40, and HB19 demonstrated heparin attachment-inhibition. Attachment to Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in heparan sulfate proteoglycans was reduced by 68% compared to attachment to wild-type cells and was identical to attachment at maximum heparin inhibition to the wild-type cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cell monolayers with heparitinase, heparinase, and chondroitinase ABC, but not with chondroitinase AC, reduced borrelial attachment by approximately 50%. A moderately high affinity, low copy number, promiscuous B. burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan receptor was demonstrated by equilibrium binding studies. A 39-kD polypeptide, purified by heparin affinity chromatography from Triton X-100 extracts derived from virulent borrelia, was a candidate for this receptor. These studies indicate that one mode of B. burgdorferi attachment to eukaryotic cells is mediated by a borrelial glycosaminoglycan receptor attaching to surface-exposed proteoglycans on mammalian cells. Images PMID:8113413

  5. Characterization of butyrate uptake by nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Araújo, João R; Martel, Fátima

    2011-03-01

    Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon. Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells. Uptake of ¹⁴C-BT by IEC-6 cells was (1) time- and concentration-dependent; (2) pH-dependent; (3) Na+-, Cl⁻- and energy-dependent; (4) inhibited by BT structural analogues; (5) sensitive to monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibitors; and (6) insensitive to DIDS and amiloride. IEC-6 cells express both MCT1 and Na+-coupled monocarboxylate transporter 1 (SMCT1) mRNA. We conclude that ¹⁴C-BT uptake by IEC-6 cells mainly involves MCT1, with a small contribution of SMCT1. Acute exposure to ethanol, acetaldehyde, indomethacin, resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹⁴C-BT uptake. Chronic exposure to resveratrol and quercetin reduced ¹⁴C-BT uptake but had no effect on either MCT1 or SMCT1 mRNA levels. Uptake of ¹⁴C-BT by FHC cells was time- and concentration-dependent but pH-, Na+-, Cl⁻- and energy-independent and insensitive to BT structural analogues and MCT1 inhibitors. Although MCT1 (but not SMCT1) mRNA expression was found in FHC cells, the characteristics of ¹⁴C-BT uptake by FHC cells did not support either MCT1 or SMCT1 involvement. In conclusion, uptake characteristics of ¹⁴C-BT differ between IEC-6 and FHC cells. IEC-6 cells demonstrate MCT1- and SMCT1-mediated transport, while FHC cells do not. PMID:21286694

  6. Nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 regulates epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu Fen; Ohno, Shigeo; Miki, Toru

    2006-10-01

    Cell polarity regulates diverse biological events such as localization of embryonic determinants and establishment of tissue and organ architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is regulated by the polarity complex Par6/Par3/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). We previously found that the nucleotide exchange factor ECT2 associates with this polarity complex and regulates aPKC activity, but the role of ECT2 in cell polarity is still unclear. Here we show that expression of a dominant negative (ECT2-N2) or constitutively active (ECT2-DeltaN5) form of ECT2 inhibits normal cyst formation of MDCK cells in 3-dimensional collagen gels. Central lumens were not observed in cysts formed by cells expressing either ECT2-DeltaN5 or ECT2-N2. Apical localization of ZO-1 and basolateral localization of beta-catenin were no longer observed in these cells. Interestingly, cells expressing ECT2-N2 did form normal cysts when cultured in the basement membrane matrix Matrigel instead of collagen gels. Addition of a major Matrigel component, laminin, partially rescued the normal cyst formation inhibited by ECT2-N2 in 3-dimensional collagen gels. Thus, signaling through laminin might override the defects of signaling through collagen and ECT2. Whereas ECT2-N2 inhibited the lumen formation of MDCK cysts, caspase-3, which is reportedly involved in lumen formation through apoptosis, was activated at various locations of cells in the cysts. It is likely that perturbation of ECT2 signaling inhibits the establishment of epithelial cell polarity leading to the inhibition of selected elimination of cells at the center of cysts. Thus, ECT2 appears to play a critical role in epithelial cell polarity. PMID:16495035

  7. Stiffness nanotomography of human epithelial cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Gilbert, C. Michael; Kasas, Sandor; Ros, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in both cancer initiation and metastasis. We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments on various human mammary and esophagus cell lines covering the spectrum from normal immortalized cells to highly metastatic ones. The combination of an AFM with a confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) in conjunction with the ability to move the sample and objective independently allow for precise alignment of AFM probe and laser focus with an accuracy down to a few nanometers. This enables us to correlate the mechanical properties with the point of indentation in the FLIM image. We are using force-volume measurements as well as force indentation curves on distinct points on the cells to compare the elastic moduli of the nuclei, nucleoli, and the cytoplasm, and how they vary within and between individual cells and cell lines. Further, a detailed analysis of the force-indentation curves allows study of the cells' mechanical properties at different indentation depths and to generate 3D elasticity maps.

  8. Epithelial and cartilaginous differentiation in clear cell chondrosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Suguru; Ishii, Takeaki; Endo, Makoto; Takahashi, Yusuke; Setsu, Nokitaka; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Tamiya, Sadafumi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2013-02-01

    Clear cell chondrosarcoma is a rare cartilaginous bone tumor, and little is known about its pathology. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression profiles of cytokeratins (CAM5.2, AE1/AE3, CK7, CK8, CK18, and CK20), epithelial membrane antigen, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9, type II collagen, runt-related transcription factor 2, and osteocalcin in clear cell chondrosarcoma and compared them with those in chondroblastoma, conventional chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Of 5 cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma, 3 demonstrated positive staining for AE1/AE3 and some form of cytokeratin in the clear cell component. Of the 5 cases, 4 strongly expressed SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 in the clear cell component but weakly expressed it in the cartilaginous component. Of the 5 cases of clear cell chondrosarcoma, 3 expressed runt-related transcription factor 2 in both the clear cell and cartilaginous components, but no expression of osteocalcin was detected. In chondroblastoma, 8 of 13 cases expressed AE1/AE3, and other cytokeratins, such as CK7 (4/13), CK8 (6/13), CK18 (8/13), and CK20 (3/13), demonstrated a similar staining extensity pattern between the cellular and cartilaginous components. Clear cell chondrosarcoma and chondroblastoma have similar immunohistochemical features in that they both express epithelial and chondrogenetic markers. On the other hand, tumor cells of clear cell chondrosarcoma have no osteoblastic immunohistochemical expression in comparison with chondroblastoma. PMID:22944296

  9. CCL20, (gamma)(delta) T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6 (+) IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells migrate into the epithelium. Gamma delta T-cell-deficient (TCRd(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mR...

  10. Epstein-Barr Virus Transcytosis through Polarized Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Rossana; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2013-01-01

    Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells bidirectionally, from both the apical to the basolateral membranes and the basolateral to the apical membranes. Apical to basolateral EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that virions were surrounded by apical surface protrusions and that virus was present in subapical vesicles. Inactivation of signaling molecules critical for macropinocytosis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, myosin light-chain kinase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-activated kinase 1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and cell division control protein 42 homolog, led to significant reduction in EBV apical to basolateral transcytosis. In contrast, basolateral to apical EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated virus entry. Caveolae were detected in the basolateral membranes of polarized human oral epithelial cells, and virions were detected in caveosome-like endosomes. Methyl β-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of caveola formation, reduced EBV basolateral entry. EBV virions transcytosed in either direction were able to infect B lymphocytes. Together, these data show that EBV transmigrates across oral epithelial cells by (i) apical to basolateral transcytosis, potentially contributing to initial EBV penetration that leads to systemic infection, and (ii) basolateral to apical transcytosis, which may enable EBV secretion into saliva in EBV-infected individuals. PMID:23698302

  11. Building Epithelial Tissues from Skin Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, E.; Nowak, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The skin epidermis and its appendages provide a protective barrier that guards against loss of fluids, physical trauma, and invasion by harmful microbes. To perform these functions while confronting the harsh environs of the outside world, our body surface undergoes constant rejuvenation through homeostasis. In addition, it must be primed to repair wounds in response to injury. The adult skin maintains epidermal homeostasis, hair regeneration, and wound repair through the use of its stem cells. What are the properties of skin stem cells, when do they become established during embryogenesis, and how are they able to build tissues with such remarkably distinct architectures? How do stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis and repair wounds and how do they regulate the delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation? What is the relationship between skin cancer and mutations that perturbs the regulation of stem cells? In the past 5 years, the field of skin stem cells has bloomed as we and others have been able to purify and dissect the molecular properties of these tiny reservoirs of goliath potential. We report here progress on these fronts, with emphasis on our laboratory’s contributions to the fascinating world of skin stem cells. PMID:19022769

  12. Photodynamic treatment of lens epithelial cells for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingua, Robert W.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Simon, Gabriel; Li, Kam

    1991-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) eiiploying Dihematopor*iyrin ethers (DHE) (Photofrin II) at pharmacologic lvels, has been denonstrate3 to kill rabbit lens epithelial cells, in vivo. This in vitro study, reports on the minimal necessary parameters for rabbit lens epithelial cell death. Explants of rabbit lenses were incubated in various concentrations of DHE (1O,, 100, 500, 1000 ug/ml) for 1, 2, or 5 minutes. 30 to 120 Joules/an of collimated 514.5 nm Argon laser light re delivered to the locier concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 ug,'ml DHE treated cells. One hundre1 fifteen explants were treated, in all. Higher concentrations of DHE alone (500 and 1000 ug/ml) were sufficient to induce cellular swelling. Lower concentrations required light for cellular effect. Trypan blue staining revealed cell death at these minimal pa9ieters: DHE 50 ug/ml, incubation 1 minute, 514.5 r Argon light 1.0 Watt/an for 30 sec (30 Joules) . In future studies, these rameters will be tested in vivo, for their ability to eliminate lens epithelial proliferation after cataract surgery.

  13. Regulation of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Anja K; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first line of defense against invading microbial pathogens. They are important contributors to innate mucosal immunity and generate various and sophisticated anti-microbial defense mechanisms, including the formation of a tight barrier and secretion of anti-microbial substances as well as inflammatory mediators. To provide these active defense mechanisms, epithelial cells functionally express various pattern-recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors have been shown to recognize conserved microbial patterns mediating inducible activation of innate immunity. Mucosal surfaces, however, are prone to contact with pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic microbes and, therefore, immune-recognition principles have to be strictly regulated to avoid uncontrolled permanent activation. This review will focus on mechanisms by which epithelial cells regulate mucosal immune responses, thus creating an organ-specific microenvironment. This includes local adaptations in microbial recognition, regulation of local immune homeostasis, and modulation of antigen-presenting cells and adaptive immune responses. These regulatory mechanisms serve the special needs of controlled microbial recognition in mucosal compartments. PMID:18060372

  14. Serratia marcescens is injurious to intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, John B; Boisen, Nadia; Lindsay, Brianna; Santiago, Araceli; Ouma, Collins; Ombok, Maurice; Fields, Barry; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children in low-income countries. Although numerous pathogens cause diarrhea, the etiology of many episodes remains unknown. Serratia marcescens is incriminated in hospital-associated infections, and HIV/AIDS associated diarrhea. We have recently found that Serratia spp. may be found more commonly in the stools of patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatic control children. We therefore investigated the possible enteric pathogenicity of S. marcescens in vitro employing a polarized human colonic epithelial cell (T84) monolayer. Infected monolayers were assayed for bacterial invasion, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), cytotoxicity, interleukin-8 (IL-8) release and morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. We observed significantly greater epithelial cell invasion by S. marcescens compared to Escherichia coli strain HS (p = 0.0038 respectively). Cell invasion was accompanied by reduction in TEER and secretion of IL-8. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) extracellular concentration rapidly increased within a few hours of exposure of the monolayer to S. marcescens. Scanning electron microscopy of S. marcescens-infected monolayers demonstrated destruction of microvilli and vacuolization. Our results suggest that S. marcescens interacts with intestinal epithelial cells in culture and induces dramatic alterations similar to those produced by known enteric pathogens. PMID:25426769

  15. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipid extract. A parallel chromatogram overlaid with biotinylated Ulex europaeus lectin, which is a fucose-binding lectin with a specificity for the H blood group antigen, showed that two of these glycosphingolipids carried this antigenic determinant. Preparations of crude and purified adhesin (a protein with a size of 15.7 kDa which lacked cysteine residues) from one of the strains also bound to these same two components. The third glycosphingolipid, which bound whole cells but neither preparation of adhesin, was recognized by Helix pomatia lectin, indicating that it contained N-acetylgalactosamine, possibly in the form of the A blood group antigen. Overlay assays with a sixth strain of C. albicans (GDH 2023) revealed a completely different binding pattern of four receptors, each of which contained N-acetylglucosamine. These results confirm earlier predictions about the receptor specificity of the strains made on the basis of adhesion inhibition studies and indicate that blood group antigens can act as epithelial cell receptors for C. albicans. PMID:8641797

  16. XB130 promotes bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation in airway epithelial repair and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toba, Hiroaki; Wang, Yingchun; Bai, Xiaohui; Zamel, Ricardo; Cho, Hae-Ra; Liu, Hongmei; Lira, Alonso; Keshavjee, Shaf; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Proliferation of bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) is essential for epithelial repair. XB130 is a novel adaptor protein involved in the regulation of epithelial cell survival, proliferation and migration through the PI3K/Akt pathway. To determine the role of XB130 in airway epithelial injury repair and regeneration, a naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury model was used with XB130 knockout (KO) mice and their wild type (WT) littermates. In XB130 KO mice, at days 7 and 14, small airway epithelium repair was significantly delayed with fewer number of Club cells (previously called Clara cells). CCSP (Club cell secreted protein) mRNA expression was also significantly lower in KO mice at day 7. At day 5, there were significantly fewer proliferative epithelial cells in the KO group, and the number of BASCs significantly increased in WT mice but not in KO mice. At day 7, phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, and the p85α subunit of PI3K was observed in airway epithelial cells in WT mice, but to a much lesser extent in KO mice. Microarray data also suggest that PI3K/Akt-related signals were regulated differently in KO and WT mice. An inhibitory mechanism for cell proliferation and cell cycle progression was suggested in KO mice. XB130 is involved in bronchioalveolar stem cell and Club cell proliferation, likely through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26360608

  17. Left–right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left–right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left–right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left–right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction. PMID:26656655

  18. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18β-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa. PMID:25652184

  19. *Iron accumulation in bronchial epithelial cells is dependent on concurrent sodium transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway epithelial cells prevent damaging effects of extracellular iron by taking up the metal and sequestering it within intracellular ferritin. Epithelial iron transport is associated with transcellular movement of other cations including changes in the expression or activity of...

  20. Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and Gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications. PMID:23527214

  1. R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rincón-Arano H; Rosales R; Mora N; Rodriguez-Castañeda A; Rosales C

    2003-02-01

    BACKGROUND: R-Ras is 55% identical to H-Ras. However, these two oncogenes seem to have different tumor-transforming potential. R-Ras induced cell transformation in fibroblasts but not in other cell types. R-Ras also reportedly induces a more invasive phenotype in breast epithelial cells through integrin activation. The authors studied the mechanisms whereby R-Ras induces a malignant phenotype.METHODS: Dominant negative (R-Ras43N) and constitutively active (R-Ras87L) mutants of R-Ras were stably transfected into human cervical epithelium C33A cells. Transfected cells were analyzed for adhesion, cell spreading, migration, and growth in culture and in nude mice. The activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) also was determined by Western blot analysis and by in vitro kinase assays.RESULTS: R-Ras87L-transfected cells, but not R-Ras43 N-transfected cells, had a higher growth rate in nude mice and in culture compared with control cells. None of the transfected C33A cells showed an increase in cell adhesion to fibronectin or collagen I, nor did they show an increment of beta1 integrin affinity. However, cells that expressed R-Ras87L, but not cells that expressed R-Ras 43N, presented a marked increase in cell spreading and migration through collagen-coated membranes. Increases in cell proliferation, spreading, and migration induced by R-Ras87L were inhibited by the PI 3-K inhibitor LY294002. In addition, PI 3-K activity, but not ERK activity, was increased only in cells that expressed R-Ras87L.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the oncogene R-Ras promotes tumor growth of cervical epithelial cells and increases their migration potential over collagen through a pathway that involves PI 3-K.

  2. A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Tamal; Safferling, Kai; Rausch, Sebastian; Grabe, Niels; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-03-01

    Collective movement of epithelial cells drives essential multicellular organization during various fundamental physiological processes encompassing embryonic morphogenesis, cancer and wound healing. Yet the molecular mechanism that ensures the coordinated movement of many cells remains elusive. Here we show that a tumour suppressor protein, merlin, coordinates collective migration of tens of cells, by acting as a mechanochemical transducer. In a stationary epithelial monolayer and also in three-dimensional human skin, merlin localizes to cortical cell-cell junctions. During migration initiation, a fraction of cortical merlin relocalizes to the cytoplasm. This relocalization is triggered by the intercellular pulling force of the leading cell and depends on the actomyosin-based cell contractility. Then in migrating cells, taking its cue from the intercellular pulling forces, which show long-distance ordering, merlin coordinates polarized Rac1 activation and lamellipodium formation on the multicellular length scale. Together, these results provide a distinct molecular mechanism linking intercellular forces to collective cell movements in migrating epithelia. PMID:25706233

  3. Clonal analysis of limbal epithelial stem cell populations.

    PubMed

    Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    While convincing data clearly suggest the presence of stem cells in the basal limbal epithelium in vivo, testing the proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation capacity of stem cells relies on the development of methodologies that allow for their isolation and extensive propagation in vitro. Clonal analysis involving differentiation between short-lived transient cell clones and long-lived stem cell clones is an invaluable technique to identify stem cells in vitro, and allows cells to be expanded over multiple passages. This chapter describes a protocol for the isolation, expansion, and clonal analysis of limbal epithelial stem cells. The cultivation method described may be essential for long-term restoration of the damaged ocular surface in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:23690004

  4. Epithelial Cell Polarity Determinant CRB3 in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    Cell polarity, which is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, organelle distribution and cell function, is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, molecular transport, and cell fate. Epithelial cell polarity is mainly regulated by three conserved polarity protein complexes, the Crumbs (CRB) complex, partitioning defective (PAR) complex and Scribble (SCRIB) complex. Research evidence has indicated that dysregulation of cell polarity proteins may play an important role in cancer development. Crumbs homolog 3 (CRB3), a member of the CRB complex, may act as a cancer suppressor in mouse kidney epithelium and mouse mammary epithelium. In this review, we focus on the current data available on the roles of CRB3 in cancer development. PMID:25552927

  5. CXCL12 expression by healthy and malignant ovarian epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background CXCL12 has been widely reported to play a biologically relevant role in tumor growth and spread. In epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), CXCL12 enhances tumor angiogenesis and contributes to the immunosuppressive network. However, its prognostic significance remains unclear. We thus compared CXCL12 status in healthy and malignant ovaries, to assess its prognostic value. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze CXCL12 expression in the reproductive tracts, including the ovaries and fallopian tubes, of healthy women, in benign and borderline epithelial tumors, and in a series of 183 tumor specimens from patients with advanced primary EOC enrolled in a multicenter prospective clinical trial of paclitaxel/carboplatin/gemcitabine-based chemotherapy (GINECO study). Univariate COX model analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of clinical and biological variables. Kaplan-Meier methods were used to generate progression-free and overall survival curves. Results Epithelial cells from the surface of the ovary and the fallopian tubes stained positive for CXCL12, whereas the follicles within the ovary did not. Epithelial cells in benign, borderline and malignant tumors also expressed CXCL12. In EOC specimens, CXCL12 immunoreactivity was observed mostly in epithelial tumor cells. The intensity of the signal obtained ranged from strong in 86 cases (47%) to absent in 18 cases (<10%). This uneven distribution of CXCL12 did not reflect the morphological heterogeneity of EOC. CXCL12 expression levels were not correlated with any of the clinical parameters currently used to determine EOC prognosis or with HER2 status. They also had no impact on progression-free or overall survival. Conclusion Our findings highlight the previously unappreciated constitutive expression of CXCL12 on healthy epithelia of the ovary surface and fallopian tubes, indicating that EOC may originate from either of these epithelia. We reveal that CXCL12 production by malignant epithelial cells precedes tumorigenesis and we confirm in a large cohort of patients with advanced EOC that CXCL12 expression level in EOC is not a valuable prognostic factor in itself. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00052468 PMID:21410972

  6. Sensitivity of proliferating human breast epithelial cells to hypotonic treatment.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, S E; Stanyon, R; Lan, S

    1982-12-01

    An assay for colony-forming cells of breast epithelia derived from normal and malignant surgical specimens is described using an IMR 90 fibroblast feeder layer. Their radiosensitivity (DO: 120-172) is consistent with the proliferative origin of the colonies. Distilled water inhibits proliferation of a proportion of the colony-forming cells after a 1-minute exposure. Continued detection of colonies after 10 minutes of exposure indicates that it is an inefficient way of completely eradicating proliferating epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin. PMID:6292581

  7. Sensitivity of proliferating human breast epithelial cells to hypotonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstone, S.E.; Stanyon, R.; Lan, S.

    1982-12-01

    An assay for colony-forming cells of breast epithelia derived from normal and malignant surgical specimens is described using an IMR 90 fibroblast feeder layer. Their radiosensitivity (DO: 120-172) is consistent with the proliferative origin of the colonies. Distilled water inhibits proliferation of a proportion of the colony-forming cells after a 1-minute exposure. Continued detection of colonies after 10 minutes of exposure indicates that it is an inefficient way of completely eradicating proliferating epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin.

  8. Isolation of intestinal epithelial cells and evaluation of transport functions

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmich, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Epithelial cells can be isolated from the small intestine of chickens by a procedure involving hyaluronidase treatment of the intact tissue. The isolated cells retain a high degree of functional activity as assessed by the formation of 70-fold gradients of alpha-MG. Stability of the sugar gradients reflects maintenance of stable electrochemical Na+ gradients across the plasma membrane. The cells can be used to evaluate the properties of Na(+)-dependent sugar transport, Na(+)-independent sugar transport, ion transport, metabolism, membrane potentials, and the integration of these events, all of which are important to achieving a stable sugar gradient.

  9. Curcumin inhibits human retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YUN; YOU, ZHI-PENG

    2014-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a common cause of intraoperative failure following retinal reattachment surgery and is mediated in part through the migration, de-differentiation and proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Given the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on epithelial and endothelial cells, in this study, we assessed the effects of curcumin on human RPE (hRPE) cell proliferation. WST-1 analysis revealed that curcumin significantly inhibited primary hRPE cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.001) with the greatest inhibition observed at the dose of 15 μg/ml curcumin. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on hRPE cell proliferation were mediated by cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and the induction of apoptosis (both P<0.001), which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that curcumin induced p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression with a concomitant decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein levels (P<0.05). Curcumin effectively inhibited primary hRPE cell proliferation, which may be mediated by the p53 pathway. Further in vivo studies are required in order to fully explore the therapeutic potential of curcumin for PVR. PMID:25070648

  10. Human corneal epithelial cell response to substrate stiffness.

    PubMed

    Molladavoodi, Sara; Kwon, Hyock-Ju; Medley, John; Gorbet, Maud

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that mechanical stimulus can affect cellular behavior. While induced differentiation in stem cells and proliferation and directional migration in fibroblasts are reported as responses to mechanical stimuli, little is known about the response of cells from the cornea. In the present study, we investigated whether changes in substrate stiffness (measured by elastic modulus) affected the behavior of human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Polyacrylamide substrates with different elastic moduli (compliant, medium and stiff) were prepared and HCECs were cultured on them. HCECs responses, including cell viability, apoptosis, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, integrin-?3?1 expression and changes in cytoskeleton structure (actin fibers) and migratory behavior, were studied. No statistically significant cell activation, as measured by ICAM-1 expression, was observed. However, on compliant substrates, a higher number of cells were found to be apoptotic and disrupted actin fibers were observed. Furthermore, cells displayed a statistically significant lower migration speed on compliant substrates when compared with the stiffer substrates. Thus, corneal epithelial cells respond to changes in substrate stiffness, which may have implications in the understanding and perhaps treatment of corneal diseases, such as keratoconus. PMID:25305512

  11. Hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Esra; Wilhelm, Kristina; Bada, Alex; Makena, Patrudu S.; Gorantla, Vijay K.; Sinclair, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe acute lung injury are frequently administered high concentrations of oxygen (>50%) during mechanical ventilation. Long-term exposure to high levels of oxygen can cause lung injury in the absence of mechanical ventilation, but the combination of the two accelerates and increases injury. Hyperoxia causes injury to cells through the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to epithelial injury and the reasons for increased injury caused by mechanical ventilation are not well understood. We hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may be more susceptible to injury caused by mechanical ventilation if hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of the cells causing them to resist deformation. To test this hypothesis, we used atomic force microscopy in the indentation mode to measure the mechanical properties of cultured AECs. Exposure of AECs to hyperoxia for 24 to 48 h caused a significant increase in the elastic modulus (a measure of resistance to deformation) of both primary rat type II AECs and a cell line of mouse AECs (MLE-12). Hyperoxia also caused remodeling of both actin and microtubules. The increase in elastic modulus was blocked by treatment with cytochalasin D. Using finite element analysis, we showed that the increase in elastic modulus can lead to increased stress near the cell perimeter in the presence of stretch. We then demonstrated that cyclic stretch of hyperoxia-treated cells caused significant cell detachment. Our results suggest that exposure to hyperoxia causes structural remodeling of AECs that leads to decreased cell deformability. PMID:22467640

  12. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S. )

    1989-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of (3H)TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation.

  13. Differential Glutamate Metabolism in Proliferating and Quiescent Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coloff, Jonathan L; Murphy, J Patrick; Braun, Craig R; Harris, Isaac S; Shelton, Laura M; Kami, Kenjiro; Gygi, Steven P; Selfors, Laura M; Brugge, Joan S

    2016-05-10

    Mammary epithelial cells transition between periods of proliferation and quiescence during development, menstrual cycles, and pregnancy, and as a result of oncogenic transformation. Utilizing an organotypic 3D tissue culture model coupled with quantitative metabolomics and proteomics, we identified significant differences in glutamate utilization between proliferating and quiescent cells. Relative to quiescent cells, proliferating cells catabolized more glutamate via transaminases to couple non-essential amino acid (NEAA) synthesis to α-ketoglutarate generation and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis. As cells transitioned to quiescence, glutamine consumption and transaminase expression were reduced, while glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD) was induced, leading to decreased NEAA synthesis. Highly proliferative human tumors display high transaminase and low GLUD expression, suggesting that proliferating cancer cells couple glutamine consumption to NEAA synthesis to promote biosynthesis. These findings describe a competitive and partially redundant relationship between transaminases and GLUD, and they reveal how coupling of glutamate-derived carbon and nitrogen metabolism can be regulated to support cell proliferation. PMID:27133130

  14. 293 cells express both epithelial as well as mesenchymal cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Inada, Masakazu; Izawa, Genya; Kobayashi, Wakako; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    The 293 cell line, used extensively in various types of studies due to the ease with which these cells can be transfected, was thought to be derived by the transformation of primary cultures of human embryonic kidney cells with sheared adenovirus type 5 DNA. Although the 293 cells were assumed to originate from epithelial cells, the exact origin of these cells remains unknown. Previous attempts to characterize these cells combined immunostaining, immunoblot analysis and microarray analysis to demonstrate that 293 cells express neurofilament subunits, α-internexin, and several other proteins typically found in neurons. These findings raised the possibility that the 293 cell line may have originated from human neuronal lineage cells. Contrary to this suggestion, in this study, we found that the 293 cells expressed N-cadherin and vimentin, which are marker proteins expressed in mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, the 293 cells also expressed E-cadherin, cytokeratins 5/8 and desmoglein 2, which are epithelial cell markers. When the cells, primarily cultured from the kidneys of Clawn miniature swine and passaged 10-15 generations [termed porcine kidney epithelial (PKE) cells] were examined, they were found to be positive for the expression of both mesenchymal and epithelial markers. Thus, transformation by adenovirus was not necessary for the cells to express N-cadherin. Occludin and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, two components of tight junctions in epithelial and endothelial cells, were detected in the 293 and the PKE cells. Thus, the findings of the present study demonstrate that 293 cells retain several characteristics of epithelial cells. PMID:27121032

  15. Airway epithelial cells from asthmatic children differentially express proremodeling factors

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Guisa, Jesus M.; Powers, Claire; File, Daniele; Cochrane, Elizabeth; Jimenez, Nathalia; Debley, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The airway epithelium can express factors that drive subepithelial airway remodeling. TGF-β2, vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 33 (ADAM33), and periostin are hypothesized to be involved in subepithelial remodeling and are overexpressed in adult asthmatic airways. Epidemiologic data suggest that lung function deficits in asthmatic patients are acquired in childhood. Objectives We sought to determine whether airway epithelial cells (AECs) from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-β2, VEGF, ADAM33, or periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children intrinsically or in response to IL-4/IL-13 stimulation. Methods Bronchial and nasal epithelial cells were obtained from brushings from well-characterized asthmatic (n = 16), atopic nonasthmatic (n = 9), and healthy (n = 15) children after achievement of anesthesia for elective procedures. After differentiation at an air-liquid interface (ALI) for 3 weeks, conditioned media were sampled and RNA was extracted from unstimulated and IL-4/IL-13–stimulated cultures. TGF-β2 and VEGF levels were measured with ELISA. ADAM33 and periostin expression was assessed by using real-time PCR. Results TGF-β2 and VEGF production was significantly greater in bronchial and nasal ALI cultures from asthmatic children than in cultures from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. TGF-β2 levels increased significantly in asthmatic cultures after IL-4/IL-13 stimulation. Within-subject correlation between nasal and bronchial ALI production of TGF-β2 (r = 0.64, P = .001) and VEGF (r = 0.73, P < .001) was good. Periostin expression was 3.7-fold higher in bronchial cells (P < .001) and 3.9-fold higher in nasal cells (P < .004) from asthmatic children than in cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children. ADAM33 was not differentially expressed by AECs from asthmatic patients compared with that from cells from atopic nonasthmatic or healthy children. Conclusion AECs from asthmatic children differentially express TGF-β2, VEGF, and periostin compared with cells from atopic nonasthmatic and healthy children. Nasal epithelial cells might be a suitable surrogate for bronchial cells that could facilitate investigation of the airway epithelium in future longitudinal pediatric studies. PMID:22227417

  16. Protein-Coated Nanoparticles Are Internalized by the Epithelial Cells of the Female Reproductive Tract and Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Savannah E.; Konjufca, Vjollca H.

    2014-01-01

    The female reproductive tract (FRT) includes the oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus, cervix and vagina. A layer of columnar epithelium separates the endocervix and uterus from the outside environment, while the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The mucosa of the FRT is exposed to antigens originating from microflora, and occasionally from infectious microorganisms. Whether epithelial cells (ECs) of the FRT take up (sample) the lumen antigens is not known. To address this question, we examined the uptake of 20–40 nm nanoparticles (NPs) applied vaginally to mice which were not treated with hormones, epithelial disruptors, or adjuvants. We found that 20 and 40 nm NPs are quickly internalized by ECs of the upper FRT and within one hour could be observed in the lymphatic ducts that drain the FRT, as well as in the ileac lymph nodes (ILNs) and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Chicken ovalbumin (Ova) conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova) when administered vaginally reaches the internal milieu in an immunologically relevant form; thus vaginal immunization of mice with NP-Ova induces systemic IgG to Ova antigen. Most importantly, vaginal immunization primes the intestinal mucosa for secretion of sIgA. Sub-cutaneous (s.c) boosting immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) further elevates the systemic (IgG1 and IgG2c) as well as mucosal (IgG1 and sIgA) antibody titers. These findings suggest that the modes of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces and pathways of antigen transport are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:25490456

  17. Prion Infection of Epithelial Rov Cells Is a Polarized Event

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Sophie; Sabuncu, Elifsu; Delaunay, Jean-Louis; Laude, Hubert; Vilette, Didier

    2004-01-01

    During prion infections, the cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein PrP is converted into a conformational isoform. This abnormal conformer is thought to recruit and convert the normal cellular PrP into a likeness of itself and is proposed to be the infectious agent. We investigated the distribution of the PrP protein on the surface of Rov cells, an epithelial cell line highly permissive to prion multiplication, and we found that PrP is primarily expressed on the apical side. We further show that prion transmission to Rov cells is much more efficient if infectivity contacts the apical side, indicating that the apical and basolateral sides of Rov cells are not equally competent for prion infection and adding prions to the list of the conventional infectious agents (viruses and bacteria) that infect epithelial cells in a polarized manner. These data raise the possibility that apically expressed PrP may be involved in this polarized process of infection. This would add further support for a crucial role of PrP at the cell surface in prion infection of target cells. PMID:15194791

  18. Adherent properties of Helicobacter pylori to human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Shen, Hou-Feng; Chen, Hong-Ju

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the properties and factors of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) adherence to human epithelial cells. METHODS:The adherent properties of human epithelial cells were studied using a group of isolated H. pylori strains, anti-H. pylori monoclonal antibodies and varied pH environment in in vitro adherence model with HEp2 cells. RESULTS: H. pylori YC 11A was able to adhere to HEp2 cells specifically and its adherence efficiency reached the highest (81%) within 3 h after incubation with HEp2 cells. There was no significant difference between adherence in air and in 5% oxygen. The monoclonal antibodies specific to H. pylori predominant antigens did not inhibit activities on adherence of H. pylori to HEp2 cells. The pH value significantly affected the adherence process and the optimal pH was 3.0-4.6. CONCLUSION: H. pylori specifically adheres to HEp2 cells, and pH value significantly affects this process. A high level of anti-H. pylori predominant antibodies in serum may have no protective activities against H. pylori infection.

  19. Gelsolin modulation in epithelial and stromal cells of mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Chaponnier, C.; Gabbiani, G.

    1989-01-01

    Gelsolin, a Ca2+-sensitive protein present in many mammalian cells, regulates actin filament length by multiple mechanisms. In tumor cells, increased amounts of F-actin without change in its total amount have been observed, suggesting a modification in the organisation of this protein. The authors have localized gelsolin, total actin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and prekeratin in frozen sections of normal human breast and infiltrating duct carcinomas by immunohistochemistry. A positive staining for gelsolin was observed in normal epithelial and myoepithelial cells but not in stromal fibroblasts. In contrast, no staining for gelsolin was detectable in carcinomatous cells, with the exception of remaining myoepithelial cells; myofibroblasts of the stromal reaction displayed an intense positive reaction. The absence of gelsolin staining in the epithelial cells of breast carcinoma may reflect their dedifferentiation or proliferative and invasive activities. The appearance of gelsolin in stromal cells raises the question as to what is its function in this situation. The immunohistochemical detection of gelsolin may be a useful adjunct to the study of mammary gland epithelium malignant transformation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2538057

  20. Viability of freeze dried microencapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Nevala, Laura; Räikkönen, Johanna; Heljo, Petteri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2012-09-29

    Encapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 has been successfully used in experimental cell therapy of retinal degenerations and Parkinson's disease, but the long-term storage of encapsulated cells is still an unresolved question. Reconstitution of viable encapsulated cells from dry form would benefit the development of cell therapy products. We freeze dried and reconstituted microencapsulated ARPE19 and ARPE19-SEAP cells. Cross-linked alginate matrix with polycation (poly-l-lysine, cationic starch) coating was used for microencapsulation. Cell viability was assessed with fluorescence microscopy and oxygen consumption of the cells. Freeze dried and reconstituted cell microcapsules were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). We show partial viability of microencapsulated cells after freeze-drying. Unlike poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, cationic starch supported microcapsule shape and cell viability during freeze-drying. Trehalose pre-treatment augmented cell viability. Likewise, some lyoprotectants (trehalose, glycerol) enabled preservation of cell viability. Upon reconstitution the freeze dried cell microcapsules rapidly regained their original spherical shape. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that microencapsulated cells can retain their viability during freeze-drying. Therefore, this approach can be further optimized for the benefit of cell therapy product development. PMID:22820032

  1. Native type IV collagen induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like process in mammary epithelial cells MCF10A.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Neira, Roberto; Salazar, Eduardo Perez

    2012-12-01

    Basement membrane (BM) is a complex network of interacting proteins, including type IV collagen (Col IV) that acts as a scaffold that stabilizes the physical structures of tissues and regulates cellular processes. In the mammary gland, BM is a continuous deposit that separates epithelial cells from stroma, and its degradation is related with an increased potential for invasion and metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells are transdifferentiated to one mesenchymal state, and is a normal process during embryonic development, tissue remodeling and wound healing, as well as it has been implicated during cancer progression. In breast cancer cells, native Col IV induces migration and gelatinases secretion. However, the role of native Col IV on the EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells remains to be investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate that native Col IV induces down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, accompanied with an increase of Snail1, Snail2 and Sip1 transcripts. Native Col IV also induces an increase in N-cadherin and vimentin expression, an increase of MMP-2 secretion, the activation of FAK and NFκB, cell migration and invasion in MCF10A cells. In summary, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that native Col IV induces an EMT-like process in MCF10A human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. PMID:22981734

  2. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  3. Vaginal Pessary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your vagina). A pessary can also help many women who have stress urinary incontinence (the leaking of urine when you cough, strain or exercise). Pregnant women who have incontinence can also use a vaginal ...

  4. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer ... with Side Effects After Treatment Questions to Ask ...

  5. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It ... therapy Cancer of the cervix, ovaries, uterus or vagina Thyroid problems Bleeding during pregnancy can have several ...

  6. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... in women who are experiencing or have experienced menopause (change of life; the end of monthly menstrual ... heat and sweating) in women who are experiencing menopause. Premarin® brand vaginal cream is also used to ...

  7. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  8. Intercellular Protein Transfer from Thymocytes to Thymic Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Xia; Qiu, Yu-Rong; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Promiscuous expression of tissue restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) is crucial for negative selection of self-reactive T cells to establish central tolerance. Intercellular transfer of self-peptide-MHC complexes from mTECs to thymic dendritic cells (DCs) allows DCs to acquire TRAs, which in turn contributes to negative selection and regulatory T cell generation. However, mTECs are unlikely to express all TRAs, such as immunoglobulins generated only in B cells after somatic recombination, hyper-mutation, or class-switches. We report here that both mTECs and cortical TECs can efficiently acquire not only cell surface but also intracellular proteins from thymocytes. This reveals a previously unappreciated intercellular sharing of molecules from thymocytes to TECs, which may broaden the TRA inventory in mTECs for establishing a full spectrum of central tolerance. PMID:27022746

  9. Sprayed cultured mucosal epithelial cell for deep dermal burns.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru

    2010-11-01

    Mucosal epithelial cells have various advantages compared with epidermal cells, such as their high proliferation ability and long biologic activity. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical results after sprayed application of cultured mucosal epithelial autograft (CMEA) suspensions onto deep dermal burn wounds. Ten patients with deep dermal burns were included in a prospective study. The average total-body-surface-area burn was 17.7% (8%-45%). The average Abbreviated Burn Severity Index was 6.3 points (4-9 points). The application of sprayed CMEA suspension was performed onto an average body surface area of 2.05% (0.5%-5%; median, 2%). Eight patients were recruited for clinical follow-up after an average of 10 months (3-18 months). The average Vancouver Scar Scale score at follow-up was 1.5 points (range, 0-5 points). The average period of epithelialization in wound surface was 12.5 days. Our data show that enzymatic and careful surgical debridement and consecutive application of CMEA suspensions using a spray technique result in excellent cosmetic outcomes compared with any other methods. PMID:21119409

  10. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase π. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  11. Plasticity of Airway Epithelial Cell Transcriptome in Response to Flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Joan G.; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Basom, Ryan S.; Gharib, Sina A.

    2015-01-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are critical components of the inflammatory and immune response during exposure to pathogens. AECs in monolayer culture and differentiated epithelial cells in air-liquid interface (ALI) represent two distinct and commonly used in vitro models, yet differences in their response to pathogens have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the transcriptional effects of flagellin on AECs in monolayer culture versus ALI culture using whole-genome microarrays and RNA sequencing. We exposed monolayer and ALI AEC cultures to flagellin in vitro and analyzed the transcriptional response by microarray and RNA-sequencing. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to validate changes in select candidates. We found that AECs cultured in monolayer and ALI have strikingly different transcriptional states at baseline. When challenged with flagellin, monolayer AEC cultures greatly increased transcription of numerous genes mapping to wounding response, immunity and inflammatory response. In contrast, AECs in ALI culture had an unexpectedly muted response to flagellin, both in number of genes expressed and relative enrichment of inflammatory and immune pathways. We conclude that in vitro culturing methods have a dramatic effect on the transcriptional profile of AECs at baseline and after stimulation with flagellin. These differences suggest that epithelial responses to pathogen challenges are distinctly different in culture models of intact and injured epithelium. PMID:25668187

  12. Comparison of upstream regulators in human ex vivo cultured cornea limbal epithelial stem cells and differentiated corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The surface of the human eye is covered by corneal epithelial cells (CECs) which regenerate from a small population of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs). Cell therapy with LESCs is a non-penetrating treatment for preventing blindness due to LESC deficiency or dysfunction. Our aim was to identify new putative molecular markers and upstream regulators in the LESCs and associated molecular pathways. Results Genome-wide microarray transcriptional profiling was used to compare LESCs to differentiated human CECs. Ingenuity-based pathway analysis was applied to identify upstream regulators and pathways specific to LESCs. ELISA and flow cytometry were used to measure secreted and surface expressed proteins, respectively. More than 2 fold increase and decrease in expression could be found in 1830 genes between the two cell types. A number of molecules functioning in cellular movement (381), proliferation (567), development (552), death and survival (520), and cell-to-cell signaling (290) were detected having top biological functions in LESCs and several of these were confirmed by flow cytometric surface protein analysis. Custom-selected gene groups related to stemness, differentiation, cell adhesion, cytokines and growth factors as well as angiogenesis could be analyzed. The results show that LESCs play a key role not only in epithelial differentiation and tissue repair, but also in controlling angiogenesis and extracellular matrix integrity. Some pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be important in stemness-, differentiation- and angiogenesis-related biological functions: IL-6 and IL-8 participated in most of these biological pathways as validated by their secretion from LESC cultures. Conclusions The gene and molecular pathways may provide a more specific understanding of the signaling molecules associated with LESCs, therefore, help better identify and use these cells in the treatment of ocular surface diseases. PMID:24344983

  13. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17β concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses. PMID:22153266

  14. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  15. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

  16. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  17. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that showed signs of damage by viruses and virus titers (see figure) that indicated large increases in the populations of viruses during the days following inoculation.

  18. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  19. Isolation of Epithelial Cells from Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract for Western Blot or RNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeineldin, Maged; Neufeld, Kristi

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is lined by a single layer of epithelial cells which function in secretion, absorption, and digestion. In addition, most GI tract tumors develop from epithelial cells (carcinomas). This protocol describes isolation of the surface epithelium from the underlying stroma, muscular layer and submucosa in the GI tract. In this protocol, epithelial cell adhesions are weekend by chelating Ca +2 ions followed by mechanical separation of the cells by vortexing. Analysis of protein levels and gene expression patterns in isolated epithelial cells versus whole GI tissue minimizes the potential for confounding contributions from contaminating stromal cells. PMID:27148556

  20. Microvesicles released from tumor cells disrupt epithelial cell morphology and contractility.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Francois; Chan, Bryan; Antonyak, Marc A; Lampi, Marsha C; Cerione, Richard A; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A

    2016-05-24

    During tumor progression, cancer cells interact and communicate with non-malignant cells within their local microenvironment. Microvesicles (MV) derived from human cancer cells play an important role in mediating this communication. Another critical aspect of cancer progression involves widespread ECM remodeling, which occur both at the primary and metastatic sites. ECM remodeling and reorganization within the tumor microenvironment is generally attributed to fibroblasts. Here, using MCF10a cells, a well-characterized breast epithelial cell line that exhibits a non-malignant epithelial phenotype, and MVs shed by aggressive MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, we show that non-malignant epithelial cells can participate in ECM reorganization of 3D collagen matrices following their treatment with cancer cell-derived MVs. In addition, MVs trigger several changes in epithelial cells under 3D culture conditions. Furthermore, we show that this ECM reorganization is associated with an increase in cellular traction force following MV treatment, higher acto-myosin contractility, and higher FAK activity. Overall, our findings suggest that MVs derived from tumor cells can contribute to ECM reorganization occurring within the tumor microenvironment by enhancing the contractility of non-malignant epithelial cells. PMID:26477404

  1. How Bacteria-Induced Apoptosis of Intestinal Epithelial Cells Contributes to Mucosal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The life cycle of an intestinal epithelial cell is terminated by apoptosis and/or cell shedding. Apoptotic deletion of epithelial cells from the intact intestinal mucosa is not accompanied by detectable inflammatory response or loss of barrier function. But increased permeability of the epithelial barrier and increased apoptotic rates of epithelial cells have been reported for patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. Microbiota can both induce or inhibit apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells thus contribute to mucosal inflammation or support epithelial integrity respectively. Bacteria-mediated cytokine secretion and altered cell signalling are central to epithelial injury. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secreted after exposure to invasive bacteria induces both apoptosis and cell shedding. TNF is the major target gene of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B with both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects. Autophagy promotes both cell survival and autophagic cell death. If autophagy is directed against microbes it is termed xenophagy. Inhibition of xenophagy has been shown to decrease cell survival. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes misfolded proteins to accumulate in the ER lumen. It was suggested that ER stress and autophagy may interact within intestinal epithelial cells. Apoptosis in response to infection may be well proposed by the host to delete infected epithelial cells or could be a strategy of microbial pathogens to escape from exhausted cells to invade deeper mucosal layers for a prolonged bacterial colonization. PMID:21188215

  2. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sidjanin, D.; Grdina, D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  3. Interleukin-23 Increases Intestinal Epithelial Cell Permeability In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, Nathan P; Donohoe, Deborah; Fredrich, Katherine; Gourlay, David M; Liedel, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Background Breast milk has a heterogeneous composition that differs between mothers and changes throughout the first weeks after birth. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-23 has a highly variable expression in human breast milk. We hypothesize that IL-23 found in human breast milk is biologically active and promotes epithelial barrier dysfunction. Methods The immature rat small intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-18, was grown on cell inserts or standard cell culture plates. Confluent cultures were exposed to human breast milk with high or low levels of IL-23 and barrier function was measured using a flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD-70). In addition, protein and mRNA expression of occludin and ZO-1 were measured and immunofluorescence used to stain occludin and ZO-1. Results Exposure to breast milk with high levels of IL-23 caused an increase flux of FD-70 compared with both controls and breast milk with low levels of IL-23. The protein expression of ZO-1 but not occludin was decreased by exposure to high levels of IL-23. These results correlate with immunofluorescent staining of ZO-1 and occludin which show decreased staining of occludin in both the groups exposed to breast milk with high and low IL-23. Conversely, cells exposed to high IL-23 breast milk had little peripheral staining of ZO-1 compared with controls and low IL-23 breast milk. Conclusion IL-23 in human breast milk is biologically active and negatively affects the barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells through the degradation of tight junction proteins. PMID:26007691

  4. Tubular Bridges for Bronchial Epithelial Cell Migration and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zani, Brett G.; Indolfi, Laura; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological processes from embryogenesis to tumorigenesis rely on the coordinated coalescence of cells and synchronized cell-to-cell communication. Intercellular signaling enables cell masses to communicate through endocrine pathways at a distance or by direct contact over shorter dimensions. Cellular bridges, the longest direct connections between cells, facilitate transfer of cellular signals and components over hundreds of microns in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Using various cellular imaging techniques on human tissue cultures, we identified two types of tubular, bronchial epithelial (EP) connections, up to a millimeter in length, designated EP bridges. Structurally distinct from other cellular connections, the first type of EP bridge may mediate transport of cellular material between cells, while the second type of EP bridge is functionally distinct from all other cellular connections by mediating migration of epithelial cells between EP masses. Morphological and biochemical interactions with other cell types differentially regulated the nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase inflammatory pathways, resulting in increased levels of inflammatory molecules that impeded EP bridge formation. Pharmacologic inhibition of these inflammatory pathways caused increased morphological and mobility changes stimulating the biogenesis of EP bridges, in part through the upregulation of reactive oxygen species pathways. Conclusions/Significance EP bridge formation appears to be a normal response of EP physiology in vitro, which is differentially inhibited by inflammatory cellular pathways depending upon the morphological and biochemical interactions between EP cells and other cell types. These tubular EP conduits may represent an ultra long-range form of direct intercellular communication and a completely new mechanism of tissue-mediated cell migration. PMID:20126618

  5. Nectin 4 is the epithelial cell receptor for measles virus.

    PubMed

    Noyce, Ryan S; Richardson, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Measles virus (MV) causes acute respiratory disease, infects lymphocytes and multiple organs, and produces immune suppression leading to secondary infections. In rare instances it can also cause persistent infections in the brain and central nervous system. Vaccine and laboratory-adapted strains of MV use CD46 as a receptor, whereas wild-type strains of MV (wtMV) cannot. Both vaccine and wtMV strains infect lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs) using the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (CD150/SLAM). In addition, MV can infect the airway epithelial cells of the host. Nectin 4 (PVRL4) was recently identified as the epithelial cell receptor for MV. Coupled with recent observations made in MV-infected macaques, this discovery has led to a new paradigm for how the virus accesses the respiratory tract and exits the host. Nectin 4 is also a tumor cell marker which is highly expressed on the apical surface of many adenocarcinoma cell lines, making it a potential target for MV oncolytic therapy. PMID:22721863

  6. Biomarkers of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, C.S.; Van Tubergen, E.A.; Inglehart, R.C.; DSilva, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the process by which tumor cells destroy the basement membrane of the surface epithelium, invade, and metastasize is essential to the development of novel treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In recent years, there has been increased interest in the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in invasion. EMT is a process that describes the development of motile, mesenchymal-like cells from non-motile parent epithelial cells. There are 3 known types of EMT that mediate development, wound healing, and carcinogenesis. This review summarizes studies of known EMT biomarkers in the context of HNSCC progression. The biomarkers discussed come from a wide range of proteins, including cell-surface proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Integrins), cytoskeletal proteins (?-Smooth Muscle Actin, Vimentin, and ?-catenin), extracellular matrix proteins (Collagens, Fibronectin, and Laminin), and transcription factors (SNAIL1, SNAIL2, TWIST, and LEF-1). Overall, the findings of these studies suggest that EMT mediates HNSCC progression. The mechanistic role of the EMT markers that have been associated with HNSCC should be more clearly defined if new anti-HNSCC therapies to block EMT progression are to be developed. PMID:23128109

  7. Thin collagen film scaffolds for retinal epithelial cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lu, James T; Lee, Christina J; Bent, Stacey F; Fishman, Harvey A; Sabelman, Eric E

    2007-03-01

    Collagen films have been used in biological implantation and surgical grafts. The development of thin collagen films on the order of 10 microm thick that ensure a planar distribution of implanted cells is a necessary step towards surgical grafts for treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, collagen films were manufactured on a Teflon support to a thickness of 2.4+/-0.2 microm, comparable to that of native Bruch's membrane. Because one important function of Bruch's membrane is allowing the flow of nutrients and waste to and from the retinal pigment epithelium the diffusion properties of the collagen films were studied using blind-well chambers. The diffusion coefficient of the collagen film was determined to be 4.1 x 10(-10)cm(2)/s for 71,200 Da dextran molecules. Viability studies utilizing the blind-well chambers also confirmed that nutrient transport through the films was sufficient to sustain retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The films were bioassayed in a RPE cell culture model to confirm cell attachment and viability. RPE cells were shown to form an epithelial phenotype and were able to phagocytize photoreceptor outer segments. PMID:17161864

  8. Chloropicrin-induced toxic responses in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Maija; Häkkinen, Merja; Rilla, Kirsi; Juvonen, Risto; Kuitunen, Tapio; Pasanen, Markku; Vähäkangas, Kirsi

    2014-04-21

    Chloropicrin is a slowly evaporating toxic irritant that is known to cause damage in the respiratory system. Here we used a lung epithelial cell line (A549) to study the molecular responses underlying chloropicrin toxicity. Glutathione (GSH), synthetic peptide and 2'-deoxyguanosine were used as in vitro trapping agents to identify early markers of chloropicrin toxicity. Microscopy of the cells revealed massive vacuolization by chloropicrin exposure (80-100μM). The number of apoptotic cells increased with the chloropicrin concentration as assessed by flow cytometry. Immunoblotting analysis revealed increases in the amount of four proteins (p53, p21, p27 and phospho-Erk1/2) that are involved in DNA-damage, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. Chloropicrin evoked a dose-dependent increase in levels of reactive oxygen species within one hour of exposure. The treatment triggered also the formation of disulphide bonds between the model thiol-containing peptides as analysed by LC/MS. Chloropicrin did not form stable adducts with the model peptides or 2'-deoxyguanosine. N-acetyl-cysteine (1mM NAC) fully prevented the vacuoles and chloropicrin-induced cytotoxicity. The results suggest that an oxidative insult, particularly modification of free sulfhydryl groups in proteins is involved in the acute toxicity evoked by chloropicrin in airway epithelial cells. The protective effect of NAC as a potential antidote in chloropicrin intoxication will require further investigation. PMID:24548678

  9. Isoprenaline induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Jie; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhao, Xiang-Yang; Wei, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The emerging role of stress-related signaling in regulating cancer development and progression has been recognized. However, whether stress serves as a mechanism to promote gastric cancer metastasis is not clear. Here, we show that the β2-AR agonist, isoprenaline, upregulates expression levels of CD44 and CD44v8-10 in gastric cancer cells. CD44, a cancer stem cell-related marker, is expressed at high levels in gastric cancer tissues, which strongly correlates with the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated phenotypes both in vivo and in vitro. Combined with experimental observations in two human gastric cancer cell lines, we found that β2-AR signaling can initiate EMT. It led to an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as α-SMA, vimentin, and snail at mRNA and protein levels, and conversely a decrease in epithelial markers, E-cadherin and β-catenin. Isoprenaline stimulation of β2-AR receptors activates the downstream target STAT3, which functions as a positive regulator and mediated the phenotypic switch toward a mesenchymal cell type in gastric cancer cells. Our data provide a mechanistic understanding of the complex signaling cascades involving stress-related hormones and their effects on EMT. In light of our observations, pharmacological interventions targeting β2-AR-STAT3 signaling can potentially be used to ameliorate stress-associated influences on gastric cancer development and progression. PMID:26253173

  10. Aldose Reductase Inhibition Prevents Metaplasia of Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Umesh C. S.; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Ramana, Kota V.; Boldogh, Istvan; Srivastava, Satish K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Goblet cell metaplasia that causes mucus hypersecretion and obstruction in the airway lumen could be life threatening in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-13 mediate the transformation of airway ciliary epithelial cells to mucin-secreting goblet cells in acute as well as chronic airway inflammatory diseases. However, no effective and specific pharmacologic treatment is currently available. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which aldose reductase (AR) regulates the mucus cell metaplasia in vitro and in vivo. Methodology/Findings Metaplasia in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) was induced by a Th2 cytokine, IL-13, without or with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. After 48 h of incubation with IL-13 a large number of SAEC were transformed into goblet cells as determined by periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-staining and immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Mucin5AC. Further, IL-13 significantly increased the expression of Mucin5AC at mRNA and protein levels. These changes were significantly prevented by treatment of the SAEC with AR inhibitor. AR inhibition also decreased IL-13-induced expression of Muc5AC, Muc5B, and SPDEF, and phosphorylation of JAK-1, ERK1/2 and STAT-6. In a mouse model of ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced allergic asthma treatment with fidarestat prevented the expression of IL-13, phosphorylation of STAT-6 and transformation of epithelial cells to goblet cells in the lung. Additionally, while the AR-null mice were resistant, wild-type mice showed goblet cell metaplasia after challenge with RWE. Conclusions The results show that exposure of SAEC to IL-13 caused goblet cell metaplasia, which was significantly prevented by AR inhibition. Administration of fidarestat to mice prevented RWE-induced goblet cell metaplasia and AR null mice were largely resistant to allergen induced changes in the lung. Thus our results indicate that AR inhibitors such as fidarestat could be developed as therapeutic agents to prevent goblet cell metaplasia in asthma and related pathologies. PMID:21203431

  11. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  12. Niche induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Kailin R.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Yang; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Haberman, Ann M.; Greco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression)1,2. Contrary to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration3. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice4–6 that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbors. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through TGFβ activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  13. Cell surface morphology in epithelial malignancy and its precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; Davina, J H; de Haan, R W; van der Zanden, P; Vooys, G P; Stolk, J G; Stadhouders, A M

    1981-01-01

    The cell surface organization of cancer cells is of potentially great significance, as it may not only allow (early) diagnosis, but as it may also harbour markers for refined prognosis (degree of oncogenetic and metastatic potential), and targets for selective cancer (chemo- and immuno) therapy. With these aspects in mind, the present review deals with SEM work done on (pre-) malignant cells, both in vivo and in vitro, and in animal models. Attention, however, is focused on human cancer cells. Cancer cells in vitro may lose many of their original malignant characteristics, and show adaptations to culture conditions. Many other factors have been shown to influence cell surface morphology, such as cell cycle, cell contacts, and preparations technique. Cancer cells differ in their surface morphology from normal cells, and have an extra ordinary amount of surface activity. Human malignant epithelial cells show abundant long. pleomorphic microvilli, especially those present in effusions. In squamous epithelium (bladder, cervix) microridge system present on normal superficial cells are progressively replaced by microvilli which increase in number and degree of pleomorphism during experimental and clinical oncogenesis. The question of whether or not the appearance of long. Pleomorphic microvilli reflects an irreversible alteration of the epithelium, and thus provides an early marker of irreversible neoplastic transformation is considered and assessed on the basis of our work with (pre-) malignant cells of the human uterine cervix. Although SEM has contributed significantly to the description of oncogenesis, up to now it has no early diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic significance. PMID:7199203

  14. In vitro adhesion of Escherichia coli to porcine small intestinal epithelial cells: pili as adhesive factors.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, R E; Fusco, P C; Brinton, C C; Moon, H W

    1978-08-01

    Escherichia coli strains with pili (K99 or 987P) known to facilitate intestinal colonization adhered in vitro to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. These strains adhered equally to both ileal and jejunal epithelial cells. A laboratory E. coli strain that has type 1 pili also adhered to porcine intestinal epithelial cells. When nonpiliated cells derived from 987P+, K99+, or type 1 pilus+ strains were used for in vitro adhesion assays, they failed to adhere. The attachment of piliated bacteria to epithelial cells was a saturable process that plateaued at 30 to 40 bacterial cells attached per epithelial cell. Competitive inhibition of bacterial cell attachment to epithelial cells with purified pili showed that only purified 987P competed against the 987P+ strain and only purified type 1 pili competed against the type 1 pilus+ strain. Competition between a K99+ strain and K99 was not consistently achieved. K99+, 987P+, and type 1 pilus+ bacteria could be prevented from adhering to epithelial cells by Fab fragments specific for K99, 987P, or type 1 pili, respectively. Fab fragments specific for non-K99 bacterial surface antigens did not inhibit adhesion of the K99+ strain. It is concluded that adhesion of E. coli to porcine intestinal epithelial cells in vitro is mediated by pili and that the epithelial cells used apparently had different receptors for different pili. PMID:357285

  15. Isolating Epithelial and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Populations from Primary Tumors by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Nicole M; Rhim, Andrew D; Stanger, Ben Z

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic mice that express conditional reporters allow for the isolation of specific cell lineages. These cells can be further stratified by gene expression and collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for further analysis. Using Cre-recombinase (Cre) technology we have generated a transgenic mouse line termed PKCY in which all pancreatic epithelial cells and therefore all pancreatic cancer cells are constitutively labeled with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). We have used immunofluorescent staining for E-cadherin to divide the YFP(+) tumor population into epithelial cells (E-cadherin positive) and cells that have undergone an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT; E-cadherin negative). This protocol describes how to prepare a tumor sample for FACS, with an emphasis on separating epithelial and EMT populations. These cells can then be used for a number of applications including, but not limited to, the generation of cell lines, gene-expression analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) or RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and western blots. PMID:26729901

  16. Inflammatory response modulation of airway epithelial cells exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Persoz, Charles; Achard, Sophie; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2012-06-01

    The two main difficulties when assessing the role and action mechanism of environmental pollutant exposure on the respiratory tract using in vitro methodology are firstly to create exposure conditions that closely mimic the human situation, and secondly to choose an experimental model that accurately represents lung compartment complexity, with different types of cell interaction. The aim of this study was to resolve these two challenges. The first of our difficulties was to find the closest experimental conditions to mimic respiratory environmental pollutant exposure. We compared the effects of formaldehyde (FA) on two cellular models, alveolar and bronchial cell lines, respectively A549 and BEAS-2B. The cells were exposed for 30 min to an environmental dose of gaseous FA (50 μg/m³) at the air-liquid interface. In order to mimic macrophage-epithelial cell cooperation, sensitizations (with TNFα or with conditioned medium from macrophages--CM) prior to gas exposure were applied. After toxicity evaluation, local inflammation was assessed by IL-8 and MCP-1 production 24h after exposure. In our experimental conditions FA had no effects on alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells without any sensitization. FA exposure after TNFα sensitization alone induced a moderate increase of IL-8 by A549 cells. After sensitization with CM, FA exposure induced a strong increase of IL-8 production by A549 cells in comparison to air, whereas a decrease of MCP-1 production was observed on BEAS-2B cells. It appears that the response of alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells to FA was moderate and that complex sensitization refines the inflammatory response to environmental stresses. When sensitized with CM, these cell lines responded differently to FA exposure. Finally by interacting with the respiratory epithelium, FA could exacerbate the inflammation of airways that occurs in severe asthma, and even synergize the effects of other air pollutants such as allergens. Evaluation of nasal cell inflammatory response could shed further light on the effects of FA on respiratory epithelium. PMID:22484645

  17. Novel strategies to enforce an epithelial phenotype in mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Swiss, Rachel; Gao, Beile; Agaisse, Hervé

    2014-07-15

    E-cadherin downregulation in cancer cells is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic prowess, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. In this study, we probed E-cadherin expression at the plasma membrane as a functional assay to identify genes involved in E-cadherin downregulation. The assay was based on the E-cadherin-dependent invasion properties of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. On the basis of a functional readout, automated microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis were used to screen siRNAs targeting 7,000 human genes. The validity of the screen was supported by its definition of several known regulators of E-cadherin expression, including ZEB1, HDAC1, and MMP14. We identified three new regulators (FLASH, CASP7, and PCGF1), the silencing of which was sufficient to restore high levels of E-cadherin transcription. In addition, we identified two new regulators (FBXL5 and CAV2), the silencing of which was sufficient to increase E-cadherin expression at a posttranscriptional level. FLASH silencing regulated the expression of E-cadherin and other ZEB1-dependent genes, through posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB1, but it also regulated the expression of numerous ZEB1-independent genes with functions predicted to contribute to a restoration of the epithelial phenotype. Finally, we also report the identification of siRNA duplexes that potently restored the epithelial phenotype by mimicking the activity of known and putative microRNAs. Our findings suggest new ways to enforce epithelial phenotypes as a general strategy to treat cancer by blocking invasive and metastatic phenotypes associated with EMT. PMID:24845104

  18. Novel strategies to enforce an epithelial phenotype in mesenchymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Swiss, Rachel; Gao, Beile; Agaisse, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin downregulation in cancer cells is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic prowess, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. In this study, we probed E-cadherin expression at the plasma membrane as a functional assay to identify genes involved in E-cadherin downregulation. The assay was based on the E-cadherin-dependent invasion properties of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. On the basis of a functional readout, automated microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis were used to screen siRNAs targeting 7,000 human genes. The validity of the screen was supported by its definion of several known regulators of E-cadherin expression, including ZEB1, HDAC1 and MMP14. We identified three new regulators (FLASH, CASP7 and PCGF1), the silencing of which was sufficient to restore high levels of E-cadherin transcription. Additionally, we identified two new regulators (FBXL5 and CAV2), the silencing of which was sufficient to increase E-cadherin expression at a post-transcriptional level. FLASH silencing regulated the expression of E-cadherin and other ZEB1-dependent genes, through post-transcriptional regulation of ZEB1, but it also regulated the expression of numerous ZEB1-independent genes with functions predicted to contribute to a restoration of the epithelial phenotype. Finally, we also report the identification of siRNA duplexes that potently restored the epithelial phenotype by mimicking the activity of known and putative microRNAs. Our findings suggest new ways to enforce epithelial phenotypes as a general strategy to treat cancer by blocking invasive and metastatic phenotypes associated with EMT. PMID:24845104

  19. OCRL1 Modulates Cilia Length in Renal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rbaibi, Youssef; Cui, Shanshan; Mo, Di; Carattino, Marcelo; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Satlin, Lisa M.; Szalinski, Christina M.; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Fölsch, Heike; Hukriede, Neil A.; Weisz, Ora A.

    2013-01-01

    Lowe syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by cataracts at birth, mental retardation and progressive renal malfunction that results from loss of function of the OCRL1 (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) protein. OCRL1 is a lipid phosphatase that converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. The renal pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome patients has been suggested to result from alterations in membrane trafficking, but this cannot fully explain the disease progression. We found that knockdown of OCRL1 in zebrafish caused developmental defects consistent with disruption of ciliary function, including body axis curvature, pericardial edema, hydrocephaly and impaired renal clearance. In addition, cilia in the proximal tubule of the zebrafish pronephric kidney were longer in ocrl morphant embryos. We also found that knockdown of OCRL1 in polarized renal epithelial cells caused elongation of the primary cilium and disrupted formation of cysts in three-dimensional cultures. Calcium release in response to ATP was blunted in OCRL1 knockdown cells, suggesting changes in signaling that could lead to altered cell function. Our results suggest a new role for OCRL1 in renal epithelial cell function that could contribute to the pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome. PMID:22680056

  20. EGF stimulates Mg(2+) influx in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Valentina; Arduini, Daniela; Luongo, Francesca; Wolf, Federica I

    2014-10-30

    Magnesium is well established as a fundamental factor that regulates cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms linking mitogenic signals, extracellular magnesium availability and intracellular effectors are still largely unknown. In the present study we sought to determine whether EGF regulates magnesium homeostasis in normal HC11 mammary epithelial cells. To this end, we measured Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) fluxes by confocal imaging in live cells loaded with specific fluorescent ion indicators (Mag-Fluo-4 and Fluo-4, respectively). EGF stimulation induces a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular Mg(2+), concomitantly with a rise in intracellular calcium. The increase in intracellular Mg(2+) derives from an influx from the extracellular compartment, and does not depend on Ca(2+). On the contrary, the increase in intracellular Ca(2+) derives from intracellular stores, and is impaired in the absence of extracellular magnesium. Inhibition of the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase by Tyrphostin AG1478 markedly inhibits EGF-induced Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) signals. These findings demonstrate that not only does Mg(2+) influx represent an important step in the physiological response of epithelial cells to EGF, but unexpectedly the EGF-induced Mg(2+) influx is essential for the Ca(2+) signal to occur. PMID:25450695

  1. Generation of airway epithelial cells with native characteristics from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshie, Susumu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Otsuki, Koshi; Ikeda, Masakazu; Nomoto, Yukio; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are expected to be a useful source for the regeneration of airway epithelium. Our preliminary study of embryoid body (EB) formation and the air-liquid interface (ALI) method suggested that mouse iPS cells can differentiate into airway epithelial cells. However, whether the cells generated from mouse iPS cells had the character and phenotype of native airway epithelial cells remained uninvestigated. In this study, we generated airway epithelial cells from EBs by culturing them under serum-free conditions supplemented with Activin and bFGF and by the ALI method and characterized the iPS cell-derived airway epithelial cells in terms of their gene expression, immunoreactivity, morphology, and function. Analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) revealed that the expression of the undifferentiated cell marker Nanog decreased time-dependently after the induction of differentiation, whereas definitive endoderm markers Foxa2 and Cxcr4 were transiently up-regulated. Thereafter, the expression of airway epithelium markers such as Tubb4a, Muc5ac, and Krt5 was detected by RT-PCR and immunostaining. The formation of tight junctions was also confirmed by immunostaining and permeability assay. Analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the cells generated from mouse iPS cells formed airway-epithelium-like tissue and had cilia, the movement of which was visualized and observed to be synchronized. These results demonstrate that the airway epithelial cells generated by our method have native characteristics and open new perspectives for the regeneration of injured airway epithelium. PMID:26590823

  2. Multicolor Cell Barcoding Technology for Long-Term Surveillance of Epithelial Regeneration in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Hui; Puliafito, Alberto; Cox, Ben D; Primo, Luca; Fang, Yi; Di Talia, Stefano; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-03-21

    Current fate mapping and imaging platforms are limited in their ability to capture dynamic behaviors of epithelial cells. To deconstruct regenerating adult epithelial tissue at single-cell resolution, we created a multicolor system, skinbow, that barcodes the superficial epithelial cell (SEC) population of zebrafish skin with dozens of distinguishable tags. With image analysis to directly segment and simultaneously track hundreds of SECs in vivo over entire surface lifetimes, we readily quantified the orchestration of cell emergence, growth, repositioning, and loss under homeostatic conditions and after exfoliation or appendage amputation. We employed skinbow-based imaging in conjunction with a live reporter of epithelial stem cell cycle activity and as an instrument to evaluate the effects of reactive oxygen species on SEC behavior during epithelial regeneration. Our findings introduce a platform for large-scale, quantitative in vivo imaging of regenerating skin and reveal unanticipated collective dynamism in epithelial cell size, mobility, and interactions. PMID:27003938

  3. Force dependence of phagosome trafficking in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Rebekah; Koll, Andrew T.; Altman, David

    2014-09-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play an integral role in the renewal of photoreceptor disk membranes. As rod and cone cells shed their outer segments, they are phagocytosed and degraded by the RPE, and a failure in this process can result in retinal degeneration. We have studied the role of myosin VI in nonspecific phagocytosis in a human RPE primary cell line (ARPE-19), testing the hypothesis that this motor generates the forces required to traffic phagosomes in these cells. Experiments were conducted in the presence of forces through the use of in vivo optical trapping. Our results support a role for myosin VI in phagosome trafficking and demonstrate that applied forces modulate rates of phagosome trafficking.

  4. Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Jelena R.; Miura, Haruko; Meixner, Lisa K.; Irmler, Martin; Kloos, Uwe J.; Hirschi, Benjamin; Bartsch, Harald S.; Sass, Steffen; Beckers, Johannes; Theis, Fabian J.; Gabka, Christian; Sotlar, Karl; Scheel, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an organoid regeneration assay in which freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in adherent or floating collagen gels, corresponding to a rigid or compliant matrix environment. In both conditions, luminal progenitors form spheres, whereas basal cells generate branched ductal structures. In compliant but not rigid collagen gels, branching ducts form alveoli at their tips, express basal and luminal markers at correct positions, and display contractility, which is required for alveologenesis. Thereby, branched structures generated in compliant collagen gels resemble terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the mammary gland. Using the membrane metallo-endopeptidase CD10 as a surface marker enriches for TDLU formation and reveals the presence of stromal cells within the CD49fhi/EpCAM− population. In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. PMID:26071498

  5. Galvanotactic control of collective cell migration in epithelial monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Daniel J.; James Nelson, W.; Maharbiz, Michel M.

    2014-04-01

    Many normal and pathological biological processes involve the migration of epithelial cell sheets. This arises from complex emergent behaviour resulting from the interplay between cellular signalling networks and the forces that physically couple the cells. Here, we demonstrate that collective migration of an epithelium can be interactively guided by applying electric fields that bias the underlying signalling networks. We show that complex, spatiotemporal cues are locally interpreted by the epithelium, resulting in rapid, coordinated responses such as a collective U-turn, divergent migration, and unchecked migration against an obstacle. We observed that the degree of external control depends on the size and shape of the cell population, and on the existence of physical coupling between cells. Together, our results offer design and engineering principles for the rational manipulation of the collective behaviour and material properties of a tissue.

  6. Plasticity of epithelial stem cells in tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Blanpain, Cédric; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Tissues rely upon stem cells for homeostasis and repair. Recent studies show that the fate and multilineage potential of epithelial stem cells can change depending on whether a stem cell exists within its resident niche and responds to normal tissue homeostasis, whether it is mobilized to repair a wound, or whether it is taken from its niche and challenged to de novo tissue morphogenesis after transplantation. In this Review, we discuss how different populations of naturally lineage-restricted stem cells and committed progenitors can display remarkable plasticity and reversibility and reacquire long-term self-renewing capacities and multilineage differentiation potential during physiological and regenerative conditions. We also discuss the implications of cellular plasticity for regenerative medicine and for cancer. PMID:24926024

  7. Culture and characterization of oral mucosal epithelial cells on human amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhira, Soundarya Lakshmi; Vemuganti, Geeta; Bhaduri, Anirban; Gaddipati, Subhash; Sangwan, Virender Singh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To culture oral mucosal epithelial cells on deepithelialized human amniotic membrane without the use of feeder cells and to compare the characteristics of cultured oral cells with cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells for use in ocular surface reconstruction. Methods Oral biopsies were obtained from healthy volunteers after informed consent and were cultured on deepithelialized amniotic membrane for three to four weeks. Confluent cultures of limbal, oral, and conjunctival cells were subjected to characterization of markers of stem cells and of epithelial differentiation by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) and by immunohistochemistry. Ultrastructural studies were also performed using electron microscopy. Results A sheet of healthy, stratified oral epithelial cells was obtained within three to four weeks of culture. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the cells formed gap junctions and desmosomes. RT–PCR analysis showed that cultured oral epithelial cells expressed markers of epithelial differentiation such as cytokeratin K3, K4, K13, K15 and connexin 43. The cells also expressed stem cell markers of epithelial cells such as ΔN isoforms of p63 as well as p75, a marker for stem cells of oral epithelium. The cells did not express cytokeratin K12 or Pax-6, an eye-specific transcription factor. Conclusions Oral epithelial cells can be cultured as explants on deepithelialized amniotic membrane without using feeder cells. Characterization showed that these cells maintain the phenotypic characteristics of oral epithelial cells and that the culture is a heterogeneous population of differentiated cells and stem cells. We find the cultured oral epithelial cells usable for ocular surface reconstruction in patients having bilateral ocular surface diseases. PMID:18334934

  8. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joan E. Wielgus, Albert R. Boyes, William K. Andley, Usha Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

  9. ZAS3 Accentuates Transforming Growth Factor ? Signaling in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yakovich, Adam J.; Jiang, Bo; Allen, Carl E; Du, Jianguo; Wu, Lai-Chu; Barnard, John A.

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the ZAS family of transcription factors activates or represses transcription depending on the cellular context. In the current study, we explored the interaction between ZAS3 and TGF?1 signaling in epithelial cells using HEK293 cells and the intestinal epithelial cell line, RIE-1. Endogenous ZAS3 expression was detected in each cell line and the small intestine of mice. Additionally, endogenous ZAS3 expression was increased in both whole cell and nuclear lysates by TGF?1 and in vivo in TGF?-overexpressing mice, indicating a potential interaction between ZAS3 and TGF?. ZAS3 transfection enhanced TGF?1 activation of a luciferase reporter in both HEK293 and RIE-1 cells. Analysis of truncated ZAS3 constructs revealed a 155 amino acid, N-terminal sequence between amino acids 106 and 261 that was required for enhancement of TGF?1-mediated transcription. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments with nuclear extracts from TGF?1-stimulated HEK293 cells revealed an association between ZAS3 and the Smad complex. Additionally, transfected ZAS3 decreased the association between the Smad complex and the TGF? transcriptional repressors Ski and SnoN, indicating a possible mechanism for the enhancement of transcription by exogenous ZAS3. These observations were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of ZAS domains homologous with Smad-interacting domains in Ski and SnoN. Finally, ZAS3 transfection enhanced the TGF?1-mediated induction of ?-smooth muscle actin in HEK293 cells, indicating that ZAS3 plays a functional role in TGF? signaling. In conclusion, we have identified an interaction between ZAS3 and Smad proteins that enhances TGF? signaling. Since TGF? signaling is primarily known as a negatively regulated pathway, the enhancement of signaling by ZAS3 has novel implications for understanding TGF? biology. PMID:20732416

  10. Glycerol monolaurate does not alter rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) vaginal lactobacilli and is safe for chronic use.

    PubMed

    Schlievert, Patrick M; Strandberg, Kristi L; Brosnahan, Amanda J; Peterson, Marnie L; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Nephew, Karla R; Brunner, Kevin G; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Haase, Ashley T

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity. PMID:18838587

  11. Characterization of rabbit limbal epithelial side population cells using RNA sequencing and single-cell qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kameishi, Sumako; Umemoto, Terumasa; Matsuzaki, Yu; Fujita, Masako; Okano, Teruo; Kato, Takashi; Yamato, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    Corneal epithelial stem cells reside in the limbus, a transitional zone between the cornea and conjunctiva, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis in the corneal epithelium. Although our previous studies demonstrated that rabbit limbal epithelial side population (SP) cells exhibit stem cell-like phenotypes with Hoechst 33342 staining, the different characteristics and/or populations of these cells remain unclear. Therefore, in this study, we determined the gene expression profiles of limbal epithelial SP cells by RNA sequencing using not only present public databases but also contigs that were created by de novo transcriptome assembly as references for mapping. Our transcriptome data indicated that limbal epithelial SP cells exhibited a stem cell-like phenotype compared with non-SP cells. Importantly, gene ontology analysis following RNA sequencing demonstrated that limbal epithelial SP cells exhibited significantly enhanced expression of mesenchymal/endothelial cell markers rather than epithelial cell markers. Furthermore, single-cell quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that the limbal epithelial SP population consisted of at least two immature cell populations with endothelial- or mesenchymal-like phenotypes. Therefore, our present results may propose the presence of a novel population of corneal epithelial stem cells distinct from conventional epithelial stem cells. PMID:26546824

  12. Comparative proteomics reveals human pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial stem cells are similar to native ocular surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Jylhä, Antti; Rieck, Jochen; Nättinen, Janika; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Veréb, Zoltán; Aapola, Ulla; Beuerman, Roger; Petrovski, Goran; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are tissue-specific stem cells responsible for renewing the corneal epithelium. Acute trauma or chronic disease affecting LESCs may disrupt corneal epithelial renewal, causing vision threatening and painful ocular surface disorders, collectively referred to as LESC deficiency (LESCD). These disorders cannot be treated with traditional corneal transplantation and therefore alternative cell sources for successful cell-based therapy are needed. LESCs derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a prospective source for ocular surface reconstruction, yet critical evaluation of these cells is crucial before considering clinical applications. In order to quantitatively evaluate hPSC-derived LESCs, we compared protein expression in native human corneal cells to that in hPSC-derived LESCs using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. We identified 860 unique proteins present in all samples, including proteins involved in cell cycling, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, various LESC niche components, and limbal and corneal epithelial markers. Protein expression profiles were nearly identical in LESCs derived from two different hPSC lines, indicating that the differentiation protocol is reproducible, yielding homogeneous cell populations. Their protein expression profile suggests that hPSC-derived LESCs are similar to the human ocular surface epithelial cells, and possess LESC-like characteristics. PMID:26423138

  13. Group B Streptococcus CovR regulation modulates host immune signaling pathways to promote vaginal colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wang, Nai-Yu; Fletcher, Erin M.; Cavaco, Courtney K.; Jimenez, Alyssa; Garg, Mansi; Fierer, Joshua; Sheen, Tamsin R.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Doran, Kelly S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a frequent commensal organism of the vaginal tract of healthy women. However, GBS can transition to a pathogen in susceptible hosts, but host and microbial factors that contribute to this conversion are not well understood. GBS CovR/S (CsrR/S) is a two component regulatory system that regulates key virulence elements including adherence and toxin production. We performed global transcription profiling of human vaginal epithelial cells exposed to WT, CovR deficient, and toxin deficient strains, and observed that insufficient regulation by CovR and subsequent increased toxin production results in a drastic increase in host inflammatory responses, particularly in cytokine signaling pathways promoted by IL-8 and CXCL2. Additionally, we observed that CovR regulation impacts epithelial cell attachment and intracellular invasion. In our mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, we further demonstrated that CovR regulation promotes vaginal persistence, as infection with a CovR deficient strain resulted in a heightened host immune response as measured by cytokine production and neutrophil activation. Using CXCr2 KO mice, we determined that this immune alteration occurs, at least in part, via signaling through the CXCL2 receptor. Taken together, we conclude that CovR is an important regulator of GBS vaginal colonization and loss of this regulatory function may contribute to the inflammatory havoc seen during the course of infection. PMID:23298320

  14. Cellular and Nuclear Alignment Analysis for Determining Epithelial Cell Chirality.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Michael J; Ray, Poulomi; Kaur, Gurleen; Singh, Ajay V; Wan, Leo Q

    2016-05-01

    Left-right (LR) asymmetry is a biologically conserved property in living organisms that can be observed in the asymmetrical arrangement of organs and tissues and in tissue morphogenesis, such as the directional looping of the gastrointestinal tract and heart. The expression of LR asymmetry in embryonic tissues can be appreciated in biased cell alignment. Previously an in vitro chirality assay was reported by patterning multiple cells on microscale defined geometries and quantified the cell phenotype-dependent LR asymmetry, or cell chirality. However, morphology and chirality of individual cells on micropatterned surfaces has not been well characterized. Here, a Python-based algorithm was developed to identify and quantify immunofluorescence stained individual epithelial cells on multicellular patterns. This approach not only produces results similar to the image intensity gradient-based method reported previously, but also can capture properties of single cells such as area and aspect ratio. We also found that cell nuclei exhibited biased alignment. Around 35% cells were misaligned and were typically smaller and less elongated. This new imaging analysis approach is an effective tool for measuring single cell chirality inside multicellular structures and can potentially help unveil biophysical mechanisms underlying cellular chiral bias both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26294010

  15. Versican regulates metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells and spheroids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a deadly disease characterized by overt peritoneal metastasis. Individual cells and multicellular aggregates, or spheroids, seed these metastases, both commonly found in ascites. Mechanisms that foster spheroid attachment to the peritoneal tissues preceding formation of secondary lesions are largely unknown. Methods Cell culture models of SKOV-3, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, Caov-3, IGROV-1, and A2780 were used. In this report the role of versican was examined in adhesion of EOC spheroids and cells to peritoneal mesothelial cell monolayers in vitro as well as in formation of peritoneal tumors using an in vivo xenograft mouse model. Results The data demonstrate that versican is instrumental in facilitating cell and spheroid adhesion to the mesothelial cell monolayers, as its reduction with specific shRNAs led to decreased adhesion. Furthermore, spheroids with reduced expression of versican failed to disaggregate to complete monolayers when seeded atop monolayers of peritoneal mesothelial cells. Failure of spheroids lacking versican to disaggregate as efficiently as controls could be attributed to a reduced cell migration that was observed in the absence of versican expression. Importantly, both spheroids and cells with reduced expression of versican demonstrated significantly impaired ability to generate peritoneal tumors when injected intraperitoneally into athymic nude mice. Conclusions Taken together these data suggest that versican regulates the development of peritoneal metastasis originating from cells and spheroids. PMID:24999371

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Nasal Epithelial Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n = 4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n = 8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n = 4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology. PMID:25268127

  17. Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. Results The interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and cultured airway epithelial cells was analysed. K. pneumoniae infection triggered cytotoxicity, evident by cell rounding and detachment from the substrate. This effect required the presence of live bacteria and of capsule polysaccharide, since it was observed with isolates expressing different amounts of capsule and/or different serotypes but not with non-capsulated bacteria. Cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase and formazan measurements, ethidium bromide uptake and analysis of DNA integrity, obtaining consistent and complementary results. Moreover, cytotoxicity of non-capsulated strains was restored by addition of purified capsule during infection. While a non-capsulated strain was avirulent in a mouse infection model, capsulated K. pneumoniae isolates displayed different degrees of virulence. Conclusion Our observations allocate a novel role to K. pneumoniae capsule in promotion of cytotoxicity. Although this effect is likely to be associated with virulence, strains expressing different capsule levels were not equally virulent. This fact suggests the existence of other bacterial requirements for virulence, together with capsule polysaccharide. PMID:19650888

  18. Electronic device for microelectrode recordings in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, J F; Stump, S; Armstrong, W M

    1984-03-01

    A device is described that permits continuous measurement of electrophysiological parameters in epithelial tissues in the open-circuit mode. Transepithelial potential (VT) and microelectrode (either conventional or ion-selective) potential (VM) are directly measured. Application of transepithelial current pulses allows continuous monitoring of transepithelial resistance (RT) and the ratio between the changes in VM and VT induced by these pulses. Measurement of this ratio, which under some circumstances reflects the apical fractional resistance of the cellular pathway, is important in assessing membrane damage during microelectrode impalement and/or as an index that the microelectrode tip is inside a cell. This is particularly useful when the change in VM during impalement is small. Application of 0.5-nA current pulses through open-tip microelectrodes allows continuous recording of the microelectrode resistance (RM). In epithelia where the individual cells are electrically coupled this permits acceptable impalements (RM remains nearly constant) to be distinguished from those affected by tip potential artifacts due to plugging of the microelectrode tip (RM increases after penetration of the cell membrane). The device provides compensation for the IR voltage drop in the solution between the potential measuring salt bridges and the epithelial surfaces. The microelectrode electrometer has an input impedance greater than 10(15) and is provided with stray capacitance neutralization. PMID:6703048

  19. Apical protein transport and lumen morphogenesis in polarized epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    WILLENBORG, Carly; PREKERIS, Rytis

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Segregation of the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains is the key distinguishing feature of epithelial cells. A series of interrelated cues and processes follow this primary polarization event, resulting in the morphogenesis of the mammalian epithelium. This review focuses on the role of the interactions between the extracellular matrix and neighbouring cells during the initiation and establishment of epithelial polarity, and the role that membrane transport and polarity complexes play in this process. An overview of the formation of the apical junctional complexes is given in relation to the generation of distinct membrane domains characterized by the asymmetric distribution of phosphoinositides and proteins. The mechanisms and machinery utilized by the trafficking pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of this apical-basolateral polarization are expounded, highlighting processes of apical-directed transport. Furthermore, the current proposed mechanisms for the organization of entire networks of cells into a structured, polarized three-dimensional structure are described, with an emphasis on the proposed mechanisms for the formation and expansion of the apical lumen. PMID:21366541

  20. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Sommé, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial marker thyroid transcription factor-1 and the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, with Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1-induced EMT. PMID:26268659

  1. Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Promoted Limbal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Corneal Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yi-Fang; Lee, Kuo-Ying; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells is proven effective in restoring limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the promoting effect of Y-27632 on limbal epithelial cell proliferation. Limbal explants isolated from human donor eyes were expanded three weeks on culture dishes and outgrowth of epithelial cells was subsequently subcultured for in vitro experiments. In the presence of Y-27632, the ex vivo limbal outgrowth was accelerated, particularly the cells with epithelial cell-like morphology. Y-27632 dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of in vitro cultured human limbal epithelial cells as examined by phase contrast microscopy and luminescent cell-viability assay 30 hours after the treatment. The colony forming efficacy determined 7 days after the treatment was enhanced by Y-27632 also in a dose-dependent manner. The number of p63- or Ki67-positive cells was dose-dependently increased in Y-27632-treated cultures as detected by immunofluorescent staining and western blotanalysis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometric method revealed an increase in S-phase proliferating cells. The epithelial woundclosure rate was shown to be faster in experimental group received topical treatment withY-27632 than the sham control using a rat corneal wounding model. These resultsdemonstrate that Y-27632 can promote both the ex vivo and in vitro proliferation oflimbal epithelial cell proliferation. The in vivo enhanced epithelial wound healingfurther implies that the Y-27632 may act as a new strategy for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:26673160

  2. Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Promoted Limbal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yi-Fang; Lee, Kuo-Ying; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells is proven effective in restoring limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the promoting effect of Y-27632 on limbal epithelial cell proliferation. Limbal explants isolated from human donor eyes were expanded three weeks on culture dishes and outgrowth of epithelial cells was subsequently subcultured for in vitro experiments. In the presence of Y-27632, the ex vivo limbal outgrowth was accelerated, particularly the cells with epithelial cell-like morphology. Y-27632 dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of in vitro cultured human limbal epithelial cells as examined by phase contrast microscopy and luminescent cell-viability assay 30 hours after the treatment. The colony forming efficacy determined 7 days after the treatment was enhanced by Y-27632 also in a dose-dependent manner. The number of p63- or Ki67-positive cells was dose-dependently increased in Y-27632-treated cultures as detected by immunofluorescent staining and western blotanalysis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometric method revealed an increase in S-phase proliferating cells. The epithelial woundclosure rate was shown to be faster in experimental group received topical treatment withY-27632 than the sham control using a rat corneal wounding model. These resultsdemonstrate that Y-27632 can promote both the ex vivo and in vitro proliferation oflimbal epithelial cell proliferation. The in vivo enhanced epithelial wound healingfurther implies that the Y-27632 may act as a new strategy for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:26673160

  3. PKCδ/midkine pathway drives hypoxia-induced proliferation and differentiation of human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Okamoto, Miyako; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Zawada, W Michael; Das, Mita

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial cells are key players in the pathobiology of numerous hypoxia-induced lung diseases. The mechanisms mediating such hypoxic responses of epithelial cells are not well characterized. Earlier studies reported that hypoxia stimulates protein kinase C (PKC)δ activation in renal cancer cells and an increase in expression of a heparin-binding growth factor, midkine (MK), in lung alveolar epithelial cells. We reasoned that hypoxia might regulate MK levels via a PKCδ-dependent pathway and hypothesized that PKCδ-driven MK expression is required for hypoxia-induced lung epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Replication of human lung epithelial cells (A549) was significantly increased by chronic hypoxia (1% O2) and was dependent on expression of PKCδ. Hypoxia-induced proliferation of epithelial cells was accompanied by translocation of PKCδ from Golgi into the nuclei. Marked attenuation in MK protein levels by rottlerin, a pharmacological antagonist of PKC, and by small interfering RNA-targeting PKCδ, revealed that PKCδ is required for MK expression in both normoxic and hypoxic lung epithelial cells. Sequestering MK secreted into the culture media with a neutralizing antibody reduced hypoxia-induced proliferation demonstrating that an increase in MK release from cells is linked with epithelial cell division under hypoxia. In addition, recombinant MK accelerated transition of hypoxic epithelial cells to cells of mesenchymal phenotype characterized by elongated morphology and increased expression of mesenchymal markers, α-smooth muscle actin, and vimentin. We conclude that PKCδ/MK axis mediates hypoxic proliferation and differentiation of lung epithelial cells. Manipulation of PKCδ and MK activity in epithelial cells might be beneficial for the treatment of hypoxia-mediated lung diseases. PMID:24500281

  4. A biomaterial model of tumor stromal microenvironment promotes mesenchymal morphology but not epithelial to mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    McLane, Joshua S; Rivet, Christopher J; Gilbert, Ryan J; Ligon, Lee A

    2014-11-01

    The stromal tissue surrounding most carcinomas is comprised of an extracellular matrix densely packed with collagen-I fibers, which are often highly aligned in metastatic disease. Here we developed an in vitro model to test the effect of an aligned fibrous environment on cancer cell morphology and behavior, independent of collagen ligand presentation. We grew cells on a biomimetic surface of aligned electrospun poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) fibers and then examined the effect of this environment on growth rate, morphology, cytoskeletal organization, biochemical and genetic markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell surface adhesion, and cell migration. We grew a phenotypically normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A) and an invasive breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) on three different substrates: typical flat culture surface (glass or plastic), flat PLLA (glass coated with PLLA) or electrospun PLLA fibers. Cells of both types adopted a more mesenchymal morphology when grown on PLLA fibers, and this effect was exaggerated in the more metastatic-like MDA-MB-231 cells. However, neither cell type underwent the changes in gene expression indicative of EMT despite the changes in cell shape, nor did they exhibit the decreased adhesive strength or increased migration typical of metastatic cells. These results suggest that changes in cell morphology alone do not promote a more mesenchymal phenotype and consequently that the aligned fibrous environment surrounding epithelial cancers may not promote EMT solely through topographical cues. PMID:25058401

  5. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection induces intestinal epithelial cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yulong; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

    2014-06-25

    The morbidity and mortality in piglets caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in large economic losses to the swine industry, but the precise pathogenesis of ETEC-associated diseases remains unknown. Intestinal epithelial cell autophagy serves as a host defense against pathogens. We found that ETEC induced autophagy, as measured by both the increased punctae distribution of GFP-LC3 and the enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Inhibiting autophagy resulted in decreased survival of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. ETEC triggered autophagy in IPEC-1 cells through a pathway involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:24742948

  6. Management of vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Owen, Marion K; Clenney, Timothy L

    2004-12-01

    Common infectious forms of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Vaginitis also can occur because of atrophic changes. Bacterial vaginosis is caused by proliferation of Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and anaerobes. The diagnosis is based primarily on the Amsel criteria (milky discharge, pH greater than 4.5, positive whiff test, clue cells in a wet-mount preparation). The standard treatment is oral metronidazole in a dosage of 500 mg twice daily for seven days. Vulvovaginal candidiasis can be difficult to diagnose because characteristic signs and symptoms (thick, white discharge, dysuria, vulvovaginal pruritus and swelling) are not specific for the infection. Diagnosis should rely on microscopic examination of a sample from the lateral vaginal wall (10 to 20 percent potassium hydroxide preparation). Cultures are helpful in women with recurrent or complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis, because species other than Candida albicans (e.g., Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis) may be present. Topical azole and oral fluconazole are equally efficacious in the management of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis, but a more extensive regimen may be required for complicated infections. Trichomoniasis may cause a foul-smelling, frothy discharge and, in most affected women, vaginal inflammatory changes. Culture and DNA probe testing are useful in diagnosing the infection; examinations of wet-mount preparations have a high false-negative rate. The standard treatment for trichomoniasis is a single 2-g oral dose of metronidazole. Atrophic vaginitis results from estrogen deficiency. Treatment with topical estrogen is effective. PMID:15606061

  7. Kidney injury molecule–1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Takaharu; Asseldonk, Edwin J.P.v.; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2008-01-01

    Following injury, the clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells is necessary for mitigation and resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. In addition to macrophages, which are traditionally assigned to this task, neighboring epithelial cells in the affected tissue are postulated to contribute to this process. Kidney injury molecule–1 (KIM-1 or TIM-1) is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell-surface protein not expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage but highly upregulated on the surface of injured kidney epithelial cells. Here we demonstrate that injured kidney epithelial cells assumed attributes of endogenous phagocytes. Confocal images confirm internalization of apoptotic bodies within KIM-1–expressing epithelial cells after injury in rat kidney tubules in vivo. KIM-1 was directly responsible for phagocytosis in cultured primary rat tubule epithelial cells and also porcine and canine epithelial cell lines. KIM-1 was able to specifically recognize apoptotic cell surface-specific epitopes phosphatidylserine, and oxidized lipoproteins, expressed by apoptotic tubular epithelial cells. Thus, KIM-1 is the first nonmyeloid phosphatidylserine receptor identified to our knowledge that transforms epithelial cells into semiprofessional phagocytes. PMID:18414680

  8. WU Polyomavirus in Respiratory Epithelial Cells from Lung Transplant Patient with Job Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siebrasse, Erica A.; Pastrana, Diana V.; Nguyen, Nang L.; Wang, Annie; Roth, Mark J.; Holland, Steven M.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; McDyer, John; Buck, Christopher B.

    2015-01-01

    We detected WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) in a bronchoalveolar lavage sample from lungs transplanted into a recipient with Job syndrome by using immunoassays specific for the WUPyV viral protein 1. Co-staining for an epithelial cell marker identified most WUPyV viral protein 1–positive cells as respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:25531075

  9. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Wang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD. PMID:26445530

  10. Mapping the dynamics of force transduction at cell-cell junctions of epithelial clusters.

    PubMed

    Ng, Mei Rosa; Besser, Achim; Brugge, Joan S; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2014-01-01

    Force transduction at cell–cell adhesions regulates tissue development, maintenance and adaptation. We developed computational and experimental approaches to quantify, with both sub-cellular and multi-cellular resolution, the dynamics of force transmission in cell clusters. Applying this technology to spontaneously-forming adherent epithelial cell clusters, we found that basal force fluctuations were coupled to E-cadherin localization at the level of individual cell–cell junctions. At the multi-cellular scale, cell–cell force exchange depended on the cell position within a cluster, and was adaptive to reconfigurations due to cell divisions or positional rearrangements. Importantly, force transmission through a cell required coordinated modulation of cell-matrix adhesion and actomyosin contractility in the cell and its neighbors. These data provide insights into mechanisms that could control mechanical stress homeostasis in dynamic epithelial tissues, and highlight our methods as a resource for the study of mechanotransduction in cell–cell adhesions [corrected]. PMID:25479385

  11. CXCL9 Regulates TGF-β1 induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    O’Beirne, Sarah L; Walsh, Sinead M; Fabre, Aurélie; Reviriego, Carlota; Worrell, Julie C; Counihan, Ian P; Lumsden, Robert V; Cramton-Barnes, Jennifer; Belperio, John A.; Donnelly, Seamas C; Boylan, Denise; Marchal-Somme, Joëlle; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype has been implicated in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). CXCR3 and its ligands are recognized to play a protective role in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the presence and extent of EMT and CXCR3 expression in human IPF surgical lung biopsies and assessed whether CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL9 modulate EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. Coexpression of the epithelial maker thyroid transcription factor-1, and mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin and CXCR3 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining of IPF surgical lung biopsies. Epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence in human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells treated with TGF-β1 and CXCL9, whilst Smad2, Smad3, and Smad7 expression and cellular localization examined by Western blotting. We found that significantly more cells were undergoing EMT in fibrotic versus normal areas of lung in IPF surgical lung biopsy samples. CXCR3 was expressed by type II pneumocytes and fibroblasts in fibrotic areas in close proximity to cells undergoing EMT. In vitro, CXCL9 abrogated TGF-β1 induced EMT. A decrease in TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 occurred with CXCL9 treatment. This was associated with increased shuttling of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where it inhibits Smad phosphorylation. This suggests a role for EMT in the pathogenesis of IPF and provides a novel mechanism for the inhibitory effects of CXCL9 on TGF-β1 induced EMT. PMID:26268659

  12. FOXO responses to Porphyromonas gingivalis in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Sztukowska, Maryta; Ojo, Akintunde; Scott, David A; Wang, Huizhi; Lamont, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a prominent periodontal, and emerging systemic, pathogen that redirects host cell signalling pathways and modulates innate immune responses. In this study, we show that P. gingivalis infection induces the dephosphorylation and activation of forkhead box-O (FOXO)1, 3 and 4 in gingival epithelial cells. In addition, immunofluorescence showed that FOXO1 accumulated in the nucleus of P. gingivalis-infected cells. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that transcription of genes involved in protection against oxidative stress (Cat, Sod2, Prdx3), inflammatory responses (IL1β) and anti-apoptosis (Bcl-6) was induced by P. gingivalis, while small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of FOXO1 suppressed the transcriptional activation of these genes. P. gingivalis-induced secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and inhibition of apoptosis were also impeded by FOXO1 knockdown. Neutralization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by N-acetyl-l-cysteine blocked the activation of FOXO1 by P. gingivalis and concomitantly suppressed the activation of oxidative stress responses, anti-apoptosis programmes and IL-β production. Inhibition of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) either pharmacologically or by siRNA, reduced FOXO1 activation and downstream FOXO1-dependent gene regulation in response to P. gingivalis. The results indicate that P. gingivalis-induced ROS activate FOXO transcription factors through JNK signalling, and that FOXO1 controls oxidative stress responses, inflammatory cytokine production and cell survival. These data position FOXO as an important signalling node in the epithelial cell-P. gingivalis interaction, with particular relevance to cell fate and dysbiotic host responses. PMID:25958948

  13. NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

  14. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor )

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  15. Single Dose Pharmacokinetics of Oral Tenofovir in Plasma, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Colonic Tissue, and Vaginal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Louissaint, Nicolette A.; Cao, Ying-Jun; Skipper, Paul L.; Liberman, Rosa G.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Anderson, Jean R.; Everts, Stephanie; Bakshi, Rahul; Fuchs, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract HIV seroconversion outcomes in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials of oral tenofovir (TFV)-containing regimens are highly sensitive to drug concentration, yet less-than-daily dosing regimens are under study. Description of TFV and its active moiety, TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), in blood, vaginal tissue, and colon tissue may guide the design and interpretation of PrEP clinical trials. Six healthy women were administered a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 4.3 mg (12.31 MBq, 333 μCi) 14C-TDF slurry. Blood was collected every 4 h for the first 24 h, then at 4, 8, 11, and 15 days postdosing. Colonic and vaginal samples (tissue, total and CD4+ cells, luminal fluid and cells) were collected 1, 8 and 15 days postdose. Samples were analyzed for TFV and TFV-DP. Plasma TFV demonstrated triphasic decay with terminal elimination half-life median [interquartile range (IQR)] 69 h (58–77). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) TFV-DP demonstrated biphasic peaks (median 12 h and 96 h) followed by a terminal 48 h (38–76) half-life; Cmax was 20 fmol/million cells (2–63). One day postdose, the TFV-DP paired colon:vaginal tissue concentration ratio was 1 or greater in all subjects' tissue homogenates, median 124 (range 1–281), but was not sustained. The ratio was lower and more variable in cells extracted from tissue. Among all sample types, TFV and TFV-DP half-life ranged from 23 to 139 h. PBMC TFV-DP rose slowly in the hours after dosing indicating that success with exposure-driven dosing regimens may be sensitive to timing of the dose prior to exposure. Colonic tissue homogenate TFV-DP concentrations were greater than in vaginal homogenate at 24 h, but not in cells extracted from tissue. These and the other pharmacokinetic findings will guide the interpretation and design of future PrEP trials. PMID:23600365

  16. Single dose pharmacokinetics of oral tenofovir in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, colonic tissue, and vaginal tissue.

    PubMed

    Louissaint, Nicolette A; Cao, Ying-Jun; Skipper, Paul L; Liberman, Rosa G; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Nimmagadda, Sridhar; Anderson, Jean R; Everts, Stephanie; Bakshi, Rahul; Fuchs, Edward J; Hendrix, Craig W

    2013-11-01

    HIV seroconversion outcomes in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials of oral tenofovir (TFV)-containing regimens are highly sensitive to drug concentration, yet less-than-daily dosing regimens are under study. Description of TFV and its active moiety, TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), in blood, vaginal tissue, and colon tissue may guide the design and interpretation of PrEP clinical trials. Six healthy women were administered a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 4.3 mg (12.31 MBq, 333 μCi) (14)C-TDF slurry. Blood was collected every 4 h for the first 24 h, then at 4, 8, 11, and 15 days postdosing. Colonic and vaginal samples (tissue, total and CD4(+) cells, luminal fluid and cells) were collected 1, 8 and 15 days postdose. Samples were analyzed for TFV and TFV-DP. Plasma TFV demonstrated triphasic decay with terminal elimination half-life median [interquartile range (IQR)] 69 h (58-77). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) TFV-DP demonstrated biphasic peaks (median 12 h and 96 h) followed by a terminal 48 h (38-76) half-life; Cmax was 20 fmol/million cells (2-63). One day postdose, the TFV-DP paired colon:vaginal tissue concentration ratio was 1 or greater in all subjects' tissue homogenates, median 124 (range 1-281), but was not sustained. The ratio was lower and more variable in cells extracted from tissue. Among all sample types, TFV and TFV-DP half-life ranged from 23 to 139 h. PBMC TFV-DP rose slowly in the hours after dosing indicating that success with exposure-driven dosing regimens may be sensitive to timing of the dose prior to exposure. Colonic tissue homogenate TFV-DP concentrations were greater than in vaginal homogenate at 24 h, but not in cells extracted from tissue. These and the other pharmacokinetic findings will guide the interpretation and design of future PrEP trials. PMID:23600365

  17. Three-Dimensional Cultures of Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mroue, Rana; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    The mammary gland is an ideal “model organism” for studying tissue specificity and gene expression in mammals: it is one of the few organs that develop after birth and it undergoes multiple cycles of growth, differentiation and regression during the animal’s lifetime in preparation for the important function of lactation. The basic “functional differentiation” unit in the gland is the mammary acinus made up of a layer of polarized epithelial cells specialized for milk production surrounded by myoepithelial contractile cells, and the two-layered structure is surrounded by basement membrane. Much knowledge about the regulation of mammary gland development has been acquired from studying the physiology of the gland and of lactation in rodents. Culture studies, however, were hampered by the inability to maintain functional differentiation on conventional tissue culture plastic. We now know that the microenvironment, including the extracellular matrix and tissue architecture, plays a crucial role in directing functional differentiation of organs. Thus, in order for culture systems to be effective experimental models, they need to recapitulate the basic unit of differentiated function in the tissue or organ and to maintain its three-dimensional (3D) structure. Mouse mammary culture models evolved from basic monolayers of cells to an array of complex 3D systems that observe the importance of the microenvironment in dictating proper tissue function and structure. In this chapter, we focus on how 3D mouse mammary epithelial cultures have enabled investigators to gain a better understanding of the organization, development and function of the acinus, and to identify key molecular, structural, and mechanical cues important for maintaining mammary function and architecture. The accompanying chapter of Vidi et al. describes 3D models developed for human cells. Here, we describe how mouse primary epithelial cells and cell lines—essentially those we use in our laboratory—are cultured in relevant 3D microenvironments. We focus on the design of functional assays that enable us to understand the intricate signaling events underlying mammary gland biology, and address the advantages and limitations of the different culture settings. Finally we also discuss how advances in bioengineering tools may help towards the ultimate goal of building tissues and organs in culture for basic research and clinical studies. PMID:23097110

  18. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F

    2015-08-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu2+) or CuO particles of three different sizes: CuO NPs of 6 nm (NP6), larger Poly-dispersed CuO NPs of <100 nm (Poly) and CuO Micro particles of <5 μm (Micro), at 200 μM, equal to 12.7 mg Cu/L. Poly was significantly more toxic than NP6, Micro and Cu2+ to A6 cells, causing DNA damage, decreased cell viability and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and eventually cell death. We show that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generation plays a key role and occurs early in Poly toxicity as Poly-induced DNA damage and cell death could be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Here we propose a model of the sequence of events explaining Poly toxicity. Briefly, the events include: cellular uptake, most likely via endocytosis, production of ROS, which cause DNA damage that activates a signaling pathway which eventually leads to cell death, mainly via apoptosis. PMID:25862124

  19. Confluent monolayers of bile duct epithelial cells with tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, H; Ishii, M; Mano, Y; Igarashi, T; Ueno, Y; Kobayashi, K; Toyota, T

    1995-07-01

    The culture of fully differentiated intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells (IBDECs) to use as a model for the in vivo intrahepatic biliary tract has not been established. IBDECs from normal rat livers were grown on a collagen-coated permeable filter and formed a confluent monolayer 7 days after being plated. Positive reactions for cytokeratin-19 and retained gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) activity were shown. The transepithelial electrical resistance between the apical and the basolateral compartment culture chambers increased with the culture age and plateaued after the 7th day. The resulting cultured cells displayed a number of characteristics. (1) The cells formed a thin, continuous monolayer and displayed microvilli on the apical surface and junctional complexes between the cells, consistent with in vivo IBDECs. (2) Cells cultured for more than 7 days prevented the passage of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and ruthenium red through paracellular pathways. (3) Seven-day-old cultures displayed a mean transepithelial electrical resistance of 137.3 omega-cm2, which decreased by 27.1% from its initial level after cell treatment with ethylenediamineteraacetic acid (EDTA). These results indicate that confluent IBDEC monolayers are well differentiated and polarized with tight junctions (TJs) between the cells. These cell monolayers can provide a useful and relevant model for the in vitro study of various in vivo bile duct phenomena. PMID:7601408

  20. Potential Role for a Carbohydrate Moiety in Anti-Candida Activity of Human Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Chad; Leigh, Janet; Swoboda, Rolf; Ozenci, Hatice; Fidel, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal and a pathogen at the oral mucosa. Although an intricate network of host defense mechanisms are expected for protection against oropharyngeal candidiasis, anti-Candida host defense mechanisms at the oral mucosa are poorly understood. Our laboratory recently showed that primary epithelial cells from human oral mucosa, as well as an oral epithelial cell line, inhibit the growth of blastoconidia and/or hyphal phases of several Candida species in vitro with a requirement for cell contact and with no demonstrable role for soluble factors. In the present study, we show that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity is resistant to gamma-irradiation and is not mediated by phagocytosis, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide oxidative inhibitory pathways or by nonoxidative components such as soluble defensin and calprotectin peptides. In contrast, epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was sensitive to heat, paraformaldehyde fixation, and detergents, but these treatments were accompanied by a significant loss in epithelial cell viability. Treatments that removed existing membrane protein or lipid moieties in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitors had no effect on epithelial cell inhibitory activity. In contrast, the epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was abrogated after treatment of the epithelial cells with periodic acid, suggesting a role for carbohydrates. Adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells was unaffected, indicating that the carbohydrate moiety is exclusively associated with the growth inhibition activity. Subsequent studies that evaluated specific membrane carbohydrate moieties, however, showed no role for sulfated polysaccharides, sialic acid residues, or glucose- and mannose-containing carbohydrates. These results suggest that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity occurs exclusively with viable epithelial cells through contact with C. albicans by an as-yet-undefined carbohydrate moiety. PMID:11598085

  1. Efficient Generation of Functional Epithelial and Epidermal Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Defined Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Selekman, Joshua A.; Grundl, Nicholas J.; Kolz, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have an unparalleled potential to generate limitless quantities of any somatic cell type. However, current methods for producing populations of various somatic cell types from hPSCs are generally not standardized and typically incorporate undefined cell culture components often resulting in variable differentiation efficiencies and poor reproducibility. To address this, we have developed a defined approach for generating epithelial progenitor and epidermal cells from hPSCs. In doing so, we have identified an optimal starting cell density to maximize yield and maintain high purity of K18+/p63+ simple epithelial progenitors. In addition, we have shown that the use of synthetic, defined substrates in lieu of Matrigel and gelatin can successfully facilitate efficient epithelial differentiation, maintaining a high (>75%) purity of K14+/p63+ keratinocyte progenitor cells and at a two to threefold higher yield than a previously reported undefined differentiation method. These K14+/p63+ cells also exhibited a higher expansion potential compared to cells generated using an undefined differentiation protocol and were able to terminally differentiate and recapitulate an epidermal tissue architecture in vitro. In summary, we have demonstrated the production of populations of functional epithelial and epidermal cells from multiple hPSC lines using a new, completely defined differentiation strategy. PMID:23560510

  2. Baicalin and baicalein inhibit transforming growth factor-β1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heesung; Choi, Hack Sun; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-03-13

    Since the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in many crucial functions of cancer cells, we set out to identify a natural compound capable of inhibiting EMT processes. TGF-β1 treatment induces EMT among normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A cells), as reflected by characteristic morphological changes into the fibroblastic phenotype, reduced expression of E-cadherin. Interestingly, butanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi significantly reduced the TGF-β1-mediated EMT of MCF10A cells. Further analysis revealed that baicalin and baicalein, the major flavones of these butanol extracts, inhibited TGF-β1-mediated EMT by reducing the expression level of the EMT-related transcription factor, Slug via the NF-κB pathway, and subsequently increased migration in MCF10A cells. Finally, both compounds reduced the TGF-β1-mediated EMT, anchorage-independent growth and cell migration of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells). Taken together, these results suggest that baicalin and baicalein of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi may suppress the EMT of breast epithelial cells and the tumorigenic activity of breast cancer cells. Thus, these compounds could have potential as therapeutic or supplementary agents for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25686495

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

  4. Phase I Study of Intravenous Triapine (IND # 68338) in Combination With Pelvic Radiation Therapy With or Without Weekly Intravenous Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical, Vaginal, or Pelvic Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  5. Human Epithelial Cells Discriminate between Commensal and Pathogenic Interactions with Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Rast, Timothy J.; Kullas, Amy L.; Southern, Peter J.; Davis, Dana A.

    2016-01-01

    The commensal fungus, Candida albicans, can cause life-threatening infections in at risk individuals. C. albicans colonizes mucosal surfaces of most people, adhering to and interacting with epithelial cells. At low concentrations, C. albicans is not pathogenic nor does it cause epithelial cell damage in vitro; at high concentrations, C. albicans causes mucosal infections and kills epithelial cells in vitro. Here we show that while there are quantitative dose-dependent differences in exposed epithelial cell populations, these reflect a fundamental qualitative difference in host cell response to C. albicans. Using transcriptional profiling experiments and real time PCR, we found that wild-type C. albicans induce dose-dependent responses from a FaDu epithelial cell line. However, real time PCR and Western blot analysis using a high dose of various C. albicans strains demonstrated that these dose-dependent responses are associated with ability to promote host cell damage. Our studies support the idea that epithelial cells play a key role in the immune system by monitoring the microbial community at mucosal surfaces and initiating defensive responses when this community is dysfunctional. This places epithelial cells at a pivotal position in the interaction with C. albicans as epithelial cells themselves promote C. albicans stimulated damage. PMID:27088599

  6. Influenza virus damages the alveolar barrier by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Short, Kirsty R; Kasper, Jennifer; van der Aa, Stijn; Andeweg, Arno C; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Goeijenbier, Marco; Richard, Mathilde; Herold, Susanne; Becker, Christin; Scott, Dana P; Limpens, Ronald W A L; Koster, Abraham J; Bárcena, Montserrat; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Kuiken, Thijs

    2016-03-01

    A major cause of respiratory failure during influenza A virus (IAV) infection is damage to the epithelial-endothelial barrier of the pulmonary alveolus. Damage to this barrier results in flooding of the alveolar lumen with proteinaceous oedema fluid, erythrocytes and inflammatory cells. To date, the exact roles of pulmonary epithelial and endothelial cells in this process remain unclear.Here, we used an in vitro co-culture model to understand how IAV damages the pulmonary epithelial-endothelial barrier. Human epithelial cells were seeded on the upper half of a transwell membrane while human endothelial cells were seeded on the lower half. These cells were then grown in co-culture and IAV was added to the upper chamber.We showed that the addition of IAV (H1N1 and H5N1 subtypes) resulted in significant barrier damage. Interestingly, we found that, while endothelial cells mounted a pro-inflammatory/pro-coagulant response to a viral infection in the adjacent epithelial cells, damage to the alveolar epithelial-endothelial barrier occurred independently of endothelial cells. Rather, barrier damage was associated with disruption of tight junctions amongst epithelial cells, and specifically with loss of tight junction protein claudin-4.Taken together, these data suggest that maintaining epithelial cell integrity is key in reducing pulmonary oedema during IAV infection. PMID:26743480

  7. Cigarette smoke impairs airway epithelial barrier function and cell-cell contact recovery.

    PubMed

    Heijink, I H; Brandenburg, S M; Postma, D S; van Oosterhout, A J M

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoking, the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), induces aberrant airway epithelial structure and function. The underlying mechanisms are unresolved so far. We studied effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on epithelial barrier function and wound regeneration in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) from COPD patients, nonsmokers and healthy smokers. We demonstrate that CSE rapidly and transiently impairs 16HBE barrier function, largely due to disruption of cell-cell contacts. CSE induced a similar, but stronger and more sustained, defect in PBECs. Application of the specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor AG1478 showed that EGFR activation contributes to the CSE-induced defects in both 16HBE cells and PBECs. Furthermore, our data indicate that the endogenous protease calpain mediates these defects through tight junction protein degradation. CSE also delayed the reconstitution of 16HBE intercellular contacts during wound healing and attenuated PBEC barrier function upon wound regeneration. These findings were comparable between PBECs from smokers, healthy smokers and COPD patients. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that CSE reduces epithelial integrity, probably by EGFR and calpain-dependent disruption of intercellular contacts. This may increase susceptibility to environmental insults, e.g. inhaled pathogens. Thus, EGFR may be a promising target for therapeutic strategies to improve mucosal barrier function in cigarette smoking-related disease. PMID:21778164

  8. Topical KGF treatment as a therapeutic strategy for vaginal atrophy in a model of ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Ceccarelli, Simona; D'Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Coluccio, Paolo; Matricardi, Pietro; di Gioia, Cira; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Frati, Luigi; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequent complaints for post-menopausal women is vaginal atrophy, because of reduction in circulating oestrogens. Treatments based on local oestrogen administration have been questioned as topic oestrogens can reach the bloodstream, thus leading to consider their safety as controversial, especially for patients with a history of breast or endometrial cancers. Recently, growth factors have been shown to interact with the oestrogen pathway, but the mechanisms still need to be fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a known mitogen for epithelial cells, on human vaginal mucosa cells, and its potential crosstalk with oestrogen pathways. We also tested the in vivo efficacy of KGF local administration on vaginal atrophy in a murine model. We demonstrated that KGF is able to induce proliferation of vaginal mucosa, and we gained insight on its mechanism of action by highlighting its contribution to switch ERα signalling towards non-genomic pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that KGF restores vaginal trophism in vivo similarly to intravaginal oestrogenic preparations, without systemic effects. Therefore, we suggest a possible alternative therapy for vaginal atrophy devoid of the risks related to oestrogen-based treatments, and a patent (no. RM2012A000404) has been applied for this study. PMID:25088572

  9. Stromal–epithelial cell interactions and alteration of branching morphogenesis in macromastic mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Aimei; Wang, Guohua; Yang, Jie; Xu, Qijun; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yanqing; Xia, Yun; Guo, Ke; Horch, Raymund E; Sun, Jiaming

    2014-01-01

    True macromastia is a rare but disabling condition characterized by massive breast growth. The aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms for this disorder remain largely unexplored because of the lack of in vivo or in vitro models. Previous studies suggested that regulation of epithelial cell growth and development by oestrogen was dependent on paracrine growth factors from the stroma. In this study, a co-culture model containing epithelial and stromal cells was used to investigate the interactions of these cells in macromastia. Epithelial cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis were measured to assess the effect of macromastic stromal cells on epithelial cells. We analysed the cytokines secreted by stromal cells and identified molecules that were critical for effects on epithelial cells. Our results indicated a significant increase in cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis of macromastic and non-macromastic epithelial cells when co-cultured with macromastic stromal cells or in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a key factor in epithelial–stromal interactions of macromastia-derived cell cultures. Blockade of HGF with neutralizing antibodies dramatically attenuated epithelial cell proliferation in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. The epithelial–stromal cell co-culture model demonstrated reliability for studying interactions of mammary stromal and epithelial cells in macromastia. In this model, HGF secreted by macromastic stromal cells was found to play an important role in modifying the behaviour of co-cultured epithelial cells. This model allows further studies to investigate basic cellular and molecular mechanisms in tissue from patients with true breast hypertrophy. PMID:24720804

  10. Characterization of three new serous epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Véronique; Zietarska, Magdalena; Portelance, Lise; Lafontaine, Julie; Madore, Jason; Puiffe, Marie-Line; Arcand, Suzanna L; Shen, Zhen; Hébert, Josée; Tonin, Patricia N; Provencher, Diane M; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background Cell lines constitute a powerful model to study cancer, and here we describe three new epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cell lines derived from poorly differentiated serous solid tumors (TOV-1946, and TOV-2223G), as well as the matched ascites for one case (OV-1946). Methods In addition to growth parameters, the cell lines were characterized for anchorage independent growth, migration and invasion potential, ability to form spheroids and xenografts in SCID mice. Results While all cell lines were capable of anchorage independent growth, only the TOV-1946 and OV-1946 cell lines were able to form spheroid and produce tumors. Profiling of keratins, p53 and Her2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses. Somatic TP53 mutations were found in all cell lines, with TOV-1946 and OV-1946 harboring the same mutation, and none harbored the commonly observed somatic mutations in BRAF, KRAS or germline BRCA1/2 mutations found to recur in the French Canadian population. Conventional cytogenetics and spectral karyotype (SKY) analyses revealed complex karyotypes often observed in ovarian disease. Conclusion This is the first report of the establishment of matched EOC cell lines derived from both solid tumor and ascites of the same patient. PMID:18507860

  11. Murine mechanical ventilation stimulates alveolar epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chess, Patricia Rose; Benson, Randi Potter; Maniscalco, William M; Wright, Terry W; O'Reilly, Michael A; Johnston, Carl J

    2010-08-01

    High tidal volume mechanical ventilation can cause inflammation and lung damage. Mechanical strain is also necessary for normal lung growth. The current work was performed to determine if mechanical ventilation with clinically utilized tidal volumes stimulates a proliferative response in the lung. Six- to 8-week-old C57/Bl6 mice, anesthetized with ketamine/xylozine, were ventilated for 6 hours with 10 mL/kg tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 3cm H(2)O. Pulmonary function testing demonstrated decreased compliance within 3 hours of ventilation. Assessment of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) demonstrated no significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase, total lavagable cell number, or total protein after ventilation. There was evidence of inflammation in the lungs of ventilated mice, with an increased percentage of lymphocytes and neutrophils in BAL, and an increase in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and interleukin (IL)-1beta message in lung tissue. Immunohistochemistry of inflation-fixed lungs demonstrated increased alveolar cell proliferation, as measured by both proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki67 staining. Dual staining confirmed that proliferating cells labeled with proSP-B, demonstrating that ventilation induces proliferation of alveolar type II cells. Ventilation did not increase apoptosis in alveolar type II cells, as measured by TUNEL staining. Ventilation at low tidal volumes leads to a mild inflammatory response and alveolar epithelial cell proliferation. PMID:20653468

  12. Ferritinophagy drives uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence in bladder epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bauckman, Kyle A; Mysorekar, Indira U

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is a cellular recycling pathway, which in many cases, protects host cells from infections by degrading pathogens. However, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the predominant cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs), persist within the urinary tract epithelium (urothelium) by forming reservoirs within autophagosomes. Iron is a critical nutrient for both host and pathogen, and regulation of iron availability is a key host defense against pathogens. Iron homeostasis depends on the shuttling of iron-bound ferritin to the lysosome for recycling, a process termed ferritinophagy (a form of selective autophagy). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that UPEC shuttles with ferritin-bound iron into the autophagosomal and lysosomal compartments within the urothelium. Iron overload in urothelial cells induces ferritinophagy in an NCOA4-dependent manner causing increased iron availability for UPEC, triggering bacterial overproliferation and host cell death. Addition of even moderate levels of iron is sufficient to increase and prolong bacterial burden. Furthermore, we show that lysosomal damage due to iron overload is the specific mechanism causing host cell death. Significantly, we demonstrate that host cell death and bacterial burden can be reversed by inhibition of autophagy or inhibition of iron-regulatory proteins, or chelation of iron. Together, our findings suggest that UPEC persist in host cells by taking advantage of ferritinophagy. Thus, modulation of iron levels in the bladder may provide a therapeutic avenue to controlling UPEC persistence, epithelial cell death, and recurrent UTIs. PMID:27002654

  13. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  14. Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8⋅1010 cells∙ml−1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g · l−1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

  15. Oestradiol enhances apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yart, Lucile; Finot, Laurence; Lollivier, Vanessa; Dessauge, Frederic

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian steroids, oestradiol and progesterone, are required for normal mammary growth at puberty and during pregnancy. They contribute to mammary parenchyma development by stimulating mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation. However several studies demonstrate that oestradiol negatively affects milk production during the declining phase of lactation, but the oestradiol effect on MEC in lactating mammary gland remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the differential effect of oestradiol on bovine MECs mimicking two physiological statuses: active and early apoptotic MECs. We demonstrated that oestradiol has a major effect on early apoptotic MECs and might accelerate MEC apoptosis by activation of caspases rather than by inducing apoptosis in active MECs. Early apoptotic MECs could be compared with senescent cells in the late-lactation mammary gland. These results suggest that the negative effect of oestradiol on milk production during the declining phase of lactation would be due to an enhancement of apoptotic processes in MECs. PMID:23236989

  16. Phenomenological approaches to collective behavior in epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Matthias L; Marel, Anna-Kristina; Segerer, Felix J; Rädler, Joachim O

    2015-11-01

    Collective cell migration in epithelial tissues resembles fluid-like behavior in time-lapse recordings. In the last years, hydrodynamic velocity fields in living matter have been studied intensely. The emergent properties were remarkably similar to phenomena known from active soft matter systems. Here, we review migration experiments of large cellular ensembles as well as of mesoscopic cohorts in micro-structured environments. Concepts such as diffusion, velocity correlations, swirl strength and polarization are metrics to quantify the cellular dynamics both in experiments as well as in computational simulations. We discuss challenges relating collective migration to single cell and oligocellular behavior as well as linking the phenotypic parameters to the underlying cytoskeleton dynamics and signaling networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:26028592

  17. Expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit in human respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwagerus, Elena; Sladek, Svenja; Buckley, Stephen T; Armas-Capote, Natalia; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Harvey, Brian J; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Using human airway epithelial cell lines (i.e. NCI-H441 and Calu-3) as well as human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI) cells in primary culture, we studied the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel δ-subunit (δ-ENaC) to transepithelial sodium transport in human lung in vitro. Endogenous δ-ENaC protein was present in all three cell types tested; however, protein abundance was low, and no expression was detected in the apical cell membrane of these cells. Similarly, known modulators of δ-ENaC activity, such as capsazepine and icilin (activators) and Evans blue (inhibitor), did not show effects on short-circuit current (I SC), suggesting that δ-ENaC is not involved in the modulation of transcellular sodium absorption in NCI-H441 cell monolayers. Over-expression of δ-ENaC in NCI-H441 cells resulted in detectable protein expression in the apical cell membrane, as well as capsazepine and icilin-stimulated increases in I SC that were effectively blocked by Evans blue and that were consistent with δ-ENaC activation and inhibition, respectively. Consequently, these observations suggest that δ-ENaC expression is low in NCI-H441, Calu-3, and ATI cells and does not contribute to transepithelial sodium absorption. PMID:25677639

  18. α-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host α-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ≤4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host α-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the α-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of α-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, β-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid α-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of α-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P < .001), hyaluronidase-1 (P < .001), NGAL (P = .001), and MMP-8 (P = .005). The exfoliation of glycogen-rich epithelial cells into the vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote α-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. PMID:25878210

  19. Increased programmed death-ligand-1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y-Y; Lin, C-W; Cheng, K-S; Lin, C; Wang, Y-M; Lin, I-T; Chou, Y-H; Hsu, P-N

    2010-01-01

    B7-H1 [programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1)] is a B7-family member that binds to programmed death-1 (PD-1). Recently, deficiency of PD-L1 has been demonstrated to result in accelerated gastric epithelial cell damage in gastritis, and PD-L1 is suggested to play a critical role in regulating T cell homeostasis. Here, we aimed to gain more insight into gastric PD-L1 expression, regulation and function during Helicobacter pylori infection. PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells was analysed using Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence activated cell sorter analysis. Furthermore, co-culture experiments of human gastric epithelial cells with primary human T cells or Jurkat T cells were conducted. PD-L1 expression in primary human gastric epithelial cells was strongly enhanced by H. pylori infection and activated T cells, and augmented markedly by further stimulation with interferon-γ or tumour necrosis factor-α. Moreover, PD-L1 expression in gastric epithelial cells significantly induced apoptosis of T cells. Our results indicate that a novel bidirectional interaction between human gastric epithelial cells and lymphocytes modulates PD-L1 expression in human gastric epithelial cells, contributing to the unique immunological properties of the stomach. PMID:20646001

  20. CAR regulates epithelial cell junction stability through control of E-cadherin trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Penny E.; Hicks, Alexander; Nastos, Theodoros; Santis, George; Parsons, Maddy

    2013-01-01

    CAR (Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor) is the primary docking receptor for typeB coxsackie viruses and subgroup C adenoviruses. CAR is a member of the JAM family of adhesion receptors and is located to both tight and adherens junctions between epithelial cells where it can assemble adhesive contacts through homodimerisation in trans. However, the role of CAR in controlling epithelial junction dynamics remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that levels of CAR in human epithelial cells play a key role in determining epithelial cell adhesion through control of E-cadherin stability at cell-cell junctions. Mechanistically, we show that CAR is phosphorylated within the C-terminus by PKCδ and that this in turn controls Src-dependent endocytosis of E-cadherin at cell junctions. This data demonstrates a novel role for CAR in regulating epithelial homeostasis. PMID:24096322

  1. Characterization of isoform expression and subcellular distribution of MYPT1 in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Juan-Min; Li, Hua-Shan; Wang, Yi-Tang; Lin, Qian; Tao, Min; He, Wei-Qi

    2016-08-15

    The regulation of intestinal epithelial permeability requires phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC). The phosphorylation status of MLC is regulated by myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activities. The activity of the catalytic subunit of MLCP (PP1cδ) toward MLC depends on its regulatory subunit (MYPT1). In this study, we revealed the presence of two MYPT1 isoforms, full length and variant 2 in human intestinal (Caco-2) epithelial cells and isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from mice. In confluent Caco-2 cells, MYPT1 was distributed at cell-cell contacts and colocalized with F-actin. These results suggest that MYPT1 isoforms are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and MYPT1 may be involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier function. PMID:27129938

  2. Role of the microtubule-targeting drug vinflunine on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vinflunine (VFL) is a microtubule-targeting drug that suppresses microtubule dynamics, showing anti-metastatic properties both in vitro and in living cancer cells. An increasing body of evidence underlines the influence of the microtubules dynamics on the cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions. E-cadherin is a marker of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a tumour suppressor; its reduced levels in carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis. In this report, we investigate the role of VFL on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells. Methods Human bladder epithelial tumour cell lines HT1376, 5637, SW780, T24 and UMUC3 were used to analyse cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions under VFL treatment. VFL effect on growth inhibition was measured by using a MTT colorimetric cell viability assay. Western blot, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the roles of VFL effect on cell-cell adhesions, epithelial-to-mesenchymal markers and apoptosis. The role of the proteasome in controlling cell-cell adhesion was studied using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Results We show that VFL induces cell death in bladder cancer cells and activates epithelial differentiation of the remaining living cells, leading to an increase of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion and a reduction of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin or vimentin. Moreover, while E-cadherin is increased, the levels of Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for E-cadherin, were significantly reduced in presence of VFL. In 5637, this reduction on Hakai expression was blocked by MG132 proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the proteasome pathway could be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in its degradation. Conclusions Our findings underscore a critical function for VFL in cell-cell adhesions of epithelial bladder tumour cells, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which VFL may impact upon EMT and metastasis. PMID:25012153

  3. A novel type of cell-cell cooperation between epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Contreras, R G; Lázaro, A; Bolivar, J J; Flores-Maldonado, C; Sánchez, S H; González-Mariscal, L; García-Villegas, M R; Valdés, J; Cereijido, M

    1995-06-01

    Ma104 cells (renal, epithelial) have a peculiar way of resisting ouabain: their Na+,K(+)-pumps bind the drug with high affinity, cellular K+ is lost and cell division arrested, but cells do not detach as most cell types do. Then, if up to 4 days later the drug is removed, Ma104 cells recover K+ and resume proliferation (Contreras et al., 1994). In the present work, we investigate whether Ma104 cells are able to protect ouabain-sensitive MDCK cells in co-culture. The main finding is that they do, but in this case protection is not elicited by the usual mechanism of maintaining the K+ content of neighboring cells through cell-cell communications. Ma104 cells treated with ouabain simply remain attached to the substrate and to their MDCK neighbors, and both cells lose K+. This attachment includes tight junctions, because the transepithelial electrical resistance of the monolayers is not abolished by ouabain. Although the beta-subunit of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase is known to possess molecular characteristics of cell-cell attachment molecules, attachment between Ma104-MDCK cells does not seem to be mediated by this enzyme, as immunofluorescence analysis reveals that Na+,K(+)-ATPase is only inserted in the plasma membrane facing a neighboring cell of the same type. PMID:7563031

  4. Focal Adhesion Kinase regulates cell-cell contact formation in epithelial cells via modulation of Rho

    SciTech Connect

    Playford, Martin P.; Vadali, Kavita; Cai Xinming; Burridge, Keith; Schaller, Michael D.

    2008-10-15

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Recent studies have also implicated FAK in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Here, evidence is presented showing that siRNA-mediated suppression of FAK levels in NBT-II cells and expression of dominant negative mutants of FAK caused loss of epithelial cell morphology and inhibited the formation of cell-cell adhesions. Rac and Rho have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cell adhesions and can be regulated by FAK signaling. Expression of active Rac or Rho in NBT-II cells disrupted formation of cell-cell contacts, thus promoting a phenotype similar to FAK-depleted cells. The loss of intercellular contacts in FAK-depleted cells is prevented upon expression of a dominant negative Rho mutant, but not a dominant negative Rac mutant. Inhibition of FAK decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and elevated the level of GTP-bound Rho. This suggests that FAK regulates cell-cell contact formation by regulation of Rho.

  5. Focal Adhesion Kinase regulates cell-cell contact formation in epithelial cells via modulation of Rho

    PubMed Central

    Playford, Martin P.; Vadali, Kavita; Cai, Xinming; Burridge, Keith; Schaller, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. Recent studies have also implicated FAK in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion. Here, evidence is presented showing that siRNA-mediated suppression of FAK levels in NBT-II cells and expression of dominant negative mutants of FAK caused loss of epithelial cell morphology and inhibited the formation of cell-cell adhesions. Rac and Rho have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cell adhesions and can be regulated by FAK signaling. Expression of active Rac or Rho in NBT-II cells disrupted formation of cell-cell contacts, thus promoting a phenotype similar to FAK-depleted cells. The loss of intercellular contacts in FAK-depleted cells is prevented upon expression of a dominant negative Rho mutant, but not a dominant negative Rac mutant. Inhibition of FAK decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of p190RhoGAP and elevated the level of GTP-bound Rho. This suggests that FAK regulates cell-cell contact formation by regulation of Rho. PMID:18773890

  6. Myosin Id is required for planar cell polarity in ciliated tracheal and ependymal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hegan, Peter S; Ostertag, Eric; Geurts, Aron M; Mooseker, Mark S

    2015-10-01

    In wild type (WT) tracheal epithelial cells, ciliary basal bodies are oriented such that all cilia on the cell surface beat in the same upward direction. This precise alignment of basal bodies and, as a result, the ciliary axoneme, is termed rotational planar cell polarity (PCP). Rotational PCP in the multi-ciliated epithelial cells of the trachea is perturbed in rats lacking myosin Id (Myo1d). Myo1d is localized in the F-actin and basal body rich subapical cortex of the ciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of Myo1d knock out (KO) trachea revealed that the unidirectional bending pattern is disrupted. Instead, cilia splay out in a disordered, often radial pattern. Measurement of the alignment axis of the central pair axonemal microtubules was much more variable in the KO, another indicator that rotational PCP is perturbed. The asymmetric localization of the PCP core protein Vangl1 is lost. Both the velocity and linearity of cilia-driven movement of beads above the tracheal mucosal surface was impaired in the Myo1d KO. Multi-ciliated brain ependymal epithelial cells exhibit a second form of PCP termed translational PCP in which basal bodies and attached cilia are clustered at the anterior side of the cell. The precise asymmetric clustering of cilia is disrupted in the ependymal cells of the Myo1d KO rat. While basal body clustering is maintained, left-right positioning of the clusters is lost. PMID:26446290

  7. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  8. Human normal bronchial epithelial cells: a novel in vitro cell model for toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenqiang; Guo, Juanjuan; Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  9. Integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation by modulating Notch activity

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lamarca, M. Jesús; Cobreros-Reguera, Laura; Ibáñez-Jiménez, Beatriz; Palacios, Isabel M.; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coordinating exit from the cell cycle with differentiation is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. Failure to do so can lead to aberrant organogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the developmental signals that regulate the switch from cell cycle exit to differentiation. Signals downstream of two key developmental pathways, Notch and Salvador–Warts–Hippo (SWH), and signals downstream of myosin activity regulate this switch during the development of the follicle cell epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. Here, we have identified a fourth player, the integrin signaling pathway. Elimination of integrin function blocks the mitosis-to-endocycle switch and differentiation in posterior follicle cells (PFCs), by regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) dacapo. In addition, integrin-mutant PFCs show defective Notch signaling and endocytosis. Furthermore, integrins act in PFCs by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway, as reducing the amount of Hairless, the major antagonist of Notch, or misexpressing Notch intracellular domain rescues the cell cycle and differentiation defects. Taken together, our findings reveal a direct involvement of integrin signaling on the spatial and temporal regulation of epithelial cell differentiation during development. PMID:25179603

  10. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  11. Characterization of stress response in human retinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Giansanti, Vincenzo; Villalpando Rodriguez, Gloria E; Savoldelli, Michelle; Gioia, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Mazzini, Giuliano; Pennati, Marzia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Torriglia, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves demise of the retinal pigment epithelium and death of photoreceptors. In this article, we investigated the response of human adult retinal pigmented epithelial (ARPE-19) cells to 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA), an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchangers. We observed that ARPE-19 cells treated with HMA are unable to activate ‘classical’ apoptosis but they succeed to activate autophagy. In the first 2 hrs of HMA exposure, autophagy is efficient in protecting cells from death. Thereafter, autophagy is impaired, as indicated by p62 accumulation, and this protective mechanism becomes the executioner of cell death. This switch in autophagy property as a function of time for a single stimulus is here shown for the first time. The activation of autophagy was observed, at a lesser extent, with etoposide, suggesting that this event might be a general response of ARPE cells to stress and the most important pathway involved in cell resistance to adverse conditions and toxic stimuli. PMID:23205553

  12. Glycoprotein E of Varicella-Zoster Virus Enhances Cell-Cell Contact in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Chengjun; Schneeberger, Eveline E.; Arvin, Ann M.

    2000-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection involves the cell-cell spread of virions, but how viral proteins interact with the host cell membranes that comprise intercellular junctions is not known. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were constructed to express the glycoproteins gE, gI, or gE/gI constitutively and were used to examine the effects of these VZV glycoproteins in polarized epithelial cells. At low cell density, VZV gE induced partial tight junction (TJ) formation under low-calcium conditions, whether expressed alone or with gI. Although most VZV gE was intracellular, gE was also shown to colocalize with the TJ protein ZO-1 with or without concomitant expression of gI. Freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed normal TJ strand morphology in gE-expressing MDCK cells. Functionally, the expression of gE was associated with a marked acceleration in the establishment of maximum transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in MDCK-gE cells; MDCK-gI and MDCK-gE/gI cells exhibited a similar pattern of early TER compared to MDCK cells, although peak resistances were lower than those of gE alone. VZV gE expression altered F-actin organization and lipid distribution, but coexpression of gI modulated these effects. Two regions of the gE ectodomain, amino acids (aa) 278 to 355 and aa 467 to 498, although lacking Ca2+ binding motifs, exhibit similarities with corresponding regions of the cell adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and desmocollin. These observations suggest that VZV gE and gE/gI may contribute to viral pathogenesis by facilitating epithelial cell-cell contacts. PMID:11070038

  13. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Utheim, Tor Paaske; Utheim, Øygunn Aass; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells. PMID:26938569

  14. Culture of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells for the Purpose of Treating Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Paaske Utheim, Tor; Aass Utheim, Øygunn; Khan, Qalb-E-Saleem; Sehic, Amer

    2016-01-01

    The cornea is critical for normal vision as it allows allowing light transmission to the retina. The corneal epithelium is renewed by limbal epithelial cells (LEC), which are located in the periphery of the cornea, the limbus. Damage or disease involving LEC may lead to various clinical presentations of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Both severe pain and blindness may result. Transplantation of cultured autologous oral mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CAOMECS) represents the first use of a cultured non-limbal autologous cell type to treat this disease. Among non-limbal cell types, CAOMECS and conjunctival epithelial cells are the only laboratory cultured cell sources that have been explored in humans. Thus far, the expression of p63 is the only predictor of clinical outcome following transplantation to correct LSCD. The optimal culture method and substrate for CAOMECS is not established. The present review focuses on cell culture methods, with particular emphasis on substrates. Most culture protocols for CAOMECS used amniotic membrane as a substrate and included the xenogeneic components fetal bovine serum and murine 3T3 fibroblasts. However, it has been demonstrated that tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheet grafts can be successfully fabricated using temperature-responsive culture surfaces and autologous serum. In the studies using different substrates for culture of CAOMECS, the quantitative expression of p63 was generally poorly reported; thus, more research is warranted with quantification of phenotypic data. Further research is required to develop a culture system for CAOMECS that mimics the natural environment of oral/limbal/corneal epithelial cells without the need for undefined foreign materials such as serum and feeder cells. PMID:26938569

  15. Inhibition of cell-cell adhesion impairs directional epithelial migration on micropatterned surfaces.

    PubMed

    Worley, Kathryn E; Shieh, David; Wan, Leo Q

    2015-05-01

    The development of the vertebrate body plan with left-right (LR) asymmetry (also known as handedness and chirality) requires the emerging chiral morphogenesis of epithelial cells at specific embryonic stages. In this process, cell-cell adhesions coordinate cellular organization and collective cell migration, and are critical for the directional looping of developing embryonic organs. However, the underlying biophysical mechanism is not yet well understood. Here we modeled normal and delayed epithelial LR symmetry breaking with patterned epithelial chiral morphogenesis on microscale lines with various widths. The patterned cells exhibited biased migration wherein those on opposing boundaries migrated in different directions. Disrupting adherens junctions with ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) resulted in a decrease in velocity difference in opposing boundaries as well as the associated biased cell alignment, along with an increase in the overall random motion. Altering the distance between the opposing boundaries did not significantly alter alignment, but significantly disturbed the velocity profile of the cell migration field. Further examination of cell polarity indicated that disruption of adherens junctions did not affect cell polarization on the boundaries, but decreased the transmission of chiral bias into the interior region of the epithelial cell sheet. Overall, our results demonstrated the dependence of the scale of collective cell migration on the strength of cell-cell adhesion, and its effects on the chirality of a multicellular structure through mediating cell polarity in the vicinity of geometric boundaries. This study demonstrated that our 2D microscale system provides a simple yet effective tool for studying the influence of collective cell migration on LR symmetry breaking, and possibly for fetal drug screening to prevent birth defects related to alteration in cell-cell adhesion. PMID:25923643

  16. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  17. Sphere formation permits Oct4 reprogramming of ciliary body epithelial cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Aiguo; Wu, Ming Jing; Chavala, Sai H

    2014-12-15

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by defined sets of transcription factors. We previously described reprogramming of monolayer-cultured adult mouse ciliary body epithelial (CE) cells by Oct4 and Klf4, but not with Oct4 alone. In this study, we report that Oct4 alone is sufficient to reprogram CE cells to iPS cells through sphere formation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sphere formation induces a partial reprogramming state characterized by expression of retinal progenitor markers, upregulation of reprogramming transcription factors, such as Sall4 and Nanog, demethylation in the promoter regions of pluripotency associated genes, and mesenchymal to epithelial transition. The Oct4-iPS cells maintained normal karyotypes, expressed markers for pluripotent stem cells, and were capable of differentiating into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that sphere formation may render somatic cells more susceptible to reprogramming. PMID:25027059

  18. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  19. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  20. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  1. ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS.
    OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

  2. Diet Does Not Affect Putative Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells in Pre-weaned Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overfeeding prepubertal heifers can impair mammary epithelial growth and development, processes that depend on stem cells. In this study we evaluated effects of diet composition on putative bovine mammary epithelial stem cell populations using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyrudine (BrdU; a thymidine analog) label...

  3. Deletion of Lkb1 in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells Leads to CKD by Altering Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hyeok; Malaga-Dieguez, Laura; Chinga, Frank; Kang, Hyun Mi; Tao, Jianling; Reidy, Kimberly; Susztak, Katalin

    2016-02-01

    Renal tubule epithelial cells are high-energy demanding polarized epithelial cells. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a key regulator of polarity, proliferation, and cell metabolism in epithelial cells, but the function of LKB1 in the kidney is unclear. Our unbiased gene expression studies of human control and CKD kidney samples identified lower expression of LKB1 and regulatory proteins in CKD. Mice with distal tubule epithelial-specific Lkb1 deletion (Ksp-Cre/Lkb1(flox/flox)) exhibited progressive kidney disease characterized by flattened dedifferentiated tubule epithelial cells, interstitial matrix accumulation, and dilated cystic-appearing tubules. Expression of epithelial polarity markers β-catenin and E-cadherin was not altered even at later stages. However, expression levels of key regulators of metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (Ampk), peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (Ppargc1a), and Ppara, were significantly lower than those in controls and correlated with fibrosis development. Loss of Lkb1 in cultured epithelial cells resulted in energy depletion, apoptosis, less fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis, and a profibrotic phenotype. Treatment of Lkb1-deficient cells with an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist (A769662) or a peroxisome proliferative activated receptor alpha agonist (fenofibrate) restored the fatty oxidation defect and reduced apoptosis. In conclusion, we show that loss of LKB1 in renal tubular epithelial cells has an important role in kidney disease development by influencing intracellular metabolism. PMID:26054542

  4. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. 
Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. 
Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. 
Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. 
Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. 

 Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  5. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 ; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 ; Han, Xiaodong; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  6. Regulation of epithelial cell organization by tuning cell-substrate adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ravasio, Andrea; Le, Anh Phuong; Saw, Thuan Beng; Tarle, Victoria; Ong, Hui Ting; Bertocchi, Cristina; Mge, Ren-Marc; Lim, Chwee Teck; Gov, Nir S; Ladoux, Benoit

    2015-10-01

    Collective migration of cells is of fundamental importance for a number of biological functions such as tissue development and regeneration, wound healing and cancer metastasis. The movement of cell groups consisting of multiple cells connected by cell-cell junctions depends on both extracellular and intercellular contacts. Epithelial cell assemblies are thus regulated by a cross-talk between cell-substrate and cell-cell interactions. Here, we investigated the onset of collective migration in groups of cells as they expand from a few cells into large colonies as a function of extracellular matrix (ECM) protein coating. By varying the amount of ECM presented to the cells, we observe that the mode of colony expansion, as well as their overall geometry, is strongly dependent on substrate adhesiveness. On high ECM protein coated surfaces, cells at the edges of the colonies are well spread exhibiting large outward-pointing protrusive activity, whereas cellular colonies display more circular and convex shapes on less adhesive surfaces. Actin structures at the edge of the colonies also show different organizations with the formation of lamellipodial structures on highly adhesive surfaces and a pluricellular actin cable on less adhesive ones. The analysis of traction forces and cell velocities within the cellular assemblies confirm these results. By increasing ECM protein density, cells exert higher traction forces together with a higher outward motility at the edges. Furthermore, tuning cell-cell adhesion of epithelial cells modified the mode of expansion of the colonies. Finally, we used a recently developed computational model to recapitulate the emergent experimental behaviors of expanding cell colonies and extract that the main effect of the different cell-substrate interactions is on the ability of edge cells to form outward lamellipodia-driven motility. Overall, our data suggest that switching behaviors of epithelial cell assemblies result in a tug-of-war between friction forces at the cell-substrate interface and cell-cell interactions. PMID:26402903

  7. Vaginal Fibroblastic Cells from Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Produce Matrices with Increased Stiffness and Collagen Content

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Zapata, Alejandra M.; Kerkhof, Manon H.; Ghazanfari, Samaneh; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Stoop, Reinout; Smit, Theo H.; Helder, Marco N.

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is characterised by the weakening of the pelvic floor support tissues, and often by subsequent prolapse of the bladder outside the body, i.e. cystocele. The bladder is kept in place by the anterior vaginal wall which consists of a dense extracellular matrix rich in collagen content that is maintained and remodelled by fibroblastic cells, i.e. fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Since altered matrix production influences tissue quality, and myofibroblasts are involved in normal and pathological soft tissue repair processes, we evaluated matrix production of cells derived from pre- and post-menopausal POP and non-POP control anterior vaginal wall tissues. Results showed that cells from postmenopausal POP women deposited matrices with high percentage of collagen fibres with less anisotropic orientation and increased stiffness than those produced by controls. There was a transient increase in myofibroblastic phenotype that was lost after the peak of tissue remodelling. In conclusion, affected fibroblasts from postmenopausal prolapsed tissues produced altered matrices in vitro compared to controls. Such aberrant altered matrix production does not appear to be a consequence of abnormal phenotypical changes towards the myofibroblastic lineage. PMID:26965792

  8. Plasticity in epithelial cell phenotype: modulation by expression of different cadherin cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Marrs, J A; Andersson-Fisone, C; Jeong, M C; Cohen-Gould, L; Zurzolo, C; Nabi, I R; Rodriguez-Boulan, E; Nelson, W J

    1995-04-01

    A primary function of cadherins is to regulate cell adhesion. Here, we demonstrate a broader function of cadherins in the differentiation of specialized epithelial cell phenotypes. In situ, the rat retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms cell-cell contacts within its monolayer, and at the apical membrane with the neural retina; Na+, K(+)-ATPase and the membrane cytoskeleton are restricted to the apical membrane. In vitro, RPE cells (RPE-J cell line) express an endogenous cadherin, form adherens junctions and a tight monolayer, but Na+,K(+)-ATPase is localized to both apical and basal-lateral membranes. Expression of E-cadherin in RPE-J cells results in restriction and accumulation of both Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the membrane cytoskeleton at the lateral membrane; these changes correlate with the synthesis of a different ankyrin isoform. In contrast to both RPE in situ and RPE-J cells that do not form desmosomes, E-cadherin expression in RPE-J cells induces accumulation of desmoglein mRNA, and assembly of desmosome-keratin complexes at cell-cell contacts. These results demonstrate that cadherins directly affect epithelial cell phenotype by remodeling the distributions of constitutively expressed proteins and by induced accumulation of specific proteins, which together lead to the generation of structurally and functionally distinct epithelial cell types. PMID:7536748

  9. Bulging medial edge epithelial cells and palatal fusion.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, C; Bonelli, R; Tudela, C; Gato, A; Mena, J; O'Kane, S; Ferguson, M W

    2000-04-01

    The surface of the medial edge epithelium of embryonic day 12, 13 and 14 mouse palatal shelves was observed utilising Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). This technique offers the advantage of visualisation of biological samples after short fixation times in their natural hydrated state. Bulging epithelial cells were observed consistently on the medial edge epithelium prior to palatal shelf fusion. Additionally, we have used ESEM to compare the morphology and surface features of palatal shelves from embryonic day 13 to 16 mouse embryos that are homozygous null (TGF-beta3 -/-), heterozygous (TGF-beta3 +/-) or homozygous normal (TGF-beta3 +/+) for transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3). At embryonic day 15 and 16 most TGF-beta3 +/- and +/+ embryos showed total palatal fusion, whilst all TGF-beta3 null mutants had cleft palate: the middle third of the palatal shelves had adhered, leaving an anterior and posterior cleft. From embryonic day 14 to 16 abundant cells were observed bulging on the medial edge epithelial surface of palates from the TGF-beta3 +/- and +/+ embryos. However, they were never seen in the TGF-beta3 null embryos, suggesting that these surface bulges might be important in palatal fusion and that their normal differentiation is induced by TGF-beta3. The expression pattern of E-Cadherin, beta-catenin, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, beta-Actin and vinculin as assayed by immunocytochemistry in these cells shows specific variations that suggest their importance in palatal shelf adhesion. PMID:10853831

  10. Endothelial induced EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties.

    PubMed

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44(high)/CD24(low) ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer. PMID:21915264

  11. Spatiotemporally Regulated Ablation of Klf4 in Adult Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cells Results in Altered Epithelial Cell Identity and Disrupted Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Emili E.; Swamynathan, Sudha; Kao, Winston W.; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In previous studies, conditional disruption of Klf4 in the developing mouse ocular surface from embryonic day 10 resulted in corneal epithelial fragility, stromal edema, and loss of conjunctival goblet cells, revealing the importance of Klf4 in ocular surface maturation. Here, we use spatiotemporally regulated ablation of Klf4 to investigate its functions in maintenance of adult corneal epithelial homeostasis. Methods. Expression of Cre was induced in ternary transgenic (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mouse corneal epithelium by doxycycline administered through intraperitoneal injections and drinking water, to generate corneal epithelium–specific deletion of Klf4 (Klf4Δ/ΔCE). Corneal epithelial barrier function was tested by fluorescein staining. Expression of selected Klf4-target genes was determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR), immunoblotting, and immunofluorescent staining. Results. Klf4 was efficiently ablated within 5 days of doxycycline administration in adult Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelium. The Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial barrier function was disrupted, and the basal cells were swollen and rounded after 15 days of doxycycline treatment. Increased numbers of cell layers and Ki67-positive proliferating cells suggested deregulated Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial homeostasis. Expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, desmosomal Dsg and Dsp, basement membrane laminin-332, and corneal epithelial–specific keratin-12 was decreased, while that of matrix metalloproteinase Mmp9 and noncorneal keratin-17 increased, suggesting altered Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneal epithelial cell identity. Conclusions. Ablation of Klf4 in the adult mouse corneas resulted in the absence of characteristic corneal epithelial cell differentiation, disrupted barrier function, and squamous metaplasia, revealing that Klf4 is essential for maintenance of the adult corneal epithelial cell identity and homeostasis. PMID:26047041

  12. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  13. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  14. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  15. Alteration of cell-cycle regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nam, E J; Kim, Y T

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the clinical importance of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), little is known about the pathobiology of its precursor lesions and progression. Regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle are mainly composed of cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), and CDK inhibitors. Alteration of these mechanisms results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, which is a distinctive feature of human cancers. This review describes the current state of knowledge about the alterations of cell-cycle regulations in the context of p16-cyclin D1-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, p21-p27-cyclin E-CDK2 pathway, p14-MDM2-p53 pathway, and ATM-Chk2-CDC25 pathway, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that ovarian cancer is a heterogenous group of neoplasms with several different histologic types, each with its own underlying molecular genetic mechanism. Therefore, expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins should be tested separately according to each histologic type. In serous ovarian carcinoma, high expression of p16, p53, and p27 and low expression of p21 and cyclin E were shown. In addition, this review focuses on the prognostic significance of cell cycle-regulating proteins in EOC. However, it is difficult to compare the results from different groups due to diverse methodologies and interpretations. Accordingly, researchers should establish standardized criteria for the interpretation of immunohistochemical results. PMID:18298566

  16. A FOXM1 Dependent Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Parul; Dodsworth, Benjamin Thomas; Sidders, Ben; Gutteridge, Alex; Michaelides, Christos; Duckworth, Joshua Kane; Whiting, Paul John; Benn, Caroline Louise

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of the epithelium is maintained by a complex but regulated interplay of processes that allow conversion of a proliferative state into a stably differentiated state. In this study, using human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells as a model; we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect attainment of the epithelial phenotype. We demonstrate that RPE undergo a Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition in culture before acquiring an epithelial phenotype in a FOXM1 dependent manner. We show that FOXM1 directly regulates proliferation of RPE through transcriptional control of cell cycle associated genes. Additionally, FOXM1 modulates expression of the signaling ligands BMP7 and Wnt5B which act reciprocally to enable epithelialization. This data uncovers a novel effect of FOXM1 dependent activities in contributing towards epithelial fate acquisition and furthers our understanding of the molecular regulators of a cell type that is currently being evaluated as a cell therapy. PMID:26121260

  17. Carcinoma cells induce lumen filling and EMT in epithelial cells through soluble E-cadherin-mediated activation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pratima U; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Inge, Landon J; Mason, Robert W; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2015-12-01

    In epithelial cancers, carcinoma cells coexist with normal cells. Although it is known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, it is not completely understood how the tumor influences adjacent normal epithelial cells. In this study, a three-dimensional co-culture system comprising non-transformed epithelial cells (MDCK) and transformed carcinoma cells (MSV-MDCK) was used to demonstrate that carcinoma cells sequentially induce preneoplastic lumen filling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cysts. MMP-9 secreted by carcinoma cells cleaves cellular E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) from epithelial cells to generate soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), a pro-oncogenic protein. We show that sE-cad induces EGFR activation, resulting in lumen filling in MDCK cysts. Long-term sE-cad treatment induced EMT. sE-cad caused lumen filling by induction of the ERK signaling pathway and triggered EMT through the sustained activation of the AKT pathway. Although it is known that sE-cad induces MMP-9 release and consequent EGFR activation in tumor cells, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that carcinoma cells can induce sE-cad shedding in adjacent epithelial cells, which leads to EGFR activation and the eventual transdifferentiation of the normal epithelial cells. PMID:26483386

  18. Functional characterization of choroid plexus epithelial cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, A R; Parmelee, J T; Pritchard, J B

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a primary culture system for choroid plexus epithelial cells as an in vitro model for studying organic cation transport. Cells were dispersed from choroid plexus of neonatal rats by enzymatic digestion and grew as differentiated monolayers when plated on solid or permeable support. Electron microscopy showed that cultured cells were morphologically similar to intact choroid plexus epithelium, having apical tight junctions between cells, numerous mitochondria, basal nuclei and apical microvilli and cilia. As previously demonstrated for intact choroid plexus, immunocytochemistry showed that Na+,K+-ATPase was localized to the apical membrane, and GLUT-1, the facilitative glucose transporter, was localized to the basolateral membrane of cultured cells. Apical transport of L-proline by cultured cells was mediated by a sodium-dependent, electrogenic process, as in whole tissue. 14C-Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a prototypic organic cation, was accumulated by isolated choroid plexus in a time-dependent manner; uptake was inhibited by tetrapentylammonium (TePA). In cultured cells, apical TEA transport was mediated by a saturable process coupled to cellular metabolism. Unlabeled TEA and other organic cations (TePA, N1-methylnicotinamide and mepiperphenidol) inhibited TEA transport; the organic anion, p-aminohippurate, had no effect. Finally, TePA-sensitive transport of 14C-TEA was stimulated after preloading the cells with unlabeled TEA. Based on the morphological, biochemical and functional properties of these cultured cells, we conclude that this primary culture system should be an excellent in vitro model for experimental characterization of choroid plexus function. PMID:9262381

  19. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Suppression of Phagolysosome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AW; Dixit, S; Yu, J

    2015-01-01

    The eye is an immune privileged tissue with multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression to protect the light gathering tissues from the damage of inflammation. One of theses mechanisms involves retinal pigment epithelial cell suppression of phagosome activation in macrophages. The objective of this work is to determine if the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 is capable of suppressing the activation of the phagolysosome in macrophages in a manner similar to primary RPE. The conditioned media of RPE eyecups, sub-confluent, just confluent cultures, or established confluent cultures of human ARPE-19 cells were generated. These condition media were used to treat macrophages phagocytizing pHrodo bioparticles. After 24 hours incubation the macrophages were imaged by fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescence was measured. The fluorescent intensity is proportional to the amount of bioparticles phagocytized and are in an activated phagolysosome. The conditioned media of in situ mouse RPE eyecups significantly suppressed the activation of phagolysosome. The conditioned media from cultures of human ARPE-19 cells, grown to sub-confluence (50%) or grown to confluence had no effect on phagolysosome activation. In contrast, the conditioned media from established confluent cultures significantly suppressed phagolysosome activation. The neuropeptides alpha-MSH and NPY were depleted from the conditioned media of established confluent ARPE-19 cell cultures. This depleted conditioned media had diminished suppression of phagolysosome activation while promoting macrophage cell death. In addition, the condition media from cultures of ARPE-19 monolayers wounded with a bisecting scrape was diminished in suppressing phagolysosome activation. This technical report suggests that like primary RPE monolayers, established confluent cultures of ARPE-19 cells produce soluble factors that suppress the activation of macrophages, and can be used to study the molecular mechanisms of retinal immunobiology. In addition, the results further demonstrate the importance of an intact monolayer of RPE cells to modulate immune cell activity within the eye. PMID:25905107

  20. Mitotic cells contract actomyosin cortex and generate pressure to round against or escape epithelial confinement

    PubMed Central

    Sorce, Barbara; Escobedo, Carlos; Toyoda, Yusuke; Stewart, Martin P.; Cattin, Cedric J.; Newton, Richard; Banerjee, Indranil; Stettler, Alexander; Roska, Botond; Eaton, Suzanne; Hyman, Anthony A.; Hierlemann, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how mitotic cells round against epithelial confinement. Here, we engineer micropillar arrays that subject cells to lateral mechanical confinement similar to that experienced in epithelia. If generating sufficient force to deform the pillars, rounding epithelial (MDCK) cells can create space to divide. However, if mitotic cells cannot create sufficient space, their rounding force, which is generated by actomyosin contraction and hydrostatic pressure, pushes the cell out of confinement. After conducting mitosis in an unperturbed manner, both daughter cells return to the confinement of the pillars. Cells that cannot round against nor escape confinement cannot orient their mitotic spindles and more likely undergo apoptosis. The results highlight how spatially constrained epithelial cells prepare for mitosis: either they are strong enough to round up or they must escape. The ability to escape from confinement and reintegrate after mitosis appears to be a basic property of epithelial cells. PMID:26602832

  1. Mitotic cells contract actomyosin cortex and generate pressure to round against or escape epithelial confinement.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Barbara; Escobedo, Carlos; Toyoda, Yusuke; Stewart, Martin P; Cattin, Cedric J; Newton, Richard; Banerjee, Indranil; Stettler, Alexander; Roska, Botond; Eaton, Suzanne; Hyman, Anthony A; Hierlemann, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how mitotic cells round against epithelial confinement. Here, we engineer micropillar arrays that subject cells to lateral mechanical confinement similar to that experienced in epithelia. If generating sufficient force to deform the pillars, rounding epithelial (MDCK) cells can create space to divide. However, if mitotic cells cannot create sufficient space, their rounding force, which is generated by actomyosin contraction and hydrostatic pressure, pushes the cell out of confinement. After conducting mitosis in an unperturbed manner, both daughter cells return to the confinement of the pillars. Cells that cannot round against nor escape confinement cannot orient their mitotic spindles and more likely undergo apoptosis. The results highlight how spatially constrained epithelial cells prepare for mitosis: either they are strong enough to round up or they must escape. The ability to escape from confinement and reintegrate after mitosis appears to be a basic property of epithelial cells. PMID:26602832

  2. Survival of Exfoliated Epithelial Cells: A Delicate Balance between Anoikis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of exfoliated cells from biological fluids is a noninvasive technology which is in high demand in the field of translational research. Exfoliated epithelial cells can be isolated from several body fluids (i.e., breast milk, urines, and digestives fluids) as a cellular mixture (senescent, apoptotic, proliferative, or quiescent cells). The most intriguing are quiescent cells which can be used to derive primary cultures indicating that some phenotypes retain clonogenic potentials. Such exfoliated cells are believed to enter rapidly in anoikis after exfoliation. Anoikis can be considered as an autophagic state promoting epithelial cell survival after a timely loss of contact with extracellular matrix and cell neighbors. This paper presents current understanding of exfoliation along with the influence of methodology on the type of gastrointestinal epithelial cells isolated and, finally, speculates on the balance between anoikis and apoptosis to explain the survival of gastrointestinal epithelial cells in the environment. PMID:22131811

  3. Mitotic cells contract actomyosin cortex and generate pressure to round against or escape epithelial confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorce, Barbara; Escobedo, Carlos; Toyoda, Yusuke; Stewart, Martin P.; Cattin, Cedric J.; Newton, Richard; Banerjee, Indranil; Stettler, Alexander; Roska, Botond; Eaton, Suzanne; Hyman, Anthony A.; Hierlemann, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how mitotic cells round against epithelial confinement. Here, we engineer micropillar arrays that subject cells to lateral mechanical confinement similar to that experienced in epithelia. If generating sufficient force to deform the pillars, rounding epithelial (MDCK) cells can create space to divide. However, if mitotic cells cannot create sufficient space, their rounding force, which is generated by actomyosin contraction and hydrostatic pressure, pushes the cell out of confinement. After conducting mitosis in an unperturbed manner, both daughter cells return to the confinement of the pillars. Cells that cannot round against nor escape confinement cannot orient their mitotic spindles and more likely undergo apoptosis. The results highlight how spatially constrained epithelial cells prepare for mitosis: either they are strong enough to round up or they must escape. The ability to escape from confinement and reintegrate after mitosis appears to be a basic property of epithelial cells.

  4. IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells negatively regulate fucosylation of epithelial cells in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Lamichhane, Aayam; Kamioka, Mariko; Sato, Shintaro; Honda, Kenya; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fucosylated glycans on the surface of epithelial cells (ECs) regulate intestinal homeostasis by serving as attachment receptors and a nutrient source for some species of bacteria. We show here that epithelial fucosylation in the ileum is negatively regulated by IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. The number of fucosylated ECs was increased in the ileum of mice lacking T cells, especially those expressing αβ T cell receptor (TCR), CD4, and IL-10. No such effect was observed in mice lacking B cells. Adoptive transfer of αβTCR+ CD4+ T cells from normal mice, but not IL-10-deficient mice, normalized fucosylation of ECs. These findings suggest that IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells contribute to the maintenance of the function of ECs by regulating their fucosylation. PMID:26522513

  5. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 pilot trial evaluating a novel, vaginal softgel capsule containing solubilized estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Pickar, James H.; Amadio, Julia M.; Hill, John M.; Bernick, Brian A.; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of vaginal estradiol (E2) softgel capsules for moderate-to-severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Previous phase 1 studies showed lower systemic estrogen concentrations with this softgel capsule compared with an approved low-dose vaginal E2 tablet. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study, 50 postmenopausal women (aged 40-75 y) with at least1 moderate-to-severe VVA symptom received 10 μg vaginal E2 softgel capsules or placebo daily for 14 days. Changes from baseline in vaginal maturation index, investigator's assessment of vaginal mucosa (secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, color), vaginal pH, and most bothersome symptom were assessed. Adverse events were evaluated. Results: Compared with placebo, the percentage of superficial (35.2 percentage points [pp] vs 8.75 pp; P = 0.0002) and intermediate (18.7 pp vs −3.54 pp; P = 0.0017) cells increased from baseline significantly more with vaginal E2 capsules, and parabasal cells decreased significantly more (−54.4 pp vs −4.80 pp; P < 0.0001). Vaginal pH decreased significantly more with vaginal E2 capsules (−0.974 vs −0.339; P = 0.0002). Decreases in severity of atrophic effects on vaginal epithelial integrity (−0.342 vs 0.176; P = 0.0001) and secretions (−0.643 vs −0.274; P = 0.0401) were significantly greater with vaginal E2 capsules vs placebo. There was no statistical difference in most bothersome symptom severity change from baseline. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: Vaginal E2 softgel capsules are a safe, effective, local treatment option for postmenopausal women with moderate-to-severe VVA, with lower systemic estrogen absorption than currently available intravaginal treatments. PMID:26836245

  6. Intrinsic lens forming potential of mouse lens epithelial versus newt iris pigment epithelial cells in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Andrea; Nakamura, Kenta; Tsonis, Panagiotis A

    2014-02-01

    Adult newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) are capable of complete lens regeneration that is mediated through dorsal iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells transdifferentiation. In contrast, higher vertebrates such as mice demonstrate only limited lens regeneration in the presence of an intact lens capsule with remaining lens epithelial cells. To compare the intrinsic lens regeneration potential of newt IPE versus mouse lens epithelial cells (MLE), we have established a novel culture method that uses cell aggregation before culture in growth factor-reduced Matrigel. Dorsal newt IPE aggregates demonstrated complete lens formation within 1 to 2 weeks of Matrigel culture without basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) supplementation, including the establishment of a peripheral cuboidal epithelial cell layer, and the appearance of central lens fibers that were positive for ?A-crystallin. In contrast, the lens-forming potential of MLE cell aggregates cultured in Matrigel was incomplete and resulted in the formation of defined-size lentoids with partial optical transparency. While the peripheral cell layers of MLE aggregates were nucleated, cells in the center of aggregates demonstrated a nonapoptotic nuclear loss over a time period of 3 weeks that was representative of lens fiber formation. Matrigel culture supplementation with bFGF resulted in higher transparent bigger-size MLE aggregates that demonstrated increased appearance of ?B1-crystallin expression. Our study demonstrates that bFGF is not required for induction of newt IPE aggregate-dependent lens formation in Matrigel, while the addition of bFGF seems to be beneficial for the formation of MLE aggregate-derived lens-like structures. In conclusion, the three-dimensional aggregate culture of IPE and MLE in Matrigel allows to a higher extent than older models the indepth study of the intrinsic lens-forming potential and the corresponding identification of lentogenic factors. PMID:23672748

  7. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB-responsive gene associated with loss of cell anchorage. There is also a range of aneuploidy amongst the transformed clones and ongoing chromosomal analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization has identified single or two copy loss of the tumor suppressor gene FHIT, in 8 of 15 transformed clones. This is accompanied by a 6-fold reduction, overall, in FHIT gene expression amongst the 15 clones under examination. Interestingly, in spite of these changes at the molecular level, when implanted subcutaneously into immune-compromised mice, the transformed clones from the HBEC3 KT cell line do not form tumors. This suggests that additional hits are required for oncogenesis, at least in a subcutaneous model, and/or, 2-D tissue culture models to not adequately reflect the underlying biology. We have therefore, begun to examine transformation in a 3-D tissue culture model, bronchocysts, where HBEC cells ultimately differentiate and stop cycling. We have shown that cells in 3-D have reduced gene expression of key DNA repair genes, and are less effective at repairing complex damage. We are now irradiating at dose rates as low as 0.2 cGy/min to test the notion of an inverse dose rate effect for carcinogenesis by HZE particles. In our early experiments we have shown that as the dose rate dropped from 20 cGy/min to 0.2 cGy/min, for the same total dose (0.25 and 0.50 Gy) an increasing percentage of bronchocysts become mis-shapen, suggesting that some cells within the cyst have de-differentiated and have reentered the cell cycle. We are now testing whether those cells are, in fact, cycling and wherther they are transformed by disaggregating the cyst and placing the cells into soft agar culture.

  8. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  9. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  10. Vaginal Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, C. M.

    1970-01-01

    1. In this series 150 cases of vaginal hysterectomy performed with or without associated procedures are reviewed. They have been analyzed as to indications and complications. 2. Vaginal hysterectomy and repair is the operation best suited to many women with pelvic relaxation and who have menstrual disturbances. Occasionally, when hysterectomy is needed it is safer to remove per vaginam than per abdomen. The chief indication for operation in our series was pelvic relaxation. Other indications were dysfunctional uterine bleeding, fibroid uterus and in situ carcinoma of cervix. The operative complications included excessive bleeding in 20 percent of cases. No bladder or ureteral injuries were encountered. Laparotomy was performed in three cases for uncontrollable bleeding (two percent). The most common postoperative complication was significant rise in temperature due to non-specific morbidity in 47 cases (31 percent) and recognizable urinary tract infection in 27 cases (18 percent). Imagesp72-a PMID:20468510

  11. Small-Molecule Induction Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation. PMID:24527395

  12. Role of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Epithelial Differentiation of Lung Resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaowen; Lv, Tengfei; Xiang, Zou; Sun, Zhaorui; Qian, Weiping; Han, Xiaodong

    2015-08-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that stem cells have the ability to repair the lung tissue injuries following either injection of cultured cells or bone marrow transplantation. As a result, increasing attention has focused on the lung resident mesenchymal stem cells (LR-MSCs) for repairing damaged lung tissues. Meanwhile, some studies have revealed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in the epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the current study, our aim was to explore the roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling on cell proliferation and epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs. We have successfully isolated the stem cell antigen (Sca)-1(+) CD45(-) CD31(-) cells which were proposed to be LR-MSCs by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of epithelial markers on LR-MSCs following indirect co-culture of these cells with alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, confirming the epithelial phenotype of LR-MSCs following co-culture. In order to clarify the regulatory mechanisms of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs, we measured the protein levels of several important members involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the presence or absence of some canonical activators and inhibitors of the β-catenin pathways. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling may be an essential mechanism underlying the regulation of epithelial differentiation of LR-MSCs. PMID:25546504

  13. Epithelial cells are a source of natural IgM that contribute to innate immune responses.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wenwei; Hu, Fanlei; Ma, Junfan; Zhang, Chi; Liao, Qinyuan; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Enyang; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2016-04-01

    Currently, natural IgM antibodies are considered to be the constitutively secreted products of B-1 cells in mice and humans. In this study, we found that mouse epithelial cells, including liver epithelial cells and small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), could express IgM that also showed natural antibody activity. Moreover, similar to the B-1 cell-derived natural IgM that can be upregulated by TLR9 agonists (mimicking bacterial infection), the expression of epithelial cell-derived natural IgM could also be significantly increased by TLR9 signaling. More importantly, the epithelial cell-derived IgM was polyreactive, and it could recognize single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and insulin with low affinity; additionally, TLR9 agonists could enhance it in a MyD88-dependent manner. Furthermore, epithelial cell-derived IgM could bind various bacteria; therefore, it could be involved in anti-infection responses. Together, these results highlight the fact that epithelial cells are an important source of natural IgM, in addition to that produced by B-1 cells, and IgM contributes to the innate immune responses in local tissues, further demonstrating that the epithelium is a first line of defense in the protection against invading microbes. PMID:26820901

  14. Increased epithelial stem cell traits in advanced endometrial endometrioid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been recognized cancer cells acquire characters reminiscent of those of normal stem cells, and the degree of stem cell gene expression correlates with patient prognosis. Lgr5(+) or CD133(+) epithelial stem cells (EpiSCs) have recently been identified and these cells are susceptible to neoplastic transformation. It is unclear, however, whether genes enriched in EpiSCs also contribute in tumor malignancy. Endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) is a dominant type of the endometrial cancers and is still among the most common female cancers. Clinically endometrial carcinoma is classified into 4 FIGO stages by the degree of tumor invasion and metastasis, and the survival rate is low in patients with higher stages of tumors. Identifying genes shared between advanced tumors and stem cells will not only unmask the mechanisms of tumor malignancy but also provide novel therapeutic targets. Results To identify EpiSC genes in late (stages III-IV) EECs, a molecular signature distinguishing early (stages I-II) and late EECs was first identified to delineate late EECs at the genomics level. ERBB2 and CCR1 were genes activated in late EECs, while APBA2 (MINT2) and CDK inhibitor p16 tumor suppressors in early EECs. MAPK pathway was significantly up in late EECs, indicating drugs targeting this canonical pathway might be useful for treating advanced EECs. A six-gene mini-signature was further identified to differentiate early from advanced EECs in both the training and testing datasets. Advanced, invasive EECs possessed a clear EpiSC gene expression pattern, explaining partly why these tumors are more malignant. Conclusions Our work provides new insights into the pathogenesis of EECs and reveals a previously unknown link between adult stem cells and the histopathological traits of EECs. Shared EpiSC genes in late EECs may contribute to the stem cell-like phenotypes shown by advanced tumors and hold the potential of being candidate therapeutic targets and novel prognosis biomarkers. PMID:20015385

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis are mutually exclusive reponses in shear-activated proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Grabias, Bryan M; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2012-10-01

    Renal fibrosis (RF) is thought to be a direct consequence of dedifferentiation of resident epithelial cells via an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Increased glomerular flow is a critical initiator of fibrogenesis. Yet, the responses of proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) to fluid flow remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigate the effects of pathological shear stresses on the development of fibrosis in PTECs. Our data reveal that type I collagen accumulation in shear-activated PTECs is accompanied by a ∼40-60% decrease in cell motility, thus excluding EMT as a relevant pathological process. In contrast, static incubation of PTECs with TGFβ1 increases cell motility by ∼50%, and induces stable expression of key mesenchymal markers, including Snail1, N-cadherin, and vimentin. Ectopic expression of TGFβ1 in shear-activated PTECs fails to induce EMT-associated changes but abrogates collagen accumulation via SMAD2-dependent mechanisms. Shear-mediated inhibition of EMT occurs via cyclic oscillations in both ERK2 activity and downstream expression of EMT genes. A constitutive ERK2 mutant induces stable expression of Snail1, N-cadherin, and vimentin, and increases cell motility in shear-activated PTECs by 250% without concomitant collagen deposition. Collectively, our data reveal that RF not only occurs without EMT but also that these two responses represent mutually exclusive cell fates. PMID:22744866

  16. Characterization of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced degradation of epithelial cell junctional complexes.

    PubMed

    Katz, J; Sambandam, V; Wu, J H; Michalek, S M; Balkovetz, D F

    2000-03-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered among the etiological agents of human adult periodontitis. Although in vitro studies have shown that P. gingivalis has the ability to invade epithelial cell lines, its effect on the epithelial barrier junctions is not known. Immunofluorescence analysis of human gingival epithelial cells confirmed the presence of tight-junction (occludin), adherens junction (E-cadherin), and cell-extracellular matrix junction (beta1-integrin) transmembrane proteins. These transmembrane proteins are expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. In addition, MDCK cells polarize and therefore serve as a useful in vitro model for studies on the epithelial cell barrier. Using the MDCK cell system, we examined the effect of P. gingivalis on epithelial barrier function. Exposure of the basolateral surfaces of MDCK cells to P. gingivalis (>10(9) bacteria/ml) resulted in a decrease in transepithelial resistance. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated decreases in the amounts of immunoreactive occludin, E-cadherin, and beta1-integrin at specific times which were related to a disruption of cell-cell junctions in MDCK cells exposed to basolateral P. gingivalis. Disruption of cell-cell junctions was also observed upon apical exposure to bacteria; however, the effects took longer than those seen upon basolateral exposure. Cell viability was not affected by either basolateral or apical exposure to P. gingivalis. Western blot analysis demonstrated hydrolysis of occludin, E-cadherin, and beta1-integrin in lysates derived from MDCK cells exposed to P. gingivalis. Immunoprecipitated occludin and E-cadherin molecules from MDCK cell lysates were also degraded by P. gingivalis, suggesting a bacterial protease(s) capable of cleaving these epithelial junction transmembrane proteins. Collectively, these data suggest that P. gingivalis is able to invade the deeper structures of connective tissues via a paracellular pathway by degrading epithelial cell-cell junction complexes, thus allowing the spread of the bacterium. These results also indicate the importance of a critical threshold concentration of P. gingivalis to initiate epithelial barrier destruction. PMID:10678958

  17. Cells of renin lineage are progenitors of podocytes and parietal epithelial cells in experimental glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Pippin, Jeffrey W; Sparks, Matthew A; Glenn, Sean T; Buitrago, Sandra; Coffman, Thomas M; Duffield, Jeremy S; Gross, Kenneth W; Shankland, Stuart J

    2013-08-01

    Glomerular injury leads to podocyte loss, a process directly underlying progressive glomerular scarring and decline of kidney function. The inherent repair process is limited by the inability of podocytes to regenerate. Cells of renin lineage residing alongside glomerular capillaries are reported to have progenitor capacity. We investigated whether cells of renin lineage can repopulate the glomerulus after podocyte injury and serve as glomerular epithelial cell progenitors. Kidney cells expressing renin were genetically fate-mapped in adult Ren1cCreER×Rs-tdTomato-R, Ren1cCre×Rs-ZsGreen-R, and Ren1dCre×Z/EG reporter mice. Podocyte depletion was induced in all three cell-specific reporter mice by cytotoxic anti-podocyte antibodies. After a decrease in podocyte number, a significant increase in the number of labeled cells of renin lineage was observed in glomeruli in a focal distribution along Bowman's capsule, within the glomerular tuft, or in both locations. A subset of cells lining Bowman's capsule activated expression of the glomerular parietal epithelial cell markers paired box protein PAX2 and claudin-1. A subset of labeled cells within the glomerular tuft expressed the podocyte markers Wilms tumor protein 1, nephrin, podocin, and synaptopodin. Neither renin mRNA nor renin protein was detected de novo in diseased glomeruli. These findings provide initial evidence that cells of renin lineage may enhance glomerular regeneration by serving as progenitors for glomerular epithelial cells in glomerular disease characterized by podocyte depletion. PMID:23769837

  18. Epigenetic dimension of oxygen radical injury in spermatogonial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pradyumna K; Bunkar, Neha; Raghuram, Gorantla V; Khare, Naveen K; Pathak, Neelam; Bhargava, Arpit

    2015-04-01

    The present work reports a direct role of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced aberrant chromatin regulation, as a central phenomenon, to perturbed genomic integrity in the testicular milieu. Oxygen-radical injury following N-succinimidyl N-methylcarbamate treatment in mouse spermatogonial epithelial (GC-1 spg) cells induced functional derailment of mitochondrial machinery. Mitophagy resulted in marked inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and reduced mtDNA copy number. Impaired cell cycle progression along with altered H3K9me1, H4K20me3, H3, AcH3 and uH2A histone modifications were observed in the treated cells. Dense heterochromatin foci and aberrant expression of HP1α in nuclei of treated cells implied onset of senescence associated secretory phenotype mediated through nuclear accumulation of NF-κB. Neoplastic nature of daughter clones, emerged from senescent mother phenotypes was confirmed by cytogenetic instability, aberrant let-7a and let-7b miRNA expression and anchorage independent growth. Together, our results provide the first insights of redox-dependent epigenomic imbalance in spermatogonia, a previously unknown molecular paradigm. PMID:25687723

  19. Breast epithelial cell infiltration in enhanced electrospun silk scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Maghdouri-White, Yas; Elmore, Lynne W; Bowlin, Gary L; Dréau, Didier

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the effects of air-flow impedance electrospinning and air-flow rates on silk-based scaffolds for biological tissues were investigated. First, the properties of scaffolds obtained from 7% and 12% silk concentrations were defined. In addition, cell infiltration and viability of MCF-10A breast epithelial cells cultured onto these scaffolds were used to determine the biological suitability of these nanostructures. Air-flow impedance electrospun scaffolds resulted in an overall larger pore size than scaffolds electrospun on a solid mandrel, with the largest pores in 7% silk electrospun with an air pressure of 100 kPa and in 12% silk electrospun with an air pressure of 400 kPa (13.4 ± 0.67 and 26.03 ± 1.19 µm, respectively). After 14 days in culture, the deepest MCF-10A cell infiltration (36.58 ± 2.28 µm) was observed into 7% silk air-flow impedance electrospun scaffolds subjected to an air pressure of 100 kPa. In those scaffolds MCF-10A cell viability was also highest after 14 days in culture. Together, these results strongly support the use of 7% silk-based scaffolds electrospun with a 100 kPa air-flow as the most suitable microenvironment for MCF-10A infiltration and viability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23798502

  20. Isolation and characterization of a breast progenitor epithelial cell line with robust DNA damage responses.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kate C; Miller, Fred; Tait, Larry; Santner, Steven J; Pauley, Robert; Raz, Avraham; Tainsky, Michael A; Brooks, S C; Wang, Y Alan

    2006-08-01

    We report the establishment of a breast epithelial cell model that undergoes growth arrest at different stages of the cell cycle depending upon the DNA damaging agents encountered. Primary breast epithelial cells from normal reductive mammoplasty were grown in low-calcium culture medium. Free-floating cells under this condition were separated and used for establishment of the MCF-15 breast epithelial cell line. We found that MCF-15 breast epithelial cells display a superb response to different phases of the cell cycle arrest in response to various DNA damaging agents. Immunohistological analysis indicates that MCF-15 cells express cytokeratin 19, CD44, CXCR4, SDF-1, SPARC and vimentin. Although less than 5% of the MCF-15 cells expressed Muc-1 in culture, increased Muc-1 expression was observed in luminal epithelial cells along the newly formed lumen in xenografts. Furthermore, a small population of MCF-15 cells expressed estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in xenografts while ERalpha expression was not detected in monolayer culture. Therefore, the MCF-15 breast epithelial cell line possesses characteristics of breast progenitor cells and provides a good cell culture model for studying the response to DNA damage and the etiology of aggressive basal-like breast cancers. PMID:16541320

  1. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryuhei; Ishikawa, Yuki; Ito, Miyuki; Kageyama, Tomofumi; Takashiba, Kuniko; Fujioka, Tsuyoshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Yamato, Masayuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF)-derived iPS cells (253G1) and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC)-derived iPS cells (L1B41). We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) differentiation method, as Pax6(+)/K12(+) corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later) in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells. PMID:23029008

  2. Dendritic cell-derived tumor necrosis factor α modifies airway epithelial cell responses.

    PubMed

    Lutfi, R; Ledford, J R; Zhou, P; Lewkowich, I P; Page, K

    2012-01-01

    Mucosal dendritic cells (DC) are intimately associated with the airway epithelium and thus are ideally situated to be first responders to pathogens. We hypothesize that DC drive innate immune responses through early release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, which drives airway epithelial cell responses. In a mouse model, TNFα release was significantly increased following a single exposure to German cockroach (GC) frass, an event independent of neutrophil recruitment into the airways. While lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages failed to release TNFα following GC frass exposure, bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) produced substantial amounts of TNFα suggesting their importance as early responding cells. This was confirmed by flow cytometry of pulmonary myeloid DC. Addition of GC frass-pulsed BMDC or conditioned media from GC frass-pulsed BMDC to primary mouse tracheal epithelial cells (MTEC) or MLE-15 cells induced chemokine (C-C) motif ligand (CCL) 20 and granulocyte macrophage (GM) colony-stimulating factor (CSF), both of which are important for DC recruitment, survival and differentiation. Importantly, DC do not produce CCL20 or GM-CSF following allergen exposure. Blocking TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) completely abolished chemokine production, suggesting that BMDC-derived TNFα induced airway epithelial cell activation and enhancement of the innate immune response. Lastly, blocking TNFR1 in vivo resulted in significantly decreased CCL20 and GM-CSF production in the lungs of mice. Together, our data strongly suggest that DC-derived TNFα plays a crucial role in the initiation of innate immune responses through the modification of airway epithelial cell responses. PMID:22517116

  3. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in Rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, W.L.; Dungworth, D.L.; Schwartz, L.W.; Tyler, W.S.

    1980-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in Rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppM ozone for 4 to 50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4 to 12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18%) was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67 to 80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20 to 33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell types most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal.

  4. Soluble Proteins Produced by Probiotic Bacteria Regulate Intestinal Epithelial Cell Survival and Growth

    PubMed Central

    YAN, FANG; CAO, HANWEI; COVER, TIMOTHY L.; WHITEHEAD, ROBERT; WASHINGTON, M. KAY; POLK, D. BRENT

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Increased inflammatory cytokine levels and intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis leading to disruption of epithelial integrity are major pathologic factors in inflammatory bowel diseases. The probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and factors recovered from LGG broth culture supernatant (LGG-s) prevent cytokine-induced apoptosis in human and mouse intestinal epithelial cells by regulating signaling pathways. Here, we purify and characterize 2 secreted LGG proteins that regulate intestinal epithelial cell antiapoptotic and proliferation responses. Methods LGG proteins were purified from LGG-s, analyzed, and used to generate polyclonal antibodies for immunodepletion of respective proteins from LGG-conditioned cell culture media (CM). Mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured colon explants were treated with purified proteins in the absence or presence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Akt activation, proliferation, tissue injury, apoptosis, and caspase-3 activation were determined. Results We purified 2 novel proteins, p75 (75 kilodaltons) and p40 (40 kilodaltons), from LGG-s. Each of these purified protein preparations activated Akt, inhibited cytokine-induced epithelial cell apoptosis, and promoted cell growth in human and mouse colon epithelial cells and cultured mouse colon explants. TNF-induced colon epithelial damage was significantly reduced by p75 and p40. Immunodepletion of p75 and p40 from LGG-CM reversed LGG-CM activation of Akt and its inhibitory effects on cytokine-induced apoptosis and loss of intestinal epithelial cells. Conclusions p75 and p40 are the first probiotic bacterial proteins demonstrated to promote intestinal epithelial homeostasis through specific signaling pathways. These findings suggest that probiotic bacterial components may be useful for preventing cytokine-mediated gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:17258729

  5. An improved method for isolation of epithelial and stromal cells from the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    MASUDA, Ayako; KATOH, Noriko; NAKABAYASHI, Kazuhiko; KATO, Kiyoko; SONODA, Kenzo; KITADE, Mari; TAKEDA, Satoru; HATA, Kenichiro; TOMIKAWA, Junko

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to improve the efficiency of isolating endometrial epithelial and stromal cells (EMECs and EMSCs) from the human endometrium. We revealed by immunohistochemical staining that the large tissue fragments remaining after collagenase treatment, which are usually discarded after the first filtration in the conventional protocol, consisted of glandular epithelial and stromal cells. Therefore, we established protease treatment and cell suspension conditions to dissociate single cells from the tissue fragments and isolated epithelial (EPCAM-positive) and stromal (CD13-positive) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Four independent experiments showed that, on average, 1.2 × 106 of EMECs and 2.8 × 106 EMSCs were isolated from one hysterectomy specimen. We confirmed that the isolated cells presented transcriptomic features highly similar to those of epithelial and stromal cells obtained by the conventional method. Our improved protocol facilitates future studies to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. PMID:26853786

  6. The Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and epithelial cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Mingjie

    2013-06-10

    Apical-basal polarity is the basic organizing principle of epithelial cells, and endows epithelial cells to function as defensive barriers and as mediators of vectorial transport of nutrients in and out of organisms. Apical-basal polarity is controlled by a number of conserved polarity factors that regulate cytoskeletal organizations, asymmetric distributions of cellular components, and directional transports across cells. Polarity factors often occupy specific membrane regions in response to the adhesion forces generated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Both internal polarity factors and the external extracellular matrices play fundamental roles in epithelial cell polarity establishment and maintenance. This review focuses on recent developments of the Par3/Par6/aPKC complex and its interacting proteins in epithelial cell polarity. PMID:23535009

  7. Characterization of host immunity during persistent vaginal colonization by Group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Patras, K A; Rösler, B; Thoman, M L; Doran, K S

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a Gram-positive bacterium, which colonizes the vaginal tract in 10-30% of women. Colonization is transient in nature, and little is known about the host and bacterial factors controlling GBS persistence. Gaining insight into these factors is essential for developing therapeutics to limit maternal GBS carriage and prevent transmission to the susceptible newborn. In this work, we have used human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells, and our established mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization, to characterize key host factors that respond during GBS colonization. We identify a GBS strain that persists beyond a month in the murine vagina, whereas other strains are more readily cleared. Correspondingly, we have detected differential cytokine production in human cell lines after challenge with the persistent strain vs. other GBS strains. We also demonstrate that the persistent strain more readily invades cervical cells compared with vaginal cells, suggesting that GBS may potentially use the cervix as a reservoir to establish long-term colonization. Furthermore, we have identified interleukin-17 production in response to long-term colonization, which is associated with eventual clearance of GBS. We conclude that both GBS strain differences and concurrent host immune responses are crucial in modulating vaginal colonization. PMID:25850655

  8. Human intestinal epithelial cells express IL-10 through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated epithelial-macrophage crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jinhee; Romero, Laura; Riveron, Reldy; Flores, Claudia; Kanagavelu, Saravana; Chung, Kristina D.; Alonso, Ana; Sotolongo, John; Ruiz, Jose; Manukyan, Armine; Chun, Sally; Singh, Gaurav; Pedro, Salas; Targan, Stephan R.; Fukata, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, interaction between epithelial cells and macrophages creates a unique immunoregulatory microenvironment necessary to maintain local immune and tissue homeostasis. Human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have been shown to express IL-10, which keeps epithelial integrity. We have demonstrated that bacterial signaling through TLR4 induces 15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) synthesis in intestinal macrophages by Cox-2 expression. Here we show that TLR4 signaling generates crosstalk between IECs and macrophages that enhances IL-10 expression in IECs. Direct stimulation of TLR4 leads to the expression of IL-10 in IECs, while the presence of macrophages in a transwell system induces another peak of IL-10 in IECs at a later time point. The second peak of the IL-10 expression is two times greater than the first peak. This late induction of IL-10 depends on a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ that is accumulated in IECs by TLR4-mediated inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway. TLR4 signaling in macrophages in turn synthesizes 15d-PGJ2 through p38 and ERK activation and Cox-2 induction, which activates PPARγ in IECs. These results suggest that TLR4 signaling maintains IL-10 production in IECs by generating epithelial-macrophage crosstalk, which is an important mechanism in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis mediated through host-bacterial interactions. PMID:25171731

  9. Cell-contact dependent inhibition of monocytes by airway epithelial cells and reversion by infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Oumouna, Mustapha; Weitnauer, Michael; Mijošek, Vedrana; Schmidt, Lotte M; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are the first line of defense against airborne infectious microbes and play an important role in regulating the local immune response. However, the interplay of epithelial cells and professional immune cells during both homeostasis and infection has only been partially studied. The present study was performed to determine how bronchial epithelial cells affect the activation of monocytes. Under healthy conditions, AECs were shown to inhibit reactivity of monocytes. We hypothesized that upon infection, monocytes might be released from inhibition by AECs. We report that direct contact of monocytes with unstimulated BEAS2B epithelial cells results in inhibition of TNF secretion by activated monocytes. In addition to the known soluble modulators, we show that cell contacts between epithelial cells and monocytes or macrophages also contribute to homeostatic inhibitory actions. We find AECs to express the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and blockade of PD-L1 results in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Contrary to the inhibitory activities during homeostasis, epithelial cells infected with Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) induce a significant release of inhibition. However, release of inhibition was not due to modulation of PD-L1 expression in AECs. We conclude that airway epithelial cells control the reactivity of monocytes through direct and indirect interactions; however tonic inhibition can be reverted upon stimulation of AECs with RSV and thereof derived molecular patterns. The study confirms the important role of airway epithelial cells for local immune reactions. PMID:26153873

  10. Epithelial cell responses to infection with human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. Most of those who do develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, and the lesions regress. Regression of anogenital warts is accompanied histologically by a CD4(+) T cell-dominated Th1 response; animal models support this and provide evidence that the response is modulated by antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell-dependent mechanisms. Failure to develop an effective CMI response to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Effective evasion of innate immune recognition seems to be the hallmark of HPV infections. The viral infectious cycle is exclusively intraepithelial: there is no viremia and no virus-induced cytolysis or cell death, and viral replication and release are not associated with inflammation. HPV globally downregulates the innate immune signaling pathways in the infected keratinocyte. Proinflammatory cytokines, particularly the type I interferons, are not released, and the signals for Langerhans cell (LC) activation and migration, together with recruitment of stromal dendritic cells and macrophages, are either not present or inadequate. This immune ignorance results in chronic infections that persist over weeks and months. Progression to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia with concomitant upregulation of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins is associated with further deregulation of immunologically relevant molecules, particularly chemotactic chemokines and their receptors, on keratinocytes and endothelial cells of the underlying microvasculature, limiting or preventing the ingress of cytotoxic effectors into the lesions. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection of basal keratinocytes requires epithelial wounding followed by the reepithelization of wound healing. The wound exudate that results provides a mechanistic explanation for the protection offered by serum neutralizing antibody generated by HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. PMID:22491770

  11. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Karrich, Julien J.; Cornelissen, Ferry; Papazian, Natalie; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J.; Butler, James A.; Boon, Louis; Coles, Mark C.; Samsom, Janneke N.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence of this high mitotic activity, mucosal surfaces are frequently targeted by anticancer therapies, leading to dose-limiting side effects. The cellular mechanisms that control tissue protection and mucosal healing in response to intestinal damage remain poorly understood. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are regulators of homeostasis and tissue responses to infection at mucosal surfaces. We now demonstrate that ILC3s are required for epithelial activation and proliferation in response to small intestinal tissue damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate. Multiple subsets of ILC3s are activated after intestinal tissue damage, and in the absence of ILC3s, epithelial activation is lost, correlating with increased pathology and severe damage to the intestinal crypts. Using ILC3-deficient Lgr5 reporter mice, we show that maintenance of intestinal stem cells after damage is severely impaired in the absence of ILC3s or the ILC3 signature cytokine IL-22. These data unveil a novel function of ILC3s in limiting tissue damage by preserving tissue-specific stem cells. PMID:26392223

  12. Epithelial Cells Derived from Swine Bone Marrow Express Stem Cell Markers and Support Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M.

    2011-01-01

    The bone marrow contains heterogeneous population of cells that are involved in the regeneration and repair of diseased organs, including the lungs. In this study, we isolated and characterized progenitor epithelial cells from the bone marrow of 4- to 5-week old germ-free pigs. Microscopically, the cultured cells showed epithelial-like morphology. Phenotypically, these cells expressed the stem cell markers octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), the alveolar stem cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (Ccsp), and the epithelial cell markers pan-cytokeratin (Pan-K), cytokeratin-18 (K-18), and occludin. When cultured in epithelial cell growth medium, the progenitor epithelial cells expressed type I and type II pneumocyte markers. Next, we examined the susceptibility of these cells to influenza virus. Progenitor epithelial cells expressed sialic acid receptors utilized by avian and mammalian influenza viruses and were targets for influenza virus replication. Additionally, differentiated type II but not type I pneumocytes supported the replication of influenza virus. Our data indicate that we have identified a unique population of progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow that might have airway reconstitution potential and may be a useful model for cell-based therapies for infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. PMID:22216319

  13. Tacrolimus Modulates TGF-β Signaling to Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Jason; Cassidy, Hilary; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process which describes the trans-differentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, is pivotal in stem cell behavior, development and wound healing, as well as contributing to disease processes including fibrosis and cancer progression. Maintenance immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has become routine management for renal transplant patient, but unfortunately the nephrotoxicity of these drugs has been well documented. HK-2 cells were exposed to Tacrolimus (FK506) and EMT markers were asse