These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Adherence of Human Vaginal Lactobacilli to Vaginal Epithelial Cells and Interaction with Uropathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three strains of Lactobacillus, identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus jensenii, were selected from among 70 isolates from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women for properties relevant to mucosal colonization or antagonism. All three self-aggregated and adhered to epithelial vaginal cells, displacing well-known vaginal pathogens, such as G. vaginalis, and inhibiting the growth in vitro of Escherichia coli

SOLEDAD BORIS; JUAN E. SUAREZ; FERNANDO VAZQUEZ; COVADONGA BARBES

1985-01-01

2

Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.  

PubMed

The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild?type (WT) mice. Administration of ??estradiol to infant Sema4D?deficient (Sema4D?/?) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same ??estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin?B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five?week?old WT and Sema4D?/? mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin?B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase?3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five?week?old Sema4D?/? mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D?/? vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis?inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of plexin?B1 expression in vaginal epithelial cells demonstrated the integral role of plexin?B1 in Sema4D?induced apoptotic cell death. These results suggest a non?redundant role of Sema4D in the postnatal tissue remodeling process in five?week?old BALB/c mice, which involves the induction of vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis through Sema4D binding to plexin?B1. PMID:25351707

Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

2015-02-01

3

Adherence of Human Vaginal Lactobacilli to Vaginal Epithelial Cells and Interaction with Uropathogens  

PubMed Central

Three strains of Lactobacillus, identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus jensenii, were selected from among 70 isolates from the vaginas of healthy premenopausal women for properties relevant to mucosal colonization or antagonism. All three self-aggregated and adhered to epithelial vaginal cells, displacing well-known vaginal pathogens, such as G. vaginalis, and inhibiting the growth in vitro of Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae. The surface components involved in self-aggregation appeared to be proteins for L. gasseri and lipoproteins for L. acidophilus and L. jensenii, as judged by susceptibility to treatment with appropriate degrading enzymes. The factors responsible for adherence to epithelial vaginal cells seemed to be glycoproteins (L. acidophilus and L. gasseri) and carbohydrate (L. jensenii). The receptors of the vaginal cells were glycolipids, which presumably were the targets of the competition observed between the lactobacilli and the pathogenic microbes. PMID:9573080

Boris, Soledad; Suárez, Juan E.; Vázquez, Fernando; Barbés, Covadonga

1998-01-01

4

Adherence of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

Adherence of Tritrichomonas foetus to bovine vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) in vitro was investigated with fresh washed bovine VECs and log-phase cultures of T. foetus. Observation under phase-contrast microscopy showed that T. foetus usually adhered first by the posterior flagellum and later by the body. Significantly more keratinized squamous epithelial cells were detected with attached parasites than nonkeratinized round epithelial cells. The optimal pH range for attachment was 6.0 to 7.5, with peak attachment at pH 6.5 for squamous VECs. Surface-reactive bovine antiserum to T. foetus prevented adherence to bovine squamous VECs. Inhibition of adherence occurred at nonagglutinating, nonimmobilizing serum dilutions. Antiserum fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G1 inhibited adherence, but fractions enriched for immunoglobulin G2 did not. The inhibitory antiserum was specific for several medium- to high-molecular-weight membrane antigens as detected in Western blots (immunoblots). The ability of surface-reactive antibodies to prevent adherence and to agglutinate and immobilize T. foetus indicates that they may be protective. Images PMID:2471692

Corbeil, L B; Hodgson, J L; Jones, D W; Corbeil, R R; Widders, P R; Stephens, L R

1989-01-01

5

Lactobacillus acidophilus Contributes to a Healthy Environment for Vaginal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species in the female genital tract are thought to act as a barrier to infection. Several studies have demonstrated that lactobacilli can adhere to vaginal epithelial cells. However, little is known about how the adherence of lactobacilli to vaginal epithelial cells affects the acidity, cell viability, or proliferation of the lactobacilli themselves or those of vaginal epithelial cells. Lactobacillus acidophilus was co-cultured with immortalized human vaginal epithelial cells (MS74 cell line), and the growth of L. acidophilus and the acidity of the culture medium were measured. MS74 cell density and viability were also assessed by counting cell numbers and observing the cell attachment state. L. acidophilus showed exponential growth for the first 6 hr until 9 hr, and the pH was maintained close to 4.0-5.0 at 24 hr after culture, consistent with previous studies. The growth curve of L. acidophilus or the pH values were relatively unaffected by co-culture with MS74 cells, confirming that L. acidophilus maintains a low pH in the presence of MS74 cells. This co-culture model could therefore potentially be used to mimic vaginal conditions for future in vitro studies. On the other hand, MS74 cells co-cultured with L. acidophilus more firmly attached to the culture plate, and a higher number of cells were present compared to cells cultured in the absence of L. acidophilus. These results indicate that L. acidophilus increases MS74 cell proliferation and viability, suggesting that lactobacilli may contribute to the healthy environment for vaginal epithelial cells. PMID:22072832

Pi, Woojin; Ryu, Jae-Sook

2011-01-01

6

Commensal bacteria modulate innate immune responses of vaginal epithelial cell multilayer cultures.  

PubMed

The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

Rose, William A; McGowin, Chris L; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D; Popov, Vsevolod L; Pyles, Richard B

2012-01-01

7

Development and characterization of a three-dimensional organotypic human vaginal epithelial cell model.  

PubMed

We have developed an in vitro human vaginal epithelial cell (EC) model using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology that recapitulates in vivo structural and functional properties, including a stratified squamous epithelium with microvilli, tight junctions, microfolds, and mucus. This three-dimensional (3-D) vaginal model provides a platform for high-throughput toxicity testing of candidate microbicides targeted to combat sexually transmitted infections, effectively complementing and extending existing testing systems such as surgical explants or animal models. Vaginal ECs were grown on porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads in a rotating, low fluid-shear environment; use of RWV bioreactor technology generated 3-D vaginal EC aggregates. Immunofluorescence and scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed differentiation and polarization of the 3-D EC aggregates among multiple cell layers and identified ultrastructural features important for nutrient absorption, cell-cell interactions, and pathogen defense. After treatment with a variety of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, cytokine production was quantified by cytometric bead array, confirming that TLRs 2, 3, 5, and 6 were expressed and functional. The 3-D vaginal aggregates were more resistant to nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a contraceptive and previous microbicide candidate, when compared to two-dimensional monolayers of the same cell line. A dose-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, biomarkers of cervicovaginal inflammation, correlated to microbicide toxicity in the 3-D model following N-9 treatment. These results indicate that this 3-D vaginal model could be used as a complementary tool for screening microbicide compounds for safety and efficacy, thus improving success in clinical trials. PMID:20007410

Hjelm, Brooke E; Berta, Alice N; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Arntzen, Charles J; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

2010-03-01

8

Transcytosis of HIV-1 through Vaginal Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Trafficking to the Endocytic Recycling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia. PMID:24830293

Kinlock, Ballington L.; Wang, Yudi; Turner, Tiffany M.; Wang, Chenliang; Liu, Bindong

2014-01-01

9

Oral and Vaginal Epithelial Cell Lines Bind and Transfer Cell-Free Infectious HIV-1 to Permissive Cells but Are Not Productively Infected  

PubMed Central

The majority of HIV-1 infections worldwide are acquired via mucosal surfaces. However, unlike the vaginal mucosa, the issue of whether the oral mucosa can act as a portal of entry for HIV-1 infection remains controversial. To address potential differences with regard to the fate of HIV-1 after exposure to oral and vaginal epithelium, we utilized two epithelial cell lines representative of buccal (TR146) and pharyngeal (FaDu) sites of the oral cavity and compared them with a cell line derived from vaginal epithelium (A431) in order to determine (i) HIV-1 receptor gene and protein expression, (ii) whether HIV-1 genome integration into epithelial cells occurs, (iii) whether productive viral infection ensues, and (iv) whether infectious virus can be transferred to permissive cells. Using flow cytometry to measure captured virus by HIV-1 gp120 protein detection and western blot to detect HIV-1 p24 gag protein, we demonstrate that buccal, pharyngeal and vaginal epithelial cells capture CXCR4- and CCR5-utilising virus, probably via non-canonical receptors. Both oral and vaginal epithelial cells are able to transfer infectious virus to permissive cells either directly through cell-cell attachment or via transcytosis of HIV-1 across epithelial cells. However, HIV-1 integration, as measured by real-time PCR and presence of early gene mRNA transcripts and de novo protein production were not detected in either epithelial cell type. Importantly, both oral and vaginal epithelial cells were able to support integration and productive infection if HIV-1 entered via the endocytic pathway driven by VSV-G. Our data demonstrate that under normal conditions productive HIV-1 infection of epithelial cells leading to progeny virion production is unlikely, but that epithelial cells can act as mediators of systemic viral dissemination through attachment and transfer of HIV-1 to permissive cells. PMID:24857971

Moyes, David L.; Murciano, Celia; Shen, Chengguo; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Naglik, Julian R.

2014-01-01

10

Secretory I gA differentially promotes adherence of type 1-piliated Escherichia coli to immortalized vaginal epithelial cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To elucidate the factors that influence bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelium. We developed an in vitro model to examine the interaction of type 1-piliated Escherichia coli, strain HB101\\/p1-17, with immortalized vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) from postmenopausal donors with (patient 1) and without (patient 2) clinical histories of urinary tract infections (UTI).Methods. The VEC were incubated in microtiter plates in

Richard A Schoor; Byron Anderson; David J Klumpp; Anthony J Schaeffer

2001-01-01

11

Microbial compounds induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and human beta-defensin-2 in vaginal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Vaginal epithelium has a powerful innate immune system that protects the female reproductive organs from bacterial and fungal infections. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides could contribute to the protection against pathogenic microorganisms in vaginal epithelia, using an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line PK E6/E7 as a model. We found that TLR2 and TLR4 receptors are expressed in vivo in the vaginal epithelia and in vitro in PK E6/E7 vaginal epithelial cell line. The Gram-negative cell wall compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the Gram-positive compound peptidoglycan (PGN), heat-killed Candida albicans and zymosan significantly (P<0.05) induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-8/CXCL8 in vaginal epithelial cells. Furthermore, the expression and production of human beta-defensin-2 (hBD2), an antimicrobial peptide with chemotactic functions, was also up-regulated in PK E6/E7 cells after treatment with LPS, PGN or C. albicans. Treatment of vaginal epithelial cells with microbial compounds induced the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB transcription factor, a key element of innate and adaptive immune responses. In our work, we provide evidence that microbial compounds induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides in vaginal epithelial cells. In vivo, vaginal epithelial cell-derived inflammatory mediators and antimicrobial peptides may play important roles in vaginal immune responses and in the elimination of pathogens from the female reproductive tract. PMID:15893496

Pivarcsi, Andor; Nagy, Istvan; Koreck, Andrea; Kis, Kornelia; Kenderessy-Szabo, Anna; Szell, Marta; Dobozy, Attila; Kemeny, Lajos

2005-07-01

12

Infection of vaginal and colonic epithelial cells by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is neutralized by antibodies raised against conserved epitopes in the envelope glycoprotein gp120.  

PubMed Central

The rectal and genital tract mucosae are considered to be major sites of entry for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual contact. We now demonstrate that vaginal epithelial cells can be infected by HIV type 1 (HIV-1) via a mechanism similar to that described for neuroglial cells and, more recently, for colorectal epithelial cells, involving initial interaction of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with a cell-surface glycosphingolipid (sulfated lactosylceramide). A hyperimmune serum against gp120 was able to neutralize HIV-1 infection of vaginal epithelial cells. Site-directed immunization was employed to identify sites on gp120 recognized by antibodies neutralizing HIV-1 infection of vaginal and colonic epithelial cells. Hyperimmune sera were raised in monkeys against a series of 40 overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire sequence of HIV-1 (HTLV-IIIB) gp120. Antisera raised against five synthetic peptides, corresponding to three relatively conserved regions and to the hypervariable region (V3 loop), efficiently neutralized HIV-1 infection of human vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. Similar results were obtained with the colonic cells. Hyperimmune sera to all five peptides have been shown earlier to neutralize HIV-1 infectivity in CD4+ T cells. These results have obvious implications for the design of mucosal subunit vaccines against sexually transmitted HIV-1 infections. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7809077

Furuta, Y; Eriksson, K; Svennerholm, B; Fredman, P; Horal, P; Jeansson, S; Vahlne, A; Holmgren, J; Czerkinsky, C

1994-01-01

13

Vaginal Epithelial Cell-Derived S100 Alarmins Induced by Candida albicans via Pattern Recognition Receptor Interactions Are Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Acute Neutrophil Response during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

PubMed Central

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9?/? mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways. PMID:24478092

Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E.; Eberle, Karen E.; Peters, Brian M.; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N.

2014-01-01

14

Development of epithelial and mesenchymal regionalization of the human fetal utero-vaginal anlagen  

PubMed Central

Literature on the development of the human vagina is abundant; however, contributions concerning the prenatal development of the entire utero-vaginal anlagen (UVA) are rare or carried out in rodents. The primary epithelial characteristics in the adult vagina and uterus are determined during prenatal development and depend on epithelio-mesenchymal stroma interaction; thus an investigation summarizing the spatiotemporal distribution of relevant molecular markers in the entire human UVA will be of current interest. We phenotyped epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics in sagittal sections from 24 female fetuses of 14–34 weeks of gestation and two female newborns by immunostaining with cytokeratins 8, 13, 14 and 17, p63, bcl-2, bmp4, HOX A13, CD31, VEGF, SMA, Pax2 and vimentin. Epithelial differentiation followed a caudal-to-cranial direction in the UVA. Due to the cytokeratin profile of cytokeratins 8, 13 and 14, the characteristics of the different epithelial zones in the UVA could already be recognized in middle-age fetuses. Vaginal epithelium originated from the urogenital sinus in the lower portion and initiated the transformation of vimentin-positive Müllerian epithelium in the upper vaginal portion. During prenatal development the original squamo-columnar junction was clearly detectable from week 24 onwards and was always found in the cervical canal. Early blc-2 positivity within the surrounding mesenchyme of the entire vagina including the portio region pointed to an organ-specific mesenchymal influence. Prenatal findings in human specimens clearly show that fornix epithelium up to the squamo-columnar junction is of vaginal Müllerian origin, and the cervical epithelium cranial to the squamo-columnar junction is of uterine Müllerian origin and includes cells with enough plasticity to transform into squamous epithelium. PMID:23406280

Fritsch, Helga; Hoermann, Romed; Bitsche, Mario; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Reich, Olaf

2013-01-01

15

Epithelial Cells Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Epithelial Cells Keratins Stem Cells » Prof. Thomas M. Magin Epithelia protect the body, altered cell adhesion and signal- ling. As no molecular therapy for these conditions is available, one that the co-chaperone CHIP can remove mutant aggregated keratins in a cell culture model of EBS, leading

Schüler, Axel

16

Vaginitis  

MedlinePLUS

... serious diseases. The most common vaginal infections are Bacterial Vaginosis Trichomoniasis Vaginal Yeast Infection Some vaginal infections are ... most vaginal infections in women are due to bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, or yeast, there may be other causes ...

17

Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more

Fred C. Krebs; Shendra R. Miller; Bradley J. Catalone; Raina Fichorova; Deborah Anderson; Daniel Malamud; Mary K. Howett; Brian Wigdahl

2002-01-01

18

Monitoring Vaginal Epithelial Thickness Changes Noninvasively in Sheep Using Optical Coherence Tomography  

PubMed Central

Objective High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the utility of OCT to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n=4) or nonoxynol-9 (n=8). Vaginal OCT images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last exam day. Epithelial thickness was measured in OCT images and in H&E-stained histological sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA (significance p<0.05). Results Baseline OCT epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85±19 ?m placebo, 78±20 ?m nonoxynol-9; p=0.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32±22 ?m) compared to placebo (80±15 ?m) 24 hours after treatment (p<0.0001). In the four nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than OCT (p=0.98 N-9, p=0.93 HEC). Conclusion Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using OCT imaging. OCT and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating OCT as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes. PMID:23333551

VINCENT, Kathleen L.; VARGAS, Gracie; WEI, Jingna; BOURNE, Nigel; MOTAMEDI, Massoud

2013-01-01

19

DYS STR analysis with epithelial cells in a rape case  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the application of Y-chromosomal DNA analysis in a rape case, which occurred in Stuttgart, Germany. Microscopic examination of the victim’s vaginal swabs and her underwear showed no sperm cells. DNA was extracted from vaginal and epithelial cells and analysed with the autosomal systems SE33, THO1 (singleplex) and with the multiplex Profiler Plus (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA).

Andrea Betz; Gerhard Bäßler; Gabriele Dietl; Xenia Steil; Gerda Weyermann; Werner Pflug

2001-01-01

20

Automated segmentation algorithm for detection of changes in vaginal epithelial morphology using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Abstract. We have explored the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive tool for assessing the toxicity of topical microbicides, products used to prevent HIV, by monitoring the integrity of the vaginal epithelium. A novel feature-based segmentation algorithm using a nearest-neighbor classifier was developed to monitor changes in the morphology of vaginal epithelium. The two-step automated algorithm yielded OCT images with a clearly defined epithelial layer, enabling differentiation of normal and damaged tissue. The algorithm was robust in that it was able to discriminate the epithelial layer from underlying stroma as well as residual microbicide product on the surface. This segmentation technique for OCT images has the potential to be readily adaptable to the clinical setting for noninvasively defining the boundaries of the epithelium, enabling quantifiable assessment of microbicide-induced damage in vaginal tissue. PMID:23117799

Vincent, Kathleen L.; Vargas, Gracie; Motamedi, Massoud

2012-01-01

21

Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Vaginal Dendritic Cells in a Rat Model of Candida albicans Vaginitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the phenotype of vaginal dendritic cells (VDCs), their antigenic presentation and activation of T-cell cytokine secretion, and their protective role in a rat model of Candida vaginitis. Histological observation demonstrated a significant accumulation of OX62 VDCs in the mucosal epithelium of Candida albicans-infected rats at the third round of infection. We identified two subsets of OX62 VDCs

Flavia De Bernardis; Roberta Lucciarini; Maria Boccanera; Consuelo Amantini; Silvia Arancia; Stefania Morrone; Michela Mosca; Antonio Cassone; Giorgio Santoni

2006-01-01

22

Variations in epithelial Na+ transport and epithelial sodium channel localisation in the vaginal cul-de-sac of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, during the oestrous cycle.  

PubMed

The fluid in the vaginal cul-de-sac of the brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula, is copious at ovulation when it may be involved in sperm transport or maturation, but is rapidly reabsorbed following ovulation. We have used the Ussing short-circuit current (Isc) technique and measurements of transcript and protein expression of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to determine if variations in electrogenic Na+ transport are associated with this fluid absorption. Spontaneous Isc (-2 during anoestrus, 60-80µAcm-2 in cycling animals) was inhibited by serosal ouabain. Mucosal amiloride (10µmolL-1), an inhibitor of ENaC, had little effect on follicular Isc but reduced luteal Isc by ~35%. This amiloride-sensitive Isc was dependent on mucosal Na+ and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)-amiloride (0.95?molL-1) was consistent with ENaC-mediated Na+ absorption. Results from polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription (RT-PCR) indicate that ?ENaC mRNA is expressed in anoestrous, follicular and luteal phases. However, in follicular animals ?ENaC immunoreactivity in epithelial cells was distributed throughout the cytoplasm, whereas immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical pole of cells from luteal animals. These data suggest that increased Na+ absorption contributes to fluid absorption during the luteal phase and is regulated by insertion of ENaC into the apical membrane of cul-de-sac epithelial cells. PMID:25056576

Alsop, T-A; McLeod, B J; Butt, A G

2014-07-24

23

Polarized uterine epithelial cells preferentially present antigen at the basolateral surface: role of stromal cells in regulating class II-mediated epithelial cell antigen presentation.  

PubMed

To study Ag presentation in the female reproductive tract, DO11.10 TCR transgenic mice specific for the class II MHC-restricted OVA(323-339) peptide and non-transgenic BALB/c mice were used. We report here that freshly isolated uterine epithelial cells, uterine stromal, and vaginal APCs present OVA and OVA(323-339) peptide to naive- and memory T cells, which is reduced when cells are incubated with Abs to CD80 and 86. To determine whether polarized primary epithelial cells present Ags, uterine epithelial cells were cultured on cell inserts in either the upright or inverted position. After reaching confluence, as indicated by high transepithelial resistance (>2000 ohms/well), Ag presentation by epithelial cells incubated with memory T cells and OVA(323-339) peptide placed on the basolateral surface (inverted) was 2- to 3-fold greater than that seen with epithelial cells in contact with T cells and peptide on the apical surface (upright). In contrast, whereas freshly isolated epithelial cells process OVA, polarized epithelial cells did not. When epithelial cells grown upright on inserts were incubated with T cells and OVA(323-339) peptide, coculture with either hepatocyte growth factor or conditioned stromal medium increased epithelial cell Ag presentation (approximately 90% higher than controls). These studies indicate that uterine stromal cells produce a soluble factor(s) in addition to a hepatocyte growth factor, which regulates epithelial cell Ag presentation. Overall, these results demonstrate that polarized epithelial cells are able to present Ags and suggest that uterine stromal cells communicate with epithelial cells via a soluble factor(s) to regulate Ag presentation in the uterus. PMID:16034121

Wira, Charles R; Rossoll, Richard M; Young, Roger C

2005-08-01

24

Epithelial cell layer thickness and immune cell populations in the normal human vagina at different stages of the menstrual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of our study was to examine vaginal tissue during 3 phases of the menstrual cycle for the number of cell layers and epithelial immune cells. Study Design: Vaginal biopsies were performed during 3 phases of the normal menstrual cycle (menstrual, days 1-5; preovulatory, days 7-12; and postovulatory, days 19-24) in 74 subjects. A subset of women had

Dorothy L. Patton; Soe Soe Thwin; Amalia Meier; Thomas M. Hooton; Ann E. Stapleton; David A. Eschenbach

2000-01-01

25

Morphogenesis of the Polarized Epithelial Cell Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarized epithelial cells play fundamental roles in the ontogeny and function of a variety of tissues and organs in mammals. The morphogenesis of a sheet of polarized epithelial cells (the trophectoderm) is the first over sign of cellular differentiation in early embryonic development. In the adult, polarized epithelial cells line all body cavities and occur in tissues that carry out

Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan; W. James Nelson

1989-01-01

26

Lung Epithelial Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The lung epithelium is structurally and functionally a complex tissue composed of different cell types. It is exposed to toxic\\u000a agents and pathogens that can with time result in various lung diseases, including lung cancer. The major cell types in the\\u000a proximal tracheobronchial part are basal cells, goblet cells, ciliated cells, and cells of the submucosal glands. Further\\u000a down the

Magnus Karl Magnusson; Olafur Baldursson; Thorarinn Gudjonsson

27

Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent. PMID:18225764

Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

2007-03-01

28

Metalloproteinase generation by human glomerular epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metalloproteinase generation by human glomerular epithelial cells. In the present study cultured human glomerular epithelial cells (HGEC) were used to examine the potential role for these cells in the turnover of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) through the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. The cells were shown by substrate gel electrophoresis to secrete gelatinase activity of molecular weights 72 kDa and

Janice Knowlden; John Martin; Malcolm Davies; John D Williams

1995-01-01

29

Epithelial Stem Cells: A Folliculocentric View  

Microsoft Academic Search

Putative epithelial stem cells were identified in the hair follicle bulge as quiescent “label retaining cells”. The study of these cells was hindered until the identification of bulge cell molecular markers, such as CD34 expression and K15 promoter activity. This allowed for the isolation and characterization of bulge cells from mouse follicles. Bulge cells possess stem cell characteristics, including multipotency,

George Cotsarelis

2006-01-01

30

Vaginal laparoscopically assisted radical trachelectomy in cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Adenocarcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition that has shown an increase in incidence, especially in the 20- to 34-year-old group. Adenocarcinoma represents about 5–10% of all tumours in this area, and, among these, the clear cell type accounts for 4–9%. This type of tumour affects mainly postmenopausal women but also occurs in young women with a history of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). The prognosis for adenocarcinoma of the cervix is poor overall and worse for the clear cell variety. This article discusses a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix, unrelated to intrauterine exposure to DES, in a woman of childbearing age who wished to preserve her fertility and was therefore treated by radical vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. PMID:24244219

Iacoponi, Sara; Diestro, Maria Dolores; Zapardiel, Ignacio; Serrano, María; Santiago, Javier De

2013-01-01

31

Patterning Bacterial Communities on Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Micropatterning of bacteria using aqueous two phase system (ATPS) enables the localized culture and formation of physically separated bacterial communities on human epithelial cell sheets. This method was used to compare the effects of Escherichia coli strain MG1655 and an isogenic invasive counterpart that expresses the invasin (inv) gene from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis on the underlying epithelial cell layer. Large portions of the cell layer beneath the invasive strain were killed or detached while the non-invasive E. coli had no apparent effect on the epithelial cell layer over a 24 h observation period. In addition, simultaneous testing of the localized effects of three different bacterial species; E. coli MG1655, Shigella boydii KACC 10792 and Pseudomonas sp DSM 50906 on an epithelial cell layer is also demonstrated. The paper further shows the ability to use a bacterial predator, Bdellovibriobacteriovorus HD 100, to selectively remove the E. coli, S. boydii and P. sp communities from this bacteria-patterned epithelial cell layer. Importantly, predation and removal of the P. Sp was critical for maintaining viability of the underlying epithelial cells. Although this paper focuses on a few specific cell types, the technique should be broadly applicable to understand a variety of bacteria-epithelial cell interactions. PMID:23785519

Dwidar, Mohammed; Leung, Brendan M.; Yaguchi, Toshiyuki; Takayama, Shuichi; Mitchell, Robert J.

2013-01-01

32

The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem\\/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of

Neil R. Hackett; Renat Shaykhiev; Matthew S. Walters; Rui Wang; Rachel K. Zwick; Barbara Ferris; Bradley Witover; Jacqueline Salit; Ronald G. Crystal; Melanie Koenigshoff

2011-01-01

33

Effects of tamoxifen on vaginal blood flow and epithelial morphology in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator with both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity, is widely used as adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Treatment with tamoxifen is associated with sexual side effects, such as increased vaginal dryness and pain\\/discomfort during sexual activity. There have been limited investigations of the effect of tamoxifen on estrogen-dependent peripheral genital arousal responses. The objective

Noel N Kim; Miljan Stankovic; Abdullah Armagan; Tulay T Cushman; Irwin Goldstein; Abdulmaged M Traish

2006-01-01

34

A Population-Based Study of Squamous Cell Vaginal Cancer: HPV and Cofactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Little is known about the etiology of in situ or invasive squamous cell cancer of the vagina. It is thought that some vaginal cancers may have the same etiology as cervical cancer. It is also not known whether in situ and invasive vaginal cancer share the same etiologic factors. We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for in

Janet R. Daling; Margaret M. Madeleine; Stephen M. Schwartz; Katherine A. Shera; Joseph J. Carter; Barbara McKnight; Peggy L. Porter; Denise A. Galloway; James K. McDougall; Hisham Tamimi

2002-01-01

35

Vaginal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

36

Vaginal Outflow Tract Obstruction Associated with Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Following Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynecological abnormalities following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation include reduced vaginal elasticity and rugal folds, small vaginal, uterine, and cervical size, atrophic vulvovaginitis, introital stenosis, and loss of pubic hair, symptoms that are attributed to secondary ovarian failure [1]. We report the unusual complication of vaginal outflow tract obstruction occurring after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for lymphoblastic lymphoma. A

Makoto Hirokawa; Hirokazu Sato; Yoshinari Kawabata; Ken-ichi Sawada

2006-01-01

37

What Is Vaginal Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer There are several types of vaginal cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas . These cancers begin in the squamous cells that ...

38

Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently

Laurianne Van Landeghem; Maxime M Mahé; Raluca Teusan; Jean Léger; Isabelle Guisle; Rémi Houlgatte; Michel Neunlist

2009-01-01

39

Novel neurotrophic factor secreted by amniotic epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

By virtue of expressions of glial and neural surface markers and capability of neurotransmitter metabolism, amniotic epithelial cells are considered as candidate cell type for transplantation strategies to treat neurological disorders. Previously, we have reported neurotrophism exhibited by human amniotic epithelial cells when transplanted after spinal cord injury in bonnet monkeys. Amniotic epithelial cells were believed to secrete an \\

SANKAR V ENKATACHALAM; TAMILSELVI PALANIAPPAN; PREM KUMAR JAYAPAL; SRIDHARAN NEELAMEGAN; SRIDHAR SKYLAB RAJAN; VIJAYA PRAKASH; KRISHNAN MUTHIAH

40

Chemokine receptor expression by human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Intestinal epithelial cells produce an array of proinflammatory chemokines that can provide signals to mucosal immune and inflammatory cells. To determine if chemokines can also signal epithelial cells, we characterized the expression of chemokine receptors on human colon epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Expression of chemokine receptor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by the human colon

Michael B. Dwinell; Lars Eckmann; John D. Leopard; Nissi M. Varki; Martin F. Kagnoff

1999-01-01

41

Innate lymphoid cells regulate intestinal epithelial cell glycosylation.  

PubMed

Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation. PMID:25214634

Goto, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takashi; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Ivanov, Ivaylo I; Lamichhane, Aayam; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kamioka, Mariko; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Matsuki, Takahiro; Setoyama, Hiromi; Imaoka, Akemi; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Domino, Steven E; Kulig, Paulina; Becher, Burkhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

2014-09-12

42

Characterisation of epithelial progenitor cells for human and mouse thymus   

E-print Network

will aid in the translation of mouse thmic research to human. the main findings of this thesis are i) that a bipotent thymic epithelial progenitor cell population that contribute to both medullary and cortical epithelial cell compartments exists in vivo...

Farley, Alison

2009-01-01

43

Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition  

PubMed Central

Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGF?1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGF?1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGF? Receptor 1 (TGF?R1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGF?1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGF?1, but also in the absence of TGF?1. PMID:22844446

Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2012-01-01

44

Injured Corneal Epithelial Cells Promote Myodifferentiation of Corneal Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To determine whether injured corneal epithelial cells stimulate myodifferentiation in corneal fibroblasts and whether transforming growth factor (TGF)- is involved. METHODS. Rabbit corneal fibroblasts were cultured on collagen gel, with or without cocultured corneal epithelial cells or with partially scraped epithelial cells, on a companion plate sepa- rated by a permeable membrane. To evaluate fibroblast-in- duced gel contraction, gel

Kunihiko Nakamura; Daijiro Kurosaka; Mami Yoshino; Takeshi Oshima; Hiroyo Kurosaka

2002-01-01

45

Calprotectin Expression Inhibits Bacterial Binding to Mucosal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Squamous mucosal epithelial cells constitutively express calprotectin in the cytoplasm. To study how this antimicrobial protein complex confers epithelial resistance to invading bacteria, an epithelial cell line was stably transfected to express the calprotectin complex. Cells expressing calprotectin resist invasion by Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Calprotectin expression was accompanied by altered actin organization, increased a3 integrin expression,

KANOKWAN NISAPAKULTORN; KAREN F. ROSS; MARK C. HERZBERG

2001-01-01

46

Epithelial Defence by ?? T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

?? T cells constitute a separate lineage of T lymphocytes which differ from conventional ?? T cells with regard to T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and tissue localization. In murine skin, ?? T cells expressing a canonical V?5 TCR are abundant and contribute as so-called dendritic epidermal T cells to local immune surveillance. In humans, major subsets of ?? T

Dieter Kabelitz; Lothar Marischen; Hans-Heinrich Oberg; Wolfgang Holtmeier; Daniela Wesch

2005-01-01

47

Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity  

PubMed Central

The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

2015-01-01

48

Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity.  

PubMed

The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and 'instruct' the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

2015-01-01

49

The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. PMID:21572528

Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

2011-01-01

50

Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells  

SciTech Connect

The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

1999-02-01

51

Apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells after bacterial invasion.  

PubMed Central

Epithelial cells that line the human intestinal mucosa are the initial site of host invasion by bacterial pathogens. The studies herein define apoptosis as a new category of intestinal epithelial cell response to bacterial infection. Human colon epithelial cells are shown to undergo apoptosis following infection with invasive enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast to the rapid onset of apoptosis seen after bacterial infection of mouse monocyte-macrophage cell lines, the commitment of human intestinal epithelial cell lines to undergo apoptosis is delayed for at least 6 h after bacterial infection, requires bacterial entry and replication, and the ensuing phenotypic expression of apoptosis is delayed for 12-18 h after bacterial entry. TNF-alpha and nitric oxide, which are produced as components of the intestinal epithelial cell proinflammatory program in the early period after bacterial invasion, play an important role in the later induction and regulation of the epithelial cell apoptotic program. Apoptosis in response to bacterial infection may function to delete infected and damaged epithelial cells and restore epithelial cell growth regulation and epithelial integrity that are altered during the course of enteric infection. The delay in onset of epithelial cell apoptosis after bacterial infection may be important both to the host and the invading pathogen since it provides sufficient time for epithelial cells to generate signals important for the activation of mucosal inflammation and concurrently allows invading bacteria time to adapt to the intracellular environment before invading deeper mucosal layers. PMID:9819367

Kim, J M; Eckmann, L; Savidge, T C; Lowe, D C; Witthöft, T; Kagnoff, M F

1998-01-01

52

Vaginal Immunization to Elicit Primary T-Cell Activation and Dissemination  

PubMed Central

Primary T-cell activation at mucosal sites is of utmost importance for the development of vaccination strategies. T-cell priming after vaginal immunization, with ovalbumin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant as model vaccine formulation, was studied in vivo in hormone-synchronized mice and compared to the one induced by the nasal route. Twenty-four hours after both vaginal or nasal immunization, antigen-loaded dendritic cells were detected within the respective draining lymph nodes. Vaginal immunization elicited a strong recruitment of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells into draining lymph nodes that was more rapid than the one observed following nasal immunization. T-cell clonal expansion was first detected in iliac lymph nodes, draining the genital tract, and proliferated T cells disseminated towards distal lymph nodes and spleen similarly to what observed following nasal immunization. T cells were indeed activated by the antigen encounter and acquired homing molecules essential to disseminate towards distal lymphoid organs as confirmed by the modulation of CD45RB, CD69, CD44 and CD62L marker expression. A multi-type Galton Watson branching process, previously used for in vitro analysis of T-cell proliferation, was applied to model in vivo CFSE proliferation data in draining lymph nodes 57 hours following immunization, in order to calculate the probabilistic decision of a cell to enter in division, rest in quiescence or migrate/die. The modelling analysis indicated that the probability of a cell to proliferate was higher following vaginal than nasal immunization. All together these data show that vaginal immunization, despite the absence of an organized mucosal associated inductive site in the genital tract, is very efficient in priming antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and inducing their dissemination from draining lymph nodes towards distal lymphoid organs. PMID:24349003

Pettini, Elena; Prota, Gennaro; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Boianelli, Alessandro; Fiorino, Fabio; Pozzi, Gianni; Vicino, Antonio; Medaglini, Donata

2013-01-01

53

Chronic inflammatory cells with epithelial cell characteristics in teleost fishes.  

PubMed

Certain cells that participate in the chronic inflammatory response of teleost fishes have many features typical of epithelioid cells of mammals. Such features include high metabolic activity, frequent phagolysosomes, and cytoplasmic interdigitations between adjacent cells; however, the epithelioid granulomas formed in response to certain diseases in teleost fishes also have several features associated with epithelial cells. Cases of ulcerative mycosis or acid-fast bacterial infection in Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), fungal infection in silver perch (Bairdiella chrysoura), and mycobacteriosis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) had epithelioid cells that were joined together by well-formed desmosomes with tonofilaments. "Mature granulomas" of the ulcerative mycosis-infected menhaden stained positively for cytokeratin, a cytoskeletal protein that is considered to be highly specific for epithelial cells. The consistent presence of these heretofore unrecognized epithelial features suggest that they may be characteristic of certain types of cells participating in piscine chronic inflammation. PMID:2686148

Noga, E J; Dykstra, M J; Wright, J F

1989-09-01

54

Extracellular matrix production of lens epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine extracellular matrix (ECM) production of lens epithelial cells (LECs) and their regulation by cytokines.Setting: Research Laboratory, International Intraocular Implant Training Center, Tianjin Medical University, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Bovine LECs were cultured with or without tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF-?2). Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to detect the expression

Xiao-Hong Zhang; Hui-Min Sun; Jia-Qin Yuan

2001-01-01

55

Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus crispatus 2,029: Homeostatic Interaction with Cervicovaginal Epithelial Cells and Antagonistic Activity to Genitourinary Pathogens.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 isolated upon investigation of vaginal lactobacilli of healthy women of reproductive age was selected as a probiotic candidate. The aim of the present study was elucidation of the role of L. crispatus 2029 in resistance of the female reproductive tract to genitourinary pathogens using cervicovaginal epithelial model. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 has surface layers (S-layers), which completely surround cells as the outermost component of their envelope. S-layers are responsible for the adhesion of lactobacilli on the surface of cervicovaginal epithelial cells. Study of interactions between L. crispatus 2029 and a type IV collagen, a major molecular component of epithelial cell extracellular matrix, showed that 125I-labeled type IV collagen binds to lactobacilli with high affinity (Kd = (8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-10) M). Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 consistently colonized epithelial cells. There were no toxicity, epithelial damage and apoptosis after 24 h of colonization. Electronic microscope images demonstrated intimate association between L. crispatus 2029 and epithelial cells. Upon binding to epithelial cells, lactobacilli were recognized by toll-like 2/6 receptors. Lactobacillus crispatus induced NF-?B activation in epithelial cells and did not induce expression of innate immunity mediators IL-8, IL-1?, IL-1? and TNF-?. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 inhibited IL-8 production in epithelial cells induced by MALP-2 and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, maintaining the homeostasis of female reproductive tract. Lactobacillus crispatus 2029 produced H2O2 and provided wide spectrum of antagonistic activity increasing colonization resistance to urinary tract infections by bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis associated agents. PMID:25028263

Abramov, Vyacheslav; Khlebnikov, Valentin; Kosarev, Igor; Bairamova, Guldana; Vasilenko, Raisa; Suzina, Natalia; Machulin, Andrey; Sakulin, Vadim; Kulikova, Natalia; Vasilenko, Nadezhda; Karlyshev, Andrey; Uversky, Vladimir; Chikindas, Michael L; Melnikov, Vyacheslav

2014-12-01

56

Sonic hedgehog opposes epithelial cell cycle arrest.  

PubMed

Stratified epithelium displays an equilibrium between proliferation and cell cycle arrest, a balance that is disrupted in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway activation appears sufficient to induce BCC, however, the way it does so is unknown. Shh-induced epidermal hyperplasia is accompanied by continued cell proliferation in normally growth arrested suprabasal cells in vivo. Shh-expressing cells fail to exit S and G2/M phases in response to calcium-induced differentiation and also resist exhaustion of replicative growth capacity. In addition, Shh blocks p21(CIP1/WAF1)-induced growth arrest. These data indicate that Shh promotes neoplasia by opposing normal stimuli for epithelial cell cycle arrest. PMID:10508856

Fan, H; Khavari, P A

1999-10-01

57

NK cell responses to simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal exposure in naive and vaccinated rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

NK cell responses to HIV/SIV infection have been well studied in acute and chronic infected patients/monkeys, but little is known about NK cells during viral transmission, particularly in mucosal tissues. In this article, we report a systematic study of NK cell responses to high-dose vaginal exposure to SIVmac251 in the rhesus macaque female reproductive tract (FRT). Small numbers of NK cells were recruited into the FRT mucosa following vaginal inoculation. The influx of mucosal NK cells preceded local virus replication and peaked at 1 wk and, thus, was in an appropriate time frame to control an expanding population of infected cells at the portal of entry. However, NK cells were greatly outnumbered by recruited target cells that fuel local virus expansion and were spatially dissociated from SIV RNA+ cells at the major site of expansion of infected founder populations in the transition zone and adjoining endocervix. The number of NK cells in the FRT mucosa decreased rapidly in the second week, while the number of SIV RNA+ cells in the FRT reached its peak. Mucosal NK cells produced IFN-? and MIP-1?/CCL3 but lacked several markers of activation and cytotoxicity, and this was correlated with inoculum-induced upregulation of the inhibitory ligand HLA-E and downregulation of the activating receptor CD122/IL-2R?. Examination of SIV?nef-vaccinated monkeys suggested that recruitment of NK cells to the genital mucosa was not involved in vaccine-induced protection from vaginal challenge. In summary, our results suggest that NK cells play, at most, a limited role in defenses in the FRT against vaginal challenge. PMID:24899503

Shang, Liang; Smith, Anthony J; Duan, Lijie; Perkey, Katherine E; Qu, Lucy; Wietgrefe, Stephen; Zupancic, Mary; Southern, Peter J; Masek-Hammerman, Katherine; Reeves, R Keith; Johnson, R Paul; Haase, Ashley T

2014-07-01

58

Epithelial Cell Plasticity in Development and Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various mechanisms of epithelial cell plasticity in morphogenesis have been studied at the genetic and molecular levels. Several control genes have been identified including genes encoding transcription factors and growth factor receptors. These mechanisms may be reactivated during the progression of carcinomas. One of the mechanisms underlying epithelial plasticity is the epithelial–mesenchymal transition. This process has been extensively studied using

Jean Paul Thiery; Dominique Chopin

1999-01-01

59

Thymus organogenesis and molecular mechanisms of thymic epithelial cell differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mature thymus, thymocyte maturation depends on interactions with different thymic epithelial subtypes in a three-dimensional thymic architecture. However, the molecular mechanisms that generate these epithelial subtypes are not well understood. Evidence is accumulating that during fetal thymus development, epithelial cells differentiate by successive interactions with differentiating thymocytes. This review presents fetal thymus development as a process of organogenesis,

Nancy R. Manley

2000-01-01

60

Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

2014-01-01

61

Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines  

E-print Network

T antigen. The kinetics of growth of TIGMEC1, TIG- MEC2 and TIGMEC3 cell lines showed a doubling time of 24Original article Immortalized goat milk epithelial cell lines replicate CAEV at high level Laila epithelial cells were isolated from CAEV-uninfected goats and three cell lines designated TIGMEC-1, TIGMEC-2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Isolation, immortalization, and characterization of a human breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial compartment of the human breast comprises two distinct lineages: the luminal epithelial and the myoepithelial lineage. We have shown previously that a subset of the luminal epithelial cells could convert to myoepithelial cells in culture signifying the possible existence of a progenitor cell. We therefore set out to identify and isolate the putative precursor in the luminal epithelial

Thorarinn Gudjonsson; Helga Lind Nielsen; Lone Rønnov-Jessen; Mina J. Bissell; Ole William Petersen

2002-01-01

63

Intestinal selenoprotein P in epithelial cells and in plasma cells.  

PubMed

The micronutrient selenium and selenium-containing selenoproteins are involved in prevention of inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gut. Selenoprotein P (Sepp1), the plasma selenium transport protein, is secreted primarily from hepatocytes, but Sepp1 mRNA is also abundant in the intestine. By immunofluorescence analysis, we show that Sepp1 levels in epithelial cells of the rat jejunum increase along the crypt-to-villus axis. A different Sepp1 distribution pattern was observed in the rat colon, where the epithelial cells located at the base and at the top of the crypts were similarly positive for Sepp1. In addition, we found pronounced Sepp1 immunoreactivity in CD138-positive plasma cells scattered within the lamina propria of the colon. This hitherto unrecognized presence in terminally differentiated B-cells was corroborated by detection of Sepp1 in plasma cells residing in the rat spleen. Following supplementation with dietary selenium compounds, polarized intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells secreted Sepp1 into the culture medium across the basolateral membrane. Our data suggest that Sepp1 secreted from epithelial cells may support the intestinal immune system by providing immune cells (including plasma cells) with selenium for the biosynthesis of endogenous selenoproteins. PMID:24157689

Speckmann, Bodo; Bidmon, Hans-Jürgen; Borchardt, Andrea; Sies, Helmut; Steinbrenner, Holger

2014-01-01

64

Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.  

PubMed

The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

2015-03-01

65

Scrib is Required for Epithelial Cell Identity and Prevents Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depends on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, ?SMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of ?SMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGF? signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGF? target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGF? signaling. PMID:24095903

Yamben, Idella F.; Rachel, Rivka A.; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E.

2013-01-01

66

Outside In: Inversion of Cell Polarity Controls Epithelial Lumen Formation  

PubMed Central

Establishment of cell polarity is important for epithelial lumen formation, and the molecular mechanisms directing this process are only partially understood. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Bryant et al. (2014) show that disassembly, membrane translocation, and reassembly of podocalyxin complexes controls epithelial cell polarization and lumen formation in 3D matrices. PMID:25373773

Davis, George E.; Cleaver, Ondine B.

2015-01-01

67

Mapping of HNF4? target genes in intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The role of HNF4? has been extensively studied in hepatocytes and pancreatic ?-cells, and HNF4? is also regarded as a key regulator of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. The aim of the present work is to identify novel HNF4? target genes in the human intestinal epithelial cells in order to elucidate the role of HNF4? in the intestinal differentiation progress.

Mette Boyd; Simon Bressendorff; Jette Møller; Jørgen Olsen; Jesper T Troelsen

2009-01-01

68

Epithelial cell differentiation during stomach development.  

PubMed

Chicken stomach provides an extremely useful experimental system for the analysis of molecular nature of the morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of digestive organs in vertebrates. We identified several genes of which expression is important for the normal development of the stomach. Especially, bone morphogenetic protein-2 is necessary for the mesenchymal action in inducing gland formation in the epithelium of the stomach. Some transcription factors such as cSox2 and cGATA5 are involved in the expression of embryonic chicken pepsinogen gene, a marker gene of stomach gland epithelial cells. PMID:11329933

Yasugi, S

2000-12-01

69

Gene expression in TGFbeta-induced epithelial cell differentiation in a three-dimensional intestinal epithelial cell differentiation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The TGF?1-induced signal transduction processes involved in growth and differentiation are only partly known. The three-dimensional epithelial differentiation model, in which T84 epithelial cells are induced to differentiate either with TGF?1 or IMR-90 mesenchymal cell-secreted soluble factors, is previously shown to model epithelial cell differentiation seen in intestine. That model has not been used for large scale gene expression

Kati M Juuti-Uusitalo; Katri Kaukinen; Markku Mäki; Jarno Tuimala; Heikki Kainulainen

2006-01-01

70

Potassium channels in rat prostate epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Voltage-dependent K(+) channels were identified and characterized in primary culture of rat prostate epithelial cells. A voltage-dependent, inactivating K(+) channel was the most commonly observed ion channel in both lateral and dorsal cells. The K(+) current exhibited a voltage threshold at -40 mV. Averaged half-inactivation potential (V(1/2)) and the slope factor (k) values were -26 mV and 6, respectively. It showed a monoexponential decay with an inactivation time constant of about 600 ms at +60 mV. The deactivation time constant at -60 mV was 30 ms and the reversal potential was estimated at -80 mV, suggesting that current was carried by potassium ions. The scorpion venom peptides charybdotoxin (5 nM) and margatoxin (1 nM), inhibited K(+) current at all membrane potentials with a rapid and a slow reversibility respectively. Both tetraethylammonium (10 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (50 microM) reduced K(+) current by approximately 40%. We conclude that plasma membranes of lateral and dorsal rat prostate epithelial cells contain Kv K(+) channels that have biophysical and pharmacological properties consistent with those of the Kv1.3 family. PMID:10508909

Ouadid-Ahidouch, H; Van Coppenolle, F; Le Bourhis, X; Belhaj, A; Prevarskaya, N

1999-10-01

71

Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

2004-07-14

72

Henipavirus Pathogenesis in Human Respiratory Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are deadly zoonotic viruses for which no vaccines or therapeutics are licensed for human use. Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory illness and encephalitis. Although the exact route of transmission in human is unknown, epidemiological studies and in vivo studies suggest that the respiratory tract is important for virus replication. However, the target cells in the respiratory tract are unknown, as are the mechanisms by which henipaviruses can cause disease. In this study, we characterized henipavirus pathogenesis using primary cells derived from the human respiratory tract. The growth kinetics of NiV-Malaysia, NiV-Bangladesh, and HeV were determined in bronchial/tracheal epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). In addition, host responses to infection were assessed by gene expression analysis and immunoassays. Viruses replicated efficiently in both cell types and induced large syncytia. The host response to henipavirus infection in NHBE and SAEC highlighted a difference in the inflammatory response between HeV and NiV strains as well as intrinsic differences in the ability to mount an inflammatory response between NHBE and SAEC. These responses were highest during HeV infection in SAEC, as characterized by the levels of key cytokines (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1?, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], and colony-stimulating factors) responsible for immune cell recruitment. Finally, we identified virus strain-dependent variability in type I interferon antagonism in NHBE and SAEC: NiV-Malaysia counteracted this pathway more efficiently than NiV-Bangladesh and HeV. These results provide crucial new information in the understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis in the human respiratory tract at an early stage of infection. PMID:23302882

Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Carmical, J. Russ; Prusak, Deborah; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Heinz

2013-01-01

73

Characterization of Butyrate Uptake by Nontransformed Intestinal Epithelial Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butyrate (BT) is one of the main end products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber within the human colon.\\u000a Among its recognized effects, BT inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Our aim was to characterize uptake of BT by two nontransformed\\u000a intestinal epithelial cell lines: rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) and fetal human colonic epithelial (FHC) cells.\\u000a Uptake of 14C-BT by IEC-6

Pedro GoncalvesJoao; João R. Araújo; Fátima Martel

2011-01-01

74

A colonic mineralocorticoid receptor cell model expressing epithelial Na + channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the distal colon, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is rate limiting for sodium absorption. Progress in the molecular characterization of ENaC expression and trafficking in response to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone has been hampered, since no epithelial colonic cell line existed expressing functional ENaC stimulated by nanomolar aldosterone via mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Here, we present a human colonic epithelial cell

Theresa Bergann; Svenja Plöger; Anja Fromm; Sebastian Zeissig; Steffen A. Borden; Michael Fromm; Jörg D. Schulzke

2009-01-01

75

Regulation of intestinal epithelial cells transcriptome by enteric glial cells: impact on intestinal epithelial barrier functions  

PubMed Central

Background Emerging evidences suggest that enteric glial cells (EGC), a major constituent of the enteric nervous system (ENS), are key regulators of intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) functions. Indeed EGC inhibit intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) proliferation and increase IEB paracellular permeability. However, the role of EGC on other important barrier functions and the signalling pathways involved in their effects are currently unknown. To achieve this goal, we aimed at identifying the impact of EGC upon IEC transcriptome by performing microarray studies. Results EGC induced significant changes in gene expression profiling of proliferating IEC after 24 hours of co-culture. 116 genes were identified as differentially expressed (70 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) in IEC cultured with EGC compared to IEC cultured alone. By performing functional analysis of the 116 identified genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, we showed that EGC induced a significant regulation of genes favoring both cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion as well as cell differentiation. Consistently, functional studies showed that EGC induced a significant increase in cell adhesion. EGC also regulated genes involved in cell motility towards an enhancement of cell motility. In addition, EGC profoundly modulated expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and cell survival, although no clear functional trend could be identified. Finally, important genes involved in lipid and protein metabolism of epithelial cells were shown to be differentially regulated by EGC. Conclusion This study reinforces the emerging concept that EGC have major protective effects upon the IEB. EGC have a profound impact upon IEC transcriptome and induce a shift in IEC phenotype towards increased cell adhesion and cell differentiation. This concept needs to be further validated under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:19883504

2009-01-01

76

Oxytocin stimulates secretory processes in lactating rabbit mammary epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Oxytocin plays a major role in lactation mainly by its action on milk ejection via the contraction of myoepithelial cells. The effect of oxytocin on milk production and the presence of oxytocin receptors on different epithelial cells suggest that this hormone may play a role in mammary epithelial cells. To determine precisely the various roles of oxytocin, we studied localization of oxytocin receptors in lactating rabbit and rat mammary tissue and the influence of oxytocin on secretory processes in lactating rabbit mammary epithelial cells. Immunolocalization of oxytocin receptors on mammary epithelial cells by immunofluorescence and in mammary tissue by immunogold in addition to in situ hybridization showed that lactating rat and rabbit mammary epithelial cells expressed oxytocin receptors. Moreover, oxytocin bound specifically to epithelial cells. To determine whether oxytocin had an effect on lactating rabbit mammary epithelial cells, isolated mammary fragments were incubated in the presence or absence of 10?6 i.u. ml?1 of oxytocin. After 1 min of incubation with oxytocin, the morphology of epithelial cells and the localization of caseins and proteins associated with the secretory traffic suggested a striking acceleration of the transport leading to exocytosis, whereas the contraction of myoepithelial cells was only detectable after 7 min. Addition of 10?8 g ml?1 of atosiban before the addition of oxytocin prevented the oxytocin effect on secretory processes and on myoepithelial cell contraction. Addition of 10?6 i.u. ml?1 of vasopressin to the incubation medium did not mimic the stimulating effect of oxytocin on secretory traffic. These results show that lactating rabbit and rat mammary epithelial cells express oxytocin receptors and that oxytocin binds to these receptors. They strongly suggest that oxytocin has a dual effect on lactating mammary tissue: an acceleration of the intracellular transfer of caseins in mammary epithelial cells followed by the contraction of myoepithelial cells. PMID:16166151

Lollivier, Vanessa; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Delpal, Serge; Rainteau, Dominique; Achard, Caroline; Rabot, Aline; Ollivier-Bousquet, Michèle

2006-01-01

77

Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial cells participate in angiotensin II-mediated control of the glomerular filtration barrier.

Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

78

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells  

PubMed Central

Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ?lvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

2012-01-01

79

Urogenital Epithelial Cells as Simple Markers of Estrogen Response in Infants: Methods and Applications  

PubMed Central

Exposure to estrogen-mimicking chemicals during critical periods of development, such as infancy, may have adverse effects. However, these effects can be difficult to characterize in most epidemiologic studies. For example, growth of reproductive organs may be susceptible to estrogenic chemicals, but measuring it requires skilled ultrasound examination; timing of pubertal onset may be altered, but observing it requires long-term follow up. To address the need for a simple marker of response to estrogenic exposures in infants, we propose a novel application of a classic marker of estrogen response in adult women: cytological evaluation of urogenital epithelial cells. In this cross-sectional study of 34 female and 41 male infants, we demonstrate that epithelial cells can be obtained from swabs of the vaginal introitus (females) and urethral meatus (males), as well as from spun urine, and that these cells respond to differential estrogenic conditions, as indicated by the relative abundance of the superficial epithelial cell type. To model varying estrogen exposure, we sampled from infants who were either newborn (highly exposed to maternal estrogens), or 12 weeks old (12W) (negligibly exposed to estrogen). Newborns had a higher percentage of superficial cells (%S), as compared to 12W (mean ± standard error: 8.3 ± 1.8 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2) (p < 0.01), consistent with an estrogen response. This difference in %S from newborn to 12W was observed similarly for swab (-7.6 ± 1.7) and urine (-7.3 ± 2.6) specimens and for males (-9.6 ± 2.9) and females (-5.2 ± 2.1). Examination of urogenital epithelial cells can successfully demonstrate estrogen response in both sexes, using cell specimens collected from either swab or urine sampling. In future studies, this simple, non-invasive method may be applied to assess whether estrogen-mimicking chemicals produce an estrogenic response in infants. PMID:24146956

Adgent, Margaret A.; Flake, Gordon P.; Umbach, David M.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.

2013-01-01

80

Urogenital epithelial cells as simple markers of estrogen response in infants: methods and applications.  

PubMed

Exposure to estrogen-mimicking chemicals during critical periods of development, such as infancy, may have adverse effects. However, these effects can be difficult to characterize in most epidemiologic studies. For example, growth of reproductive organs may be susceptible to estrogenic chemicals, but measuring it requires skilled ultrasound examination; timing of pubertal onset may be altered, but observing it requires long-term follow up. To address the need for a simple marker of response to estrogenic exposures in infants, we propose a novel application of a classic marker of estrogen response in adult women: cytological evaluation of urogenital epithelial cells. In this cross-sectional study of 34 female and 41 male infants, we demonstrate that epithelial cells can be obtained from swabs of the vaginal introitus (females) and urethral meatus (males), as well as from spun urine, and that these cells respond to differential estrogenic conditions, as indicated by the relative abundance of the superficial epithelial cell type. To model varying estrogen exposure, we sampled from infants who were either newborn (highly exposed to maternal estrogens), or 12 weeks old (12 W) (negligibly exposed to estrogen). Newborns had a higher percentage of superficial cells (%S), as compared to 12 W (mean ± standard error: 8.3 ± 1.8 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2) (p < 0.01), consistent with an estrogen response. This difference in %S from newborn to 12 W was observed similarly for swab (-7.6 ± 1.7) and urine (-7.3 ± 2.6) specimens and for males (-9.6 ± 2.9) and females (-5.2 ± 2.1). Examination of urogenital epithelial cells can successfully demonstrate estrogen response in both sexes, using cell specimens collected from either swab or urine sampling. In future studies, this simple, non-invasive method may be applied to assess whether estrogen-mimicking chemicals produce an estrogenic response in infants. PMID:24146956

Adgent, Margaret A; Flake, Gordon P; Umbach, David M; Stallings, Virginia A; Bernbaum, Judy C; Rogan, Walter J

2013-01-01

81

OF EPITHELIAL CELL CYCLE AND CELL FATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a broad-acting cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21WAF1 occupies a central position in the cell cycle regula- tion of self-renewing tissues such as oral mucosa and skin. In addition to regulating normal cell cycle progression decisions, p21WAF1 integrates genotoxic insults into growth arrest and apoptotic signaling pathways that ultimately determine cell fate. As a result of its complex interactions with cell

Wendy C. Weinberg; Mitchell F. Denning

82

Epithelial Cells and Innate Antifungal Defense  

PubMed Central

The human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the predominant cause of both superficial and invasive forms of candidiasis. Clinical observations indicate that mucocutaneous Candida infections are commonly associated with defective cell-mediated immune responses. The importance of the innate immune system as a first-line defense against pathogenic challenge has long been recognized. Over the last decade, many key molecules mediating innate host defense have been identified. Central to these developments is the discovery of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and C-type lectin-receptors that induce innate immune responses and also modulate cellular and humoral adaptive immunity during Candida infections. Although a large amount of information is now available in systemic infections, little is known about localized infections. We address the most relevant pattern recognition receptors and their signaling mechanisms in oral epithelial cells, to gain a better understanding of their contributions to antifungal innate immunity. PMID:20395411

Weindl, G.; Wagener, J.; Schaller, M.

2010-01-01

83

The isolation of epithelial cells from the rat epididymis.  

PubMed

Epithelial cells from the epididymis were released by digesting the chopped epididymis with pronase followed by collagenase plus hyaluronidase. The epithelial cells were further separated from contaminating cell types by differential centrifugation and sedimentation at unit gravity through a gradient of sucrose in Ringer. The isolated cells remained viable as judged by the exclusion of trypan blue. The cells respired in the presence of glucose and the rate of respiration was not altered by the subsequent addition of pyruvate. PMID:171976

Brooks, D E

1975-01-01

84

Runx3 ?\\/? gastric epithelial cells differentiate into intestinal type cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that Runx3, a runt domain transcription factor, is a major growth regulator of gastric epithelial cells, that a lack of RUNX3 function is causally related to the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer, and that expression of RUNX3 is greatly reduced in intestinal metaplasias in human stomachs. Here we examined the differentiation of Runx3?\\/? mouse

Hiroshi Fukamachi; Kosei Ito; Yoshiaki Ito

2004-01-01

85

A rare germ-cell tumor site: vaginal endodermal sinus tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malignant germ-cell tumors (MGCT) are rare tumors of childhood accounting for less than 3% of pediatric malignancies. Endodermal sinus tumor (EST) forms the most common histologic subtype of MGCT. The vagina is an extremely rare site for GCTs. A 9-month-old female was admitted with a short history of vaginal bleeding, a mass protruding from the vagina, and difficulty in passing

M. Arora; R. Shrivastav; M. Jaiprakash

2002-01-01

86

Isolation and culture of primary equine tracheal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Culture of airway epithelial cells is a useful model to investigate physiology of airway epithelia and airway disease mechanisms. In vitro models of airway epithelial cells are established for various species. However, earlier published method for isolation and culture of equine tracheal epithelial cells requires significant improvements. In this report, the development of a procedure for efficient isolation, characterization, culture, and passage of primary equine tracheal epithelial cells are described. Epithelial cells were isolated from adult equine trachea by exposing and stripping the mucosal epithelium from the adjacent connective tissue and smooth muscle. The tissue was minced and dissociated enzymatically using 0.25% trypsin-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were collected by sieving and centrifugation, and contaminating fibroblasts were removed by differential adhesion. This procedure resulted in a typical yield of 1 x 10(7) cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells per gram tracheal lining tissue. Viability was 95% by trypan blue exclusion and isolates contained approximately 94% cytokeratin-positive cells of epithelial origin. Cells seeded at a density of 6.9 x 10(4) cells/cm2 in serum-free airway epithelial cell growth medium formed monolayers near confluency within a week. Confluent cells were dissociated using dispase II and first passages (P1) and second passages (P2) were successfully established in serum-free medium. Collagen coating of tissue culture flask was not required for cell adhesion, and cultures could be maintained at the level of P2 over 30 d. In the present study, we could establish a high-yield protocol for isolation and culture of equine tracheal epithelial cells that can serve for in vitro/ex vivo studies on the (patho-)physiology of equine airway disease as well as pharmacological and toxicological targets relevant to airway diseases. PMID:18594938

Shibeshi, Workineh; Abraham, Getu; Kneuer, Carsten; Ellenberger, Christin; Seeger, Johannes; Schoon, Heinz-Adolf; Ungemach, Fritz R

2008-01-01

87

Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), which is composed of the three subunits ?-,?- and ?-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196), RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b) nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3). By contrast, ?-,?- and ?-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with ???-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala media. PMID:21284860

2011-01-01

88

Stimulating Vaginal Repair in Rats Through Skeletal Muscle–Derived Stem Cells Seeded on Small Intestinal Submucosal Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Grafts are used for vaginal repair after prolapse, but their use to carry stem cells to regenerate vaginal tissue has not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether 1) muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) grown on small intestinal submucosa (SIS) generate smooth-muscle cells (SMC) in vitro and upon implantation in a rat model of vaginal defects; 2) express markers applicable to the in-vivo detection of vaginal endogenous stem cells; and 3) stimulate the repair of the vagina. METHODS Mouse MDSC grown on monolayer, SIS, or polymeric mesh, were tested for cell differentiation by immunocytochemistry, Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Stem cell markers were screened by DNA microarrays followed by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot. Rats that underwent hysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were left as such or implanted in the vagina with 4’,6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI)–labeled MDSC on SIS, or SIS without MDSC, immunosuppressed, and killed at 2–8 weeks. Immunofluorescence, hematoxylin-eosin, and Masson trichrome were applied to tissue sections. RESULTS Muscle-derived stem cell cultures on monolayer and on scaffolds differentiate into SMC, as shown by ?-smooth muscle actin (ASMA), calponin, and smoothelin markers. Muscle-derived stem cells express embryonic stem cell markers Oct-4 and nanog. Dual DAPI/ASMA fluorescence indicated MDSC conversion to SMC. Muscle-derived stem cells/SIS stimulated vaginal tissue repair, including keratin-5 positive epithelium formation and prevented fibrosis at 4 and 8 weeks. Oct-4+ putative endogenous stem cells were identified. CONCLUSION Muscle-derived stem cells/SIS implants stimulate vaginal tissue repair in the rat, thus autologous MDSC on scaffolds may be a promising approach for the treatment of vaginal repair. PMID:19622991

Ho, Matthew H.; Heydarkhan, Sanaz; Vernet, Dolores; Kovanecz, Istvan; Ferrini, Monica G.; Bhatia, Narender N.; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

2011-01-01

89

Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez Contain Unique Stem Cell Populations Capable of Undergoing Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition  

PubMed Central

The epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) are odontogenic epithelial cells located within the periodontal ligament matrix. While their function is unknown, they may support tissue homeostasis and maintain periodontal ligament space or even contribute to periodontal regeneration. We investigated the notion that ERM contain a subpopulation of stem cells that could undergo epithelial–mesenchymal transition and differentiate into mesenchymal stem-like cells with multilineage potential. For this purpose, ERM collected from ovine incisors were subjected to different inductive conditions in vitro, previously developed for the characterization of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (BMSC). We found that ex vivo-expanded ERM expressed both epithelial (cytokeratin-8, E-cadherin, and epithelial membrane protein-1) and BMSC markers (CD44, CD29, and heat shock protein-90?). Integrin ?6/CD49f could be used for the enrichment of clonogenic cell clusters [colony-forming units-epithelial cells (CFU-Epi)]. Integrin ?6/CD49f-positive-selected epithelial cells demonstrated over 50- and 7-fold greater CFU-Epi than integrin ?6/CD49f-negative cells and unfractionated cells, respectively. Importantly, ERM demonstrated stem cell-like properties in their differentiation capacity to form bone, fat, cartilage, and neural cells in vitro. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, ERM generated bone, cementum-like and Sharpey's fiber-like structures. Additionally, gene expression studies showed that osteogenic induction of ERM triggered an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In conclusion, ERM are unusual cells that display the morphological and phenotypic characteristics of ectoderm-derived epithelial cells; however, they also have the capacity to differentiate into a mesenchymal phenotype and thus represent a unique stem cell population within the periodontal ligament. PMID:22122577

Xiong, Jimin; Mrozik, Krzysztof; Gronthos, Stan

2012-01-01

90

T-cell costimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells in vitro: presence of suppressive activity in supernatants from skin epithelial cell cultures.  

PubMed

Oral Langerhans cells (LC) have better T-cell costimulatory capacity than skin LC. In this study factors affecting this capacity have been assessed in a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction (MELR) assay. Flow cytometry analysis of freshly recovered cells revealed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule expression on 7.5% of the oral epithelial cells and 9.7% of the skin epithelial cells. Monoclonal anti class II antibodies significantly reduced the T-cell proliferation in the MELR. Pretreatment of skin epithelial cells with interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha or interferon (IFN)-gamma did not affect the MELR proliferation, but incubation with IFNgamma significantly suppressed the T-cell response. Transfer of supernatants from cultures of skin epithelial cells and allogeneic T cells to cultures of oral epithelial cells and T cells resulted in a reduced T-cell proliferation while supernatants from oral epithelial cells and T cells did not reduce proliferation. The higher proliferation in cultures of T cells and oral epithelial cells than in cultures containing skin epithelial cells may be due to the presence of a suppressive factor in the skin epithelial cell suspensions. PMID:14871193

Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

2004-02-01

91

Identifying vaginitis in general practice.  

PubMed

Clinicians conducted a study of 154 women who presented themselves at a health center of the University of Wales College of Medicine with symptoms of vaginitis. A nurse examined the vagina with a speculum to note the appearance of the cervix, the color and amount of discharge, and the presence of odor and inquired about soreness during the examination. The nurse took 3 endocervical swabs and 2 high vaginal swabs. Upon microscopic examination, any vaginal discharge with epithelial cells stippled with small coccobacilli indicated a possible Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Laboratory personnel identified G. vaginalis either alone or in combination with other organisms in 53% of the women. Those with G. vaginalis alone or in combination with anaerobes reported more symptoms than those women who had negative cultures. In addition, women with G. vaginalis alone and those G. vaginalis in combination with other organisms had more discharge, described as yellow and runny, than those with negative cultures. 77% of the women infected with G. vaginalis had a high cheese or fishy odor. 75% of the women with G. vaginalis came to the health center between 2-4 weeks or even longer after they 1st noticed symptoms. On the other hand, women who were infected with C. albicans presented to the health center within a week of the start of the symptoms. Clinicians had previously treated erroneously many of the women with G. vaginalis with an antifungal agent. These women should be treated with metronidazole or, if a yeast infection is also present, with an antifungal agent and metronidazole. All women who present themselves to a nurse or physician with vaginal symptoms should have a history taken, an examination, and vaginal discharge samples taken and evaluated in the laboratory. PMID:3498151

Smail, J

92

Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

2014-01-01

93

Fungal glycan interactions with epithelial cells in allergic airway disease  

PubMed Central

Human exposure to fungi results in a wide range of health outcomes, from invasive disease or allergy to immune tolerance. Inhaled fungi contact airway epithelial cells as an early event, and this host:fungal interaction can shape the eventual immunological outcome. Emerging evidence points to exposure to fungal cell wall carbohydrates in the development of allergic airway disease. Herein, we describe determinants of fungal allergenicity, and review the responses of airway epithelial cells to fungal carbohydrates. A greater understanding of the recognition of and response to fungal carbohydrates by airway epithelial cells may lead to the development of targeted therapies that ameliorate allergic airway disease. PMID:23602359

Roy, René M.; Klein, Bruce S.

2014-01-01

94

Quantitative Assessment of Cytosolic Salmonella in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1), but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol. PMID:24400108

Knodler, Leigh A.; Nair, Vinod; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

2014-01-01

95

Fusion between Hematopoietic and Epithelial Cells in Adult Human Intestine  

PubMed Central

Following transplantation of hematopoietic lineage cells, genetic markers unique to the transplanted cells have been detected in non-hematopoietic recipient cells of human liver, vascular endothelium, intestinal epithelium and brain. The underlying mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Evidence from mice suggests it is due in part to fusion between cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins; however, direct evidence for this in humans is scant. Here, by quantitative and statistical analysis of X- and Y-chromosome numbers in epithelial and non-epithelial intestinal cells from gender-mismatched hematopoietic cell transplant patients, we provide evidence that transplanted cells of the hematopoietic lineage incorporate into human intestinal epithelium through cell fusion. This is the first definitive identification of cell fusion between hematopoietic cells and any epithelial cell type in humans, and provides the basis for further understanding the physiological and potential pathological consequences of cell fusion in humans. PMID:23383228

Silk, Alain D.; Gast, Charles E.; Davies, Paige S.; Fakhari, Farnaz D.; Vanderbeek, Gretchen E.; Mori, Motomi; Wong, Melissa H.

2013-01-01

96

Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay  

PubMed Central

The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

2014-01-01

97

p53 mutations in human immortalized epithelial cell lines.  

PubMed

Although rodent cells have been immortalized following transfection with a mutant p53 gene, the role of p53 in the immortalization of human cells is unknown. Therefore, human epithelial cell lines were examined for p53 mutations in exons 4-9 which include the evolutionarily conserved regions. A spontaneously immortalized skin keratinocyte cell line, HaCat, and three ras-transfected clones, have a p53 mutational spectrum that is typical of ultraviolet light induced mutations. A normal finite lifespan cell strain (184) and two benzo[a]pyrene immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines derived from 184 (184A1 and 184B5) contain wild type p53 sequences in exons 4-9, although elevated levels of nuclear p53 indicate an alteration in the stability of the normally transient protein. Wild type p53 was found in human bronchial, esophageal and hepatic epithelial cells immortalized by SV40 T antigen gene and human renal epithelial cells immortalized by adenovirus 5. BEAS-2B, an SV40 T antigen immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line and two subclones, have a germline polymorphism at codon 47. Inactivation of p53 by mechanisms such as mutation or complexing with proteins of DNA tumor viruses appears to be important in the immortalization of human epithelial cells. PMID:8504475

Lehman, T A; Modali, R; Boukamp, P; Stanek, J; Bennett, W P; Welsh, J A; Metcalf, R A; Stampfer, M R; Fusenig, N; Rogan, E M

1993-05-01

98

Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

1987-01-01

99

Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

2014-11-01

100

Lactobacillus casei prevents impaired barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The exact effect of probiotics on epithelial barrier function is not well understood. The aims of this study were to evaluate cytokine-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and to study the role of probiotics in the prevention of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Caco-2 cells grown on transwell chambers were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? or interferon (IFN)-? basolaterally. Probiotic, Lactobacillus casei, was added 1 h before cytokine stimulation. MAPK inhibitors were added 15 min before L. casei stimulation. The electrical resistance and paracellular permeability of Caco-2 monolayers were measured. Distribution of zonula occludens (ZO)-1 protein was assessed by immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses for ZO-1, p-Akt, and toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 were performed. Both TNF-? and IFN-? stimulation on Caco-2 cells decreased transepithelial resistance (TER), increased epithelial permeability, and decreased ZO-1 expression of Caco-2 cells. In contrast, pretreatment of L. casei reversed the cytokine-induced dysfunction of TER, epithelial permeability, and ZO-1 expression. Reversal of cytokine-induced dysfunction of TER and intestinal permeability by L. casei was abrogated with MAPK inhibitor treatment. Lactobacillus casei stimulation on Caco-2 cells increased TLR2 and p-Akt expression. Probiotic, L. casei, prevents cytokine-induced epithelial barrier dysfunctions in IECs. PMID:21143526

Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Yong Seok; Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Joo Hyun; Lee, A Reum; Park, Yoon Kyung

2011-01-01

101

SWCNTs induced autophagic cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes are being actively introduced in electronics, computer science, aerospace, and other industries. Thus, the urgent need for toxicological studies on CNTs is mounting. In this study, we investigated the alterations in cellular response with morphological changes induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. At 24h after exposure, SWCNTs rapidly decreased ATP production and cell viability as well a slight increase in the number of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases. In addition, SWCNTs increased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, but not SOD-2, and the number of cells generating ROS. The concentration of Cu and Zn ions also increased in a dose-dependent manner in cells exposed to SWCNTs. SWCNTs significantly enhanced the release of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and up-regulated the expression of chemokine- and cytokine-related genes. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy-related genes, especially the DRAM1 gene, and the autophagosome formation-related proteins, were clearly up-regulated together with an increase of autophagosome-like vacuoles. Based on these results, we suggest that SWCNTs induce autophagic cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic damage in human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:24389112

Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jae-Ho

2014-04-01

102

Epithelial stem cell mutations that promote squamous cell carcinoma metastasis.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) originate in stratified epithelia, with a small subset becoming metastatic. Epithelial stem cells are targets for driver mutations that give rise to SCCs, but it is unknown whether they contribute to oncogenic multipotency and metastasis. We developed a mouse model of SCC by targeting two frequent genetic mutations in human SCCs, oncogene Kras(G12D) activation and Smad4 deletion, to mouse keratin 15-expressing (K15+) stem cells. We show that transgenic mice developed multilineage tumors, including metastatic SCCs. Among cancer stem cell-enriched (CSC-enriched) populations, those with increased side population (SP) cells correlated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lung metastasis. We show that microRNA-9 (miR-9) contributed to SP expansion and metastasis, and miR-9 inhibition reduced the number of SP cells and metastasis. Increased miR-9 was detected in metastatic human primary SCCs and SCC metastases, and miR-9-transduced human SCC cells exhibited increased invasion. We identified ?-catenin as a predominant miR-9 target. Increased miR-9 in human SCC metastases correlated with ?-catenin loss but not E-cadherin loss. Our results demonstrate that stem cells with Kras(G12D) activation and Smad4 depletion can produce tumors that are multipotent and susceptible to EMT and metastasis. Additionally, tumor initiation and metastatic properties of CSCs can be uncoupled, with miR-9 regulating the expansion of metastatic CSCs. PMID:23999427

White, Ruth A; Neiman, Jill M; Reddi, Anand; Han, Gangwen; Birlea, Stanca; Mitra, Doyel; Dionne, Laikuan; Fernandez, Pam; Murao, Kazutoshi; Bian, Li; Keysar, Stephen B; Goldstein, Nathaniel B; Song, Ningjing; Bornstein, Sophia; Han, Zheyi; Lu, Xian; Wisell, Joshua; Li, Fulun; Song, John; Lu, Shi-Long; Jimeno, Antonio; Roop, Dennis R; Wang, Xiao-Jing

2013-10-01

103

A potential role for tissue kallikrein-related peptidases in human cervico-vaginal physiology.  

PubMed

Human tissue kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK) are a family of 15 genes located on chromosome 19q13.4 that encode secreted serine proteases with trypsin- and/or chymotrypsin-like activity. Relatively large levels of many KLKs are present in human cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF) and in the supernatant of cultured human vaginal epithelial cells. Many KLKs are also hormonally regulated in vaginal epithelial cells, particularly by glucocorticoids and estrogens. The physiological role of KLK in the vagina is currently unknown; however, analysis of the CVF proteome has revealed clues for potential KLK functions in this environment. Here, we detail potential roles for KLKs in cervico-vaginal physiology. First, we suggest that KLKs play a role in the vagina similar to their role in skin physiology: (1) in the desquamation of vaginal epithelial cells, similar to their activity in the desquamation of skin corneocytes; and (2) in their ability to activate antimicrobial proteins in CVF as they do in sweat. Consequently, we hypothesize that dysregulated KLK expression in the vagina could lead to the development of pathological conditions such as desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Second, we propose that KLKs may play a role in premature rupture of membranes and pre-term birth through their cleavage of fetal membrane extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:18627298

Shaw, Julie L V; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

2008-06-01

104

Diversity of Epithelial Stem Cell Types in Adult Lung  

PubMed Central

Lung is a complex organ lined with epithelial cells. In order to maintain its homeostasis and normal functions following injuries caused by varied extraneous and intraneous insults, such as inhaled environmental pollutants and overwhelming inflammatory responses, the respiratory epithelium normally undergoes regenerations by the proliferation and differentiation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells that resided in distinct niches along the airway tree. The importance of local epithelial stem cell niches in the specification of lung stem/progenitor cells has been recently identified. Studies using cell differentiating and lineage tracing assays, in vitro and/or ex vivo models, and genetically engineered mice have suggested that these local epithelial stem/progenitor cells within spatially distinct regions along the pulmonary tree contribute to the injury repair of epithelium adjacent to their respective niches. This paper reviews recent findings in the identification and isolation of region-specific epithelial stem/progenitor cells and local niches along the airway tree and the potential link of epithelial stem cells for the development of lung cancer. PMID:25810726

Li, Feng; He, Jinxi; Wei, Jun; Cho, William C.; Liu, Xiaoming

2015-01-01

105

Culture, Immortalization, and Characterization of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Meibomian gland epithelial cells are essential in maintaining the health and integrity of the ocular surface. However, very little is known about their physiological regulation. In this study, the cellular control mechanisms were explored, first to establish a defined culture system for the maintenance of primary epithelial cells from human meibomian glands and, second, to immortalize these cells, thereby developing a preclinical model that could be used to identify factors that regulate cell activity. Methods. Human meibomian glands were removed from lid segments after surgery, enzymatically digested, and dissociated. Isolated epithelial cells were cultured in media with or without serum and/or 3T3 feeder layers. To attempt immortalization, the cells were exposed to retroviral human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and/or SV40 large T antigen cDNA vectors, and antibiotic-resistant cells were selected, expanded, and subcultured. Analyses for possible biomarkers, cell proliferation and differentiation, lipid-related enzyme gene expression, and the cellular response to androgen were performed with biochemical, histologic, and molecular biological techniques. Results. It was possible to isolate viable human meibomian gland epithelial cells and to culture them in serum-free medium. These cells proliferated, survived through at least the fifth passage, and contained neutral lipids. Infection with hTERT immortalized these cells, which accumulated neutral lipids during differentiation, expressed multiple genes for lipogenic enzymes, responded to androgen, and continued to proliferate. Conclusions. The results show that human meibomian gland epithelial cells may be isolated, cultured, and immortalized. PMID:20335607

Liu, Shaohui; Hatton, Mark P.; Khandelwal, Payal

2010-01-01

106

HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells. However, only virions that passed through the fetal cells – and not those that passed through the adult cells – remained infectious. Analysis of expression of anti-HIV innate proteins beta-defensins 2 and 3, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in adult, fetal, and infant oral epithelia showed that their expression is predominantly in the adult oral epithelium. Retention of HIV infectivity after transmigration correlated inversely with the expression of these innate proteins. Inactivation of innate proteins in adult oral keratinocytes restored HIV infectivity. These data suggest that high-level innate protein expression may contribute to the resistance of the adult oral epithelium to HIV transmission. PMID:21056450

Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

2010-01-01

107

CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)] [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Walls, Dermot [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland)] [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University. Dublin, 9. Ireland (Ireland); Egan, Jim J. [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)] [Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital. 44, Eccles Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland); Doran, Peter P., E-mail: peter.doran@ucd.ie [Clinical Research Centre, School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin. 21, Nelson Street. Dublin, 7. Ireland (Ireland)

2009-07-01

108

Cell volume regulation in epithelial physiology and cancer  

PubMed Central

The physiological function of epithelia is transport of ions, nutrients, and fluid either in secretory or absorptive direction. All of these processes are closely related to cell volume changes, which are thus an integrated part of epithelial function. Transepithelial transport and cell volume regulation both rely on the spatially and temporally coordinated function of ion channels and transporters. In healthy epithelia, specific ion channels/transporters localize to the luminal and basolateral membranes, contributing to functional epithelial polarity. In pathophysiological processes such as cancer, transepithelial and cell volume regulatory ion transport are dys-regulated. Furthermore, epithelial architecture and coordinated ion transport function are lost, cell survival/death balance is altered, and new interactions with the stroma arise, all contributing to drug resistance. Since altered expression of ion transporters and channels is now recognized as one of the hallmarks of cancer, it is timely to consider this especially for epithelia. Epithelial cells are highly proliferative and epithelial cancers, carcinomas, account for about 90% of all cancers. In this review we will focus on ion transporters and channels with key physiological functions in epithelia and known roles in the development of cancer in these tissues. Their roles in cell survival, cell cycle progression, and development of drug resistance in epithelial cancers will be discussed. PMID:24009588

Pedersen, Stine F.; Hoffmann, Else K.; Novak, Ivana

2013-01-01

109

ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

110

Differentiated cultures of primary hamster tracheal airway epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Primary airway epithelial cell cultures can provide a faithful representation of the in vivo airway while allowing for a controlled nutrient source and isolation from other tissues or immune cells. The methods used have significant differences based on tissue source, cell isolation, culture conditions, and assessment of culture purity. We modified and optimized a method for generating tracheal epithelial cultures from Syrian golden hamsters and characterized the cultures for cell composition and function. Soon after initial plating, the epithelial cells reached a high transepithelial resistance and formed tight junctions. The cells differentiated into a heterogeneous, multicellular culture containing ciliated, secretory, and basal cells after culture at an air-liquid interface (ALI). The secretory cell populations initially consisted of MUC5AC-positive goblet cells and MUC5AC/CCSP double-positive cells, but the makeup changed to predominantly Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP)-positive Clara cells after 14 d. The ciliated cell populations differentiated rapidly after ALI, as judged by the appearance of beta tubulin IV-positive cells. The cultures produced mucus, CCSP, and trypsin-like proteases and were capable of wound repair as judged by increased expression of matrilysin. Our method provides an efficient, high-yield protocol for producing differentiated hamster tracheal epithelial cells that can be used for a variety of in vitro studies including tracheal cell differentiation, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogen-host interactions. PMID:15780007

Rowe, Regina K; Brody, Steven L; Pekosz, Andrew

2004-01-01

111

Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells  

SciTech Connect

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

1997-10-13

112

The Epithelial Cell in Lung Health and Emphysema Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of the irreversible lung disease emphysema. Historically, inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils have been studied for their role in emphysema pathology. However, recent studies indicate that the lung epithelium is an active participant in emphysema pathogenesis and plays a critical role in the lung’s response to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke increases protease production and alters cytokine expression in isolated epithelial cells, suggesting that these cells respond potently even in the absence of a complete inflammatory program. Tobacco smoke also acts as an immunosuppressant, reducing the defense function of airway epithelial cells and enhancing colonization of the lower airways. Thus, the paradigm that emphysema is strictly an inflammatory-cell based disease is shifting to consider the involvement of resident epithelial cells. Here we review the role of epithelial cells in lung development and emphysema. To better understand tobacco-epithelial interactions we performed microarray analyses of RNA from human airway epithelial cells exposed to smoke extract for 24 hours. These studies identified differential regulation of 425 genes involved in diverse biological processes, such as apoptosis, immune function, cell cycle, signal transduction, proliferation, and antioxidants. Some of these genes, including VEGF, glutathione peroxidase, IL-13 receptor, and cytochrome P450, have been previously reported to be altered in the lungs of smokers. Others, such as pirin, cathepsin L, STAT1, and BMP2, are shown here for the first time to have a potential role in smoke-associated injury. These data broaden our understanding of the importance of epithelial cells in lung health and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. PMID:19662102

Mercer, Becky A.; Lemaître, Vincent; Powell, Charles A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine

2009-01-01

113

Phototoxic aptamers selectively enter and kill epithelial cancer cells  

PubMed Central

The majority of cancers arise from malignant epithelial cells. We report the design of synthetic oligonucleotides (aptamers) that are only internalized by epithelial cancer cells and can be precisely activated by light to kill such cells. Specifically, phototoxic DNA aptamers were selected to bind to unique short O-glycan-peptide signatures on the surface of breast, colon, lung, ovarian and pancreatic cancer cells. These surface antigens are not present on normal epithelial cells but are internalized and routed through endosomal and Golgi compartments by cancer cells, thus providing a focused mechanism for their intracellular delivery. When modified at their 5? end with the photodynamic therapy agent chlorin e6 and delivered to epithelial cancer cells, these aptamers exhibited a remarkable enhancement (>500-fold increase) in toxicity upon light activation, compared to the drug alone and were not cytotoxic towards cell types lacking such O-glycan-peptide markers. Our findings suggest that these synthetic oligonucleotide aptamers can serve as delivery vehicles in precisely routing cytotoxic cargoes to and into epithelial cancer cells. PMID:19103663

Ferreira, Cátia S. M.; Cheung, Melissa C.; Missailidis, Sotiris; Bisland, Stuart; Gariépy, Jean

2009-01-01

114

Intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of damaging inflammation by the mucosal immune system in response to commensal and harmful ingested bacteria is unknown. Here we show epithelial cells conditioned mucosal dendritic cells through the constitutive release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and other mediators, resulting in the induction of 'noninflammatory' dendritic cells. Epithelial cell–conditioned dendritic cells released interleukins 10 and 6 but not interleukin

Monica Rimoldi; Marcello Chieppa; Valentina Salucci; Francesca Avogadri; Angelica Sonzogni; Gianluca M Sampietro; Angelo Nespoli; Giuseppe Viale; Paola Allavena; Maria Rescigno

2005-01-01

115

Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

Song, Chun-Hua [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Liu, Zhi-Qiang [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China) [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Huang, Shelly [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)] [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Zheng, Peng-Yuan, E-mail: medp7123@126.com [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)] [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Yang, Ping-Chang, E-mail: yangp@mcmaster.ca [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)] [Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

2012-09-14

116

Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

1994-01-01

117

Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line  

SciTech Connect

The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. (Laboratoire de Gastroenterologie et de Nutrition, U.E.R. de Medecine, Nice (France))

1990-02-01

118

Clindamycin Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

119

Estrogen and progesterone together expand murine endometrial epithelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Synchronous with massive shifts in reproductive hormones, the uterus and its lining the endometrium expand to accommodate a growing fetus during pregnancy. In the absence of an embryo the endometrium, composed of epithelium and stroma, undergoes numerous hormonally regulated cycles of breakdown and regeneration. The hormonally mediated regenerative capacity of the endometrium suggests that signals that govern the growth of endometrial progenitors must be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Here we report an antigenic profile for isolation of mouse endometrial epithelial progenitors. These cells are EpCAM+CD44+ITGA6hiThy1?PECAM1?PTPRC?Ter119?, comprise a minor subpopulation of total endometrial epithelia and possess a gene expression profile that is unique and different from other cells of the endometrium. The epithelial progenitors of the endometrium could regenerate in vivo, undergo multi-lineage differentiation and proliferate. We show that the number of endometrial epithelial progenitors is regulated by reproductive hormones. Co-administration of estrogen and progesterone dramatically expanded the endometrial epithelial progenitor cell pool. This effect was not observed when estrogen or progesterone was administered alone. Despite the remarkable sensitivity to hormonal signals, endometrial epithelial progenitors do not express estrogen or progesterone receptors. Therefore their hormonal regulation must be mediated through paracrine signals resulting from binding of steroid hormones to the progenitor cell niche. Discovery of signaling defects in endometrial epithelial progenitors or their niche can lead to development of better therapies in diseases of the endometrium. PMID:23341289

Janzen, DM; Cheng, D; Schafenacker, AM; Paik, DY; Goldstein, AS; Witte, ON; Jaroszewicz, A; Pellegrini, M; Memarzadeh, S

2013-01-01

120

Intestinal Epithelial Cells Secrete Exosome-like Vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Given the observations that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) can present antigens to CD4+ T lymphocytes and that professional antigen-presenting cells secrete exosomes (antigen-presenting vesicles), we hypothesized that IECs may secrete exosomes carrying molecules implicated in antigen presentation, which may be able to cross the basement membrane and convey immune information to noncontiguous immune cells. Methods: Human IEC

Guillaume Van Niel; Graça Raposo; Céline Candalh; Muriel Boussac; Robert Hershberg; Nadine Cerf-Bensussan; Martine Heyman

2001-01-01

121

Multinucleation of cultured canine epithelial and lymphoma cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The frequency distribution patterns of monuclear and multinuclear giant cells were determined for two canine lymphoma cell\\u000a lines (DT-5 and 11028), and a normal canine kidney epithelial cell line (DK). The proportion of multinuclear cells in the\\u000a DK line (1.53%) was approximately twice those of the DT-5 (0.75%) and 11028 (0.73%) cell lines. The observed frequency distributions\\u000a of cells with

Joseph Torres; Albert L. Chapman

1984-01-01

122

Ozone exposed epithelial cells modify cocultured natural killer cells  

PubMed Central

Ozone (O3) causes significant adverse health effects worldwide. Nasal epithelial cells (NECs) are among the first sites within the respiratory system to be exposed to inhaled air pollutants. They recruit, activate, and interact with immune cells via soluble mediators and direct cell-cell contacts. Based on our recent observation demonstrating the presence of natural killer (NK) cells in nasal lavages, the goal of this study was to establish a coculture model of NECs and NK cells and examine how exposure to O3 modifies this interaction. Flow cytometry analysis was used to assess immunophenotypes of NK cells cocultured with either air- or O3-exposed NECs. Our data show that coculturing NK cells with O3-exposed NECs decreased intracellular interferon-? (IFN-?), enhanced, albeit not statistically significant, IL-4, and increased CD16 expression on NK cells compared with air controls. Additionally, the cytotoxicity potential of NK cells was reduced after coculturing with O3-exposed NECs. To determine whether soluble mediators released by O3-exposed NECs caused this shift, apical and basolateral supernatants of air- and O3-exposed NECs were used to stimulate NK cells. While the conditioned media of O3-exposed NECs alone did not reduce intracellular IFN-?, O3 enhanced the expression of NK cell ligands ULBP3 and MICA/B on NECs. Blocking ULBP3 and MICA/B reversed the effects of O3-exposed NECs on IFN-? production in NK cells. Taken together, these data showed that interactions between NECs and NK cells in the context of O3 exposure changes NK cell activity via direct cell-cell interactions and is dependent on ULBP3/MICA/B expressed on NECs. PMID:23241529

Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E.

2013-01-01

123

FOXM1 confers to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs substantially reduces survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a stem cell phenotype in ovarian cancer cells. Chemoresistance was associated with the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers, EMT-related transcription factors, and cancer stem cell markers, which enhanced invasion and sphere formation ability. Overexpression of FOXM1 increased cisplatin-resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-sensitive and low FOXM1-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, depletion of FOXM1 via RNA interference reduced cisplatin resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-resistant and high FOXM1-expressing cells. Overexpression of FOXM1 also increased the expression, nuclear accumulation, and activity of ?-CATENIN in chemoresistant cells, whereas downregulation of FOXM1 suppressed these events. The combination of cisplatin and the FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton inhibited the expression of stem cell markers in chemoresistant cells and subcutaneous ovarian tumor growth in mouse xenografts. In an analysis of 106 ovarian cancer patients, high FOXM1 levels in tumors were associated with cancer progression and short progression-free intervals. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of FOXM1 in chemoresistance and suggest that FOXM1 inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25537512

Chiu, Wen-Tai; Huang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Huei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chin; Chang, Chang-Hwa; Huang, Soon-Cen; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang

2015-02-10

124

FOXM1 confers to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs substantially reduces survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a stem cell phenotype in ovarian cancer cells. Chemoresistance was associated with the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers, EMT-related transcription factors, and cancer stem cell markers, which enhanced invasion and sphere formation ability. Overexpression of FOXM1 increased cisplatin-resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-sensitive and low FOXM1-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, depletion of FOXM1 via RNA interference reduced cisplatin resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-resistant and high FOXM1-expressing cells. Overexpression of FOXM1 also increased the expression, nuclear accumulation, and activity of ?-CATENIN in chemoresistant cells, whereas downregulation of FOXM1 suppressed these events. The combination of cisplatin and the FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton inhibited the expression of stem cell markers in chemoresistant cells and subcutaneous ovarian tumor growth in mouse xenografts. In an analysis of 106 ovarian cancer patients, high FOXM1 levels in tumors were associated with cancer progression and short progression-free intervals. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of FOXM1 in chemoresistance and suggest that FOXM1 inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25537512

Chiu, Wen-Tai; Huang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Huei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chin; Chang, Chang-Hwa; Huang, Soon-Cen; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang

2015-01-01

125

Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

2008-06-26

126

Epithelial-mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit fibrillin microfibrils.  

PubMed

Here, we show that epithelial-mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit extracellular matrix. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells that expressed high levels of E-cadherin and had cell-cell junctions rich in zona occludens (ZO)-1, ?-catenin and heparan sulfate, required syndecan-4 but not fibronectin or protein kinase C ? (PKC?) to assemble extracellular matrix (fibrillin microfibrils and perlecan). In contrast, RPE cells that strongly expressed mesenchymal smooth muscle ?-actin but little ZO-1 or E-cadherin, required fibronectin (like fibroblasts) and PKC?, but not syndecan-4. Integrins ?5?1 and/or ?8?1 and actomyosin tension were common requirements for microfibril deposition, as was heparan sulfate biosynthesis. TGF?, which stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition, altered gene expression and overcame the dependency on syndecan-4 for microfibril deposition in epithelial RPE cells, whereas blocking cadherin interactions disrupted microfibril deposition. Renal podocytes had a transitional phenotype with pericellular ?-catenin but little ZO-1; they required syndecan-4 and fibronectin for efficient microfibril deposition. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal status modulates microfibril deposition. PMID:24190885

Baldwin, Andrew K; Cain, Stuart A; Lennon, Rachel; Godwin, Alan; Merry, Catherine L R; Kielty, Cay M

2014-01-01

127

Epithelial–mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit fibrillin microfibrils  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Here, we show that epithelial–mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit extracellular matrix. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells that expressed high levels of E-cadherin and had cell–cell junctions rich in zona occludens (ZO)-1, ?-catenin and heparan sulfate, required syndecan-4 but not fibronectin or protein kinase C ? (PKC?) to assemble extracellular matrix (fibrillin microfibrils and perlecan). In contrast, RPE cells that strongly expressed mesenchymal smooth muscle ?-actin but little ZO-1 or E-cadherin, required fibronectin (like fibroblasts) and PKC?, but not syndecan-4. Integrins ?5?1 and/or ?8?1 and actomyosin tension were common requirements for microfibril deposition, as was heparan sulfate biosynthesis. TGF?, which stimulates epithelial–mesenchymal transition, altered gene expression and overcame the dependency on syndecan-4 for microfibril deposition in epithelial RPE cells, whereas blocking cadherin interactions disrupted microfibril deposition. Renal podocytes had a transitional phenotype with pericellular ?-catenin but little ZO-1; they required syndecan-4 and fibronectin for efficient microfibril deposition. Thus, epithelial–mesenchymal status modulates microfibril deposition. PMID:24190885

Baldwin, Andrew K.; Cain, Stuart A.; Lennon, Rachel; Godwin, Alan; Merry, Catherine L. R.; Kielty, Cay M.

2014-01-01

128

Intracellular bacteriolysis triggers a massive apoptotic cell death in Shigella-infected epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infected epithelial cells, which act as a first barrier against pathogens, seldom undergo apoptosis. Rather, infected epithelial cells undergo a slow cell death that displays hallmarks of necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that rapid intracellular lysis of Shigella flexneri, provoked by either the use of a diaminopimelic acid auxotroph mutant or treatment of infected cells with antibiotics of the ?-lactam family,

Ivan Tattoli; Luigi Lembo-Fazio; Giulia Nigro; Leticia A. M. Carneiro; Elisabetta Ferraro; Giacomo Rossi; Maria Celeste Martino; Maria Egle de Stefano; Francesco Cecconi; Stephen E. Girardin; Dana J. Philpott; Maria Lina Bernardini

2008-01-01

129

Cell-adhesion molecule uvomorulin is localized in the intermediate junctions of adult intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uvomorulin is a cell-adhesion molecule implicated in the compaction process of mouse preimplantation embryos and the aggregation of embryonal carcinoma cells. A rabbit antiserum against purified uvomorulin also reacts with epithelial cells of various adult tissues. In this study, we investigated the localization of uvomorulin on adult intestinal epithelial cells using electron micro- scopic analyses. Uvomorulin was shown to exhibit

K. Boller; D. VESTWEBER; R. KEMLER

1985-01-01

130

Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition of Alveolar Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cell apoptosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We hypothesized that ER stress (either chemically induced or due to accumulation of misfolded proteins) is also associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). ER stress inducers, thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TN), increased expression of ER chaperone, Grp78, and spliced X-box binding protein 1, decreased epithelial markers, E-cadherin and zonula occludens–1 (ZO-1), increased the myofibroblast marker, ?–smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and induced fibroblast-like morphology in both primary AECs and the AT2 cell line, RLE-6TN, consistent with EMT. Overexpression of the surfactant protein (SP)–C BRICHOS mutant SP-C?Exon4 in A549 cells increased Grp78 and ?-SMA and disrupted ZO-1 distribution, and, in primary AECs, SP-C?Exon4 induced fibroblastic-like morphology, decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin and increased ?-SMA, mechanistically linking ER stress associated with mutant SP to fibrosis through EMT. Whereas EMT was evident at lower concentrations of TG or TN, higher concentrations caused apoptosis. The Src inhibitor, 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4]pyramidine) (PP2), abrogated EMT associated with TN or TG in primary AECs, whereas overexpression of SP-C?Exon4 increased Src phosphorylation, suggesting a common mechanism. Furthermore, increased Grp78 immunoreactivity was observed in AT2 cells of mice after bleomycin injury, supporting a role for ER stress in epithelial abnormalities in fibrosis in vivo. These results demonstrate that ER stress induces EMT in AECs, at least in part through Src-dependent pathways, suggesting a novel role for ER stress in fibroblast accumulation in pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:21169555

Zhong, Qian; Zhou, Beiyun; Ann, David K.; Minoo, Parviz; Liu, Yixin; Banfalvi, Agnes; Krishnaveni, Manda S.; Dubourd, Mickael; Demaio, Lucas; Willis, Brigham C.; Kim, Kwang-Jin; duBois, Roland M.; Crandall, Edward D.; Beers, Michael F.

2011-01-01

131

Increased epithelial stem cell traits in advanced endometrial endometrioid carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been recognized cancer cells acquire characters reminiscent of those of normal stem cells, and the degree of stem cell gene expression correlates with patient prognosis. Lgr5(+) or CD133(+) epithelial stem cells (EpiSCs) have recently been identified and these cells are susceptible to neoplastic transformation. It is unclear, however, whether genes enriched in EpiSCs also contribute in tumor

Shing-Jyh Chang; Tao-Yeuan Wang; Chan-Yen Tsai; Tzu-Fang Hu; Margaret Dah-Tsyr Chang; Hsei-Wei Wang

2009-01-01

132

Stem Cell Reports Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells  

E-print Network

Stem Cell Reports Resource Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells Establishes Intestinal Stem Cell Hierarchy Ning Li,1 Maryam Yousefi,1,5 Angela Nakauka-Ddamba,1 Rajan Jain,2 development of targeted murine reporter alleles as proxies for intestinal stem cell activity has led

Jensen, Shane T.

133

Epithelial cell proliferation in thymic hyperplasia induced by triiodothyronine.  

PubMed Central

A significant hyperplasia of the thymus was induced in mice, treated with triiodothyronine during the first month of life. Stereological data showed that, in both treated and control mice, mononucleate epithelial cells were four times more numerous in the medulla that in the cortex. After triiodothyronine treatment, their absolute number in both cortex and medulla increased two-fold. The number of thymic epithelial cells could thus be regulated by thyroid hormones. The cortical volume in treated mice was also twice that of controls but medullar volume showed and increase of only fifty percent. Cortical epithelial cells increased at the same rate of the cortex volume by medullary epithelial cells grew more rapidly. In fact the medullary volume enlargement could be be explained mainly by the growth of the epithelium. Medullary lymphocytes did thus not preliferate in the same way as cortical lymphocytes after thyroid hormone administration. The recently described multinucleate epithelial cells were not modified in number and were thus insensitive to thyroid hormones. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:862237

Scheiff, J M; Cordier, A C; Haumont, S

1977-01-01

134

Genes involved in TGF?1-driven epithelial-mesenchymal transition of renal epithelial cells are topologically related in the human interactome map  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Understanding how mesenchymal cells arise from epithelial cells could have a strong impact in unveiling mechanisms of epithelial cell plasticity underlying kidney regeneration and repair. In primary human tubular epithelial cells (HUTEC) under different TGF?1 concentrations we had observed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but not epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. We hypothesized that the process triggered by TGF?1 could be a dedifferentiation event.

Stefano Campanaro; Simone Picelli; Rossella Torregrossa; Laura Colluto; Monica Ceol; Dorella Del Prete; Angela D'Angelo; Giorgio Valle; Franca Anglani

2007-01-01

135

Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.  

PubMed

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-?1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma. PMID:24845378

Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

2014-07-01

136

In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important layer of the retina because they are responsible for providing metabolic support to the photoreceptors. Techniques to image the RPE layer include autofluorescence imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). However, previous studies were unable to resolve single RPE cells in vivo. This thesis describes the technique of combining autofluorescence, SLO,

Jessica Ijams Wolfing Morgan

2008-01-01

137

One method of collecting fallen off epithelial cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person usually falls off epithelial cells as many as 400,000 every day, in which the majority adheres to the internal surface of clothes contacting the skin. So many cells disperse on the collar, sleeve cuff and so on. In order to extract DNA from this kind of forensic samples, the normal method is to cut down the cloth with

Xianhua Jiang

2009-01-01

138

AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

139

Nipah Virus Entry and Egress from Polarized Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) infections are transmitted via airway secretions and urine, commonly via the respiratory route. Epithelial surfaces represent important replication sites in both primary and systemic infection phases. NiV entry and spread from polarized epithelial cells therefore determine virus entry and dissemination within a new host and influence virus shedding via mucosal surfaces in the respiratory and urinary tract. To date, there is no knowledge regarding the entry and exit sites of NiV in polarized epithelial cells. In this report, we show for the first time that NiV can infect polarized kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) from both cell surfaces, while virus release is primarily restricted to the apical plasma membrane. Substantial amounts of basolateral infectivity were detected only after infection with high virus doses, at time points when the integrity of the cell monolayer was largely disrupted as a result of cell-to-cell fusion. Confocal immunofluorescence analyses of envelope protein distribution at early and late infection stages suggested that apical virus budding is determined by the polarized sorting of the NiV matrix protein, M. Studies with stably M-expressing and with monensin-treated cells furthermore demonstrated that M protein transport is independent from the glycoproteins, implying that the M protein possesses an intrinsic apical targeting signal. PMID:23283941

Lamp, Boris; Dietzel, Erik; Kolesnikova, Larissa; Sauerhering, Lucie; Erbar, Stephanie; Weingartl, Hana

2013-01-01

140

Transcriptional PROFILING OF MUCOCILIARY DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

When cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in the appropriate medium, primary human airway epithelial cells form a polarized, pseudostratified epithelium composed of ciliated and mucus-secreting cells. This culture system provides a useful tool for the in vitro study of...

141

Effect of Helicobacter pylori on gastric epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal epithelium has cells with features that make them a powerful line of defense in innate mucosal immunity. Features that allow gastrointestinal epithelial cells to contribute in innate defense include cell barrier integrity, cell turnover, autophagy, and innate immune responses. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a spiral shape gram negative bacterium that selectively colonizes the gastric epithelium of more than half of the world’s population. The infection invariably becomes persistent due to highly specialized mechanisms that facilitate H. pylori’s avoidance of this initial line of host defense as well as adaptive immune mechanisms. The host response is thus unsuccessful in clearing the infection and as a result becomes established as a persistent infection promoting chronic inflammation. In some individuals the associated inflammation contributes to ulcerogenesis or neoplasia. H. pylori has an array of different strategies to interact intimately with epithelial cells and manipulate their cellular processes and functions. Among the multiple aspects that H. pylori affects in gastric epithelial cells are their distribution of epithelial junctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, proliferation, stimulation of cytokine production, and cell transformation. Some of these processes are initiated as a result of the activation of signaling mechanisms activated on binding of H. pylori to cell surface receptors or via soluble virulence factors that gain access to the epithelium. The multiple responses by the epithelium to the infection contribute to pathogenesis associated with H. pylori. PMID:25278677

Alzahrani, Shatha; Lina, Taslima T; Gonzalez, Jazmin; Pinchuk, Irina V; Beswick, Ellen J; Reyes, Victor E

2014-01-01

142

Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

Gonzalez, Liara M; Kinnin, Leslie A; Blikslager, Anthony T

2015-04-01

143

Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance  

PubMed Central

In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the LESC hypothesis.

West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

2015-01-01

144

EBV BMRF-2 facilitates cell-to-cell spread of virus within polarized oral epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BMRF-2 protein plays an important role in EBV infection of polarized oral epithelial cells by interacting with ?1 and ?v family integrins. Here we show that infection of polarized oral epithelial cells with B27-BMRF-2low recombinant virus, expressing a low level of BMRF-2, resulted in significantly smaller plaques compared with infection by parental B95-8 virus. BMRF-2 localized in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and basolateral sorting vesicles and was transported to the basolateral membranes of polarized epithelial cells. Mutation of the tyrosine- and dileucine-containing basolateral sorting signal, YLLV, in the cytoplasmic domain of BMRF-2 led to the failure of its accumulation in the TGN and its basolateral transport. These data show that BMRF-2 may play an important role in promoting the spread of EBV progeny virions through lateral membranes of oral epithelial cells. PMID:19394065

Xiao, Jianqiao; Palefsky, Joel M.; Herrera, Rossana; Berline, Jennifer; Tugizov, Sharof M.

2009-01-01

145

Coronavirus entry and release in polarized epithelial cells: a review.  

PubMed

Most coronaviruses cause respiratory or intestinal infections in their animal or human host. Hence, their interaction with polarized epithelial cells plays a critical role in the onset and outcome of infection. In this paper, we review the knowledge regarding the entry and release of coronaviruses, with particular emphasis on the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses. As these viruses approach the epithelial surfaces from the apical side, it is not surprising that coronavirus cell receptors are exposed primarily on the apical domain of polarized epithelial cells. With respect to release, all possibilities appear to occur. Thus, most coronaviruses exit through the apical surface, several through the basolateral one, although the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus appears to use both sides. These observations help us understand the local or systematic spread of the infection within its host as well as the spread of the virus within the host population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24737708

Cong, Yingying; Ren, Xiaofeng

2014-09-01

146

Oxidized alginate hydrogels as niche environments for corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Chemical and biochemical modification of hydrogels is one strategy to create physiological constructs that maintain cell function. The aim of this study was to apply oxidised alginate hydrogels as a basis for development of a biomimetic niche for limbal epithelial stem cells that may be applied to treating corneal dysfunction. The stem phenotype of bovine limbal epithelial cells (LEC) and the viability of corneal epithelial cells (CEC) were examined in oxidised alginate gels containing collagen IV over a 3-day culture period. Oxidation increased cell viability (P ? 0.05) and this improved further with addition of collagen IV (P ? 0.01). Oxidised gels presented larger internal pores (diameter: 0.2–0.8 µm) than unmodified gels (pore diameter: 0.05–0.1 µm) and were significantly less stiff (P ? 0.001), indicating that an increase in pore size and a decrease in stiffness contributed to improved cell viability. The diffusion of collagen IV from oxidised alginate gels was similar to that of unmodified gels suggesting that oxidation may not affect the retention of extracellular matrix proteins in alginate gels. These data demonstrate that oxidised alginate gels containing corneal extracellular matrix proteins can influence corneal epithelial cell function in a manner that may impact beneficially on corneal wound healing therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A Published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. Part A: 102A: 3393–3400, 2014. PMID:24142706

Wright, Bernice; De Bank, Paul A; Luetchford, Kim A; Acosta, Fernando R; Connon, Che J

2014-01-01

147

Feature Quantification and Abnormal Detection on Cervical Squamous Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Feature analysis and classification detection of abnormal cells from images for pathological analysis are an important issue for the realization of computer assisted disease diagnosis. This paper studies a method for cervical squamous epithelial cells. Based on cervical cytological classification standard and expert diagnostic experience, expressive descriptors are extracted according to morphology, color, and texture features of cervical scales epithelial cells. Further, quantificational descriptors related to cytopathology are derived as well, including morphological difference degree, cell hyperkeratosis, and deeply stained degree. The relationship between quantified value and pathological feature can be established by these descriptors. Finally, an effective method is proposed for detecting abnormal cells based on feature quantification. Integrated with clinical experience, the method can realize fast abnormal cell detection and preliminary cell classification.

Zhao, Mingzhu; Bian, Linjie; Yao, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianwei

2015-01-01

148

Human pancreatic duct epithelial cell model for KRAS transformation.  

PubMed

Mutations on the KRAS gene occur early during pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis and have been identified in up to 90% of ductal adenocarcinoma. However, the functional role of KRAS mutations in the malignant transformation of normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells into cancer cells remains unknown. We have developed an in vitro model for KRAS transformation using near-normal HPV-16E6E7-immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelial (HPDE-E6E7) cells. The expression of mutant KRAS(G12V) in HPDE cells by retroviral transduction resulted in weak tumorigenic transformation, with tumors formed in 50% of immune-deficient scid mice implanted by these KRAS-transformed cells. The model provides an opportunity to dissect further the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with human pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis. PMID:18374152

Radulovich, Nikolina; Qian, Jia-ying; Tsao, Ming-Sound

2008-01-01

149

Growth regulation in Hydra: relationship between epithelial cell cycle length and growth rate.  

PubMed

The relationship between epithelial cell production and growth rate was investigated in Hydra attenuata under different feeding regimes. The increase of epithelial cell number was compared to the duration of the epithelial cell cycle using standard methods of cell cycle analysis. The results indicate that cell cycle changes accompanying changes in feeding regime are not sufficient to explain the altered growth rate. Under heavy feeding regimes, epithelial cell production equals tissue growth rate. At low feeding level or under starvation conditions the epithelial cell cycle lengthens and growth rate of epithelial cell population is slowed. However, the cell cycle changes are insufficient to account for the reduction in tissue growth and thus there is an effective overproduction of epithelial cells amounting to 10% per day. Evidence suggests that these excess cells are phagocytized by neighboring cells in the tissue. Thus phagocytosis is directly or indirectly involved in regulating the growth of hydra tissue. PMID:6734933

Bosch, T C; David, C N

1984-07-01

150

Respiratory epithelial cell lines exposed to anoxia produced inflammatory mediator  

PubMed Central

Human epithelial cell lines were utilized to examine the effects of anoxia on cellular growth and metabolism. Three normal human epithelial cells lines (A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B) as well as a cystic fibrosis cell line (IB3-1) and its mutation corrected cell line (C38) were grown in the presence and absence of oxygen for varying periods of time. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Cellular metabolism and proliferation were assayed by determining mitochondrial oxidative burst activity by tetrazolium compound reduction. The viability of cells was indirectly measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. A549, NHBE, and BEAS-2B cells cultured in the absence of oxygen showed a progressive decrease in metabolic activity and cell proliferation after one to three days. There was a concomitant increase in IL-8 production. Cell lines from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients did not show a similar detrimental effect of anoxia. However, the IL-8 level was significantly increased only in IB3-1 cells exposed to anoxia after two days. Anoxia appears to affect certain airway epithelial cell lines uniquely with decreased cellular proliferation and a concomitant increased production of a cytokine with neutrophilic chemotactic activity. The increased ability of the CF cell line to respond to anoxia with increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the inflammatory damage seen in CF bronchial airway. This study indicates the need to use different cell lines in in vitro studies investigating the role of epithelial cells in airway inflammation and the effects of environmental influences. PMID:23301190

Shahriary, Cyrus M.; Nussbaum, Eliezer

2012-01-01

151

Steroid-Mediated Regulation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel Subunits in Mammary Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a key mediator of sodium transport in epithelia; however, little is known about ENaC expression in mammary epithelia. Using real- time PCR, we demonstrated the expression of the ENaC subunit mRNAs in mouse and human mammary cell lines and in vivo mouse mammary tissue. We determined the ef- fects of glucocorticoids, progesterone, and prolactin

Cary Boyd; A. Naray-Fejes-Toth

2007-01-01

152

Composition and Formation of Intercellular Junctions in Epithelial Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The polarized nature of epithelial cells is manifested by the nonrandom partitioning of organelles within the cells, the concentration of intercellular junctions at one pole, and the asymmetric distribution of proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane. These features allow epithelia to fulfill their specific tasks, such as targeted uptake and secretion of molecules and the segregation of different tissue compartments. The accessibility ofDrosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans to genetic and cell biological analyses, combined with the study of mammalian cells in culture, provides an ideal basis for understanding the mechanisms that control the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity and tissue integrity. Here, we focus on some of the best-studied junctions and membrane-associated protein complexes and their relation to cell polarity. Comparisons between fly, worm, and vertebrate epithelia reveal marked similarities with respect to the molecules used, and pronounced differences in the organization of the junctions themselves.

Elisabeth Knust (Heinrich-Heine Universität Düsseldorf; Institut für Genetik)

2002-12-06

153

The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petersen, Ivy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N. [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Division of Gynecologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

2013-01-01

154

Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.  

PubMed

Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

2015-01-01

155

Nasal Epithelial Cells Can Act as a Physiological Surrogate for Paediatric Asthma Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction Differentiated paediatric epithelial cells can be used to study the role of epithelial cells in asthma. Nasal epithelial cells are easier to obtain and may act as a surrogate for bronchial epithelium in asthma studies. We assessed the suitability of nasal epithelium from asthmatic children to be a surrogate for bronchial epithelium using air-liquid interface cultures. Methods Paired nasal and bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children (n?=?9) were differentiated for 28 days under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Morphological and physiological markers were analysed using immunocytochemistry, transepithelial-electrical-resistance, Quantitative Real-time-PCR, ELISA and multiplex cytokine/chemokine analysis. Results Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells from asthmatic children exhibit similar cytokine responses to stimulation with IL-13 compared with paired bronchial epithelial cells. Morphologically however, nasal epithelial cells differed significantly from bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic patients under unstimulated and IL-13-stimulated conditions. Nasal epithelial cells exhibited lower proliferation/differentiation rates and lower percentages of goblet and ciliated cells when unstimulated, while exhibiting a diminished and varied response to IL-13. Conclusions We conclude that morphologically, nasal epithelial cells would not be a suitable surrogate due to a significantly lower rate of proliferation and differentiation of goblet and ciliated cells. Physiologically, nasal epithelial cells respond similarly to exogenous stimulation with IL-13 in cytokine production and could be used as a physiological surrogate in the event that bronchial epithelial cells are not available. PMID:24475053

McBrien, Michael E.; Skibinski, Grzegorz; Shields, Michael D; Heaney, Liam G.

2014-01-01

156

Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection  

SciTech Connect

Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Garofalo, R.P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Casola, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States); Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas (United States)], E-mail: ancasola@utmb.edu

2007-11-10

157

Hyperoxia-induced signal transduction pathways in pulmonary epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is necessary to treat critically ill patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia leads to the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause acute inflammatory lung injury. One of the major effects of hyperoxia is the injury and death of pulmonary epithelium, which is accompanied by increased levels of pulmonary proinflammatory cytokines and excessive leukocyte infiltration. A thorough understanding of the signaling pathways leading to pulmonary epithelial cell injury/death may provide some insights into the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury. This review focuses on epithelial responses to hyperoxia and some of the major factors regulating pathways to epithelial cell injury/death, and proinflammatory responses upon exposure to hyperoxia. We discuss in detail some of the most interesting players, such as, NF-?B, that can modulate both proinflammatory responses and cell injury/death of lung epithelial cells. A better appreciation for the functions of these factors will no doubt help us to delineate the pathways to hyperoxic cell death and proinflammatory responses. PMID:17349918

Zaher, Tahereh E.; Miller, Edmund J.; Morrow, Dympna M. P.; Javdan, Mohammad; Mantell, Lin L.

2007-01-01

158

Cholinergic epithelial cell with chemosensory traits in murine thymic medulla.  

PubMed

Specialized epithelial cells with a tuft of apical microvilli ("brush cells") sense luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to potentially harmful substances. They utilize the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum-sensing molecules. In the respiratory tract, most of these cells are cholinergic and are approached by cholinoceptive sensory nerve fibers. Utilizing two different reporter mouse strains for the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), we observed intense labeling of a subset of thymic medullary cells. ChAT expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These cells showed expression of villin, a brush cell marker protein, and ultrastructurally exhibited lateral microvilli. They did not express neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, PGP9.5) or thymocyte (CD3) markers but rather thymic epithelial (CK8, CK18) markers and were immunoreactive for components of the taste transduction cascade such as G?-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and phospholipase C?2. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of G?-gustducin, TRPM5, and phospholipase C?2. Thymic "cholinergic chemosensory cells" were often in direct contact with medullary epithelial cells expressing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit ?3. These cells have recently been identified as terminally differentiated epithelial cells (Hassall's corpuscle-like structures in mice). Contacts with nerve fibers (identified by PGP9.5 and CGRP antibodies), however, were not observed. Our data identify, in the thymus, a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensitive cell that probably utilizes acetylcholine for paracrine signaling. This cell might participate in intrathymic infection-sensing mechanisms. PMID:25300645

Panneck, Alexandra Regina; Rafiq, Amir; Schütz, Burkhard; Soultanova, Aichurek; Deckmann, Klaus; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Weihe, Eberhard; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Grau, Veronika; del Rey, Adriana; Kummer, Wolfgang

2014-12-01

159

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process which is reactivated during carcinoma progression,\\u000a providing tumor cells with enhanced migratory properties, the capacity to invade the stroma, and the ability to metastasize.\\u000a Tumor cells undergoing EMT also acquire stem cell characteristics, suggesting that there is crosstalk between pathways promoting\\u000a EMT and self-renewal, and that the EMT process contributes to the

Jonas Fuxe

160

Activation of osmolyte efflux from cultured renal papillary epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The rabbit renal papillary epithelial cell line PAP-HT25 accumulates sorbitol and other organic osmolytes when cultured in hypertonic media. When returned to isotonic media, PAP-HT25 cells swell because of water influx and then shrink to their normal volume because of rapid osmolyte and water efflux (volume regulatory decrease, VRD). Sorbitol efflux from PAP-HT25 cells during VRD was reduced to

Timothy J. Furlong; Toshiki Moriyama; Kenneth R. Spring

1991-01-01

161

Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cell Model for KRAS Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations on the KRAS gene occur early during pancreatic duct cell carcinogenesis and have been identified in up to 90% of ductal adenocarcinoma. However, the functional role of KRAS mutations in the malignant transformation of normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells into cancer cells remains unknown. We have developed an in vitro model for KRAS transformation using near?normal HPV?16E6E7?immortalized human pancreatic

Nikolina Radulovich

2008-01-01

162

Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.  

PubMed

Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

2014-11-01

163

Lung epithelial cell death induced by oil-dispersant mixtures.  

PubMed

The dispersants used in oil spill disasters are claimed to be safe, but increased solubility of high-molecular-weight components in crude oil is of public health concern. The water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of crude oil mixed with dispersants may become airborne and cause lung epithelial damage when inhaled. This study was designed to examine the cell death and related death pathways of lung epithelial cells in response to WAF. Cultured A549 cells were treated for 2 or 24h with different concentrations of WAF. The WAF was prepared by mixing each of the dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and Corexit EC9580A) with crude oil for extraction with PBS. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay, lactate dehydrogenase assay, morphology and cleaved caspase 9 protein, and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 were all used to measure cell viability, necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy quantitation, respectively. Results showed that the WAF of oil-dispersant mixtures caused cell death in the lung epithelial cells, in a dose-dependent manner, with the major cellular pathways of necrosis and apoptosis involved. Autophagy also occurred in cells exposed to WAF mixtures at lower concentrations before any detectable cell death, indicating greater sensitivity to WAF exposure. The three types of cell behavior, namely necrosis, apoptosis and autophagy, may play different roles in oil spill-related respiratory disorders. PMID:22504303

Wang, He; Shi, Yongli; Major, Danielle; Yang, Zhanjun

2012-08-01

164

In vitro differentiation of a cloned bovine mammary epithelial cell.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to establish in vitro a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) clone, able to respond to mitogenic growth factors and to lactogenic hormones. Mammary tissue from a 200-d pregnant Holstein cow was used as a source of MEC, from which a clone was established through a process of limiting dilution. When plated on plastic, the cells assumed a monolayer, cobblestone, epithelial-like morphology, with close contact between cells. Inclusion of IGF-1 and EGF in the media significantly increased the number of cells 5 d after plating. All cells stained strongly for cytokeratin and moderately for vimentin at young and old passage stages, indicating the epithelial nature of this cell clone. When the cells were plated at a high density on a thin layer of a commercial extracellular matrix preparation (Matrigel), lobular, alveoli-like structures developed within approximately 5 d, with a clearly visible lumen. When cells were plated onto Matrigel in differentiation media (containing lactogenic hormones), detectable quantities of alpha-casein were present in the media and particularly on the lumen side of the structures. Omission of one of the lactogenic hormones (insulin, prolactin or hydrocortisone) reduced alpha-casein release to the limit of detection of the assay used. Lactoferrin was also produced when the cells were plated on Matrigel, again principally on the lumen side of the lobules, though this was independent of the lactogenic hormones. By passage 40, the cells had senesced, and it was not possible to induce alpha-casein or lactoferrin production. This study notes the establishment of a functional bovine mammary epithelial cell clone, which is responsive to mitogenic and lactogenic hormones and an extracellular matrix. PMID:12369405

Rose, Michael T; Aso, Hisashi; Yonekura, Shinichi; Komatsu, Tokushi; Hagino, Akihiko; Ozutsumi, Kyouhei; Obara, Yoshiaki

2002-08-01

165

[Stem cell factor production from cultured nasal epithelial cells--effect on SCF production by drugs].  

PubMed

We studied whether epithelial cells cultured in serum-free medium contained other cells or not, there were differences in SCF production from cultured nasal epithelial cells between groups of nonallergic and allergic patients, and among degrees of serum mite-CAP RAST classes of allergic patients, and how drugs inhibited SCF production. As a result, no other contaminating cells except mast cell existed in cultured cells. There was a significant difference in SCF production of cultured cells between nonallergic and class 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, and between class 1-2 and 3-4, 5-6 of mite CAP-RAST class. Cyclosporin, prednisolone, fluticasone, ketotifen, and clemastine inhibited SCF production from cultured epithelial cells, but cromoglicate and suplatast did not. Inhibition means the reduction of SCF from cells, not the growth of cultured nasal epithelial cells. PMID:11905054

Koyama, Mamoru; Otsuka, Hirokuni; Kusumi, Taeko; Yamauchi, Yoko

2002-02-01

166

Sodium selectivity of semicircular canal duct epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Sodium absorption by semicircular canal duct (SCCD) epithelial cells is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of vestibular endolymph. It was previously shown that the epithelial cells could absorb Na+ under control of a glucocorticoid hormone (dexamethasone) and the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride. The most commonly-observed target of amiloride is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), comprised of the three subunits ?-, ?- and ?-ENaC. However, other cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive in a similar concentration range. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCCD epithelial cells absorb only Na+ or also K+ through an amiloride-sensitive pathway. Parasensory K+ absorption could contribute to regulation of the transduction current through hair cells, as found to occur via vestibular transitional cells [S. H. Kim and D. C. Marcus. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear. Hear.Res. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2011.05.003, 2011]. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6197), whole-cell patch clamp and transepithelial recordings in primary cultures of rat SCCD. ?-, ?- and ?-ENaC were all previously reported as present. The selectivity of the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial and cell membrane currents was observed in Ussing chamber and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The cell membrane currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, but the Na+ selectivity disappeared when the cells were cultured on impermeable supports. Transepithelial currents across SCCD were also carried exclusively by Na+. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride-sensitive absorptive flux of SCCD mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel, likely ???-ENaC. These epithelial cells therefore absorb only Na+ via the amiloride-sensitive pathway and do not provide a parasensory K+ efflux from the canals via this pathway. The results further provide caution to the culture of epithelial cells on impermeable surfaces. PMID:21914199

2011-01-01

167

Hexagonal Packing of Drosophila Wing Epithelial Cells by the Planar Cell Polarity Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The mechanisms that order cellular packing geometry are critical for the functioning of many tissues, but they are poorly understood. Here, we investigate this problem in the developing wing of Drosophila. The surface of the wing is decorated by hexagonally packed hairs that are uniformly oriented by the planar cellpolaritypathway.Theyareconstructedbyahexag- onal array of wing epithelial cells. Wing epithelial cells

Anne-Kathrin Classen; Kurt I. Anderson; Eric Marois; Suzanne Eaton

2005-01-01

168

Proteomics in Studies of Signal Transduction in Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the complexity of cancer is important for correct diagnostics and efficient treatment of this disease. Recent developments of proteomics technologies allow us to address the complexity of tumorigenesis at a level of global protein profiling. This review discusses recent studies of signaling processes in cells of epithelial origin undertaken with the use of global protein profiling. Tumors

Serhiy Souchelnytskyi

2002-01-01

169

Epigenetic Changes Accompanying Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Immortalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of immortality may be an early and crucial step in malignant progression. We hypothesize that acquisition of unlimited growth potential in individual human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) requires inactivation of several distinct negative growth constraints as well as reactivation of a mechanism to maintain telomeres on chromosomes. Some of the heritable changes that occur during HMEC immortalization, i.e., loss

Paul Yaswen; Martha R. Stampfer

2001-01-01

170

Epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour of the mandibular gingiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial odontogenic ghost cell tumour (EOGCT) is considered as a solid `neoplastic' variant of the calcifying odontogenic cyst and is an uncommon lesion for which various names have been proposed over the years. We describe here an extraosseous case occurring on the edentulous mandibular gingiva in the right bicuspid area of a 70-year-old woman. The lesion was a painless

T Lombardi; R Küffer; R Di Felice; J Samson

1999-01-01

171

Basolateral membrane K+ channels in renal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The major function of epithelial tissues is to maintain proper ion, solute, and water homeostasis. The tubule of the renal nephron has an amazingly simple structure, lined by epithelial cells, yet the segments (i.e., proximal tubule vs. collecting duct) of the nephron have unique transport functions. The functional differences are because epithelial cells are polarized and thus possess different patterns (distributions) of membrane transport proteins in the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. K+ channels play critical roles in normal physiology. Over 90 different genes for K+ channels have been identified in the human genome. Epithelial K+ channels can be located within either or both the apical and basolateral membranes of the cell. One of the primary functions of basolateral K+ channels is to recycle K+ across the basolateral membrane for proper function of the Na+-K+-ATPase, among other functions. Mutations of these channels can cause significant disease. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the basolateral K+ channels of the nephron, providing potential physiological functions and pathophysiology of these channels, where appropriate. We have taken a “K+ channel gene family” approach in presenting the representative basolateral K+ channels of the nephron. The basolateral K+ channels of the renal epithelia are represented by members of the KCNK, KCNJ, KCNQ, KCNE, and SLO gene families. PMID:22338089

Devor, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

172

NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

173

Epithelial Cell Division: Keeping Aneuploidy Levels in Check.  

PubMed

Aneuploidy is deleterious at the cellular and organismal level and can promote tumorigenesis. Two new studies in Drosophila imaginal discs underscore the cellular and tissue-wide mechanisms that prevent the accumulation of aneuploid cells in symmetrically dividing epithelial tissues upon changes in centrosome number. PMID:25829010

Clemente-Ruiz, Marta; Milán, Marco

2015-03-30

174

Molecular characterization of TGF?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a morphogenetic program essential for embryonic development and wound healing, but can adversely cause fibrosis and metastatic cancer progression when deregulated. Here, we established a model of efficient EMT induction in normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) using transforming growth factor beta (TGF?). We demonstrate that EMT in HMEC occurs in three distinctive phases

Linsey E. Lindley; Karoline J. Briegel

2010-01-01

175

Recombinant Escherichia coli as a gene delivery vector into airway epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To transfer genes into airway epithelial cells, we have generated auxotrophic dap Escherichia coli BM2710 mutant that expresses the invasin of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and the listeriolysin of Listeria monocytogenes. E. coli BM2710 harboring a plasmid carrying the gfp gene was incubated with immortalized normal or cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelial cells or with primary bronchial epithelial cells grown as an

I. Fajac; S. Grossesupa; J.-M. Collombet; G. Thevenot; S. Goussard; C. Danel; C. Grillot-courvalin

2004-01-01

176

Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

2012-01-01

177

Clinical Features of Bacterial Vaginosis in a Murine Model of Vaginal Infection with Gardnerella vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis of the vaginal flora characterized by a shift from a Lactobacillus-dominant environment to a polymicrobial mixture including Actinobacteria and Gram-negative bacilli. BV is a common vaginal condition in women and is associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth. Gardnerella vaginalis is one of the most frequently isolated bacterial species in BV. However, there has been much debate in the literature concerning the contribution of G. vaginalis to the etiology of BV, since it is also present in a significant proportion of healthy women. Here we present a new murine vaginal infection model with a clinical isolate of G. vaginalis. Our data demonstrate that this model displays key features used clinically to diagnose BV, including the presence of sialidase activity and exfoliated epithelial cells with adherent bacteria (reminiscent of clue cells). G. vaginalis was capable of ascending uterine infection, which correlated with the degree of vaginal infection and level of vaginal sialidase activity. The host response to G. vaginalis infection was characterized by robust vaginal epithelial cell exfoliation in the absence of histological inflammation. Our analyses of clinical specimens from women with BV revealed a measureable epithelial exfoliation response compared to women with normal flora, a phenotype that, to our knowledge, is measured here for the first time. The results of this study demonstrate that G. vaginalis is sufficient to cause BV phenotypes and suggest that this organism may contribute to BV etiology and associated complications. This is the first time vaginal infection by a BV associated bacterium in an animal has been shown to parallel the human disease with regard to clinical diagnostic features. Future studies with this model should facilitate investigation of important questions regarding BV etiology, pathogenesis and associated complications. PMID:23527214

Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Warren G.; Lewis, Amanda L.

2013-01-01

178

Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang, E-mail: wenfang64@hotmail.com; Zhang, Yi, E-mail: syzi960@yahoo.com

2013-11-01

179

Established Thymic Epithelial Progenitor/Stem Cell-Like Cell Lines Differentiate into Mature Thymic Epithelial Cells and Support T Cell Development  

PubMed Central

Common thymic epithelial progenitor/stem cells (TEPCs) differentiate into cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (TECs), which are required for the development and selection of thymocytes. Mature TEC lines have been widely established. However, the establishment of TEPC lines is rarely reported. Here we describe the establishment of thymic epithelial stomal cell lines, named TSCs, from fetal thymus. TSCs express some of the markers present on tissue progenitor/stem cells such as Sca-1. Gene expression profiling verifies the thymic identity of TSCs. RANK stimulation of these cells induces expression of autoimmune regulator (Aire) and Aire-dependent tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in TSCs in vitro. TSCs could be differentiated into medullary thymic epithelial cell-like cells with exogenously expressed NF-?B subunits RelB and p52. Importantly, upon transplantation under the kidney capsules of nude mice, TSCs are able to differentiate into mature TEC-like cells that can support some limited development of T cells in vivo. These findings suggest that the TSC lines we established bear some characteristics of TEPC cells and are able to differentiate into functional TEC-like cells in vitro and in vivo. The cloned TEPC-like cell lines may provide useful tools to study the differentiation of mature TEC cells from precursors. PMID:24086471

Zhan, Yu; Su, Juanjuan; Du, Yarui; Xu, Guoliang; Shi, Yufang; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Zhang, Xiaoren

2013-01-01

180

Myosin-X functions in polarized epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Myosin-X (Myo10) is an unconventional myosin that localizes to the tips of filopodia and has critical functions in filopodia. Although Myo10 has been studied primarily in nonpolarized, fibroblast-like cells, Myo10 is expressed in vivo in many epithelia-rich tissues, such as kidney. In this study, we investigate the localization and functions of Myo10 in polarized epithelial cells, using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells as a model system. Calcium-switch experiments demonstrate that, during junction assembly, green fluorescent protein–Myo10 localizes to lateral membrane cell–cell contacts and to filopodia-like structures imaged by total internal reflection fluorescence on the basal surface. Knockdown of Myo10 leads to delayed recruitment of E-cadherin and ZO-1 to junctions, as well as a delay in tight junction barrier formation, as indicated by a delay in the development of peak transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Although Myo10 knockdown cells eventually mature into monolayers with normal TER, these monolayers do exhibit increased paracellular permeability to fluorescent dextrans. Importantly, knockdown of Myo10 leads to mitotic spindle misorientation, and in three-dimensional culture, Myo10 knockdown cysts exhibit defects in lumen formation. Together these results reveal that Myo10 functions in polarized epithelial cells in junction formation, regulation of paracellular permeability, and epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:22419816

Liu, Katy C.; Jacobs, Damon T.; Dunn, Brian D.; Fanning, Alan S.; Cheney, Richard E.

2012-01-01

181

Lung Epithelial Cells Induce Both Phenotype Alteration and Senescence in Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose The lung is one of the most common sites of breast cancer metastasis. While metastatic seeding is often accompanied by a dormancy-promoting mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transitions (MErT), we aimed to determine whether lung epithelial cells can impart this phenotype on aggressive breast cancer cells. Methods Co-culture experiments of normal lung epithelial cell lines (SAEC, NHBE or BEAS-2B) and breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231) were conducted. Flow cytometry analysis, immunofluorescence staining for E-cadherin or Ki-67 and senescence associated beta-galactosidase assays assessed breast cancer cell outgrowth and phenotype. Results Co-culture of the breast cancer cells with the normal lung cells had different effects on the epithelial and mesenchymal carcinoma cells. The epithelial MCF-7 cells were increased in number but still clustered even if in a slightly more mesenchymal-spindle morphology. On the other hand, the mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 cells survived but did not progressively grow out in co-culture. These aggressive carcinoma cells underwent an epithelial shift as indicated by cuboidal morphology and increased E-cadherin. Disruption of E-cadherin expressed in MDA-MB-231 using shRNA prevented this phenotypic reversion in co-culture. Lung cells limited cancer cell growth kinetics as noted by both (1) some of the cells becoming larger and positive for senescence markers/negative for proliferation marker Ki-67, and (2) Ki-67 positive cells significantly decreasing in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells after co-culture. Conclusions Our data indicate that normal lung epithelial cells can drive an epithelial phenotype and suppress the growth kinetics of breast cancer cells coincident with changing their phenotypes. PMID:25635394

Furukawa, Masashi; Wheeler, Sarah; Clark, Amanda M.; Wells, Alan

2015-01-01

182

COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

183

Review: Corneal epithelial stem cells, their niche and wound healing  

PubMed Central

Stem cells emerged as a concept during the second half of 19th century, first as a theoretical entity, but then became one of the most promising research fields in cell biology. This work describes the most important characteristics of adult stem cells, including the experimental criteria used to identify them, and discusses current knowledge that led to the proposal that stem cells existed in different parts of the eye, such as the retina, lens, conjunctiva, corneal stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and the subject of this review: the corneal epithelium. Evidence includes results that support the presence of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus, as well as the major obstacles to isolating them as pure cell populations. Part of this review describes the variation in the basement membrane composition between the limbus and the central cornea, to show the importance of the corneal stem cell niche, its structure, and the participation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in regulating corneal stem cell compartment. Results obtained by various laboratories suggest that the extracellular matrix plays a central role in regulating stem cell commitment, corneal differentiation, and participation in corneal wound healing, in addition to other environmental signals such as cytokines and growth factors. The niche could define cell division patterns in corneal stem cell populations, establishing whether stem cells divide asymmetrically or symmetrically. Characterization and understanding of the factors that regulate corneal epithelial stem cells should open up new paths for developing new therapies and strategies for accelerating and improving corneal wound healing. PMID:23901244

2013-01-01

184

Development of microtubule capping structures in ciliated epithelial-cells  

E-print Network

in differentiating ciliated cells of mammalian respiratory epithelium. An electron microscope study. J. Micmsc. 5, 629-644. DIRKSEN, E. R. & SATIR, P. (1972). Ciliary activity in the mouse oviduct as studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Tissue... in differentiating epi- thelium from mouse oviduct (Dirksen, 1971), Rhesus monkey oviduct (Anderson & Brenner, 1971), rat trachea (Dirksen & Crocker, 1965), and chick trachea (Kalnins & Porter, 1969). The formation of cilia in multiciliated epithelial cells has been...

Dentler, William L., Jr; Portman, R. W.; LeCluyse, E. L.

1987-02-01

185

Cell Cycle Arrest by Kynurenine in Lens Epithelial Cells Maneesh Mailankot,1  

E-print Network

Cell Cycle Arrest by Kynurenine in Lens Epithelial Cells Maneesh Mailankot,1 Dawn Smith,2 Scott protein modification, and G2/M arrest. CONCLUSIONS. Excess IDO activity in mLECs results in KYN production

186

Generation of Stratified Squamous Epithelial Progenitor Cells from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Application of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in regenerative medicine will bypass ethical issues associated with use of embryonic stem cells. In addition, patient-specific IPS cells can be useful to elucidate the pathophysiology of genetic disorders, drug screening, and tailor-made medicine. However, in order to apply iPS cells to mitotic tissue, induction of tissue stem cells that give rise to progeny of the target organ is required. Methodology/Principal Findings We induced stratified epithelial cells from mouse iPS cells by co-culture with PA6 feeder cells (SDIA-method) with use of BMP4. Clusters of cells positive for the differentiation markers KRT1 or KRT12 were observed in KRT14-positive colonies. We successfully cloned KRT14 and p63 double-positive stratified epithelial progenitor cells from iPS-derived epithelial cells, which formed stratified epithelial sheets consisting of five- to six-polarized epithelial cells in vitro. When these clonal cells were cultured on denuded mouse corneas, a robust stratified epithelial layer was observed with physiological cell polarity including high levels of E-cadherin, p63 and K15 expression in the basal layer and ZO-1 in the superficial layer, recapitulating the apico-basal polarity of the epithelium in vivo. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that KRT14 and p63 double-positive epithelial progenitor cells can be cloned from iPS cells in order to produce polarized multilayer epithelial cell sheets. PMID:22174914

Yoshida, Satoru; Yasuda, Miyuki; Miyashita, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Yoko; Yoshida, Tetsu; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Tsubota, Kazuo; Okano, Hideyuki; Shimmura, Shigeto

2011-01-01

187

Hydrogen sulfide induces serum-independent cell cycle entry in nontransformed rat intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced by commensal sulfate-reducing bacteria, is an environmental insult that potentially contributes to chronic intestinal epithelial disorders. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of nontransformed intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-18) to the reducing agent sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS) activates molecular pathways that underlie epithelial hyperplasia, a phenotype common to both ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer. Exposure of

Bart Deplancke; H. Rex Gaskins

2003-01-01

188

Neuroendocrinelike (small granule) epithelial cells of the lung.  

PubMed Central

The presence of neuroendocrinelike epithelial cells in the lung of numerous species has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Histochemical methods used to identify these cells have included staining with silver, amine-type fluorescence (APUD cell), periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-lead hematoxylin, and immunohistochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase. Cytoplasmic dense core vesicles (70-200 nm in diameter) have served as the major ultrastructural characteristic. Lung neuroendocrinelike cells have been shown to occur in fetal and adult mammals as solitary-type cells or as distinct organoids known as neuroepithelial bodies ( NEBs ). Although the frequency of both populations is considered low, solitary-type cells with dense-core granules can be found in as high as 5% of epithelial cells in the cricoid region of the guinea-pig larynx. The solitary cells can be found throughout the airways of mammals, whereas the NEBs are confined to the intrapulmonary airways. Unmyelinated fibers have been traced from the lamina propria and into the NEB, where they ramified between the component cells of the NEB. The function of lung neuroendocrinelike cells is not known, but morphological and cytochemical studies suggest that the NEBs are intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that can respond to changes in airway gas composition. Hypoxia or hypercapnia has been shown to decrease the amine cytofluorescence in these organoids and apparently to increase the exocytosis of dense core vesicles from the basal region of the cell. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that some lung epithelial cells may contain a known neuropeptide(s), but further investigation is needed to confirm the presence of such compounds in lung neuroendocrinelike cells and their physiochemical properties. Apparent hyperplasia of lung neuroendocrinelike cells can occur readily in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine. It has been postulated that human lung tumors with endocrinelike properties, namely, bronchial carcinoids and lung small cell carcinomas, may originate from lung neuroendocrinelike cells. However, a more plausible explanation, based on cytokinetic studies of epithelial neuroendocrinelike cells in the lung and other organs, is that these cells originate from a nonneuroendocrine population. Interaction of such a progenitor cell population with selected carcinogens may lead to stimulation of the rate of normal differentiation or, alternately, to selection of an abnormal route of differentiation that possesses a neuroendocrine phenotype. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. PMID:6376101

DiAugustine, R P; Sonstegard, K S

1984-01-01

189

Acrolein stimulates eicosanoid release from bovine airway epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Injury to the airway mucosa after exposure to environmental irritants is associated with pulmonary inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To better understand the relationships between mediator release and airway epithelial cell injury during irritant exposures, we studied the effects of acrolein, a low-molecular-weight aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, on arachidonic acid metabolism in cultured bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Confluent airway epithelial cell monolayers, prelabeled with (3H)arachidonic acid, released significant levels of 3H activity when exposed (20 min) to 100 microM acrolein. (3H)arachidonic acid products were resolved using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Under control conditions the released 3H activity coeluted predominantly with the cyclooxygenase product, prostaglandin (PG) E2. After exposure to acrolein, significant peaks in 3H activity coeluted with the lipoxygenase products 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 15-HETE, as well as with PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. Dose-response relationships for acrolein-induced release of immunoreactive PGF2 alpha and PGE2 from unlabeled epithelial monolayers demonstrated 30 microM acrolein as the threshold dose, with 100 microM acrolein inducing nearly a fivefold increase in both PGF2 alpha and PGE2. Cellular viability after exposure to 100 microM acrolein, determined by released lactate dehydrogenase activity, was not affected until exposure periods were greater than or equal to 2 h. These results implicate the airway epithelial cell as a possible source of eicosanoids after exposure to acrolein.

Doupnik, C.A.; Leikauf, G.D. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

1990-10-01

190

Role of Epithelial-Stem Cell Interactions during Dental Cell Differentiation*  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulate the growth and morphogenesis of ectodermal organs such as teeth. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a part of dental mesenchyme, derived from the cranial neural crest, and differentiate into dentin forming odontoblasts. However, the interactions between DPSCs and epithelium have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we established a mouse dental pulp stem cell line (SP) comprised of enriched side population cells that displayed a multipotent capacity to differentiate into odontogenic, osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic cells. We also analyzed the interactions between SP cells and cells from the rat dental epithelial SF2 line. When cultured with SF2 cells, SP cells differentiated into odontoblasts that expressed dentin sialophosphoprotein. This differentiation was regulated by BMP2 and BMP4, and inhibited by the BMP antagonist Noggin. We also found that mouse iPS cells cultured with mitomycin C-treated SF2-24 cells displayed an epithelial cell-like morphology. Those cells expressed the epithelial cell markers p63 and cytokeratin-14, and the ameloblast markers ameloblastin and enamelin, whereas they did not express the endodermal cell marker Gata6 or mesodermal cell marker brachyury. This is the first report of differentiation of iPS cells into ameloblasts via interactions with dental epithelium. Co-culturing with dental epithelial cells appears to induce stem cell differentiation that favors an odontogenic cell fate, which may be a useful approach for tooth bioengineering strategies. PMID:22298769

Arakaki, Makiko; Ishikawa, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Iwamoto, Tsutomu; Yamada, Aya; Fukumoto, Emiko; Saito, Masahiro; Otsu, Keishi; Harada, Hidemitsu; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Fukumoto, Satoshi

2012-01-01

191

Lgr proteins in epithelial stem cell biology.  

PubMed

The ultimate success of global efforts to exploit adult stem cells for regenerative medicine will depend heavily on the availability of robust, highly selective stem cell surface markers that facilitate the isolation of stem cells from human tissues. Any subsequent expansion or manipulation of isolated stem cells will also require an intimate knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate these cells, to ensure maintenance of their regenerative capacities and to minimize the risk of introducing undesirable growth traits that could pose health risks for patients. A subclass of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) proteins has recently gained prominence as adult stem cell markers with crucial roles in maintaining stem cell functions. Here, we discuss the major impact that their discovery has had on our understanding of adult stem cell biology in various self-renewing tissues and in accelerating progress towards the development of effective stem cell therapies. PMID:23715542

Barker, Nick; Tan, Shawna; Clevers, Hans

2013-06-01

192

Vangl2 Regulates E-Cadherin in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

E-cadherin belongs to the classic cadherin subfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules and is crucial for the formation and function of epithelial adherens junctions. In this study, we demonstrate that Vangl2, a vertebrate regulator of planar cell polarity (PCP), controls E-cadherin in epithelial cells. E-cadherin co-immunoprecipitates with Vangl2 from embryonic kidney extracts, and this association is also observed in transfected fibroblasts. Vangl2 enhances the internalization of E-cadherin when overexpressed. Conversely, the quantitative ratio of E-cadherin exposed to the cell surface is increased in cultured renal epithelial cells derived from Vangl2Lpt/+ mutant mice. Interestingly, Vangl2 is also internalized through protein traffic involving Rab5- and Dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Taken together with recent reports regarding the transport of Frizzled3, MMP14 and nephrin, these results suggest that one of the molecular functions of Vangl2 is to enhance the internalization of specific plasma membrane proteins with broad selectivity. This function may be involved in the control of intercellular PCP signalling or in the PCP-related rearrangement of cell adhesions. PMID:25373475

Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Begum, Khadiza; hafiz, Khandakar musabbir bin; Kishi, Masashi

2014-01-01

193

Bacterial Exposure Induces and Activates Matrilysin in Mucosal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Matrilysin, a matrix metalloproteinase, is expressed and secreted lumenally by intact mucosal and glandular epithelia throughout the body, suggesting that its regulation and function are shared among tissues. Because matrilysin is produced in Paneth cells of the murine small intestine, where it participates in innate host defense by activation of prodefensins, we speculated that its expression would be influenced by bacterial exposure. Indeed, acute infection (10–90 min) of human colon, bladder, and lung carcinoma cells, primary human tracheal epithelial cells, and human tracheal explants with type 1–piliated Escherichia coli mediated a marked (25–50-fold) and sustained (>24 h) induction of matrilysin production. In addition, bacterial infection resulted in activation of the zymogen form of the enzyme, which was selectively released at the apical surface. Induction of matrilysin was mediated by a soluble, non-LPS bacterial factor and correlated with the release of defensin-like bacteriocidal activity. Bacteria did not induce matrilysin in other cell types, and expression of other metalloproteinases by epithelial cells was not affected by bacteria. Matrilysin was not detected in germ-free mice, but the enzyme was induced after colonization with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. These findings indicate that bacterial exposure is a potent and physiologically relevant signal regulating matrilysin expression in epithelial cells. PMID:10725342

López-Boado, Yolanda S.; Wilson, Carole L.; Hooper, Lora V.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Parks, William C.

2000-01-01

194

Estradiol Increases Mucus Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis) and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI). Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining) in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-?) antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0) cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6) mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium. PMID:24964096

Tam, Anthony; Wadsworth, Samuel; Dorscheid, Delbert; Man, Shu-Fan Paul; Sin, Don D.

2014-01-01

195

A luminal epithelial stem cell that is a cell of origin for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In epithelial tissues, the lineage relationship between normal progenitor cells and cell type(s) of origin for cancer has been poorly understood. Here we show that a known regulator of prostate epithelial differentiation, the homeobox gene Nkx3-1, marks a stem cell population that functions during prostate regeneration. Genetic lineage-marking demonstrates that rare luminal cells that express Nkx3-1 in the absence of

Xi Wang; Marianna Kruithof-De Julio; Kyriakos D. Economides; David Walker; Hailong Yu; M. Vivienne Halili; Ya-Ping Hu; Sandy M. Price; Cory Abate-Shen; Michael M. Shen

2009-01-01

196

Cytoskeletal mechanics during Shigella invasion and dissemination in epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The actin cytoskeleton is key to the barrier function of epithelial cells, by permitting the establishment and maintenance of cell-cell junctions and cell adhesion to the basal matrix. Actin exists under monomeric and polymerized filamentous form and its polymerization following activation of nucleation promoting factors generates pushing forces, required to propel intracellular microorganisms in the host cell cytosol or for the formation of cell extensions that engulf bacteria. Actin filaments can associate with adhesion receptors at the plasma membrane via cytoskeletal linkers. Membrane anchored to actin filaments are then subjected to the retrograde flow that may pull membrane-bound bacteria inside the cell. To induce its internalization by normally non-phagocytic cells, bacteria need to establish adhesive contacts and trick the cell into apply pulling forces, and/or to generate protrusive forces that deform the membrane surrounding its contact site. In this review, we will focus on recent findings on actin cytoskeleton reorganization within epithelial cells during invasion and cell-to-cell spreading by the enteroinvasive pathogen Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery. PMID:25469430

Valencia-Gallardo, Cesar M; Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

2015-02-01

197

Host epithelial geometry regulates breast cancer cell invasiveness  

PubMed Central

Breast tumor development is regulated in part by cues from the local microenvironment, including interactions with neighboring nontumor cells as well as the ECM. Studies using homogeneous populations of breast cancer cell lines cultured in 3D ECM have shown that increased ECM stiffness stimulates tumor cell invasion. However, at early stages of breast cancer development, malignant cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which have been shown to exert a tumor-suppressive effect on cocultured cancer cells. Here we explored how the biophysical characteristics of the host microenvironment affect the proliferative and invasive tumor phenotype of the earliest stages of tumor development, by using a 3D microfabrication-based approach to engineer ducts composed of normal mammary epithelial cells that contained a single tumor cell. We found that the phenotype of the tumor cell was dictated by its position in the duct: proliferation and invasion were enhanced at the ends and blocked when the tumor cell was located elsewhere within the tissue. Regions of invasion correlated with high endogenous mechanical stress, as shown by finite element modeling and bead displacement experiments, and modulating the contractility of the host epithelium controlled the subsequent invasion of tumor cells. Combining microcomputed tomographic analysis with finite element modeling suggested that predicted regions of high mechanical stress correspond to regions of tumor formation in vivo. This work suggests that the mechanical tone of nontumorigenic host epithelium directs the phenotype of tumor cells and provides additional insight into the instructive role of the mechanical tumor microenvironment. PMID:23150585

Boghaert, Eline; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Lee, KangAe; Gjorevski, Nikolce; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

2012-01-01

198

Streptococcus pneumoniae early response genes to human lung epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infection starts from colonization of the host respiratory tract where interaction with host respiratory tract epithelial cells occurs. To investigate pneumococcal genes that are involved in the early stage of interaction with host epithelial cells, transcriptional responses of an encapsulated pathogenic pneumococcal strain TIGR4 upon exposure to human lung epithelial cells A549 for 0.5 h and 1 h time periods were investigated by using TIGR (JCVI) microarray technology. Gene expression changes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Findings We observed different transcriptional profiles at two incubation time periods in which most gene expressions were down-regulated at 0.5 h but up-regulated at 1 h. Many genes associated with ribonucleotide biosynthesis were down-regulated at both time points, whereas the genes associated with cell envelope, energy metabolism, transport and protein synthesis were mostly up-regulated at 1 h. Furthermore, these profiles were compared to the transcriptomes of a TIGR4-derived strain in response to human macrophages for the same time periods. We found one set of genes that exhibited similar expression changes upon exposure to both types of host cells, including cell envelope-associated bgaA (SP0648) and nanA (SP1693), and uncharacterized gene clusters such as SP1677–SP1680 and SP1688–SP1690. Conclusion These data indicate that at the early stage of interaction with host epithelial cells, a complex gene regulation and expression change occur in bacteria. Some of them might play an essential role during pathogen-host interactions and for the establishment of infection. PMID:18710517

Song, Xin-Ming; Connor, Wayne; Hokamp, Karsten; Babiuk, Lorne A; Potter, Andrew A

2008-01-01

199

Hsc70 negatively regulates epithelial sodium channel trafficking at multiple sites in epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays an important role in homeostasis of blood pressure and of the airway surface liquid, and excess function of ENaC results in refractory hypertension (in Liddle's syndrome) and impaired mucociliary clearance (in cystic fibrosis). The regulation of ENaC by molecular chaperones, such as the 70-kDa heat shock protein Hsc70, is not completely understood. Our previously published data suggest that Hsc70 negatively affects ENaC activity and surface expression in Xenopus oocytes; here we investigate the mechanism by which Hsc70 acts on ENaC in epithelial cells. In Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing epitope-tagged ???-ENaC and with tetracycline-inducible overexpression of Hsc70, treatment with 5 ?g/ml doxycycline increased total Hsc70 expression 20%. This increase in Hsc70 expression led to a decrease in ENaC activity and surface expression that corresponded to an increased rate of functional ENaC retrieval from the cell surface. In addition, Hsc70 overexpression decreased the association of newly synthesized ENaC subunits. These data support the hypothesis that Hsc70 inhibits ENaC functional expression at the apical surface of epithelia by regulating ENaC biogenesis and ENaC trafficking at the cell surface. PMID:23885065

Chanoux, Rebecca A.; Shubin, Calla B.; Robay, Amal; Suaud, Laurence

2013-01-01

200

Highly efficient generation of airway and lung epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

The ability to generate lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would have applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening and modeling of lung disease, and studies of human lung development. We established, based on developmental paradigms, a highly efficient method for directed differentiation of hPSCs into lung and airway epithelial cells. Long-term differentiation in vivo and in vitro yielded basal, goblet, Clara, ciliated, type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. Type II alveolar epithelial cells generated were capable of surfactant protein-B uptake and stimulated surfactant release, providing evidence of specific function. Inhibiting or removing agonists to signaling pathways critical for early lung development in the mouse—retinoic acid, Wnt and BMP—recapitulated defects in corresponding genetic mouse knockouts. The capability of this protocol to generate most cell types of the respiratory system suggests its utility for deriving patient-specific therapeutic cells. PMID:24291815

Huang, Sarah X.L.; Islam, Mohammad Naimul; O’Neill, John; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Ya-Wen; Mumau, Melanie; Green, Michael D.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

2013-01-01

201

Medullary thymic epithelial cell depletion leads to autoimmune hepatitis  

PubMed Central

TRAF6, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, plays a critical role in T cell tolerance by regulating medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) development. mTECs regulate T cell tolerance by ectopically expressing self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive T cells in the thymus. Here we show that mice with mTEC depletion due to conditional deletion of Traf6 expression in murine thymic epithelial cells (Traf6?TEC mice) showed a surprisingly narrow spectrum of autoimmunity affecting the liver. The liver inflammation in Traf6?TEC mice exhibited all the histological and immunological characteristics of human autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The role of T cells in AIH establishment was supported by intrahepatic T cell population changes and AIH development after transfer of liver T cells into immunodeficient mice. Despite a 50% reduction in natural Treg thymic output, peripheral tolerance in Traf6?TEC mice was normal, whereas compensatory T regulatory mechanisms were evident in the liver of these animals. These data indicate that mTECs exert a cell-autonomous role in central T cell tolerance and organ-specific autoimmunity, but play a redundant role in peripheral tolerance. These findings also demonstrate that Traf6?TEC mice are a relevant model with which to study the pathophysiology of AIH, as well as autoantigen-specific T cell responses and regulatory mechanisms underlying this disease. PMID:23867620

Bonito, Anthony J.; Aloman, Costica; Fiel, M. Isabel; Danzl, Nichole M.; Cha, Sungwon; Weinstein, Erica G.; Jeong, Seihwan; Choi, Yongwon; Walsh, Matthew C.; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina

2013-01-01

202

Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

1996-01-01

203

Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified. PMID:11541509

Yang, T C; Georgy, K A; Tavakoli, A; Craise, L M; Durante, M

1996-01-01

204

Phenotypic Fidelity (or not?) of Epithelial Cells in the Liver  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence has contradicted the prevailing view that homeostasis and regeneration of the adult liver are mediated by self duplication of lineage-restricted hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. These new data suggest that liver progenitor cells do not function solely as a backup system in chronic liver injury; rather, they also produce hepatocytes after acute injury and are in fact the main source of new hepatocytes during normal hepatocyte turnover. In addition, other evidence suggests that hepatocytes are capable of lineage conversion, acting as precursors of biliary epithelial cells during biliary injury. To test these concepts, we generated a hepatocyte fate-tracing model based on timed and specific Cre recombinase expression and marker gene activation in all hepatocytes of adult Rosa26 reporter mice with an adenoassociated viral vector. We found that newly formed hepatocytes derived from preexisting hepatocytes in the normal liver and that liver progenitor cells contributed minimally to acute hepatocyte regeneration. Further, we found no evidence that biliary injury induced conversion of hepatocytes into biliary epithelial cells. These results therefore restore the previously prevailing paradigms of liver homeostasis and regeneration. In addition, our new vector system will be a valuable tool for timed, efficient, and specific loop out of floxed sequences in hepatocytes. PMID:22407729

Michalopoulos, George K.

2012-01-01

205

Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells  

E-print Network

Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells Soonjo Kwon IL-1 , TNF- , and IFN- in NO produc- tion from human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) are proposed rights of reproduction in any form reserved. #12;demonstrated that a human Type II alveolar epithelial

George, Steven C.

206

Mechanisms of Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells  

E-print Network

Mechanisms of Synergistic Cytokine-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Human Alveolar Epithelial NO production in human alveolar epithelial cells in a synergistic (nonlinear or nonadditive) mannerNOS protein, and NO production in A549 monolayers (human alveolar epithelial cell line) in response

George, Steven C.

207

CCL20, (gamma)(delta) T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6 (+) IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells migrate into the epithelium. Gamma delta T-cell-deficient (TCRd(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mR...

208

Small molecule mediated proliferation of primary retinal pigment epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form a monolayer adjacent to the retina and play a critical role in the visual light cycle. Degeneration of RPE cells results in retinal disorders such as age-related macular degeneration. Cell transplant strategies have potential therapeutic value for such disorders; however, risks associated with and an inadequate supply of donor cells limit their therapeutic success. The identification of factors that proliferate RPE cells ex vivo could provide a renewable source of cells for transplantation. Here we report that a small molecule (WS3) can reversibly proliferate primary RPE cells isolated from fetal and adult human donors. Following withdrawal of WS3, RPE cells differentiate into a functional monolayer, as exhibited by their expression of mature RPE genes and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Furthermore, chemically expanded RPE cells preserve vision when transplanted into dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a well-established model of retinal degeneration. PMID:23621521

Swoboda, Jonathan G.; Elliott, Jimmy; Deshmukh, Vishal; de Lichtervelde, Lorenzo; Shen, Weijun; Tremblay, Matthew S.; Peters, Eric C.; Cho, Charles Y.; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Wang, Shaomei; Schultz, Peter G.

2013-01-01

209

*Iron accumulation in bronchial epithelial cells is dependent on concurrent sodium transport  

EPA Science Inventory

Airway epithelial cells prevent damaging effects of extracellular iron by taking up the metal and sequestering it within intracellular ferritin. Epithelial iron transport is associated with transcellular movement of other cations including changes in the expression or activity of...

210

Tension-oriented cell divisions limit anisotropic tissue tension in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly  

E-print Network

in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly Pedro Campinho1, Martin Behrndt1, Jonas anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish epiboly. The control In zebrafish gastrulation, the EVL is formed as a squamous epithelial cell layer

211

Prostate epithelial stem and progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

The classic androgen ablation and replacement experiment demonstrates that prostate epithelia possess extensive regenerative capacities and implies the existence of the prostate stem/progenitor cells. These cells may serve as the cells of origin for prostate cancer and their intrinsic property may dictate the clinical behaviors of the resulting diseases. Therefore, detailed characterization of these cells will potentially benefit disease prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. In this review, we describe several major in vitro and in vivo approaches that have been employed in the studies of the prostate stem cell activities, summarize the major progress that has been made during the last two decades regarding the identity of prostate stem/progenitor cells and their niches, and discuss some remaining outstanding questions in the field. PMID:25374923

Kwon, Oh-Joon; Xin, Li

2014-01-01

212

DNA analysis of epithelial cell suspensions  

SciTech Connect

Cell suspensions of skin were obtained by animals exposed by skin painting of several crude oils. DNA analysis of these cell suspensions labeled with mithramycin provide determination of percentages of cells in the G/sub 1/, S and G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle. Data acquired showed differences from control animals occurring as early as 7 days after treatment and persisting through 21 days afterwards. There was histological evidence of erythema and hyperplasia in shale oil-exposed skins. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in shale-oil-exposed skin cells showed an increased percentage of cycling cells plus evidence of aneuploidy. Similar data from simply abraded skin showed increased percentages of cycling cells, but no aneuploidy. The shale-oil-exposed group, when compared to a standard petroleum-exposed group, had significantly increased percentages of cycling cells. This early indication of differing response to different complex mixtures was also seen in long-term skin exposures to these compounds. Similar analytical techniques were applied to tracheal cell suspensions from ozone-exposed rats. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

Wilson, J.S.; Johnson, N.F.; Holland, L.M.

1985-01-01

213

Protein-Coated Nanoparticles Are Internalized by the Epithelial Cells of the Female Reproductive Tract and Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses  

PubMed Central

The female reproductive tract (FRT) includes the oviducts (fallopian tubes), uterus, cervix and vagina. A layer of columnar epithelium separates the endocervix and uterus from the outside environment, while the vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium. The mucosa of the FRT is exposed to antigens originating from microflora, and occasionally from infectious microorganisms. Whether epithelial cells (ECs) of the FRT take up (sample) the lumen antigens is not known. To address this question, we examined the uptake of 20–40 nm nanoparticles (NPs) applied vaginally to mice which were not treated with hormones, epithelial disruptors, or adjuvants. We found that 20 and 40 nm NPs are quickly internalized by ECs of the upper FRT and within one hour could be observed in the lymphatic ducts that drain the FRT, as well as in the ileac lymph nodes (ILNs) and the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs). Chicken ovalbumin (Ova) conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova) when administered vaginally reaches the internal milieu in an immunologically relevant form; thus vaginal immunization of mice with NP-Ova induces systemic IgG to Ova antigen. Most importantly, vaginal immunization primes the intestinal mucosa for secretion of sIgA. Sub-cutaneous (s.c) boosting immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) further elevates the systemic (IgG1 and IgG2c) as well as mucosal (IgG1 and sIgA) antibody titers. These findings suggest that the modes of antigen uptake at mucosal surfaces and pathways of antigen transport are more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:25490456

Howe, Savannah E.; Konjufca, Vjollca H.

2014-01-01

214

Epstein-Barr virus transcytosis through polarized oral epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an orally transmitted virus, viral transmission through the oropharyngeal mucosal epithelium is not well understood. In this study, we investigated how EBV traverses polarized human oral epithelial cells without causing productive infection. We found that EBV may be transcytosed through oral epithelial cells bidirectionally, from both the apical to the basolateral membranes and the basolateral to the apical membranes. Apical to basolateral EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by amiloride, an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Electron microscopy showed that virions were surrounded by apical surface protrusions and that virus was present in subapical vesicles. Inactivation of signaling molecules critical for macropinocytosis, including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases, myosin light-chain kinase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, p21-activated kinase 1, ADP-ribosylation factor 6, and cell division control protein 42 homolog, led to significant reduction in EBV apical to basolateral transcytosis. In contrast, basolateral to apical EBV transcytosis was substantially reduced by nystatin, an inhibitor of caveolin-mediated virus entry. Caveolae were detected in the basolateral membranes of polarized human oral epithelial cells, and virions were detected in caveosome-like endosomes. Methyl ?-cyclodextrin, an inhibitor of caveola formation, reduced EBV basolateral entry. EBV virions transcytosed in either direction were able to infect B lymphocytes. Together, these data show that EBV transmigrates across oral epithelial cells by (i) apical to basolateral transcytosis, potentially contributing to initial EBV penetration that leads to systemic infection, and (ii) basolateral to apical transcytosis, which may enable EBV secretion into saliva in EBV-infected individuals. PMID:23698302

Tugizov, Sharof M; Herrera, Rossana; Palefsky, Joel M

2013-07-01

215

Borrelia burgdorferi bind to epithelial cell proteoglycans.  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to mammalian cells in vitro but neither the ligand(s) nor the receptor(s) has (have) been clearly established. Using an in vitro attachment-inhibition assay, a B. burgdorferi attachment mechanism has been identified. Heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate reduced the attachment of virulent B. burgdorferi strain 297 to HeLa cells by approximately 60%. In addition, virulent, but not avirulent, B. burgdorferi strains B31, N40, and HB19 demonstrated heparin attachment-inhibition. Attachment to Chinese hamster ovary cells deficient in heparan sulfate proteoglycans was reduced by 68% compared to attachment to wild-type cells and was identical to attachment at maximum heparin inhibition to the wild-type cells. Pretreatment of HeLa cell monolayers with heparitinase, heparinase, and chondroitinase ABC, but not with chondroitinase AC, reduced borrelial attachment by approximately 50%. A moderately high affinity, low copy number, promiscuous B. burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan receptor was demonstrated by equilibrium binding studies. A 39-kD polypeptide, purified by heparin affinity chromatography from Triton X-100 extracts derived from virulent borrelia, was a candidate for this receptor. These studies indicate that one mode of B. burgdorferi attachment to eukaryotic cells is mediated by a borrelial glycosaminoglycan receptor attaching to surface-exposed proteoglycans on mammalian cells. Images PMID:8113413

Isaacs, R D

1994-01-01

216

SELENIUM DEFICIENCY ALTERS EPITHELIAL CELL MORPHOLOGY AND RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA  

PubMed Central

It is unknown whether nutritional deficiencies affect the morphology and function of structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and modify the susceptibility to viral infections. We developed an in vitro system of differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) grown either under selenium adequate (Se+) or selenium deficient (Se-) conditions, to determine whether selenium deficiency impairs host defense responses at the level of the epithelium. Se- BECs had normal SOD activity, but decreased activity of the selenium-dependent enzyme GPX1. Interestingly, catalase activity was also decreased in Se- BECs. Both Se- and Se+ BECs differentiated into a mucociliary epithelium; however, Se- BEC demonstrated increased mucus production and increased Muc5AC mRNA levels. This effect was also seen in Se+ BEC treated with 3-aminotriazole, and inhibitor of catalase activity, suggesting an association between catalase activity and mucus production. Both Se- and Se+ were infected with influenza A/Bangkok/1/79 and examined 24 hours post-infection. Influenza-induced IL-6 production was greater while influenza-induced IP-10 production was lower in Se- BECs. In addition, influenza-induced apoptosis was greater in Se- BEC as compared to the Se+ BECs. These data demonstrate that selenium deficiency has a significant impact on the morphology and influenza-induced host defense responses in human airway epithelial cells. PMID:17512462

Jaspers, I.; Zhang, W.; Brighton, L.E.; Carson, J.L.; Styblo, M.; Beck, M.A.

2007-01-01

217

Multipotent Capacity of Immortalized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

While the adult murine lung utilizes multiple compartmentally restricted progenitor cells during homeostasis and repair, much less is known about the progenitor cells from the human lung. Translating the murine stem cell model to humans is hindered by anatomical differences between species. Here we show that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) display characteristics of multipotent stem cells of the lung. These HBECs express markers indicative of several epithelial types of the adult lung when experimentally tested in cell culture. When cultured in three different three-dimensional (3D) systems, subtle changes in the microenvironment result in unique responses including the ability of HBECs to differentiate into multiple central and peripheral lung cell types. These new findings indicate that the adult human lung contains a multipotent progenitor cell whose differentiation potential is primarily dictated by the microenvironment. The HBEC system is not only important in understanding mechanisms for specific cell lineage differentiation, but also for examining changes that correlate with human lung diseases including lung cancer. PMID:21760947

Delgado, Oliver; Kaisani, Aadil A.; Spinola, Monica; Xie, Xian-Jin; Batten, Kimberly G.; Minna, John D.; Wright, Woodring E.; Shay, Jerry W.

2011-01-01

218

Epithelial Cell Polarity Determinant CRB3 in Cancer Development  

PubMed Central

Cell polarity, which is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, organelle distribution and cell function, is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, molecular transport, and cell fate. Epithelial cell polarity is mainly regulated by three conserved polarity protein complexes, the Crumbs (CRB) complex, partitioning defective (PAR) complex and Scribble (SCRIB) complex. Research evidence has indicated that dysregulation of cell polarity proteins may play an important role in cancer development. Crumbs homolog 3 (CRB3), a member of the CRB complex, may act as a cancer suppressor in mouse kidney epithelium and mouse mammary epithelium. In this review, we focus on the current data available on the roles of CRB3 in cancer development. PMID:25552927

Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun

2015-01-01

219

Estrogen Vaginal  

MedlinePLUS

... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

220

Vaginal Pessary  

MedlinePLUS

... your vagina). A pessary can also help many women who have stress urinary incontinence (the leaking of urine when you cough, strain or exercise). Pregnant women who have incontinence can also use a vaginal ...

221

Vaginal Bleeding  

MedlinePLUS

Menstruation, or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It could be bleeding that is between periods, lasts several weeks, or happens before ...

222

Vaginal Discharge  

MedlinePLUS

... on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that can cause changes ... vulva Intense itching Painful sexual intercourse Signs of bacterial vaginosis A white, gray or yellowish vaginal discharge A ...

223

Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18?-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-? induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa. PMID:25652184

Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

2015-04-01

224

LOXL2 in epithelial cell plasticity and tumor progression.  

PubMed

Several members of the lysyl oxidase family have recently emerged as important regulators of tumor progression. Among them, LOXL2 has been shown to be involved in tumor progression and metastasis of several tumor types, including breast carcinomas. Secreted LOXL2 participates in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix of the tumor microenvironment, in a similar fashion to prototypical lysyl oxidase. In addition, new intracellular functions of LOXL2 have been described, such as its involvement in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, epithelial cell polarity and differentiation mediated by transcriptional repression mechanisms. Importantly, intracellular (perinuclear) expression of LOXL2 is associated with poor prognosis and distant metastasis of specific tumor types, such as larynx squamous cell carcinoma and basal breast carcinomas. These recent findings open new avenues for the therapeutic utility of LOXL2. PMID:23030485

Cano, Amparo; Santamaría, Patricia G; Moreno-Bueno, Gema

2012-09-01

225

Tight junctions in human pancreatic duct epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Tight junctions of the pancreatic duct are essential regulators of physiologic secretion of the pancreas and disruption of the pancreatic ductal barrier is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis and progression of pancreatic cancer. Various inflammatory mediators and carcinogens can trigger tight junction disassembly and disruption of the pancreatic barrier, however signaling events that mediates such barrier dysfunctions remain poorly understood. This review focuses on structure and regulation of tight junctions in normal pancreatic epithelial cells and mechanisms of junctional disruption during pancreatic inflammation and cancer. We will pay special attention to a novel model of human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transfected human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and will describe the roles of major signaling molecules such as protein kinase C and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in formation and disassembly of the pancreatic ductal barrier. PMID:24665406

Kojima, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kyuno, Daisuke; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa

2013-01-01

226

Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7

Angelica M. Gutierrez-Barrera; David G. Menter; James L. Abbruzzese; Shrikanth A. G.. Reddy

2007-01-01

227

Constitutive and Inducible Expression of B7 Family of Ligands by Human Airway Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated T cells have been implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and asthma and physically interact with epithelial cells in the airways. We now report that human airway epithelial cells display significant constitutive cell-surfaceexpression of costimulatory ligands, B7-H1, B7-H2, B7-H3, and B7-DC. Expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC was selectively induced by stimulation of either BEAS2B or primary nasal epithelial cells (PNEC)

Jean Kim; Allen C. Myers; Lieping Chen; Drew M. Pardoll; Quynh-Ai Truong-Tran; John F. McDyer; Lowella Fortuno; Robert P. Schleimer

2005-01-01

228

Interaction between submicron COD crystals and renal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aims to investigate the adhesion characteristics between submicron calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) with a size of 150 ± 50 nm and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero cells) before and after damage, and to discuss the mechanism of kidney stone formation. Methods Vero cells were oxidatively injured by hydrogen peroxide to establish a model of injured cells. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe Vero–COD adhesion. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry was used to quantitatively measure the amount of adhered COD microcrystals. Nanoparticle size analyzer and laser scanning confocal microscopy were performed to measure the change in the zeta potential on the Vero cell surface and the change in osteopontin expression during the adhesion process, respectively. The level of cell injury was evaluated by measuring the changes in malonaldehyde content, and cell viability during the adhesion process. Results The adhesion capacity of Vero cells in the injury group to COD microcrystals was obviously stronger than that of Vero cells in the control group. After adhesion to COD, cell viability dropped, both malonaldehyde content and cell surface zeta potential increased, and the fluorescence intensity of osteopontin decreased because the osteopontin molecules were successfully covered by COD. Submicron COD further damaged the cells during the adhesion process, especially for Vero cells in the control group, leading to an elevated amount of attached microcrystals. Conclusion Submicron COD can further damage injured Vero cells during the adhesion process. The amount of attached microcrystals is proportional to the degree of cell damage. The increased amount of microcrystals that adhered to the injured epithelial cells plays an important role in the formation of early-stage kidney stones. PMID:22973095

Peng, Hua; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Yang, Ru-E

2012-01-01

229

Intestinal epithelial cells: regulators of barrier function and immune homeostasis.  

PubMed

The abundance of innate and adaptive immune cells that reside together with trillions of beneficial commensal microorganisms in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract requires barrier and regulatory mechanisms that conserve host-microbial interactions and tissue homeostasis. This homeostasis depends on the diverse functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), which include the physical segregation of commensal bacteria and the integration of microbial signals. Hence, IECs are crucial mediators of intestinal homeostasis that enable the establishment of an immunological environment permissive to colonization by commensal bacteria. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive overview of how IECs maintain host-commensal microbial relationships and immune cell homeostasis in the intestine. PMID:24566914

Peterson, Lance W; Artis, David

2014-03-01

230

Rho GTPases and Regulation of Cell Migration and Polarization in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Epithelial cell migration is required for regeneration of tissues and can be defective in a number of ocular surface diseases. This study aimed to determine the expression pattern of Rho family small G-proteins in human corneal epithelial cells to test their requirement in directional cell migration. Methods Rho family small G-protein expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Dominant-inhibitory constructs encoding Rho proteins or Rho protein targeting small interfering RNA were transfected into human corneal epithelial large T antigen cells, and wound closure rate were evaluated by scratch wounding assay, and a complementary non-traumatic cell migration assay. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to study cell polarization and to assess Cdc42 downstream effector. Results Cdc42, Chp, Rac1, RhoA, TC10 and TCL were expressed in human corneal epithelial cells. Among them, Cdc42 and TCL were found to significantly affect cell migration in monolayer scratch assays. These results were confirmed through the use of validated siRNAs directed to Cdc42 and TCL. Scramble siRNA transfected cells had high percentage of polarized cells than Cdc42 or TCL siRNA transfected cells at the wound edge. We showed that the Cdc42-specific effector p21-activated kinase 4 localized predominantly to cell-cell junctions in cell monolayers, but failed to translocate to the leading edge in Cdc42 siRNA transfected cells after monolayer wounding. Conclusion Rho proteins expressed in cultured human corneal epithelial cells, and Cdc42, TCL facilitate two-dimensional cell migration in-vitro. Although silencing of Cdc42 and TCL did not noticeably affect the appearance of cell adhesions at the leading edge, the slower migration of these cells indicates both GTP-binding proteins play important roles in promoting cell movement of human corneal epithelial cells. PMID:24130842

Hou, Aihua; Toh, Li Xian; Gan, Kah Hui; Lee, Khee Jin Ryan; Manser, Edward; Tong, Louis

2013-01-01

231

Building Epithelial Tissues from Skin Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The skin epidermis and its appendages provide a protective barrier that guards against loss of fluids, physical trauma, and invasion by harmful microbes. To perform these functions while confronting the harsh environs of the outside world, our body surface undergoes constant rejuvenation through homeostasis. In addition, it must be primed to repair wounds in response to injury. The adult skin maintains epidermal homeostasis, hair regeneration, and wound repair through the use of its stem cells. What are the properties of skin stem cells, when do they become established during embryogenesis, and how are they able to build tissues with such remarkably distinct architectures? How do stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis and repair wounds and how do they regulate the delicate balance between proliferation and differentiation? What is the relationship between skin cancer and mutations that perturbs the regulation of stem cells? In the past 5 years, the field of skin stem cells has bloomed as we and others have been able to purify and dissect the molecular properties of these tiny reservoirs of goliath potential. We report here progress on these fronts, with emphasis on our laboratory’s contributions to the fascinating world of skin stem cells. PMID:19022769

Fuchs, E.; Nowak, J.A.

2009-01-01

232

Reconstitution of Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis by Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the

Shuxian Jiang; Byeong-Chel Lee; Yigong Fu; Shalom Avraham; Bing Lim; Hava Karsenty Avraham

2010-01-01

233

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates proliferative signals in intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Determination of intracellular signalling pathways that mediate intestinal epithelial proliferation is fundamental to the understanding of the integrity and function of the intestinal tract under normal and diseased conditions. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt pathway transduces signals initiated by growth factors and is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we assessed the role of PI3K\\/Akt

H Sheng; J Shao; C M Townsend; B M Evers

2003-01-01

234

Stabilized b-Catenin Immortalizes Colonic Epithelial Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of colonic neoplasias contain mutations in either the adenomatous polyposis coli or the b-catenin (b-cat) gene, both of which result in elevated levels of cytoplasmic b-cat. The oncogenic activity of b-cat has been explored in vivo and in vitro with conflicting results. We tested the hypothesis that b-cat is capable of immortalizing and trans- forming cultured epithelial cells

Rebecca A. Wagenaar; Howard C. Crawford; Lynn M. Matrisian

2001-01-01

235

Tissue-Regenerating, Vision-Restoring Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cornea, the most anterior segment of the eye, provides us with exquisite vision. Unlike other vital tissues, it is poorly\\u000a protected from the environment and is thus reliant on a self-renewal program to preserve integrity. This function is reserved\\u000a for corneal epithelial stem cells located in the basal layer of the limbus, a narrow transition zone that segregates the

Timothy Jerome Echevarria; Nick Di Girolamo

2011-01-01

236

Regulation of growth of cultured hepatic epithelial cells by transferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-passage cells of a nontumorigenic and anchorage-dependent hepatic epithelial line (WB-F344), which produce insulinlike growth factor II and transforming growth factor β constitutively, grow in serum-free medium supplemented only with transferrin. In the presence of transferrin, epidermal growth factor further augments population growth, although epidermal growth factor alone is without effect. Insulin, platelet-derived growth factor, and several inorganic iron salts

Mingsound Tsao; G. H. S. Sanders; J. W. Grisham

1987-01-01

237

Simulated Microgravity Induced Damage in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine the potential damage to the human retina that may occur from weightlessness during space flight using simulated microgravity. Methods: Human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells were cultured for 24 hours in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor vessel (RWV) to mimic the microgravity environment of space. Single-stranded breaks in hRPE DNA induced

Joan E. Roberts; Barbara Kukielczak; Colin Chignell; Bob Sik; Dan-Ning Hu; Mary Ann Principato

238

Ivermectin Inhibits Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

Pettengill, Matthew A.; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M.

2012-01-01

239

Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts are covered by a layer of epithelial cells\\u000a that are responsible for sensing and promoting a host immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal\\u000a microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles. This is a remarkable task as the human body represents a composite\\u000a of

A. L. Maldonado-Contreras; Beth A. McCormick

2011-01-01

240

Vaginal reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

Lesavoy, M.A.

1985-05-01

241

Human Cytomegalovirus Induces TGF-?1 Activation in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells after Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated epidemiologically with poor outcome of renal allografts due to mechanisms which remain largely undefined. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), a potent fibrogenic cytokine, is more abundant in rejecting renal allografts that are infected with either HCMV or rat CMV as compared to uninfected, rejecting grafts. TGF-?1 induces renal fibrosis via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal epithelial cells, a process by which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics and a migratory phenotype, and secrete molecules associated with extracellular matrix deposition and remodeling. We report that human renal tubular epithelial cells infected in vitro with HCMV and exposed to TGF-?1 underwent morphologic and transcriptional changes of EMT, similar to uninfected cells. HCMV infected cells after EMT also activated extracellular latent TGF-?1 via induction of MMP-2. Renal epithelial cells transiently transfected with only the HCMV IE1 or IE2 open reading frames and stimulated to undergo EMT also induced TGF-?1 activation associated with MMP-2 production, suggesting a role for these viral gene products in MMP-2 production. Consistent with the function of these immediate early gene products, the antiviral agents ganciclovir and foscarnet did not inhibit TGF-?1 production after EMT by HCMV infected cells. These results indicate that HCMV infected renal tubular epithelial cells can undergo EMT after exposure to TGF-?1, similar to uninfected renal epithelial cells, but that HCMV infection by inducing active TGF-?1 may potentiate renal fibrosis. Our findings provide in vitro evidence for a pathogenic mechanism that could explain the clinical association between HCMV infection, TGF-?1, and adverse renal allograft outcome. PMID:21079788

Shimamura, Masako; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.; Britt, William J.

2010-01-01

242

Curcumin inhibits human retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a common cause of intraoperative failure following retinal reattachment surgery and is mediated in part through the migration, de-differentiation and proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Given the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on epithelial and endothelial cells, in this study, we assessed the effects of curcumin on human RPE (hRPE) cell proliferation. WST-1 analysis revealed that curcumin significantly inhibited primary hRPE cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.001) with the greatest inhibition observed at the dose of 15 ?g/ml curcumin. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the cytotoxic effects of curcumin on hRPE cell proliferation were mediated by cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase and the induction of apoptosis (both P<0.001), which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis using transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that curcumin induced p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 expression with a concomitant decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein levels (P<0.05). Curcumin effectively inhibited primary hRPE cell proliferation, which may be mediated by the p53 pathway. Further in vivo studies are required in order to fully explore the therapeutic potential of curcumin for PVR. PMID:25070648

SUN, YUN; YOU, ZHI-PENG

2014-01-01

243

Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture  

PubMed Central

Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, ?ENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-?. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

2015-01-01

244

A molecular switch for the orientation of epithelial cell polarization.  

PubMed

The formation of epithelial tissues containing lumens requires not only the apical-basolateral polarization of cells, but also the coordinated orientation of this polarity such that the apical surfaces of neighboring cells all point toward the central lumen. Defects in extracellular matrix (ECM) signaling lead to inverted polarity so that the apical surfaces face the surrounding ECM. We report a molecular switch mechanism controlling polarity orientation. ECM signals through a ?1-integrin/FAK/p190RhoGAP complex to downregulate a RhoA/ROCK/Ezrin pathway at the ECM interface. PKC?II phosphorylates the apical identity-promoting Podocalyxin/NHERF1/Ezrin complex, removing Podocalyxin from the ECM-abutting cell surface and initiating its transcytosis to an apical membrane initiation site for lumen formation. Inhibition of this switch mechanism results in the retention of Podocalyxin at the ECM interface and the development instead of collective front-rear polarization and motility. Thus, ECM-derived signals control the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues by controlling the collective orientation of epithelial polarization. PMID:25307480

Bryant, David M; Roignot, Julie; Datta, Anirban; Overeem, Arend W; Kim, Minji; Yu, Wei; Peng, Xiao; Eastburn, Dennis J; Ewald, Andrew J; Werb, Zena; Mostov, Keith E

2014-10-27

245

Differentiation of rat intestinal epithelial cells is induced by organotypic mesenchymal cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Stromal-epithelial interaction is a potent driving force in the developing intestinal mucosa which ensures tissue specific cellular differentiation. The mechanisms involved are relevant to tissue renewal in adult organs yet they have not been elucidated because of the lack of appropriate in vitro models. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between intestinal mesenchymal and epithelial cells at the cellular level in vitro. Fetal rat intestinal epithelial cell colonies explanted in vitro on the 15th day of gestation, which failed to mature in plain monocultures, were reassociated in coculture with three different types of mesenchyme:fetal skin, gastric and intestinal mesenchyme. Only fetal epithelial cells cocultured with intestinal (homologous) mesenchyme acquired definite signs of differentiation within three to six days. These primitive epithelial cells were shown by electronmicroscopy to become highly polarized, connected by tight junctions and covered with a regular brush border. Three brush border enzymes were strongly expressed in homologous cocultures and their activity was sensitive to dexamethasone. In contrast, fetal epithelial cells cocultured with skin or stomach derived mesenchyme under identical conditions failed to differentiate in vitro: they remained flat, unpolarised and expressed only low enzyme activity. The unique potential of the small intestinal mesenchyme to promote intestinal epithelial differentiation is discussed. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2759491

Stallmach, A; Hahn, U; Merker, H J; Hahn, E G; Riecken, E O

1989-01-01

246

Rodent tracheal epithelial cells in vitro: a comparative study of normal cells, enhanced growth variants, SV40 transformed cells and their interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracheal epithelial cells of the golden Syrian hamster can be successfully cultivated in vitro and applied as a model system of respiratory tract epithelium. By morphology and growth characteristics of tracheal epithelial cells, “normal cells”, “enhanced growth variants” and “transformed cells” were distinguished in vitro. Hamster tracheal epithelial cells, transformed by Simian virus (SV)-40 expressed in cell nuclei the specific

Lolita Maciuleviciute; Claudia Hornberg N. H. Seemayer

1996-01-01

247

Role of epithelial cells and programmed cell death in Hydra spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

Spermatogenesis in higher animals is a tightly regulated process, in which survival and death of sperm precursor cells depends on the presence of somatic cells in gonads. In the basal metazoan Hydra spermatogenesis takes place in anatomically simple testes and in the absence of accessory structures. Hydra sperm precursors are derived from interstitial stem cells. Here we show that large numbers of sperm precursors in testes of Hydra vulgaris undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) and that ectodermal epithelial cells phagocytose the apoptotic sperm precursors. This is surprising since so far no evidence has been reported that epithelial cells are directly involved in germ cell differentiation in Hydra. We propose that, similar to Sertoli cells in mammals, in Hydra epithelial cells support and perhaps even control spermatogenesis. PMID:16351815

Kuznetsov, S; Lyanguzowa, M; Bosch, T C

2001-01-01

248

Prion infection of epithelial Rov cells is a polarized event.  

PubMed

During prion infections, the cellular glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein PrP is converted into a conformational isoform. This abnormal conformer is thought to recruit and convert the normal cellular PrP into a likeness of itself and is proposed to be the infectious agent. We investigated the distribution of the PrP protein on the surface of Rov cells, an epithelial cell line highly permissive to prion multiplication, and we found that PrP is primarily expressed on the apical side. We further show that prion transmission to Rov cells is much more efficient if infectivity contacts the apical side, indicating that the apical and basolateral sides of Rov cells are not equally competent for prion infection and adding prions to the list of the conventional infectious agents (viruses and bacteria) that infect epithelial cells in a polarized manner. These data raise the possibility that apically expressed PrP may be involved in this polarized process of infection. This would add further support for a crucial role of PrP at the cell surface in prion infection of target cells. PMID:15194791

Paquet, Sophie; Sabuncu, Elifsu; Delaunay, Jean-Louis; Laude, Hubert; Vilette, Didier

2004-07-01

249

Infection of Female Primary Lower Genital Tract Epithelial Cells after Natural Pseudotyping of HIV-1: Possible Implications for Sexual Transmission of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call “natural pseudotyping,” expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677

Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E. K.

2014-01-01

250

Viability of freeze dried microencapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Encapsulated human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 has been successfully used in experimental cell therapy of retinal degenerations and Parkinson's disease, but the long-term storage of encapsulated cells is still an unresolved question. Reconstitution of viable encapsulated cells from dry form would benefit the development of cell therapy products. We freeze dried and reconstituted microencapsulated ARPE19 and ARPE19-SEAP cells. Cross-linked alginate matrix with polycation (poly-l-lysine, cationic starch) coating was used for microencapsulation. Cell viability was assessed with fluorescence microscopy and oxygen consumption of the cells. Freeze dried and reconstituted cell microcapsules were imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). We show partial viability of microencapsulated cells after freeze-drying. Unlike poly-l-lysine (PLL) coating, cationic starch supported microcapsule shape and cell viability during freeze-drying. Trehalose pre-treatment augmented cell viability. Likewise, some lyoprotectants (trehalose, glycerol) enabled preservation of cell viability. Upon reconstitution the freeze dried cell microcapsules rapidly regained their original spherical shape. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that microencapsulated cells can retain their viability during freeze-drying. Therefore, this approach can be further optimized for the benefit of cell therapy product development. PMID:22820032

Wikström, Jonna; Elomaa, Matti; Nevala, Laura; Räikkönen, Johanna; Heljo, Petteri; Urtti, Arto; Yliperttula, Marjo

2012-09-29

251

Prevalence of vaginal infections and associated lifestyles of students in the university of Cape Coast, Ghana  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence of vaginal infections and associated lifestyles of students visiting the University of Cape Coast Hospital. Methods Fifty female students presenting with clinical symptoms of vaginitis were sampled. One hundred samples made up of 50 urine and 50 higher vaginal swabs (HVS) were obtained from patients and questionnaire administered. Samples were wet prepared, examined microscopically, and cultured on blood and chocolate agars for 24 h at (35±2) °C. Colonial morphology, Gram reactions and biochemical tests were used for the identification of isolates. Results There were high percentages of pus cells (64%), epithelial cells (62%) and yeast cells (56%) in all urine samples. Bacterial isolates included Staphylococcus aureus (28%) and (22%), Klebsiella spp. (6%) and (4%) in urine and HVS samples respectively; Escherichia coli in urine (18%) and Candida in HVS (16%). The overall prevalence of vaginitis was 66%, including bacterial vaginosis 28%, Candida infection 22% and co-infection of bacterial and Candida 16%. Lifestyle data showed all sampled students were sexually active, 48% used contraceptives, 54% used antimicrobial agents, and 92% prefered wearing of trousers and shorts. Conclusions The present study indicates prevalence of vaginal infection among female students, which strongly correlates with student lifestyle. Education on lifestyle modifications will go a long way in reducing the prevalence of vaginitis.

Aubyn, Gloria Baaba; Tagoe, Daniel Nii Aryee

2013-01-01

252

Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells do not transform into cementoblasts in rat molar cementogenesis.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that cementoblasts originate in the process of differentiation of the mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle. Recently, a different hypothesis for the origin of cementoblasts has been proposed. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cells undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation to differentiate into cementoblasts. To elucidate whether the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation occurs in the epithelial sheath, developing rat molars were examined by keratin-vimentin and Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2)-keratin double immunostaining. In both acellular and cellular cementogenesis, epithelial sheath and epithelial cells derived from the epithelial sheath expressed keratin, but did not express vimentin or Runx2. Dental follicle cells and cementoblasts, however, expressed vimentin and Runx2, but did not express keratin. No cells showed coexisting keratin-vimentin or Runx2-keratin staining. These findings suggest that there is no intermediate phenotype transforming epithelial to mesenchymal cells, and that epithelial sheath cells do not generate mineralized tissue. This study concludes that the epithelial-mesenchymal transformation does not occur in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in rat acellular or cellular cementogenesis and that the dental follicle is the origin of cementoblasts, as has been proposed in the original hypothesis. PMID:19716687

Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Takahashi, Shigeru

2009-12-01

253

Association between serum cortisol and progesterone concentrations and the infiltration of immune cells in the endometrium of gilts with vaginal discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate an association between serum cortisol and progesterone (P4) concentrations and the distribution of immune cells in the endometrium of the gilts with vaginal discharge. Genital organs\\u000a from 39 Landrace×Yorkshire crossbred gilts culled owing to vaginal discharge problem were collected from two commercial swine\\u000a herds in Thailand. The estrous stage and gross pathology

Atthaporn Roongsitthichai; Junpen Suwimonteerabutr; Kampon Kaeoket; Seri Koonjaenak; Padet Tummaruk

254

ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

255

Development of transplantable genetically modified corneal epithelial cell sheets for gene therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to establish a method for the fabrication of exogenous gene-transferred, transplantable corneal epithelial cell sheets. Corneo-limbal epithelial cells collected from USA eye bank eyes were transduced with an EGFP-expressing lentiviral vector at differential MOI. Multi-layered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated by co-cultivation of transduced cells and mitomycin C-treated 3T3 feeder layers on temperature-responsive

Katsuhiko Watanabe; Masayuki Yamato; Yasutaka Hayashida; Joseph Yang; Akihiko Kikuchi; Teruo Okano; Yasuo Tano; Kohji Nishida

2007-01-01

256

Comparison of upstream regulators in human ex vivo cultured cornea limbal epithelial stem cells and differentiated corneal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Background The surface of the human eye is covered by corneal epithelial cells (CECs) which regenerate from a small population of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs). Cell therapy with LESCs is a non-penetrating treatment for preventing blindness due to LESC deficiency or dysfunction. Our aim was to identify new putative molecular markers and upstream regulators in the LESCs and associated molecular pathways. Results Genome-wide microarray transcriptional profiling was used to compare LESCs to differentiated human CECs. Ingenuity-based pathway analysis was applied to identify upstream regulators and pathways specific to LESCs. ELISA and flow cytometry were used to measure secreted and surface expressed proteins, respectively. More than 2 fold increase and decrease in expression could be found in 1830 genes between the two cell types. A number of molecules functioning in cellular movement (381), proliferation (567), development (552), death and survival (520), and cell-to-cell signaling (290) were detected having top biological functions in LESCs and several of these were confirmed by flow cytometric surface protein analysis. Custom-selected gene groups related to stemness, differentiation, cell adhesion, cytokines and growth factors as well as angiogenesis could be analyzed. The results show that LESCs play a key role not only in epithelial differentiation and tissue repair, but also in controlling angiogenesis and extracellular matrix integrity. Some pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be important in stemness-, differentiation- and angiogenesis-related biological functions: IL-6 and IL-8 participated in most of these biological pathways as validated by their secretion from LESC cultures. Conclusions The gene and molecular pathways may provide a more specific understanding of the signaling molecules associated with LESCs, therefore, help better identify and use these cells in the treatment of ocular surface diseases. PMID:24344983

2013-01-01

257

UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1994-11-01

258

Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase ?. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

Spiess, Page C; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J; Matthews, Dwight E; van der Vliet, Albert

2011-10-19

259

A colonic mineralocorticoid receptor cell model expressing epithelial Na+ channels.  

PubMed

In the distal colon, the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is rate limiting for sodium absorption. Progress in the molecular characterization of ENaC expression and trafficking in response to the mineralocorticoid aldosterone has been hampered, since no epithelial colonic cell line existed expressing functional ENaC stimulated by nanomolar aldosterone via mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Here, we present a human colonic epithelial cell line inducibly expressing the MR (HT-29/B6-Tet-On-MR) which exhibits aldosterone-dependent ENaC-mediated sodium transport in the presence of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. Butyrate was necessary for high-level expression of MR which allowed for aldosterone-dependent upregulation of beta- and gamma-ENaC expression. As butyrate alone was not capable of promoting ENaC-mediated sodium transport, aldosterone-induced GILZ (glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein) was identified as a candidate factor increasing apical ENaC levels. PMID:19275887

Bergann, Theresa; Plöger, Svenja; Fromm, Anja; Zeissig, Sebastian; Borden, Steffen A; Fromm, Michael; Schulzke, Jörg D

2009-05-01

260

Plasticity of Airway Epithelial Cell Transcriptome in Response to Flagellin  

PubMed Central

Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are critical components of the inflammatory and immune response during exposure to pathogens. AECs in monolayer culture and differentiated epithelial cells in air-liquid interface (ALI) represent two distinct and commonly used in vitro models, yet differences in their response to pathogens have not been investigated. In this study, we compared the transcriptional effects of flagellin on AECs in monolayer culture versus ALI culture using whole-genome microarrays and RNA sequencing. We exposed monolayer and ALI AEC cultures to flagellin in vitro and analyzed the transcriptional response by microarray and RNA-sequencing. ELISA and RT-PCR were used to validate changes in select candidates. We found that AECs cultured in monolayer and ALI have strikingly different transcriptional states at baseline. When challenged with flagellin, monolayer AEC cultures greatly increased transcription of numerous genes mapping to wounding response, immunity and inflammatory response. In contrast, AECs in ALI culture had an unexpectedly muted response to flagellin, both in number of genes expressed and relative enrichment of inflammatory and immune pathways. We conclude that in vitro culturing methods have a dramatic effect on the transcriptional profile of AECs at baseline and after stimulation with flagellin. These differences suggest that epithelial responses to pathogen challenges are distinctly different in culture models of intact and injured epithelium. PMID:25668187

Clark, Joan G.; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Basom, Ryan S.; Gharib, Sina A.

2015-01-01

261

Lens epithelial cell proliferation, migration, and metaplasia following capsulorhexis  

PubMed Central

AIM—To study the behaviour of residual lens epithelial cells after capsulorhexis and expression of material from the isolated lens.?METHODS—Human and bovine lens capsules were isolated, sterile non-toxic silicone rings inserted, and the preparations placed in organ culture for up to 12 weeks. Cell coverage of the posterior lens capsule was recorded and the capsules were examined, both pre- and post-coverage, for (a) proliferative activity and (b) cytoskeletal components.?RESULTS—After a lag period outgrowth was observed across the posterior capsule. The rate of cell coverage was dependent upon both species and the presence or absence of serum. The proliferative activity of the cells was greatest at or near the leading edge and decreased once covered. Wrinkles became visible in the posterior capsule during the late stages of pre-coverage and increased in both number and complexity. All cells on both the human and bovine posterior capsules contained F-actin and vimentin and the majority were immunolabelled for ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA).?CONCLUSIONS—This model exhibits many of the in vivo characteristics of the lens capsule after extracapsular surgery and may prove useful in further elucidating the cellular mechanisms of posterior capsule opacification.?? Keywords: lens epithelial cells; posterior capsule opacification; capsulorrhexis PMID:9828783

Saxby, L.; Rosen, E.; Boulton, M.

1998-01-01

262

ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

Ibricevic, Aida, E-mail: aidaibricevic@hotmail.co [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Brody, Steven L., E-mail: sbrody@dom.wustl.ed [Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Youngs, Wiley J., E-mail: youngs@uakron.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325 (United States); Cannon, Carolyn L., E-mail: carolyn.cannon@utsouthwestern.ed [Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

2010-03-15

263

Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that showed signs of damage by viruses and virus titers (see figure) that indicated large increases in the populations of viruses during the days following inoculation.

Goodwin, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

264

Stromal–epithelial cell interactions and alteration of branching morphogenesis in macromastic mammary glands  

PubMed Central

True macromastia is a rare but disabling condition characterized by massive breast growth. The aetiology and pathogenic mechanisms for this disorder remain largely unexplored because of the lack of in vivo or in vitro models. Previous studies suggested that regulation of epithelial cell growth and development by oestrogen was dependent on paracrine growth factors from the stroma. In this study, a co-culture model containing epithelial and stromal cells was used to investigate the interactions of these cells in macromastia. Epithelial cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis were measured to assess the effect of macromastic stromal cells on epithelial cells. We analysed the cytokines secreted by stromal cells and identified molecules that were critical for effects on epithelial cells. Our results indicated a significant increase in cell proliferation and branching morphogenesis of macromastic and non-macromastic epithelial cells when co-cultured with macromastic stromal cells or in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a key factor in epithelial–stromal interactions of macromastia-derived cell cultures. Blockade of HGF with neutralizing antibodies dramatically attenuated epithelial cell proliferation in conditioned medium from macromastic stromal cells. The epithelial–stromal cell co-culture model demonstrated reliability for studying interactions of mammary stromal and epithelial cells in macromastia. In this model, HGF secreted by macromastic stromal cells was found to play an important role in modifying the behaviour of co-cultured epithelial cells. This model allows further studies to investigate basic cellular and molecular mechanisms in tissue from patients with true breast hypertrophy. PMID:24720804

Zhong, Aimei; Wang, Guohua; Yang, Jie; Xu, Qijun; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yanqing; Xia, Yun; Guo, Ke; Horch, Raymund E; Sun, Jiaming

2014-01-01

265

Hypoxia?inducible adrenomedullin ameliorates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human proximal tubular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Renal tubular epithelial cells can enter the epithelial?to?mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to chronic hypoxia. EMT is a process which involves the phenotypic conversion of epithelial cells, that is believed to have an important role in renal fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of the involvement of EMT in renal fibrosis remain to be elucidated. Adrenomedullin (AMD) has been implicated in renal fibrosis and is induced by hypoxia. The aims of the present study were to determine whether ADM signaling was active in human proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured under hypoxic conditions, and to observe the activity of ADM during EMT. The expression levels of ADM were significantly increased, in a time?dependent manner, in HK?2 and HKC human proximal tubular epithelial cells, cultured under hypoxic conditions. Overexpression of exogenous ADM was accompanied by increased expression levels of the epithelial markers E?cadherin and tight junction protein?1, and decreased expression levels of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and ??smooth muscle actin, during hypoxia. Knock?down of ADM expression by small hairpin RNA, or co?administration of an ADM peptide inhibitor, in HK?2 cells significantly exacerbated hypoxia?induced EMT, as compared to the lack of effect observed in the untransfected controls. ADM was shown to suppress EMT by inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal?regulated kinase (ERK), and this effect was prevented by the ERK activator apigenin. The results of the present study suggest that ADM has an important role in promoting EMT in hypoxic human proximal tubular epithelial cells. ADM may therefore represent a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of injured kidneys. PMID:25586428

Zhu, Tiechui; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiangdong; Zhang, Lianyun; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Yongtao; Ma, Haijun; Ren, Zhenhui

2015-05-01

266

The Regulation and Functional Consequence of Proinflammatory Cytokine Binding on Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products of an activated immune system may affect cells within the immune system as well as nonlymphoid cells in the local environment. Given the immunologically activated state of the intestinal tract, it is conceivable that locally produced cytokines could regulate epithelial cell function. To assess whether epithelial cells are targets for particular cytokines, we initiated studies on the binding of

Asit Panja; Stan Goldberg; Lars Eckmann; Priya Krishen; Lloyd Mayer

267

Normal and cancer breast epithelial cells endocytosis study of nanoparticles by combined AFM and NSOM microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial understanding of nanoparticles recognition and uptake by biological cells and tissues is very important for reaching their fullest potential in biomedical research. In this work, we investigated the cell endocytosis of iron oxide nanoparticles by both normal breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) and cancer breast epithelial cells (MCF7) using a combination of atomic force microscope (AFM) and nearfield scanning

Yu Zhang; Vahid Yazdanpanah; Mo Yang; Mihrimah Ozkan; Cengiz S. Ozkan

2007-01-01

268

Pepsin promotes proliferation of laryngeal and pharyngeal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Objective/Hypothesis Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is thought to be a significant risk factor for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), but causality has never been proven. It is accepted that chronic reflux into the esophagus can induce metaplastic changes in esophageal mucosa with subsequent increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, but no similar associations have been established for LPR and laryngopharyngeal SCC. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reflux of pepsin into the laryngopharynx can promote carcinogenesis. Study Design Translational research study Methods Normal human laryngeal primary epithelial cell cultures and hypopharyngeal FaDu SCC cells were exposed to human pepsin and analyzed by Human Cancer PathwayFinder and miRNA Superarrays, flow cytometry and Western blot to determine the effect of pepsin on carcinogenesis. Laryngeal biopsy specimens, taken from cancer patients and normal control subjects, were analyzed for the presence of pepsin by Western blot. Results Microarray analysis demonstrated that pepsin significantly altered the expression of 27 genes implicated in carcinogenesis and also affected the expression of 22 microRNAs known to be altered in human head and neck cancers. Pepsin increased proliferation in both FaDu SCC cells and cultured normal laryngeal epithelial primary cells by increasing S phase distribution on flow cytometry analysis in a time and dose dependent manner. Furthermore, pepsin was detected in 60% (3/5) human laryngeal cancer biopsies, absent in all (0/5) normal control specimens. Conclusion These data support a role for refluxed pepsin in the promotion of epithelial proliferation and carcinogenesis of the larynx and pharynx. PMID:22570308

Johnston, Nikki; Yan, Justin C.; Hoekzema, Craig R.; Samuels, Tina L.; Stoner, Gary D.; Blumin, Joel H.; Bock, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

269

Oestrus and the vaginal smear cycle of the river otter, Lutra canadensis.  

PubMed

Vaginal smears of river otters contained specific cellular associations which can be used to monitor their reproductive cycle. The anoestrous period was identified by the presence of large intermediate epithelial cells while the onset of pro-oestrus was gradual and the duration difficult to determine. Oestrus was indicated by an influx of nucleated and non-nucleated cornified cells which continue after mating. The metoestrous smear was characterized by large quantities of leucocytes and mucus. PMID:3411554

Stenson, G B

1988-07-01

270

Regulation of expression of CFTR in human intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

As a first step in our efforts to delineate the role of CFTR in cellular phenotypes we have studied its expression in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. In particular we have examined the effect of cellular differentiation on CFTR gene expression. CFTR mRNA was measured by quantitative densitometry of Northern blots and normalized to the amounts of pyruvate dehydrogenase message. We have found that in T84 cells the levels of CFTR mRNA do not change as the cells grow to confluence. In contrast, levels of CFTR mRNA increase by a factor of 10-20 as Caco2 cells grow after subculture. This change in the levels of CFTR mRNA is correlated with the morphological differentiation that occurs in Caco2 cells during culture. The potential significance of this observation is discussed. PMID:1719762

Buchwald, M; Sood, R; Auerbach, W

1991-01-01

271

Phase I Study of Intravenous Triapine (IND # 68338) in Combination With Pelvic Radiation Therapy With or Without Weekly Intravenous Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical, Vaginal, or Pelvic Gynecologic Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2013-01-10

272

Vaginal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The vagina can be a common site of secondary involvement, either through direct extension from the cervix and vulva or by\\u000a lymphatic and vascular spread.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Invasive cancers most commonly present with irregular vaginal bleeding or discharge (often postcoital), followed by vaginal\\u000a discharge or dysuria. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VaIN) is diagnosed on routine screening.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Diagnostic workup should include

Nitika Thawani; Subhakar Mutyala; Aaron H. Wolfson

273

Studies in human skin epithelial cell carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Metabolism and DNA adduct formation of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) by human epidermal keratinocytes pretreated with inhibitors or inducer of cytochrame P450 was studied. To study DNA adduct analysis, cultures were pretreated as described above, and then treated with non-radiolabeled BP. DNA was prepared from these cultures, digested to the nucleotide level, and /sup 32/P-postlabeled for adduct analysis. Cultures pretreated with BHA, 7,8-BF or disulfiralm formed significantly fewer BPDE I-dB adducts than non-pretreated cultures, while cultures pretreated with MeBHA formed more BPDE-I-dG adducts. MeBHA increased BP activation and adduct formation inhuman keratinocyte in cultures by inducing a specific isoenzyme of cytochrome P450 which preferentially increases the oxidative metabolism of BP to 7,8 diol BP and 7,8 diol BP to BPDE I. To approximate an in vivo human system, metabolism of BPDE I by human skin xenografts treated with cell cycles modulators was studied. When treated with BPDE I, specific carcinogen-DNA adducts were formed. Separation and identification of these adducts by the /sup 32/P-postlabeling technique indicated that the 7R- and 7S-BPDE I-dG adducts were the major adducts.

Lehman, T.A.

1987-01-01

274

Efficient Immortalization of Primary Nasopharyngeal Epithelial Cells for EBV Infection Study  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is common among southern Chinese including the ethnic Cantonese population living in Hong Kong. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is detected in all undifferentiated type of NPC in this endemic region. Establishment of stable and latent EBV infection in premalignant nasopharyngeal epithelial cells is an early event in NPC development and may contribute to its pathogenesis. Immortalized primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells represent an important tool for investigation of EBV infection and its tumorigenic potential in this special type of epithelial cells. However, the limited availability and small sizes of nasopharyngeal biopsies have seriously restricted the establishment of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells for immortalization. A reliable and effective method to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will provide unrestricted materials for EBV infection studies. An earlier study has reported that Bmi-1 expression could immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. However, its efficiency and actions in immortalization have not been fully characterized. Our studies showed that Bmi-1 expression alone has limited ability to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and additional events are often required for its immortalization action. We have identified some of the key events associated with the immortalization of primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. Efficient immortalization of nasopharyngeal epithelial cells could be reproducibly and efficiently achieved by the combined actions of Bmi-1 expression, activation of telomerase and silencing of p16 gene. Activation of MAPK signaling and gene expression downstream of Bmi-1 were detected in the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells and may play a role in immortalization. Furthermore, these newly immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells are susceptible to EBV infection and supported a type II latent EBV infection program characteristic of EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The establishment of an efficient method to immortalize primary nasopharyngeal epithelial cells will facilitate the investigation into the role of EBV infection in pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. PMID:24167620

Yip, Yim Ling; Pang, Pei Shin; Deng, Wen; Tsang, Chi Man; Zeng, Musheng; Hau, Pok Man; Man, Cornelia; Jin, Yuesheng; Yuen, Anthony Po Wing; Tsao, Sai Wah

2013-01-01

275

P. gingivalis accelerates gingival epithelial cell progression through the cell cycle.  

PubMed

P. gingivalis, an opportunistic pathogen in periodontal disease, can reside within the epithelial cells that line the gingival crevice. A proteomic analysis revealed that infection of gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis induces broadly based changes in the level and phosphorylation status of proteins that exert multi-level control on the eukaryotic cell cycle. Pathways that were impacted by P. gingivalis included those involving cyclins, p53 and PI3K. The predicted infection-dependent phenotype was confirmed by cytofluorimetry that showed an enhanced proliferation rate of gingival epithelial cells infected with P. gingivalis associated with accelerated progression through the S-phase. Elevated cell proliferation was dependent on the presence of the long fimbriae of P. gingivalis. The ability of P. gingivalis, a common inhabitant of the subgingival crevice, to accelerate cell cycling could have biological consequences for barrier and signaling functions, and for physiological status, of the gingival epithelium. PMID:18280195

Kuboniwa, Masae; Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Mao, Song; Shizukuishi, Satoshi; Amano, Atsuo; Lamont, Richard J; Yilmaz, Ozlem

2008-02-01

276

OCRL1 Modulates Cilia Length in Renal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Lowe syndrome is an X-linked disorder characterized by cataracts at birth, mental retardation and progressive renal malfunction that results from loss of function of the OCRL1 (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) protein. OCRL1 is a lipid phosphatase that converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. The renal pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome patients has been suggested to result from alterations in membrane trafficking, but this cannot fully explain the disease progression. We found that knockdown of OCRL1 in zebrafish caused developmental defects consistent with disruption of ciliary function, including body axis curvature, pericardial edema, hydrocephaly and impaired renal clearance. In addition, cilia in the proximal tubule of the zebrafish pronephric kidney were longer in ocrl morphant embryos. We also found that knockdown of OCRL1 in polarized renal epithelial cells caused elongation of the primary cilium and disrupted formation of cysts in three-dimensional cultures. Calcium release in response to ATP was blunted in OCRL1 knockdown cells, suggesting changes in signaling that could lead to altered cell function. Our results suggest a new role for OCRL1 in renal epithelial cell function that could contribute to the pathogenesis of Lowe syndrome. PMID:22680056

Rbaibi, Youssef; Cui, Shanshan; Mo, Di; Carattino, Marcelo; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Satlin, Lisa M.; Szalinski, Christina M.; Swanhart, Lisa M.; Fölsch, Heike; Hukriede, Neil A.; Weisz, Ora A.

2013-01-01

277

Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8?1010 cells?ml?1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g?·?l?1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

2014-01-01

278

Force dependence of phagosome trafficking in retinal pigment epithelial cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play an integral role in the renewal of photoreceptor disk membranes. As rod and cone cells shed their outer segments, they are phagocytosed and degraded by the RPE, and a failure in this process can result in retinal degeneration. We have studied the role of myosin VI in nonspecific phagocytosis in a human RPE primary cell line (ARPE-19), testing the hypothesis that this motor generates the forces required to traffic phagosomes in these cells. Experiments were conducted in the presence of forces through the use of in vivo optical trapping. Our results support a role for myosin VI in phagosome trafficking and demonstrate that applied forces modulate rates of phagosome trafficking.

Daniel, Rebekah; Koll, Andrew T.; Altman, David

2014-09-01

279

Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis.  

PubMed

A strong cohort of evidence exists that supports the localisation of corneal stem cells at the limbus. The distinguishing characteristics of limbal cells as stem cells include slow cycling properties, high proliferative potential when required, clonogenicity, absence of differentiation marker expression coupled with positive expression of progenitor markers, multipotency, centripetal migration, requirement for a distinct niche environment and the ability of transplanted limbal cells to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. The existence of limbal stem cells supports the prevailing theory of corneal homeostasis, known as the XYZ hypothesis where X represents proliferation and stratification of limbal basal cells, Y centripetal migration of basal cells and Z desquamation of superficial cells. To maintain the mass of cornea, the sum of X and Y must equal Z and very elegant cell tracking experiments provide strong evidence in support of this theory. However, several recent studies have suggested the existence of oligopotent stem cells capable of corneal maintenance outside of the limbus. This review presents a summary of data which led to the current concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis and discusses areas of controversy surrounding the existence of a secondary stem cell reservoir on the corneal surface. PMID:25258661

Yoon, Jinny J; Ismail, Salim; Sherwin, Trevor

2014-09-26

280

Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis  

PubMed Central

A strong cohort of evidence exists that supports the localisation of corneal stem cells at the limbus. The distinguishing characteristics of limbal cells as stem cells include slow cycling properties, high proliferative potential when required, clonogenicity, absence of differentiation marker expression coupled with positive expression of progenitor markers, multipotency, centripetal migration, requirement for a distinct niche environment and the ability of transplanted limbal cells to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. The existence of limbal stem cells supports the prevailing theory of corneal homeostasis, known as the XYZ hypothesis where X represents proliferation and stratification of limbal basal cells, Y centripetal migration of basal cells and Z desquamation of superficial cells. To maintain the mass of cornea, the sum of X and Y must equal Z and very elegant cell tracking experiments provide strong evidence in support of this theory. However, several recent studies have suggested the existence of oligopotent stem cells capable of corneal maintenance outside of the limbus. This review presents a summary of data which led to the current concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis and discusses areas of controversy surrounding the existence of a secondary stem cell reservoir on the corneal surface PMID:25258661

Yoon, Jinny J; Ismail, Salim; Sherwin, Trevor

2014-01-01

281

Cholinergic regulation of epithelial sodium channels in rat alveolar type 2 epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

We and others have shown that epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells are activated by ?2 agonists, steroid hormones, elevated oxygen tension, and by dopamine. Although acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) have been previously described in the lung, there are few reports of whether cholinergic agonists alter sodium transport in the alveolar epithelium. Therefore, we investigated how cholinergic receptors regulate ENaC activity in primary cultures of rat AT2 cells using cell-attached patch-clamp recordings to assess ENaC activity. We found that the muscarinic agonists, carbachol (CCh) and oxotremorine, activated ENaC in a dose-dependent manner but that nicotine did not. CCh-induced activation of ENaC was blocked by atropine. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry suggested that muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors (mAChRs) but not nicotinic receptors were present in AT2 cells. Endogenous RhoA and GTP-RhoA increased in response to CCh and the increase was reduced by pretreatment with atropine. We showed that Y-27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), abolished endogenous ENaC activity and inhibited the activation of ENaC by CCh. We also showed that ROCK signaling was necessary for ENaC stability in 2F3 cells, a model for AT2 cells. Our results showed that muscarinic agonists activated ENaC in rat AT2 cells through M2 and/or M3 mAChRs probably via a RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:23292809

Takemura, Yoshizumi; Helms, My N.; Eaton, Amity F.; Self, Julie; Ramosevac, Semra; Jain, Lucky; Bao, Hui-Fang

2013-01-01

282

Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

Roberts, Joan E. [Department of Natural Sciences, Fordham University, 113 West 60th Street, New York City, NY 10023 (United States)], E-mail: jroberts@fordham.edu; Wielgus, Albert R. [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: wielgus@niehs.nih.gov; Boyes, William K. [Neurotoxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)], E-mail: Boyes.William@epamail.epa.gov; Andley, Usha [Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110 (United States)], E-mail: andley@vision.wustl.edu; Chignell, Colin F. [Laboratory of Pharmacology and Chemistry, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: chignell@niehs.nih.gov

2008-04-01

283

Bovine Caruncular Epithelial Cell Line (BCEC1) Isolated from the Placenta Forms a Functional Epithelial Barrier in a Polarised Cell Culture Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the bovine synepitheliochorial placenta key sites of fetal–maternal interaction are placentomes consisting of maternal caruncles interdigitating with fetal cotyledons. The aim of this study was to establish an epithelial cell line from caruncles of pregnant cows and to develop a model to study restricted trophoblast invasion, pathogenesis of pregnancy associated diseases and pathways of infection and transport. Primary epithelial

P. S. Bridger; C. Menge; R. Leiser; H.-R. Tinneberg; C. D. Pfarrer

2007-01-01

284

Regional differences in ciliary epithelial cell transport properties.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to determine whether the transport properties of the ciliary epithelium vary over different regions. Rabbit iris-ciliary bodies were incubated under experimental or control conditions for 30 min before quick freezing, cryosectioning, dehydration and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Cryosections were cut from three regions along the major axis of the iris-ciliary body, i.e., the anterior, middle and posterior (pars plicata) regions. In bicarbonate/CO2 solution, the epithelial cells of the anterior and middle regions contained more Cl and K than did those of the posterior region. These higher levels of Cl and K were reduced by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. Application of bumetanide, an inhibitor of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, resulted in significant increases in Cl and K in the anterior and middle regions but not in the posterior region. In bicarbonate-free solution, the ratio for K/Na contents was higher in the posterior than in the two more anterior regions; Na, K and Cl contents of epithelial cells in the three regions were otherwise similar. Cell composition did not differ significantly between the crests and valleys of the posterior region. The divergent responses to perturbation of epithelial transport in the different regions provide the first demonstration of functional heterogeneity along the major axis of the iris-ciliary body. The response to inhibition of carbonic anhydrase raises the possibility that the anterior aspect of the ciliary epithelium may be the major site of aqueous humor secretion. PMID:11547344

McLaughlin, C W; Zellhuber-McMillan, S; Peart, D; Purves, R D; Macknight, A D; Civan, M M

2001-08-01

285

Epithelial Cell Coculture Models for Studying Infectious Diseases: Benefits and Limitations  

PubMed Central

Countless in vitro cell culture models based on the use of epithelial cell types of single lineages have been characterized and have provided insight into the mechanisms of infection for various microbial pathogens. Diverse culture models based on disease-relevant mucosal epithelial cell types derived from gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and pulmonary organ systems have delineated many key host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral, parasitic, and bacterial disease pathogenesis. An alternative to single lineage epithelial cell monoculture, which offers more flexibility and can overcome some of the limitations of epithelial cell culture models based on only single cell types, is coculture of epithelial cells with other host cell types. Various coculture models have been described, which incorporate epithelial cell types in culture combination with a wide range of other cell types including neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes. This paper will summarize current models of epithelial cell coculture and will discuss the benefits and limitations of epithelial cell coculture for studying host-pathogen dynamics in infectious diseases. PMID:22007147

Duell, Benjamin L.; Cripps, Allan W.; Schembri, Mark A.; Ulett, Glen C.

2011-01-01

286

Transforming Growth Factor-?1 Induces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Murine Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent endothelial cell mitogen that promotes angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and increases vascular permeability. VEGF is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells and urinary VEGF excretion is increased in various glomerular disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying expression of VEGF in renal tubular epithelial cells have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we attempted

Shinji Kitamura; Yohei Maeshima; Takeshi Sugaya; Hitoshi Sugiyama; Yasushi Yamasaki; Hirofumi Makino

2003-01-01

287

Antibody inhibition of human cytomegalovirus spread in epithelial cell cultures  

PubMed Central

Anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies reduce the incidence of CMV transmission and ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated disease. Neutralizing activity, measured as the ability of antibodies to prevent entry of cell-free virus, is an important component of natural immunity. However, in vivo CMV amplification may occur mainly via spread between adjacent cells within tissues. Thus, inhibition of cell-to-cell spread may be important when evaluating therapeutic antibodies or humoral responses to infection or immunization. In vitro CMV cell-to-cell spread is largely resistant to antibodies in fibroblast cultures but sensitive in endothelial cell cultures. In the present study antibodies in CMV hyperimmuneglobulin or seropositive human sera inhibited CMV cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures. Spread inhibition activity was quantitated with a GFP reporter assay employing GFP-tagged epithelialtropic variants of CMV strains Towne or AD169. Measurement of spread inhibition provides an additional parameter for the evaluation of candidate vaccines or immunotherapeutics and to further characterize the role of antibodies in controlling CMV transmission and disease. PMID:23669101

Cui, Xiaohong; Lee, Ronzo; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

2013-01-01

288

Bringing balance by force: live cell extrusion controls epithelial cell numbers  

PubMed Central

To function as an intact barrier, epithelia must maintain constant cell numbers despite high rates of turnover. If the rate of death exceeds proliferation, epithelial barrier function could become compromised; if it lags behind proliferation, cells could amass into tumors. Although the balance between cell death and division is critical for preventing pathology, most studies focus on each process in isolation. Loss of contact inhibition is a hallmark of cancer cells and cell contacts appear important for linking rates of cell division and death. However, epithelial cells continuously divide and die while maintaining contacts with each other, so other factors must control this balance. Recent studies find that cell crowding forces from cell proliferation can drive cells to die by extrusion from the epithelium. Factors that alter this response to cell crowding may lead to barrier function diseases or promote hyperplasia and cancer. PMID:23273931

Eisenhoffer, George T.; Rosenblatt, Jody

2013-01-01

289

Comparative vaginal cytology of the estrous cycle of black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), Siberian polecats (M. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo).  

PubMed

Vaginal cytology and vulva size were used to characterize the reproductive cycle of female black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), Siberian polecats (M. eversmanni), and domestic ferrets (M. putorius furo). Emphasis was on black-footed ferrets because of the need to breed these critically endangered animals and on Siberian polecats because of the close taxonomic relationship to black-footed ferrets. Vaginal cytology of the 3 species of ferret is similar. Proestrus was characterized by an increasing percentage of superficial epithelial cells and enlargement of the vulva. During estrus, superficial cells were usually greater than or equal to 90% of epithelial cells in the vaginal lavage and after several days were fully keratinized. Neutrophils were more common during all stages of the estrous cycle in domestic ferrets than they were in the other species. Following copulation, percentage of superficial calls in the vagina declined and vulva swelling subsided. Large cells, probably of uterine symplasma origin, were observed in vaginal lavages following whelping or pseudopregnancy. Vaginal cytology is extremely useful in the reproductive management of black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats. Knowledge of normal vaginal cytology could be applied to the diagnosis of female reproductive abnormalities in all 3 species. PMID:1554767

Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Kwiatkowski, D R; Lutz, K; Anderson, S L

1992-01-01

290

Apical protein transport and lumen morphogenesis in polarized epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Segregation of the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains is the key distinguishing feature of epithelial cells. A series of interrelated cues and processes follow this primary polarization event, resulting in the morphogenesis of the mammalian epithelium. This review focuses on the role of the interactions between the extracellular matrix and neighbouring cells during the initiation and establishment of epithelial polarity, and the role that membrane transport and polarity complexes play in this process. An overview of the formation of the apical junctional complexes is given in relation to the generation of distinct membrane domains characterized by the asymmetric distribution of phosphoinositides and proteins. The mechanisms and machinery utilized by the trafficking pathways involved in the generation and maintenance of this apical-basolateral polarization are expounded, highlighting processes of apical-directed transport. Furthermore, the current proposed mechanisms for the organization of entire networks of cells into a structured, polarized three-dimensional structure are described, with an emphasis on the proposed mechanisms for the formation and expansion of the apical lumen. PMID:21366541

WILLENBORG, Carly; PREKERIS, Rytis

2014-01-01

291

Proteomic Analysis of Nasal Epithelial Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

PubMed Central

The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n?=?4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n?=?8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n?=?4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology. PMID:25268127

Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

2014-01-01

292

Antioxidative properties of paraoxonase 2 in intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Paraoxonase (PON) family members seem central to a wide variety of human illnesses, but appreciation of their antioxidative function in the gastrointestinal tract is in its infancy. The major objective of the present work is to highlight the role of the ubiquitously expressed PON2 in the small intestine. With use of pLKO lentiviral vector containing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentivirus, PON2 expression was knocked down in intestinal Caco-2/15 cells, where antioxidative status, lipid peroxidation, and degree of inflammation were evaluated. As a consequence of PON2 inactivation in the epithelial cells, we observed 1) imbalanced primary and secondary antioxidative responses, characterized by increased superoxide dismutases and decreased catalase, 2) high concentrations of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde, along with low glutathione-to-glutathione disulfide ratio, 3) upregulation of TNF-?, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression after induction of oxidative stress, and 4) raised level of the activation of transcription factor NF-?B, which was likely implicated in exacerbation of the inflammatory activation. These results suggest that PON2 is involved in the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:22744335

Précourt, Louis-Philippe; Marcil, Valérie; Ntimbane, Thierry; Taha, Rame; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Delvin, Edgard; Seidman, Ernest G; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Levy, Emile

2012-09-01

293

NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD1...

294

Differentiation and molecular profiling of human embryonic stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that the isolation of scalable populations of limbal stem cells may lead to radical changes in ocular therapy. In particular, the derivation and transplantation of corneal stem cells from these populations may result in therapies providing clinical normality of the diseased or damaged cornea. Although feasible in theory, the lack of donor material in sufficient quantity and quality currently limits such a strategy. A potential scalable source of corneal cells could be derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). We developed an in vitro and serum-free corneal differentiation model which displays significant promise. Our stepwise differentiation model was designed with reference to development and gave rise to cells which displayed similarities to epithelial progenitor cells which can be specified to cells displaying a corneal epithelial phenotype. We believe our approach is novel, provides a robust model of human development and in the future, may facilitate the generation of corneal epithelial cells that are suitable for clinical use. Additionally, we demonstrate that following continued cell culture, stem cell-derived corneal epithelial cells undergo transdifferentiation and exhibit squamous metaplasia and therefore, also offer an in vitro model of disease. PMID:24676408

Brzeszczynska, J; Samuel, K; Greenhough, S; Ramaesh, K; Dhillon, B; Hay, D C; Ross, J A

2014-06-01

295

Adherence of Mycoplasma bovis to bovine bronchial epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis is responsible for considerable economic losses in cattle due to pneumonia, arthritis and mastitis. As the agent was shown to be capable of adhering to neutrophils and embryonic bovine lung (EBL) cells and invading the respiratory epithelium it is highly desirable to improve our understanding of cytadherence processes. Although several surface proteins likely to be directly involved in this initial stage of interaction between pathogen and host cells have been identified, these findings mainly referred to type strain PG45 adhering to the continuous EBL cell line. The present study provides new and complementary data about cytadherence of M. bovis based on adherence of various radiolabeled strains to a primary culture of bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells using a standardized adherence assay. M. bovis was shown to adhere specifically to the primary culture of BBE cells. Inhibition of adherence was observed upon addition of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), trypsin treatment of mycoplasmas, and competition with non-radiolabeled mycoplasma cells. Interestingly, three MAbs against proteins involved in adherence to EBL cells failed to inhibit significantly the adherence to BBE cells. On the other hand, significant reduction of adherence rates by MAbs 2A8 and 9F1 directed against epitopes of variable surface lipoproteins VspC and VspF, respectively, demonstrated the involvement of these proteins in adherence of M. bovis to primary culture of BBE cells. PMID:12631475

Thomas, A; Sachse, K; Farnir, F; Dizier, I; Mainil, J; Linden, A

2003-03-01

296

Comparison of para-aminophenol cytotoxicity in rat renal epithelial cells and hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Several chemicals, including para-aminophenol (PAP), produce kidney damage in the absence of hepatic damage. Selective nephrotoxicity may be related to the ability of the kidney to reabsorb filtered water, thereby raising the intraluminal concentration of toxicants and exposing tubular epithelial cells to higher concentrations than would be present in other tissues. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells exposed to equivalent concentrations of PAP would be equally susceptible to toxicity. Hepatocytes and renal epithelial cells were prepared by collagenase digestion of tissues obtained from female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicity was monitored using trypan blue exclusion, oxygen consumption and ATP content. We measured the rate of PAP clearance and formation of PAP-glutathione conjugate by HPLC. We found that renal epithelial cells accumulated trypan blue and showed declines in oxygen consumption and ATP content at significantly lower concentrations of PAP and at earlier time points than hepatocytes. The half-life of PAP in hepatocyte incubations was significantly shorter (0.71+/-0.07 h) than in renal epithelial cell incubations (1.33+/-0.23 h), suggesting that renal epithelial cells were exposed to PAP for longer time periods than hepatocytes. Renal epithelial cells formed significantly less glutathione conjugates of PAP (PAP-SG) than did hepatocytes, consistent with less efficient detoxification of reactive PAP intermediates by renal epithelial cells. Finally, hepatocytes contained significant more reduced glutathione (NPSH) than did renal epithelial cells, possibly explaining the enhanced formation of PAP-SG by this cell population. In conclusion, our data indicates that renal epithelial cells are intrinsically more susceptible to PAP cytotoxicity than are hepatocytes. This enhanced cytotoxicity may be due to longer exposure to PAP and/or reduced detoxification of reactive intermediates due to lower concentrations of reduced NPSH in renal epithelial cells than in hepatocytes. PMID:15725515

Li, Ying; Bentzley, Catherine M; Tarloff, Joan B

2005-04-01

297

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection induces intestinal epithelial cell autophagy.  

PubMed

The morbidity and mortality in piglets caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in large economic losses to the swine industry, but the precise pathogenesis of ETEC-associated diseases remains unknown. Intestinal epithelial cell autophagy serves as a host defense against pathogens. We found that ETEC induced autophagy, as measured by both the increased punctae distribution of GFP-LC3 and the enhanced conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Inhibiting autophagy resulted in decreased survival of IPEC-1 cells infected with ETEC. ETEC triggered autophagy in IPEC-1 cells through a pathway involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). PMID:24742948

Tang, Yulong; Li, Fengna; Tan, Bie; Liu, Gang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Hardwidge, Philip R; Yin, Yulong

2014-06-25

298

Hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition  

PubMed Central

Myofibroblast accumulation is a pathological feature of lung diseases requiring oxygen therapy. One possible source for myofibroblasts is through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). To study the effects of oxygen on alveolar EMT, we used RLE-6TN and ex vivo lung slices and found that hyperoxia (85% O2, H85) decreased epithelial proteins, presurfactant protein B (pre-SpB), pro-SpC, and lamellar protein by 50% and increased myofibroblast proteins, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and vimentin by over 200% (P < 0.05). In AEC freshly isolated from H85-treated rats, mRNA for pre-SpB and pro-SpC was diminished by ?50% and ?-SMA was increased by 100% (P < 0.05). Additionally, H85 increased H2O2 content, and H2O2 (25–50 ?M) activated endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), as evident by H2DCFDA immunofluorescence and ELISA (P < 0.05). Both hyperoxia and H2O2 increased SMAD3 phosphorylation (260% of control, P < 0.05). Treating cultured cells with TGF-?1 inhibitors did not prevent H85-induced H2O2 production but did prevent H85-mediated ?-SMA increases and E-cadherin downregulation. Finally, to determine the role of TGF-?1 in hyperoxia-induced EMT in vivo, we evaluated AEC from H85-treated rats and found that vimentin increased ?10-fold (P < 0.05) and that this effect was prevented by intraperitoneal TGF-?1 inhibitor SB-431542. Additionally, SB-431542 treatment attenuated changes in alveolar histology caused by hyperoxia. Our studies indicate that hyperoxia promotes alveolar EMT through a mechanism that is dependent on activation of TGF-?1 signaling. PMID:24375795

Wang, Wenyi; Kato, Satomi; Colvocoresses-Dodds, Jennifer; Fifadara, Nimita H.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Helms, My N.; Carlton, David P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

2013-01-01

299

Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model  

EPA Science Inventory

Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

300

Molecular signaling of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in generating and maintaining cancer stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that allows polarized, well-differentiated\\u000a epithelial cells to convert to unpolarized, motile mesenchymal cells. EMT is critical for appropriate embryogenesis and plays\\u000a a crucial role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies revealed that there is a direct link between the EMT\\u000a program and the gain of epithelial stem

Gaoliang Ouyang; Zhe Wang; Xiaoguang Fang; Jia Liu; Chaoyong James Yang

2010-01-01

301

Epithelial Cells Activate Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Improving Their Anti-HIV Activity  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in anti-viral immunity by virtue of their ability to produce high amounts of type I interferons (IFNs) and a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to viral infections. Since recent studies have established that pDCs accumulate at the site of virus entry in the mucosa, here we analyzed whether epithelial cells were able to modulate the function of pDCs. We found that the epithelial cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2, as well as a primary culture of human renal tubular epithelial cells (HRTEC), induced the phenotypic maturation of pDCs stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. By contrast, epithelial cells did not induce any change in the phenotype of conventional or myeloid DCs (cDCs) while significantly stimulated the production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Activation of pDCs by epithelial cells was prevented by Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of endosomal acidification as well as by the addition of RNase to the culture medium, suggesting the participation of endosomal TLRs. Interestingly, the cross-talk between both cell populations was shown to be associated to an increased expression of TLR7 and TLR9 by pDCs and the production of LL37 by epithelial cells, an antimicrobial peptide able to bind and transport extracellular nucleic acids into the endosomal compartments. Interestingly, epithelium-activated pDCs impaired the establishment of a productive HIV infection in two susceptible target cells through the stimulation of the production of type I IFNs, highlighting the anti-viral efficiency of this novel activation pathway. PMID:22163327

Rodriguez Rodrigues, Christian; Cabrini, Mercedes; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Sabatté, Juan; Ceballos, Ana; Jancic, Carolina; Raiden, Silvina; Ostrowski, Matías; Silberstein, Claudia; Geffner, Jorge

2011-01-01

302

PDL1 is expressed by human renal tubular epithelial cells and suppresses T cell cytokine synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell activation is affected by both stimulatory and inhibitory co-signaling. MHC class II-expressing renal tubular epithelial cells (TEC) can function as APC for T cells. To study the influence of inhibitory ligands on TEC-mediated T cell activation, we examined the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on human TEC line HK-2 cells, as well as in normal and diseased

Hanlu Ding; Xiongfei Wu; Wenda Gao

2005-01-01

303

Baicalin and baicalein inhibit transforming growth factor-?1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Since the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in many crucial functions of cancer cells, we set out to identify a natural compound capable of inhibiting EMT processes. TGF-?1 treatment induces EMT among normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A cells), as reflected by characteristic morphological changes into the fibroblastic phenotype, reduced expression of E-cadherin. Interestingly, butanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi significantly reduced the TGF-?1-mediated EMT of MCF10A cells. Further analysis revealed that baicalin and baicalein, the major flavones of these butanol extracts, inhibited TGF-?1-mediated EMT by reducing the expression level of the EMT-related transcription factor, Slug via the NF-?B pathway, and subsequently increased migration in MCF10A cells. Finally, both compounds reduced the TGF-?1-mediated EMT, anchorage-independent growth and cell migration of human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells). Taken together, these results suggest that baicalin and baicalein of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi may suppress the EMT of breast epithelial cells and the tumorigenic activity of breast cancer cells. Thus, these compounds could have potential as therapeutic or supplementary agents for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25686495

Chung, Heesung; Choi, Hack Sun; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Oh, Eok-Soo

2015-03-13

304

Musashi-1 suppresses expression of Paneth cell-specific genes in human intestinal epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Musashi-1 (Msi-1) is a RNA-binding protein, known as a putative marker of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). However, little is\\u000a known about the function of Msi-1 within human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Thus, the present study aimed to clarify\\u000a the role of Msi-1 in differentiation and proliferation of IECs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A human intestinal epithelial cell line stably expressing Msi-1 was established. Proliferation

Minekazu Murayama; Ryuichi Okamoto; Kiichiro Tsuchiya; Junko Akiyama; Tetsuya Nakamura; Naoya Sakamoto; Takanori Kanai; Mamoru Watanabe

2009-01-01

305

The novel functions of TIMP-1: Regulation of apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies demonstrate that Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis in a variety of cell types through either a MMP-dependent or -independent mechanism. Recently, we identified CD63, a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, as a cell surface binding partner for TIMP-1 which modulates integrin-mediated survival pathways in the human breast epithelial cell line

Rosemarie Chirco

2008-01-01

306

Heparin and glomerular epithelial cell-secreted heparin-like species inhibit mesangial-cell proliferation.  

PubMed Central

The regulation of cell growth in the kidney glomerulus plays a key role in many physiologic and pathologic processes. In this communication, the authors examine the possible role of heparin-like species as inhibitors of mesangial-cell proliferation. Heparin profoundly inhibited the growth of cultured mesangial cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an ED50 = 5-10 micrograms/ml. The antiproliferative activity of heparin was reversible and specific for mesangial cells as the target cell in the glomerulus. Heparin was much more effective than other glycosaminoglycans. Cultured glomerular epithelial cells were found to secrete both stimulators and inhibitors of mesangial-cell growth. Approximately half of the inhibitory activity was destroyed by a highly purified heparinase; the other half was sensitive to trypsin. Approximately 80% of the mitogenic activity was protease-sensitive. These results suggest that heparin and glomerular epithelial cells may participate in mesangial-cell growth regulation. PMID:4037068

Castellot, J. J.; Hoover, R. L.; Harper, P. A.; Karnovsky, M. J.

1985-01-01

307

Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF- /CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M.; Johnson, Leonard R.

2014-01-01

308

Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Homeostasis of the gastrointestinal epithelium is dependent upon a balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are well known for their role in cell proliferation. Previous studies from our group have shown that polyamine-depletion of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) decreases cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) activity, increases p53 and p21Cip1 protein levels, induces G1 arrest, and protects cells from camptothecin (CPT)-induced apoptosis. Although emerging evidence suggests that members of the Cdk family are involved in the regulation of apoptosis, their roles directing apoptosis of IEC-6 cells are not known. In this study, we report that inhibition of Cdk1, 2, and 9 (with the broad range Cdk inhibitor, AZD5438) in proliferating IEC-6 cells triggered DNA damage, activated p53 signaling, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis. By contrast, inhibition of Cdk2 (with NU6140) increased p53 protein and activity, inhibited proliferation, but had no effect on apoptosis. Notably, AZD5438 sensitized, whereas, NU6140 rescued proliferating IEC-6 cells from CPT-induced apoptosis. However, in colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells with mutant p53, treatment with either AZD5438 or NU6140 blocked proliferation, albeit more robustly with AZD5438. Both Cdk inhibitors induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells in a p53-independent manner. In serum starved quiescent IEC-6 cells, both AZD5438 and NU6140 decreased TNF-?/CPT-induced activation of p53 and, consequently, rescued cells from apoptosis, indicating that sustained Cdk activity is required for apoptosis of quiescent cells. Furthermore, AZD5438 partially reversed the protective effect of polyamine depletion whereas NU6140 had no effect. Together, these results demonstrate that Cdks possess opposing roles in the control of apoptosis in quiescent and proliferating cells. In addition, Cdk inhibitors uncouple proliferation from apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:24242917

Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Ray, Ramesh M; Johnson, Leonard R

2014-03-01

309

Establishment and Characterization of a Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Mammary Epithelial Cell Line  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to establish the buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) and characterize its mammary specific functions. Methodology Buffalo mammary tissue collected from the slaughter house was processed enzymatically to obtain a heterogenous population of cells containing both epithelial and fibroblasts cells. Epithelial cells were purified by selective trypsinization and were grown in a plastic substratum. The purified mammary epithelial cells (MECs) after several passages were characterized for mammary specific functions by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot. Principal Findings The established buffalo mammary epithelial cell line (BuMEC) exhibited epithelial cell characteristics by immunostaining positively with cytokeratin 18 and negatively with vimentin. The BuMEC maintained the characteristics of its functional differentiation by expression of ?-casein, ?-casein, butyrophilin and lactoferrin. BuMEC had normal growth properties and maintained diploid chromosome number (2n?=?50) before and after cryopreservation. A spontaneously immortalized buffalo mammary epithelial cell line was established after 20 passages and was continuously subcultured for more than 60 passages without senescence. Conclusions We have established a buffalo mammary epithelial cell line that can be used as a model system for studying mammary gland functions. PMID:22792341

Anand, Vijay; Dogra, Nilambra; Singh, Surender; Kumar, Sudarshan N.; Jena, Manoj K.; Malakar, Dhruba; Dang, Ajay K.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Mukhopadhyay, Tapas K.; Kaushik, Jai K.; Mohanty, Ashok K.

2012-01-01

310

Role of the microtubule-targeting drug vinflunine on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells  

PubMed Central

Background Vinflunine (VFL) is a microtubule-targeting drug that suppresses microtubule dynamics, showing anti-metastatic properties both in vitro and in living cancer cells. An increasing body of evidence underlines the influence of the microtubules dynamics on the cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions. E-cadherin is a marker of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a tumour suppressor; its reduced levels in carcinoma are associated with poor prognosis. In this report, we investigate the role of VFL on cell-cell adhesions in bladder epithelial tumour cells. Methods Human bladder epithelial tumour cell lines HT1376, 5637, SW780, T24 and UMUC3 were used to analyse cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesions under VFL treatment. VFL effect on growth inhibition was measured by using a MTT colorimetric cell viability assay. Western blot, immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the roles of VFL effect on cell-cell adhesions, epithelial-to-mesenchymal markers and apoptosis. The role of the proteasome in controlling cell-cell adhesion was studied using the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Results We show that VFL induces cell death in bladder cancer cells and activates epithelial differentiation of the remaining living cells, leading to an increase of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion and a reduction of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin or vimentin. Moreover, while E-cadherin is increased, the levels of Hakai, an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for E-cadherin, were significantly reduced in presence of VFL. In 5637, this reduction on Hakai expression was blocked by MG132 proteasome inhibitor, indicating that the proteasome pathway could be one of the molecular mechanisms involved in its degradation. Conclusions Our findings underscore a critical function for VFL in cell-cell adhesions of epithelial bladder tumour cells, suggesting a novel molecular mechanism by which VFL may impact upon EMT and metastasis. PMID:25012153

2014-01-01

311

In Vivo Identification of Langerhans and Related Dendritic Cells Infected with HIV1 Subtype E in Vaginal Mucosa of Asymptomatic Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, the predominant HIV subtype is E, rather than Subtype B as in North America and Europe, and the predominant mode of transmission is heterosexual contact. Subtype E has the ability to replicate in vitro in Langerhans cells. We hypothesized that this cell type might constitute a reservoir for the HIV virus in vaginal mucosa of asymptomatic carriers. To

Lertlakana Bhoopat; Lukana Eiangleng; Sungwal Rugpao; Sarah S. Frankel; Drew Weissman; Suree Lekawanvijit; Supinda Petchjom; Paul Thorner; Tanin Bhoopat

2001-01-01

312

Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

2015-01-01

313

How intestinal epithelial cells tolerise dendritic cells and its relevance to inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal epithelial layer is an important barrier against antigen invasion. In addition to its barrier function, the immunomodulatory role of intestinal epithelium is attracting considerable attention. The intestinal epithelium may influence underlying immune cells including dendritic cells and lymphocytes and promote tolerogenic and regulatory responses in health. Breakdown of such regulatory influences may result in uncontrolled inflammation and tissue damage.

M Shale; S Ghosh

2009-01-01

314

A Nasal Epithelial Receptor for Staphylococcus aureus WTA Governs Adhesion to Epithelial Cells and Modulates Nasal Colonization  

PubMed Central

Nasal colonization is a major risk factor for S. aureus infections. The mechanisms responsible for colonization are still not well understood and involve several factors on the host and the bacterial side. One key factor is the cell wall teichoic acid (WTA) of S. aureus, which governs direct interactions with nasal epithelial surfaces. We report here the first receptor for the cell wall glycopolymer WTA on nasal epithelial cells. In several assay systems this type F-scavenger receptor, termed SREC-I, bound WTA in a charge dependent manner and mediated adhesion to nasal epithelial cells in vitro. The impact of WTA and SREC-I interaction on epithelial adhesion was especially pronounced under shear stress, which resembles the conditions found in the nasal cavity. Most importantly, we demonstrate here a key role of the WTA-receptor interaction in a cotton rat model of nasal colonization. When we inhibited WTA mediated adhesion with a SREC-I antibody, nasal colonization in the animal model was strongly reduced at the early onset of colonization. More importantly, colonization stayed low over an extended period of 6 days. Therefore we propose targeting of this glycopolymer-receptor interaction as a novel strategy to prevent or control S. aureus nasal colonization. PMID:24788600

Faulstich, Manuela; Grau, Timo; Severin, Yannik; Unger, Clemens; Hoffmann, Wolfgang H.; Rudel, Thomas; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Weidenmaier, Christopher

2014-01-01

315

Snail Involves in the Transforming Growth Factor ?1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe proliferation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells resulting from an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which leads to complex retinal detachment and the loss of vision. Genes of Snail family encode the zinc finger transcription factors that have been reported to be essential in EMT during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. However, the

Hui Li; Hongwei Wang; Fang Wang; Qing Gu; Xun Xu

2011-01-01

316

Long Term Endocrine Regulation of Nucleoside Transporters in Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the regulation of nucleoside transporters in intestinal epithelial cells upon exposure to either differentiating or proliferative agents. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (line IEC-6) were incubated in the presence of differentiating (glucocorticoids) or proliferative (EGF and TGF- ? ) agents. Nucleoside uptake rates and nucleoside transporter protein and mRNA levels were assessed. The signal transduction pathways used by the

Ivette Aymerich; Marçal Pastor-Anglada; F. Javier Casado

2004-01-01

317

Oncogene-induced basement membrane invasiveness in human mammary epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of the intermediate filament protein vimentin, and loss of the cellular adhesion protein uvomorulin (E-cadherin) have been associated with increased invasiveness of established human breast cancer cell linesin vitro andin vivo. In the current study, we have further examined these relationships in oncogenically transformed human mammary epithelial cells. A normal human mammary epithelial strain, termed 184, was previously immortalized

Erik W. Thompson; Jeffrey Torri; Marybeth Sabol; Connie L. Sommers; Stephen Byerst; Eva M. Valverius; George R. Martin; Marc E. Lippman; Martha R. Stampfer; Robert B. Dickson

1994-01-01

318

A Comparative Study on Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Resident Gut Bacteria (ii) Effect of Arsenite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective In order to use facultative gut bacteria as an alternate to animals for the initial gastrointestinal toxicity screening of heavy metals, a comparative study on rat intestinal epithelial cells and resident gut bacteria was undertaken. Methods in vitro growth rate of four gut bacteria, dehydrogenase (DHA) and esterase (EA) activity test, intestinal epithelial and bacterial cell membrane enzymes and

RAJ K. UPRETI; A. KANNAN; RICHA SHRIVASTAVA; U. C. CHATURVEDI

2006-01-01

319

Distinctive Gene Expression Patterns in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Breast Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA microarrays and a clustering algorithm were used to identify patterns of gene expression in human mammary epithelial cells growing in culture and in primary human breast tumors. Clusters of coexpressed genes identified through manipulations of mammary epithelial cells in vitro also showed consistent patterns of variation in expression among breast tumor samples. By using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proteins

Charles M. Perou; Stefanie S. Jeffrey; Matt van de Rijn; Christian A. Rees; Michael B. Eisen; Douglas T. Ross; Alexander Pergamenschikov; Cheryl F. Williams; Shirley X. Zhu; Jeffrey C. F. Lee; Deval Lashkari; Dari Shalon; Patrick O. Brown; David Botstein

1999-01-01

320

Milk lipid and protein traffic in mammary epithelial cells: joint and independent pathways  

E-print Network

Review Milk lipid and protein traffic in mammary epithelial cells: joint and independent pathways, France Abstract -- In mammary epithelial cells, milk lipids and proteins are synthesised in the same com. These processes assure a relatively constant composition of milk but it is not known whether lipid and protein

Boyer, Edmond

321

CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

322

Lens epithelial cell apoptosis and intracellular Ca2+ increase in the presence of xanthurenic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous product of tryptophan degradation by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We have previously reported that IDO is present in mammalian lenses, and xanthurenic acid is accumulated in the lenses with aging. Here, we studied the involvement of xanthurenic acid in the human lens epithelial cell physiology. METHODS: Human lens epithelial cells primary cultures were used. Control

Halina Malina; Christoph Richter; Beatrice Frueh; Otto M Hess

2002-01-01

323

DECREASED INTRACELLULAR ZINC IN HUMAN TUMORIGENIC PROSTATE EPITHELIAL CELLS: A POSSIBLE ROLE IN PROSTATE CANCER PROGRESSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in tumorigenesis of prostate epithelia. Evidence has shown that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. We characterized the zinc homeostatic featur...

324

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Epithelial Cell Extrusion Leads to Breaches in the Intestinal  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Epithelial Cell Extrusion Leads to Breaches in the Intestinal Epithelium Julia J: Two distinct forms of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) extrusion are described: 1 with preserved. Conclusions: IEC extrusion mediated by caspase-1 activation contributes to altered intestinal permeability

Alberta, University of

325

Diet Does Not Affect Putative Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells in Pre-weaned Holstein Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Overfeeding prepubertal heifers can impair mammary epithelial growth and development, processes that depend on stem cells. In this study we evaluated effects of diet composition on putative bovine mammary epithelial stem cell populations using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyrudine (BrdU; a thymidine analog) label...

326

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS. OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

327

Expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in cells of non-epithelial origin.  

PubMed Central

Consistent with the fact that the clinical disorder cystic fibrosis (CF) is manifested on epithelial surfaces, active transcription of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and CFTR mRNA transcripts are detectable in a variety of epithelial cells, suggesting CFTR gene expression might be epithelial cell-specific. However, analysis of the CFTR gene promoter suggests it is a housekeeping gene, implying more widespread expression than only in epithelial cells. To evaluate the latter hypothesis, various human cells of non-epithelial origin, including lung fibroblasts, U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cells, K-562 erythroleukemia cells, HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells as well as freshly isolated blood lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages were examined for CFTR gene expression. Although Northern analysis failed to show CFTR mRNA transcripts in these cells, amplification of mRNA (after conversion to cDNA) by polymerase chain reaction combined with Southern analysis demonstrated the presence of CFTR mRNA transcripts at low levels in all cells evaluated except HL-60 cells. Comparative quantitative analysis showed fibroblasts contained 200-400 fold less CFTR mRNA transcripts than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma epithelial cell lines, but had similar levels of CFTR transcripts to those of other epithelial cell lines. Nuclear transcription run-on analyses demonstrated very low level CFTR gene transcription in fibroblasts and U-937 cells, similar to that of other epithelial cells, but lower than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, while chromatin DNA of fibroblasts had no DNase I hypersensitivity sites in the 5' flanking region of the CFTR gene, HT-29 chromatin DNA exhibited four DNase I accessible sites in the same region, suggesting that these sites may be related to more active transcription of the CFTR gene in the intestinal epithelial cells than in fibroblasts. Images PMID:1717947

Yoshimura, K; Nakamura, H; Trapnell, B C; Chu, C S; Dalemans, W; Pavirani, A; Lecocq, J P; Crystal, R G

1991-01-01

328

Glycoprotein E of Varicella-Zoster Virus Enhances Cell-Cell Contact in Polarized Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection involves the cell-cell spread of virions, but how viral proteins interact with the host cell membranes that comprise intercellular junctions is not known. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were constructed to express the glycoproteins gE, gI, or gE/gI constitutively and were used to examine the effects of these VZV glycoproteins in polarized epithelial cells. At low cell density, VZV gE induced partial tight junction (TJ) formation under low-calcium conditions, whether expressed alone or with gI. Although most VZV gE was intracellular, gE was also shown to colocalize with the TJ protein ZO-1 with or without concomitant expression of gI. Freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed normal TJ strand morphology in gE-expressing MDCK cells. Functionally, the expression of gE was associated with a marked acceleration in the establishment of maximum transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in MDCK-gE cells; MDCK-gI and MDCK-gE/gI cells exhibited a similar pattern of early TER compared to MDCK cells, although peak resistances were lower than those of gE alone. VZV gE expression altered F-actin organization and lipid distribution, but coexpression of gI modulated these effects. Two regions of the gE ectodomain, amino acids (aa) 278 to 355 and aa 467 to 498, although lacking Ca2+ binding motifs, exhibit similarities with corresponding regions of the cell adhesion molecules, E-cadherin and desmocollin. These observations suggest that VZV gE and gE/gI may contribute to viral pathogenesis by facilitating epithelial cell-cell contacts. PMID:11070038

Mo, Chengjun; Schneeberger, Eveline E.; Arvin, Ann M.

2000-01-01

329

Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells  

SciTech Connect

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li, Yan [Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Nanjing 210009 (China); Qin, Jizheng [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China); Han, Xiaodong, E-mail: hanxd@nju.edu.cn [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China) [Immunology and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Medical College of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2009-12-25

330

In vitro transdifferentiation of corneal epithelial-like cells from human skin-derived precursor cells  

PubMed Central

The damage of human corneal cells encounter with the problem of availability of corneal cells for replacement. Limitation of the source of corneal cells has been realized. An attempt of development of corneal epithelial-like cells from the human skin-derived precursor (hSKPs) has been made in this study. Combination of three essential growth factors: epidermal growth factor (EGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could demonstrate successfully induction of hSKPs to differentiation into corneal cells. The induced cells expressed the appearance of markers of corneal epithelial cells as shown by the presence of keratin 3 (K3) by antibody label and Western blot assay. The K3 gene expression of induced hSKPs cells as shown by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology was also demonstrated. The presence of these markers at both gene and protein levels could lead to our conclusion that the directional transdifferentiation of hSKPs cells into corneal epithelial cells was successfully done under this cell induction protocol. The finding shows a newly available stem cell source can be obtained from easily available skin. Cells from autologous human skin might be used for corneal disorder treatment in future clinical application. PMID:22762041

Saichanma, Sarawut; Bunyaratvej, Ahnond; Sila-asna, Monnipha

2012-01-01

331

Expression and polarized targeting of a rab3 isoform in epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Pathways of polarized membrane traffic in epithelial tissues serve a variety of functions, including the generation of epithelial polarity and the regulation of vectorial transport. We have identified a candidate regulator of polarized membrane traffic in epithelial cells (i.e., rab3B), which is a member of the rab family of membrane traffic regulators. Rab3B is highly homologous to a brain-specific rab3 isoform (rab3A) that targets in a polarized fashion to the presynaptic nerve terminal, where it probably regulates exocytosis. The coding region for human rab3B was cloned from epithelial mRNA using a reverse- transcription polymerase chain reaction strategy. This cDNA clone hybridized to a single mRNA species in Northern blots of poly(A)+ RNA isolated from epithelial cell lines. A rab3B-specific antibody that was raised against recombinant fusion protein recognized a 25-kD band in immunoblots of cell lysates prepared from cultured epithelial cells (e.g., T84 and HT29-CL19A), but not from a variety of nonepithelial cells (e.g., PC12 neuroendocrine cells). Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that rab3B protein is preferentially expressed in cultured epithelial cells as well as in a number of native epithelial tissues, including liver, small intestine, colon, and distal nephron. Rab3B localized to the apical pole very near the tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells within all of these cell lines and native epithelial tissues, as determined by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic analysis. Moreover, this pattern of intracellular targeting was regulated by cell contact; namely, rab3B was reversibly retrieved from the cell periphery as epithelial cell contact was inhibited by reducing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Our results indicate that neurons and epithelial cells express homologous rab3 isoforms that target in a polarized fashion within their respective tissues. The pattern and regulation of rab3B targeting in epithelial cells implicates this monomeric GTPase as a candidate regulator of apical and/or junctional protein traffic in epithelial tissues. PMID:8175882

1994-01-01

332

Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis. PMID:16202976

Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

2005-11-18

333

Drug permeation across intestinal epithelial cells using porous silicon nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Mesoporous silicon particles hold great potential in improving the solubility of otherwise poorly soluble drugs. To effectively translate this feature into the clinic, especially via oral or parenteral administration, a thorough understanding of the interactions of the micro- and nanosized material with the physiological environment during the delivery process is required. In the present study, the behaviour of thermally oxidized porous silicon particles of different sizes interacting with Caco-2 cells (both non-differentiated and polarized monolayers) was investigated in order to establish their fate in a model of intestinal epithelial cell barrier. Particle interactions and TNF-? were measured in RAW 264.7 macrophages, while cell viabilities, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide levels, together with transmission electron microscope images of the polarized monolayers, were assessed with both the Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed a concentration and size dependent influence on cell viability and ROS-, NO- and TNF-? levels. There was no evidence of the porous nanoparticles crossing the Caco-2 cell monolayers, yet increased permeation of the loaded poorly soluble drug, griseofulvin, was shown. PMID:21194747

Bimbo, Luis M; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

2011-04-01

334

Characterization of stress response in human retinal epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) involves demise of the retinal pigment epithelium and death of photoreceptors. In this article, we investigated the response of human adult retinal pigmented epithelial (ARPE-19) cells to 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)amiloride (HMA), an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchangers. We observed that ARPE-19 cells treated with HMA are unable to activate ‘classical’ apoptosis but they succeed to activate autophagy. In the first 2 hrs of HMA exposure, autophagy is efficient in protecting cells from death. Thereafter, autophagy is impaired, as indicated by p62 accumulation, and this protective mechanism becomes the executioner of cell death. This switch in autophagy property as a function of time for a single stimulus is here shown for the first time. The activation of autophagy was observed, at a lesser extent, with etoposide, suggesting that this event might be a general response of ARPE cells to stress and the most important pathway involved in cell resistance to adverse conditions and toxic stimuli. PMID:23205553

Giansanti, Vincenzo; Villalpando Rodriguez, Gloria E; Savoldelli, Michelle; Gioia, Roberta; Forlino, Antonella; Mazzini, Giuliano; Pennati, Marzia; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Scovassi, Anna Ivana; Torriglia, Alicia

2013-01-01

335

Induction of putative stratified epithelial progenitor cells in vitro from mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generally exhibit a normal karyotype, are transcriptionally and epigenetically similar\\u000a to embryonic stem (ES) cells, and maintain the potential to differentiate into derivatives of all germ layers. Recently, the\\u000a use of different types of cell or tissue derived from iPS cells for transplantation has become a possibility. However, the\\u000a differentiation of epithelial lineages from iPS

Miharu Sakurai; Ryuhei Hayashi; Tomofumi Kageyama; Masayuki Yamato; Kohji Nishida

2011-01-01

336

Endothelial Induced EMT in Breast Epithelial Cells with Stem Cell Properties  

PubMed Central

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical event in cancer progression and is closely linked to the breast epithelial cancer stem cell phenotype. Given the close interaction between the vascular endothelium and cancer cells, especially at the invasive front, we asked whether endothelial cells might play a role in EMT. Using a 3D culture model we demonstrate that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in D492 an immortalized breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. Endothelial induced mesenchymal-like cells (D492M) derived from D492, show reduced expression of keratins, a switch from E-Cadherin (E-Cad) to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and enhanced migration. Acquisition of cancer stem cell associated characteristics like increased CD44high/CD24low ratio, resistance to apoptosis and anchorage independent growth was also seen in D492M cells. Endothelial induced EMT in D492 was partially blocked by inhibition of HGF signaling. Basal-like breast cancer, a vascular rich cancer with stem cell properties and adverse prognosis has been linked with EMT. We immunostained several basal-like breast cancer samples for endothelial and EMT markers. Cancer cells close to the vascular rich areas show no or decreased expression of E-Cad and increased N-Cad expression suggesting EMT. Collectively, we have shown in a 3D culture model that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT in breast epithelial cells with stem cell properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal-like breast cancer contains cells with an EMT phenotype, most prominently close to vascular rich areas of these tumors. We conclude that endothelial cells are potent inducers of EMT and may play a role in progression of basal-like breast cancer. PMID:21915264

Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Sigmundsdottir, Hekla; Fridriksdottir, Agla J. R.; Ringnér, Markus; Villadsen, Rene; Borg, Ake; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Petersen, Ole William; Magnusson, Magnus K.; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

2011-01-01

337

Human cytomegalovirus uses two distinct pathways to enter retinal pigmented epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Human cytomegalovirus infects multiple cell types, including fibroblasts and epithelial cells. It penetrates fibroblasts by fusion at the cell surface but is endocytosed into epithelial cells. In this report, we demonstrate by electron microscopy that the virus uses two different routes to enter retinal pigmented epithelial cells, depending on the cell type in which the infecting virus was produced. Virus produced in epithelial cells preferentially fuses with the plasma membrane, whereas fibroblast-derived virus mostly enters by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Treatment of epithelial cells with agents that block endosome acidification inhibited infection by virus produced in fibroblasts but had only a modest effect on infection by virus from epithelial cells. Epithelial cell-generated virions had higher intrinsic "fusion-from-without" activity than fibroblast-generated particles, and the two virus preparations triggered different cellular signaling responses, as evidenced by markedly different transcriptional profiles. We propose that the cell type in which a human cytomegalovirus particle is produced likely influences its subsequent spread and its contribution to pathogenesis. PMID:18077432

Wang, Dai; Yu, Qian-Chun; Schröer, Jörg; Murphy, Eain; Shenk, Thomas

2007-12-11

338

Human amniotic epithelial cells express specific markers of nerve cells and migrate along the nerve fibers in the corpus callosum?  

PubMed Central

Human amniotic epithelial cells were isolated from a piece of fresh amnion. Using immunocytochemical methods, we investigated the expression of neuronal phenotypes (microtubule-associated protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein and nestin) in human amniotic epithelial cells. The conditioned medium of human amniotic epithelial cells promoted the growth and proliferation of rat glial cells cultured in vitro, and this effect was dose-dependent. Human amniotic epithelial cells were further transplanted into the corpus striatum of healthy adult rats and the grafted cells could integrate with the host and migrate 1–2 mm along the nerve fibers in corpus callosum. Our experimental findings indicate that human amniotic epithelial cells may be a new kind of seed cells for use in neurograft.

Wu, Zhiyuan; Hui, Guozhen; Lu, Yi; Liu, Tianjin; Huang, Qin; Guo, Lihe

2012-01-01

339

Aberrant epithelial GREM1 expression initiates colonic tumorigenesis from cells outside the stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome (HMPS) is characterized by the development of mixed-morphology colorectal tumors and is caused by a 40-kb genetic duplication that results in aberrant epithelial expression of the gene encoding mesenchymal bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, GREM1. Here we use HMPS tissue and a mouse model of the disease to show that epithelial GREM1 disrupts homeostatic intestinal morphogen gradients, altering cell fate that is normally determined by position along the vertical epithelial axis. This promotes the persistence and/or reacquisition of stem cell properties in Lgr5-negative progenitor cells that have exited the stem cell niche. These cells form ectopic crypts, proliferate, accumulate somatic mutations and can initiate intestinal neoplasia, indicating that the crypt base stem cell is not the sole cell of origin of colorectal cancer. Furthermore, we show that epithelial expression of GREM1 also occurs in traditional serrated adenomas, sporadic premalignant lesions with a hitherto unknown pathogenesis, and these lesions can be considered the sporadic equivalents of HMPS polyps. PMID:25419707

Davis, Hayley; Irshad, Shazia; Bansal, Mukesh; Rafferty, Hannah; Boitsova, Tatjana; Bardella, Chiara; Jaeger, Emma; Lewis, Annabelle; Freeman-Mills, Luke; Giner, Francesc C; Rodenas-Cuadrado, Pedro; Mallappa, Sreelakshmi; Clark, Susan; Thomas, Huw; Jeffery, Rosemary; Poulsom, Richard; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Novelli, Marco; Chetty, Runjan; Silver, Andrew; Sansom, Owen J; Greten, Florian R; Wang, Lai Mun; East, James E; Tomlinson, Ian; Leedham, Simon J

2015-01-01

340

Effect of oestradiol on mouse uterine epithelial cell tumour necrosis factor-? release is mediated through uterine stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Oestradiol-17? (Oe2) stimulates uterine epithelial cell proliferation and is critical for normal uterine differentiation and secretory function. Oe2 can act directly on the epithelium via the epithelial oestrogen receptor (OR) or indirectly via the OR-positive underlying stroma. A primary role for epithelial–stromal interactions has been established for mediating steroid hormone action in the uterus. This study was undertaken to determine the mode of Oe2 action in regulating epithelial cell cytokine release in the uterus. Mouse uterine epithelial and stromal cells were isolated and cultured separately. Transepithelial resistance (TER) was monitored with an EVOM voltohmmeter to determine monolayer polarity and integrity. Epithelial cells grown alone or in coculture with stromal cells were treated with Oe2. Supernatants collected were assayed for transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. While Oe2 treatment of epithelial cells led to a significant decrease in TER, the amount of TNF-? released was not altered. However, when epithelial cells were cocultured with stromal cells and treated with Oe2, apical TNF-? release was significantly decreased, compared to cells not treated with hormone. As determined by oestrogen receptor antagonist studies, Oe2 primed epithelial cells for the action of the stromal paracrine factor(s). In contrast, TGF-? release by epithelial cells was not affected by Oe2 when grown alone or in the presence of stromal cells. These studies indicate that Oe2 has both direct and indirect effects on the uterine epithelium. While epithelial monolayer integrity is directly influenced by Oe2, TNF-? release in response to Oe2 is dependent on the presence of stromal cells, indicating that paracrine communication is necessary for steroid regulation of some but not all cytokines. PMID:15819702

Grant-Tschudy, Katherine S; Wira, Charles R

2005-01-01

341

Development and characterization of a solid dispersion film for the vaginal application of the anti-HIV microbicide UAMC01398.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a vaginal film delivery system for UAMC01398, a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently under investigation for use as an anti-HIV microbicide. UAMC01398 (1mg) films consisting of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) in different ratios were prepared by solvent evaporation. Based on its flexibility, softness and translucent appearance, the 30% PEG400 and 70% HPMC containing film was selected for further assessment. The vaginal film formulation was fast-dissolving (<10 min in 1 mL of vaginal fluid simulant), stable up to at least one month and safe toward epithelial cells and lactobacilli. Furthermore, formulating UAMC01398 into the film dosage form did not influence its antiviral activity. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous nature of the UAMC01398 film, resulting in enhanced compound permeation across the epithelial HEC-1A cell layer, presumably owing to the induction of supersaturation. The in vivo vaginal tissue uptake of UAMC01398 in rabbits, as measured by systemic concentrations, was increased compared to the previously established non-solubilizing gel (significant difference) and sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (5%) containing gel. To conclude, we identified a film formulation suitable for the vaginal delivery of UAMC01398. PMID:25175729

Grammen, Carolien; Van den Mooter, Guy; Appeltans, Bernard; Michiels, Johan; Crucitti, Tania; Ariën, Kevin K; Augustyns, Koen; Augustijns, Patrick; Brouwers, Joachim

2014-11-20

342

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions induce enamel matrix proteins and proteases in the epithelial cells of the rests of Malassez in vitro.  

PubMed

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions influence morphogenesis and cell differentiation in periodontal tissue regeneration. The current study examined the expression of amelogenin, ameloblastin, matrix metallopeptidase-20 (MMP-20), and kallikrein-4 (KLK-4) and their effects on the interactions between the epithelial cells of Malassez and periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Explants of human periodontal ligament tissues produced outgrowths containing both the epithelial cells of Malassez and periodontal ligament fibroblasts after incubation in a modified serum-free medium. Both the epithelial cells and fibroblasts were co-cultured in the same dish. The distribution and expression of all four factors were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis. The epithelial cells of Malassez were cultured separately and were used as the control. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed weak expression of amelogenin, ameloblastin, MMP-20 and KLK-4 in epithelial cells of Malassez co-cultured with periodontal ligament fibroblasts. in-situ hybridization and RT-PCR confirmed significant mRNA expression of these factors in co-cultured cells compared with control cells. MMP20 mRNA was not expressed in control cells. These results suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions promote differentiation of human epithelial cells of Malassez and that the induction of enamel matrix proteases facilitates the degradation of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:23167463

Takahashi, Ken; Shimonishi, Mitsuru; Wang, Rui; Watanabe, Hiroatsu; Kikuchi, Masahiko

2012-12-01

343

Nectin4 Is an Epithelial Cell Receptor for Canine Distemper Virus and Involved in Neurovirulence  

PubMed Central

Canine distemper virus (CDV) uses signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), expressed on immune cells, as a receptor. However, epithelial and neural cells are also affected by CDV in vivo. Wild-type CDV strains showed efficient replication with syncytia in Vero cells expressing dog nectin4, and the infection was blocked by an anti-nectin4 antibody. In dogs with distemper, CDV antigen was preferentially detected in nectin4-positive neurons and epithelial cells, suggesting that nectin4 is an epithelial cell receptor for CDV and also involved in its neurovirulence. PMID:22761370

Pratakpiriya, Watanyoo; Seki, Fumio; Otsuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Kouji; Fukuhara, Hideo; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hirai, Takuya; Maenaka, Katsumi; Techangamsuwan, Somporn; Lan, Nguyen Thi; Takeda, Makoto

2012-01-01

344

KLF5 Activates MicroRNA 200 Transcription To Maintain Epithelial Characteristics and Prevent Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

KLF5 is an essential basic transcriptional factor that regulates a number of physiopathological processes. In this study, we tested whether and how KLF5 modulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated epithelial cells as an established model of EMT, we found that KLF5 was downregulated during EMT and that knockdown of KLF5 induced EMT even in the absence of TGF-? and EGF treatment, as indicated by phenotypic and molecular EMT properties. Array-based screening suggested and biochemical analyses confirmed that the microRNA 200 (miR-200) microRNAs, a group of well-established EMT repressors, were transcriptionally activated by KLF5 via its direct binding to the GC boxes in miR-200 gene promoters. Functionally, overexpression of miR-200 prevented the EMT induced by KLF5 knockdown or by TGF-? and EGF treatment, and ectopic expression of KLF5 attenuated TGF-?- and EGF-induced EMT by rescuing the expression of miR-200. In mouse prostates, knockout of Klf5 downregulated the miR-200 family and induced molecular changes indicative of EMT. These findings indicate that KLF5 maintains epithelial characteristics and prevents EMT by transcriptionally activating the miR-200 family in epithelial cells. PMID:24126055

Zhang, Baotong; Zhang, Zhiqian; Xia, Siyuan; Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ranran; Tian, Sha; Ma, Gui; Zhu, Zhengmao; Fu, Liya

2013-01-01

345

The effect of vitamin D on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women  

PubMed Central

Background: Most of the women suffer from vaginal atrophy and dryness, and therefore, efficient and safe treatment is needed to improve vaginal lubrication. Vitamin D has several important functions which may be effective in proliferation and repair of the epithelial tissue. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of vitamin D vaginal suppositories on maturation index, pH, and dryness in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: Women were enrolled in this double-blind clinical trial, in whom menopause occurred at least one year ago. Those women who had an abnormal Papanicolaou smear, had undergone hormonal treatment, or have had vaginal infection in the previous year were excluded. Forty-four women who found eligible were randomized into two equal groups, the treatment and control groups, which received vitamin D and placebo vaginal suppository daily for 8 weeks, respectively. Vaginal pH and maturation value were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Pain, dryness, and paleness were assessed before treatment and at the end of the 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results: In the treatment group, the number (Mean ± SD) of superficial cells increased (69.76 ± 12.4) and vaginal pH decreased (1.42 ± 0.67) significantly compared to the control group after 56 days. The mean pain significantly reduced after 8 weeks in the treatment group (1.23 ± 0.53) compared to the control group 1.95 ± 0.74 (P < 0.001). The mean of dryness and paleness reduced significantly in the treatment group versus control at 56 days. Conclusions: Vitamin D is effective in improving the maturation index and decreased the pH and dryness of the vaginal atrophy due to menopause.

Rad, Parastou; Tadayon, Mitra; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood; Rashidi, Iran; Delaviz, Hamdollah

2015-01-01

346

Effect of vaginal or systemic estrogen on dynamics of collagen assembly in the rat vaginal wall.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support. PMID:25537371

Montoya, T Ignacio; Maldonado, P Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Word, R Ann

2015-02-01

347

Vaginal histological changes after using intravaginal sponges for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes.  

PubMed

To characterize the histological and cytological vaginal changes generated by the use of intravaginal sponge (IS) applied in oestrous synchronization treatments in ewes during mid-non-breeding season. Thirty-five multiparous ewes were allocated to three experimental groups according to the moment in which the samples were taken: (i) ewes treated with IS containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days, sampled the day of IS removal (group ISR; n = 10), (ii) or after sponge removal at time of oestrus or 72 h after removal (group AR; n = 14) and (iii) ewes without sponge treatment that were sampled at the day of IS removal of the other groups (group CG; n = 11). Vaginal biopsies and cytological samples were taken from the anterior vaginal fornix area. The vagina of the CG group had a stratified squamous epithelium with a moderate degree of cellular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propia. Treated ewes (ISR and AR) had epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ISR ewes had haemorrhage and perivascular infiltrate and an increased number of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and erythrocytes at IS removal. The use of IS generated histological and cytological alterations in the vaginal wall when used for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes. PMID:25604995

Manes, J; Campero, C; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R; Ungerfeld, R

2015-04-01

348

Cytokine effect on fibronectin release by retinal pigment epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Because fibronectin (FN) is known to be present in membranes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy, we sought to identify cytokines that regulate the release of FN by retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE). Levels of FN in the supernatant of cultured human RPE cells were quantified with an ELISA, after which the cells were stimulated with human recombinant cytokines, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), transforming growth factor beta 1 and 2 (TGF-beta), and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Protein kinase C (PKC) was blocked by 2 nM calphostin C or 1 mM staurosporine. RPE cells released FN into the supernatant constitutively. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 upregulated the FN release in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The other cytokines tested were without effect. In combination, IFN-gamma and IL-1 beta reduced the effect of TGF-beta. PMA, which is a PKC activator, also increased the release of FN in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking of PKC with specific inhibitors abolished the effects of TGF-beta and PMA. The results show that TGF-beta is a potent stimulator of FN release by RPE cells, and exerts its effects via signal transduction involving PKC. Its effect is reduced by IFN-gamma. PMID:7956309

Osusky, R; Soriano, D; Ye, J; Ryan, S J

1994-08-01

349

Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

1996-01-01

350

Transformation of polarized epithelial cells by apical mistrafficking of epiregulin  

PubMed Central

Establishment and maintenance of apico-basolateral trafficking pathways are critical to epithelial homeostasis. Loss of polarity and trafficking fidelity are thought to occur as a consequence of transformation; however, here we report that selective mistrafficking of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin (EREG) from the basolateral to the apical cell surface drives transformation. Normally, EREG is preferentially delivered to the basolateral surface of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. EREG basolateral trafficking is regulated by a conserved tyrosine-based basolateral sorting motif in its cytoplasmic domain (YXX?: Y156ERV). Both Y156 and V159 are required for basolateral sorting of EREG, because Y156A and V159G substitutions redirect EREG to the apical cell surface. We also show that basolateral sorting of EREG is adaptor protein 1B–independent. Apical mistrafficking of EREG has a distinctive phenotype. In contrast to transient EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation after basolateral EREG stimulation, apical EREG leads to prolonged EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, which may be related, at least in part, to a lack of negative regulatory Y1045 phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitylation. Notably, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells stably expressing apically mistrafficked EREG form significantly larger, hyperproliferative, poorly differentiated, and locally invasive tumors in nude mice compared with WT EREG-expressing cells. PMID:23671122

Singh, Bhuminder; Bogatcheva, Galina; Washington, Mary Kay; Coffey, Robert J.

2013-01-01

351

Small-molecule induction promotes corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation. PMID:24527395

Mikhailova, Alexandra; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

2014-02-11

352

Cell wall glycoproteins participate in the adhesion of Sporothrix schenckii to epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Sporothrix schenckii is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis. This fungal infection is an emerging disease potentially fatal in immunocompromised patients. The adhesion to host cells is a crucial early event related with the dissemination of pathogens. In order to clarify the mechanisms of adhesion of S. schenckii yeast cell to epithelial cells, we studied the biochemical basis of this process. The electrophoretic analysis of cell wall protein from S. schenckii coupled at ConA and stained with HRP, revealed nine different proteins with MW ? 180, 115, 90, 80, 58, 40, 36, 22 and 18 kDa. Using ligand-like assay with biotinylated S. schenckii surface proteins, five proteins with MW ? 190, 180, 115, 90 and 80 kDa which have affinity to epithelial cells were identified. The adhesion of yeast to epithelial monolayer was significantly inhibited when S. schenckii was pretreated with concanavalinA (ConA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) lectins, alkali, periodate, trypsin, endoglycosidase H (EndoH), salt solutions and detergents. The ability of adhesion of S. schenckii yeast was recovered by blocking the lectin with sugar complementary. These data suggest that surface glycoprotein with mannose and glucose residue could be participate in the process of fungal adhesion to epithelial cells. PMID:21082256

Sandoval-Bernal, Gerardo; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria; Shibayama, Mineko; Perez-Torres, Armando; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Sabanero, Myrna

2011-04-01

353

Small-Molecule Induction Promotes Corneal Epithelial Cell Differentiation from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer unique opportunities for developing novel cell-based therapies and disease modeling. In this study, we developed a directed differentiation method for hiPSCs toward corneal epithelial progenitor cells capable of terminal differentiation toward mature corneal epithelial-like cells. In order to improve the efficiency and reproducibility of our method, we replicated signaling cues active during ocular surface ectoderm development with the help of two small-molecule inhibitors in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in serum-free and feeder-free conditions. First, small-molecule induction downregulated the expression of pluripotency markers while upregulating several transcription factors essential for normal eye development. Second, protein expression of the corneal epithelial progenitor marker p63 was greatly enhanced, with up to 95% of cells being p63 positive after 5 weeks of differentiation. Third, corneal epithelial-like cells were obtained upon further maturation. PMID:24527395

Mikhailova, Alexandra; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

2014-01-01

354

Primary cilia and aberrant cell signaling in epithelial ovarian cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Ovarian cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Denmark, largely due to the advanced stage at diagnosis in most patients. Approximately 90% of ovarian cancers originate from the single-layered ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). Defects in the primary cilium, a solitary sensory organelle in most cells types including OSE, were recently implicated in tumorigenesis, mainly due to deregulation of ciliary signaling pathways such as Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. However, a possible link between primary cilia and epithelial ovarian cancer has not previously been investigated. Methods The presence of primary cilia was analyzed in sections of fixed human ovarian tissue as well as in cultures of normal human ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells and two human OSE-derived cancer cell lines. We also used immunofluorescence microscopy, western blotting, RT-PCR and siRNA to investigate ciliary signaling pathways in these cells. Results We show that ovarian cancer cells display significantly reduced numbers of primary cilia. The reduction in ciliation frequency in these cells was not due to a failure to enter growth arrest, and correlated with persistent centrosomal localization of aurora A kinase (AURA). Further, we demonstrate that ovarian cancer cells have deregulated Hh signaling and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) expression and that promotion of ciliary formation/stability by AURA siRNA depletion decreases Hh signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Lastly, we show that the tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of AURA, checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger domains (CHFR), localizes to the centrosome/primary cilium axis. Conclusions Our results suggest that primary cilia play a role in maintaining OSE homeostasis and that the low frequency of primary cilia in cancer OSE cells may result in part from over-expression of AURA, leading to aberrant Hh signaling and ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:23351307

2012-01-01

355

Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Suppression of Phagolysosome Activation  

PubMed Central

The eye is an immune privileged tissue with multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression to protect the light gathering tissues from the damage of inflammation. One of theses mechanisms involves retinal pigment epithelial cell suppression of phagosome activation in macrophages. The objective of this work is to determine if the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 is capable of suppressing the activation of the phagolysosome in macrophages in a manner similar to primary RPE. The conditioned media of RPE eyecups, sub-confluent, just confluent cultures, or established confluent cultures of human ARPE-19 cells were generated. These condition media were used to treat macrophages phagocytizing pHrodo bioparticles. After 24 hours incubation the macrophages were imaged by fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescence was measured. The fluorescent intensity is proportional to the amount of bioparticles phagocytized and are in an activated phagolysosome. The conditioned media of in situ mouse RPE eyecups significantly suppressed the activation of phagolysosome. The conditioned media from cultures of human ARPE-19 cells, grown to sub-confluence (50%) or grown to confluence had no effect on phagolysosome activation. In contrast, the conditioned media from established confluent cultures significantly suppressed phagolysosome activation. The neuropeptides alpha-MSH and NPY were depleted from the conditioned media of established confluent ARPE-19 cell cultures. This depleted conditioned media had diminished suppression of phagolysosome activation while promoting macrophage cell death. In addition, the condition media from cultures of ARPE-19 monolayers wounded with a bisecting scrape was diminished in suppressing phagolysosome activation. This technical report suggests that like primary RPE monolayers, established confluent cultures of ARPE-19 cells produce soluble factors that suppress the activation of macrophages, and can be used to study the molecular mechanisms of retinal immunobiology. In addition, the results further demonstrate the importance of an intact monolayer of RPE cells to modulate immune cell activity within the eye.

Taylor, AW; Dixit, S; Yu, J

2015-01-01

356

Cell cycle-dependent regulation of extra-adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis in murine intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory steroids with important applications in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Endogenous glucocorticoids are mainly produced by the adrenal glands, although there is increasing evidence for extra-adrenal sources. Recent findings show that intestinal crypt cells produce glucocorticoids, which contribute to the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis. Intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis is critically regulated by the transcription factor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1). As expression of steroidogenic enzymes and LRH-1 is restricted to the proliferating cells of the crypts, we aimed to investigate the role of the cell cycle in the regulation of LRH-1 activity and intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis. We here show that either pharmacological or molecular modulation of cell cycle progression significantly inhibited expression of steroidogenic enzymes and synthesis of glucocorticoids in intestinal epithelial cells. Synchronization of intestinal epithelial cells in the cell cycle revealed that expression of steroidogenic enzymes is preferentially induced at the G(1)/S stage. Differentiation of immature intestinal epithelial cells to mature nonproliferating cells also resulted in reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. This cell cycle-related effect on intestinal steroidogenesis was found to be mediated through the regulation of LRH-1 transcriptional activity. This mechanism may restrict intestinal glucocorticoid synthesis to the proliferating cells of the crypts. PMID:18711026

Atanasov, Atanas G; Leiser, Dominic; Roesselet, Corinne; Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Schoonjans, Kristina; Brunner, Thomas

2008-12-01

357

Vectorial secretion of prostaglandins by polarized rodent uterine epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Uterine epithelial cells (UEC) isolated from mature mice as well as immature mice and rats were cultured on EHS matrix-coated nitrocellulose filters in order to determine their ability to secrete prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha and PGE2 in a polarized manner. Ultrastructural analyses were performed to validate the polar nature of mouse UEC and demonstrate the presence of separate apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains. These properties included the presence of tightly juxtaposed lateral membranes, apical microvilli, and a relatively flat basal surface. Biochemical indices of polarity included the preferential (approximately 5:1) basal uptake of [35S]methionine as well as a preferential (approximately 9:1) apical secretion of protein. UEC isolated from mice during the estrous and diestrous stages of the estrous cycle did not differ in their degree of polarity, as measured by these morphological and biochemical indices. UEC of estrous and diestrous mice as well as immature mice and rats preferentially secreted PGF2 alpha to the basal medium to an approximately 4-fold greater extent than to the apical medium. PGE2 was secreted at least 10-fold less than PGF2 alpha, and a preferential basal secretion could not be demonstrated. Polarized UEC accumulated relatively large cellular pools of PGF2 alpha, while nonpolarized cells grown on matrix-coated plastic did not. This difference was reflected by the inability of an inhibitor of PG biosynthesis, indomethacin, to inhibit PGF2 alpha secretion by polarized cells during short (4-h) incubations. In contrast, this drug effectively inhibited secretion in nonpolarized cells or polarized cells incubated with indomethacin for longer (24-h) intervals. Therefore, cellular PGF2 alpha pools apparently support continued secretion of this lipid even when de novo synthesis is transiently inhibited. Preferential basal secretion of PGF2 alpha was due to the polar nature of UEC, since disruption of tight junctions with EGTA modified the basal to apical ratio of PGF2 alpha secretion to near unity. Sodium azide inhibited the secretion of PGF2 alpha, indicating that PGF2 alpha secretion was energy dependent. PGF2 alpha secretion was not coupled to protein synthesis or secretion, since cycloheximide did not inhibit this process in polarized or nonpolarized cells. These studies describe the first evidence for polarized secretion of lipid-derived hormones by epithelial cells. The preferential basal secretion of PGF2 alpha may play an important role in regulating UEC interactions with the underlying stroma. PMID:2318159

Jacobs, A L; Decker, G L; Glasser, S R; Julian, J; Carson, D D

1990-04-01

358

Bactericidal effects of antimicrobial agents on epithelial cell-associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

It is not clear whether antipseudomonal agents can kill cell-associated bacteria within a short time. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and A549 cells were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and PAO1 and the bactericidal activity of ceftazidime, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin against the organisms was investigated. In both MDCK and A549 cells, ?-lactams could not kill epithelial cell-associated bacteria within 2 h. Gentamicin at concentrations ?32 ?g/ml killed more than 99% of epithelial cell-associated bacteria. Ciprofloxacin at 0.5 ?g/ml killed more than 99.9% of MDCK cell-associated bacteria. Ciprofloxacin has the strongest and most rapid bactericidal activity against epithelial cell-associated bacteria, which may be explained by the combination of potent in-vitro bactericidal activity and high penetration ability into epithelial cells. PMID:22116462

Hirakata, Yoichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Arai, Kazuaki; Kitagawa, Miho; Hatta, Masumitsu; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Kaku, Mitsuo

2012-06-01

359

CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

360

p63 Attenuates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Potential in an Experimental Prostate Cell Model  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor p63 is central for epithelial homeostasis and development. In our model of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human prostate cells, p63 was one of the most down-regulated transcription factors during EMT. We therefore investigated the role of p63 in EMT. Over-expression of the predominant epithelial isoform ?Np63? in mesenchymal type cells of the model led to gain of several epithelial characteristics without resulting in a complete mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). This was corroborated by a reciprocal effect when p63 was knocked down in epithelial EP156T cells. Global gene expression analyses showed that ?Np63? induced gene modules involved in both cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular-matrix junctions in mesenchymal type cells. Genome-wide analysis of p63 binding sites using ChIP-seq analyses confirmed binding of p63 to regulatory areas of genes associated with cell adhesion in prostate epithelial cells. DH1 and ZEB1 are two elemental factors in the control of EMT. Over-expression and knock-down of these factors, respectively, were not sufficient alone or in combination with ?Np63? to reverse completely the mesenchymal phenotype. The partial reversion of epithelial to mesenchymal transition might reflect the ability of ?Np63?, as a key co-ordinator of several epithelial gene expression modules, to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). The utility of ?Np63? expression and the potential of reduced EMP in order to counteract metastasis warrant further investigation. PMID:23658742

Olsen, Jan Roger; Oyan, Anne Margrete; Rostad, Kari; Hellem, Margrete R.; Liu, Jie; Li, Lisha; Micklem, David R.; Haugen, Hallvard; Lorens, James B.; Rotter, Varda; Ke, Xi-Song; Lin, Biaoyang; Kalland, Karl-Henning

2013-01-01

361

Epithelial Cells Derived from Swine Bone Marrow Express Stem Cell Markers and Support Influenza Virus Replication In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The bone marrow contains heterogeneous population of cells that are involved in the regeneration and repair of diseased organs, including the lungs. In this study, we isolated and characterized progenitor epithelial cells from the bone marrow of 4- to 5-week old germ-free pigs. Microscopically, the cultured cells showed epithelial-like morphology. Phenotypically, these cells expressed the stem cell markers octamer-binding transcription factor (Oct4) and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA-1), the alveolar stem cell marker Clara cell secretory protein (Ccsp), and the epithelial cell markers pan-cytokeratin (Pan-K), cytokeratin-18 (K-18), and occludin. When cultured in epithelial cell growth medium, the progenitor epithelial cells expressed type I and type II pneumocyte markers. Next, we examined the susceptibility of these cells to influenza virus. Progenitor epithelial cells expressed sialic acid receptors utilized by avian and mammalian influenza viruses and were targets for influenza virus replication. Additionally, differentiated type II but not type I pneumocytes supported the replication of influenza virus. Our data indicate that we have identified a unique population of progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow that might have airway reconstitution potential and may be a useful model for cell-based therapies for infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. PMID:22216319

Khatri, Mahesh; Saif, Yehia M.

2011-01-01

362

int. j. radiat. biol 2001, vol. 77, no. 1, 31 40 Oncoprotein expression in human breast epithelial cells  

E-print Network

and tumorigenic human breast epithelial cells Other changes may confer genetic instability, induced by high-LET a have both its genesis and human breast epithelial cells induced by high-LET radiation. In cell growthint. j. radiat. biol 2001, vol. 77, no. 1, 31± 40 Oncoprotein expression in human breast epithelial

363

Increased epithelial stem cell traits in advanced endometrial endometrioid carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background It has been recognized cancer cells acquire characters reminiscent of those of normal stem cells, and the degree of stem cell gene expression correlates with patient prognosis. Lgr5(+) or CD133(+) epithelial stem cells (EpiSCs) have recently been identified and these cells are susceptible to neoplastic transformation. It is unclear, however, whether genes enriched in EpiSCs also contribute in tumor malignancy. Endometrial endometrioid carcinoma (EEC) is a dominant type of the endometrial cancers and is still among the most common female cancers. Clinically endometrial carcinoma is classified into 4 FIGO stages by the degree of tumor invasion and metastasis, and the survival rate is low in patients with higher stages of tumors. Identifying genes shared between advanced tumors and stem cells will not only unmask the mechanisms of tumor malignancy but also provide novel therapeutic targets. Results To identify EpiSC genes in late (stages III-IV) EECs, a molecular signature distinguishing early (stages I-II) and late EECs was first identified to delineate late EECs at the genomics level. ERBB2 and CCR1 were genes activated in late EECs, while APBA2 (MINT2) and CDK inhibitor p16 tumor suppressors in early EECs. MAPK pathway was significantly up in late EECs, indicating drugs targeting this canonical pathway might be useful for treating advanced EECs. A six-gene mini-signature was further identified to differentiate early from advanced EECs in both the training and testing datasets. Advanced, invasive EECs possessed a clear EpiSC gene expression pattern, explaining partly why these tumors are more malignant. Conclusions Our work provides new insights into the pathogenesis of EECs and reveals a previously unknown link between adult stem cells and the histopathological traits of EECs. Shared EpiSC genes in late EECs may contribute to the stem cell-like phenotypes shown by advanced tumors and hold the potential of being candidate therapeutic targets and novel prognosis biomarkers. PMID:20015385

2009-01-01

364

Cultivation of Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells in Serum-Free Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To establish conditions for cultivation, serial growth, and normal differentiation of corneal epithelial cells in serum-free medium (SFM). Methods. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells were co-cultured with lethally treated 3T3-cell feeder layers. Instead of serum, medium was supplemented with serum albumin, hormones, and other additives. Cell growth was quantitated spectrophotometrically with a new rhodamine-B staining protocol with a sensitivity range

Federico Castro-Munozledo; Walid Kuri-Harcuch

1997-01-01

365

Transforming Growth Factors Produced by Normal and Neoplastically Transformed Rat Liver Epithelial Cells in Culture1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretion of transforming growth factors (TGFs) a and ßby normal, chemically transformed, and malignant rat liver epithelial cell lines was investigated. The WB-F344 normal cultured rat liver epithelial cell line does not secrete an epidermal growth factor-like (putative!) TGF-a) activity, but several clonal cell strains derived from WB-F344 cells which had been treated with JV-methyl-\\/V'-nitro-AT-nitrosoguanidine, especially those that expressed

Chi Liu; Ming-Sound Isao; Joe W. Grisham

366

Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.  

PubMed Central

1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

1996-01-01

367

Collective cell streams in epithelial monolayers depend on cell adhesion  

PubMed Central

We report a spontaneously emerging, randomly oriented, collective streaming behavior within a monolayer culture of a human keratinocyte cell line, and explore the effect of modulating cell adhesions by perturbing the function of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. We demonstrate that decreasing cell adhesion induces narrower and more anisotropic cell streams, reminiscent of decreasing the Taylor scale of turbulent liquids. To explain our empirical findings, we propose a cell-based model that represents the dual nature of cell-cell adhesions. Spring-like connections provide mechanical stability, while a cellular Potts model formalism represents surface-tension driven attachment. By changing the relevance and persistence of mechanical links between cells, we are able to explain the experimentally observed changes in emergent flow patterns. PMID:24363603

Czirók, András; Varga, Katalin; Méhes, El?d; Szabó, András

2013-01-01

368

Regulation of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells by Cell Contact and Adhesion  

PubMed Central

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological program that is activated during cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We show here that EMT-related processes are linked to a broad and conserved program of transcriptional alterations that are influenced by cell contact and adhesion. Using cultured human breast cancer and mouse mammary epithelial cells, we find that reduced cell density, conditions under which cell contact is reduced, leads to reduced expression of genes associated with mammary epithelial cell differentiation and increased expression of genes associated with breast cancer. We further find that treatment of cells with matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), an inducer of EMT, interrupts a defined subset of cell contact-regulated genes, including genes encoding a variety of RNA splicing proteins known to regulate the expression of Rac1b, an activated splice isoform of Rac1 known to be a key mediator of MMP-3-induced EMT in breast, lung, and pancreas. These results provide new insights into how MMPs act in cancer progression and how loss of cell–cell interactions is a key step in the earliest stages of cancer development. PMID:25698877

Cichon, Magdalena A; Nelson, Celeste M; Radisky, Derek C

2015-01-01

369

Interleukin-1 stimulates zinc uptake by human thymic epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to secrete peptides which influence the differentiation and maturation of T-lymphocytes. These peptides include the thymic hormones thymulin, thymosin-{alpha}1, and thymopoietin. The biological activity of thymulin is dependent on the presence of zinc in an equimolar ratio. The authors have shown that both interleukin-1{alpha}(IL-1{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}(IL-1{beta}), which stimulate proliferation of TEC, stimulate the uptake of Zn-65 in-vitro independent of this proliferation. Mitomycin-C was used to inhibit the proliferation of TEC. Two other stimulators of proliferation of TEC, bovine pituitary extract (BPE) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), did not stimulate zinc uptake by the TEC independent of proliferation. They have also shown, utilizing in-situ hybridization, that IL-1 and zinc induce metallothionein(MT) mRNA expression in human thymic epithelial cells. The exact role of metallothionein is not clear, but it is thought to be involved in regulation of trace metal metabolism, especially in maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Their current hypothesis is that IL-1 stimulates uptake of zinc into the TEC, followed by its complexing with metallothionein. Zinc is then thought to be transferred from metallothionein to thymulin. Immunostaining, utilizing an antithymulin antibody and a fluoresceinated goat anti-rabbit second antibody, confirms the presence of thymulin in TEC and its dependence on zinc. Upon stimulation, thymulin is then secreted. Known stimulants for thymulin include progesterone, dexamethasone, estradiol, testosterone, and prolactin. None of these secretagogues increase zinc uptake, suggesting the priming of the zinc-thymulin complex is unrelated to the regulation of its secretion.

Coto, J.A.; Hadden, J.W. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (United States))

1991-03-15

370

Reviewing the options for local estrogen treatment of vaginal atrophy  

PubMed Central

Background Vaginal atrophy is a chronic condition with symptoms that include vaginal dryness, pain during sex, itching, irritation, burning, and discharge, as well as various urinary problems. Up to 45% of postmenopausal women may be affected, but it often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the current recommendations for treatment of vaginal atrophy, and current data on the effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies. Methods Literature regarding vaginal atrophy (2007–2012) was retrieved from PubMed and summarized, with emphasis on data related to the treatment of vaginal atrophy with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Results Published data support the effectiveness and endometrial safety of low-dose local estrogen therapies. These results further support the general recommendation by the North American Menopause Society that a progestogen is not needed for endometrial protection in patients using low-dose local vaginal estrogen. Benefits of long-term therapy for vaginal atrophy include sustained relief of symptoms as well as physiological improvements (eg, decreased vaginal pH and increased blood flow, epithelial thickness, secretions). Conclusion Currently available local vaginal estrogen therapies are well tolerated and effective in relieving symptoms of vaginal atrophy. Recent data support the endometrial safety of low-dose regimens for up to 1 year. PMID:24648775

Lindahl, Sarah H

2014-01-01

371

Cell surface expression and biosynthesis of epithelial Na+ channels.  

PubMed Central

The epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) complex is composed of three homologous subunits: alpha, beta and gamma. Mutations in ENaC subunits can increase the number of channels on the cell surface, causing a hereditary form of hypertension called Liddle's syndrome, or can decrease channel activity, causing pseudohypoaldosteronism type I, a salt-wasting disease of infancy. To investigate surface expression, we studied ENaC subunits expressed in COS-7 and HEK293 cells. Using surface biotinylation and protease sensitivity, we found that when individual ENaC subunits are expressed alone, they traffic to the cell surface. The subunits are glycosylated with high-mannose oligosaccharides, but seem to have the carbohydrate removed before they reach the cell surface. Moreover, subunits form a complex that cannot be disrupted by several non-ionic detergents. The pattern of glycosylation and detergent solubility/insolubility persists when the N-teminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions of ENaC are removed. With co-expression of all three ENaC subunits, the insoluble complex is the predominant species. These results show that ENaC and its family members are unique in their trafficking, biochemical characteristics and post-translational modifications. PMID:9841884

Prince, L S; Welsh, M J

1998-01-01

372

Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response), a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NF?B family members), and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids). These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination. PMID:24812617

Chiribao, María Laura; Libisch, Gabriela; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Robello, Carlos

2014-01-01

373

Expression of the secretory leukoprotease inhibitor gene in epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

The secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) gene codes for a 12-kD protein that within the lung protects the airway epithelium from neutrophil elastase. Screening of 228 alleles in 114 individuals for sequence differences by RNase protection of genomic DNA revealed no detectable polymorphisms in SLPI gene exons II-IV. SLPI gene expression in the lung was demonstrated by identifying SLPI mRNA transcripts in bronchial epithelial cells freshly isolated from normals. Cell lines derived from mucosal surfaces (HS-24 bronchial squamous cell carcinoma, HeLa cervical carcinoma) actively transcribe the SLPI gene and contain SLPI mRNA transcripts, while lung fibroblasts demonstrate no evidence of SLPI gene expression. SLPI mRNA transcripts appear to be relatively stable, with mRNA levels only mildly affected by inhibition of RNA synthesis. Chromatin DNA of HS-24 cells demonstrates two DNase I hypersensitivity sites within the 5' flanking region of exon I of the SLPI gene, whereas fibroblast chromatin has no DNase I accessible sites in the same region. Further analysis of the 5' flanking region demonstrated two contiguous transcription start sites, CAAT and TATA boxes, and several potential regions of known DNA binding proteins. Overall, the SLPI gene appears to be a relatively nonpolymorphic, stable gene that is constitutively expressed at specific tissue sites, but has the potential to be modulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Images PMID:1674946

Abe, T; Kobayashi, N; Yoshimura, K; Trapnell, B C; Kim, H; Hubbard, R C; Brewer, M T; Thompson, R C; Crystal, R G

1991-01-01

374

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Oral cancer is one of the drastic human cancers due to its aggressiveness and high mortality rate. Of all oral cancers, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common accounting for more than 90%. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is suggested to play an important role during cancer invasion and metastasis. Recently, emerging knowledge on EMT in carcinogenesis is explosive, tempting us to analyze previous studies on EMT in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this paper, we have first addressed the general molecular mechanisms of EMT, evidenced by alterations of cell morphology during EMT, the presence of cadherin switching, turning on and turning off of many specific genes, the activation of various signaling pathways, and so on. The remaining part of this paper will focus on recent findings of the investigations of EMT on OSCC. These include the evidence of EMT taking place in OSCC and the signaling pathways employed by OSCC cells during their invasion and metastasis. Collectively, with the large body of new knowledge on EMT in OSCC elaborated here, we are hopeful that targeting treatment for OSCC will be developed. PMID:22548191

Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai; Iamaroon, Anak

2012-01-01

375

Quantitative analysis of epithelial cells in urine from men with and without urethritis: implications for studying epithelial: pathogen interactions in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epithelial cells in first catch urine (FCU) specimens from 87 men with and without urethritis were quantified. Epithelial cells were broadly categorised into transitional and squamous populations using morphological characteristics and immunostaining with anti-pan leukocyte and anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibodies. FINDINGS: The majority (77\\/87 = 89%) of samples contained both transitional (76\\/87 = 87%; range 1 × 104 – 6

Rebecca Wiggins; Patrick J Horner; Kate Whittington; Christopher H Holmes

2009-01-01

376

Directed Actin Polymerization Is the Driving Force for Epithelial Cell–Cell Adhesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that epithelial cells engage in a process of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion that utilizes calcium and actin polymerization in unexpected ways. Calcium stimulates filopodia, which penetrate and embed into neighboring cells. E-cadherin complexes cluster at filopodia tips, generating a two-rowed zipper of embedded puncta. Opposing cell surfaces are clamped by desmosomes, while vinculin, zyxin, VASP, and Mena are

Valeri Vasioukhin; Christoph Bauer; Mei Yin; Elaine Fuchs

2000-01-01

377

Human intestinal epithelial cells promote the differentiation of tolerogenic dendritic cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:In mice, a subpopulation of gut dendritic cells (DCs) expressing CD103 drives the development of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Further, it was recently described that the cross-talk between human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and DCs helps in maintaining gut immune homeostasis via the induction of non-inflammatory DCs. In this study, an analysis was carried out to determine whether IECs could

I D Iliev; I Spadoni; E Mileti; G Matteoli; A Sonzogni; G M Sampietro; D Foschi; F Caprioli; G Viale; M Rescigno

2009-01-01

378

Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

Shin, Jung Ar [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Sil [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Ho [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pathology, Pochon CHA University, College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Jung, E-mail: khj57@yuhs.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei University Health System, Seoul 135-270 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Do, E-mail: ydy1130@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-09-20

379

Activated Alveolar Epithelial Cells Initiate Fibrosis through Secretion of Mesenchymal Proteins  

PubMed Central

Fibrosis is characterized by accumulation of activated fibroblasts and pathological deposition of fibrillar collagens. Activated fibroblasts overexpress matrix proteins and release factors that promote further recruitment of activated fibroblasts, leading to progressive fibrosis. The contribution of epithelial cells to this process remains unknown. Epithelium-directed injury may lead to activation of epithelial cells with phenotypes and functions similar to activated fibroblasts. Prior reports that used a reporter gene fate-mapping strategy are limited in their ability to investigate the functional significance of epithelial cell-derived mesenchymal proteins during fibrogenesis. We found that lung epithelial cell-derived collagen I activates fibroblast collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-2, contributes significantly to fibrogenesis, and promotes resolution of lung inflammation. Alveolar epithelial cells undergoing transforming growth factor-?–mediated mesenchymal transition express several other secreted profibrotic factors and are capable of activating lung fibroblasts. These studies provide direct evidence that activated epithelial cells produce mesenchymal proteins that initiate a cycle of fibrogenic effector cell activation, leading to progressive fibrosis. Therapy targeted at epithelial cell production of type I collagen offers a novel pathway for abrogating this progressive cycle and for limiting tissue fibrosis but may lead to sustained lung injury/inflammation. PMID:24012677

Yang, Jibing; Wheeler, Sarah E.; Velikoff, Miranda; Kleaveland, Kathryn R.; LaFemina, Michael J.; Frank, James A.; Chapman, Harold A.; Christensen, Paul J.; Kim, Kevin K.

2014-01-01

380

Cytotoxic Effects of Curcumin in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Backround Curcumin from turmeric is an ingredient in curry powders. Due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects, curcumin is a promising drug for the treatment of cancer and retinal diseases. We investigated whether curcumin alters the viability and physiological properties of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in vitro. Methodology/Principal Findings Cellular proliferation was investigated with a bromodeoxy-uridine immunoassay, and chemotaxis was investigated with a Boyden chamber assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis rates were determined with a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, and secretion of VEGF and bFGF was examined with ELISA. The phosphorylation level of proteins was revealed by Western blotting. The proliferation of RPE cells was slightly increased by curcumin at 10 µM and strongly reduced by curcumin above 50 µM. Curcumin at 50 µM increased slightly the chemotaxis of the cells. Curcumin reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF under control conditions and abolished the VEGF secretion induced by PDGF and chemical hypoxia. Whereas low concentrations of curcumin stimulated the expression of bFGF and HGF, high concentrations caused downregulation of both factors. Curcumin decreased dose-dependently the viability of RPE cells via induction of early necrosis (above 10 µM) and delayed apoptosis (above 1 µM). The cytotoxic effect of curcumin involved activation of caspase-3 and calpain, intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial permeability, oxidative stress, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt protein. Conclusion It is concluded that curcumin at concentrations described to be effective in the treatment of tumor cells and in inhibiting death of retinal neurons (?10 µM) has adverse effects on RPE cells. It is suggested that, during the intake of curcumin as concomitant therapy of cancer or in the treatment of eye diseases, retinal function should be monitored carefully. PMID:23555722

Hollborn, Margrit; Chen, Rui; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas; Kohen, Leon

2013-01-01

381

Regulation of growth of cultured hepatic epithelial cells by transferrin  

SciTech Connect

Late-passage cells of a nontumorigenic and anchorage-dependent hepatic epithelial line (WB-F344), which produce insulinlike growth factor II and transforming growth factor {beta} constitutively, grow in serum-free medium supplemented only with transferrin. In the presence of transferrin, epidermal growth factor further augments population growth, although epidermal growth factor alone is without effect. Insulin, platelet-derived growth factor, and several inorganic iron salts are also ineffective in supporting cell growth in the absence of transferrin. The population growth-promoting effect of transferrin occurs at concentrations of 0.5 nM or greater and the maximal effect is reached with a concentration of approximately 6 nM. A lipophilic iron chelator, ferric pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (FePIH), can fully mimic the effect of transferrin on the proliferation of WB-F344 cells. These results suggest that the critical function of transferrin in the proliferation of WB-F344 cells may be in the delivery of iron to the cells. In the absence of transferrin the proliferation of WB-F344 cells is arrested in serum-free medium in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, and a period of protein synthesis after the addition of transferrin is necessary before the cells can proceed to S phase and initiate DNA synthesis. Epidermal growth factor does not alter the length of the latency period prior to S phase but appears to stimulate the uptake of ({sup 3}H)thymidine subsequently.

Tsao, Mingsound (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Sanders, G.H.S.; Grisham, J.W. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (USA))

1987-07-01

382

Vaginal Birth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This patient education program reviews female reproductive anatomy and explains vaginal birth. It also discusses the stages of labor and delivery, as well as potential risks and complications. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

Patient Education Institute

383

Epithelial cell polarity and tumorigenesis: new perspectives for cancer detection and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity is commonly observed in tumors of epithelial origin and correlates with their invasion into adjacent tissues and formation of metastases. Growing evidence indicates that loss of cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion may also be important in early stage of cancer. In first part of this review, we delineate the current understanding of the

Danila Coradini; Claudia Casarsa; Saro Oriana

2011-01-01

384

Efficient generation of functional CFTR-expressing airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Airway epithelial cells are of great interest for research on lung development, regeneration and disease modeling. This protocol describes how to generate cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR)-expressing airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). The stepwise approach from PSC culture to differentiation into progenitors and then mature epithelia with apical CFTR activity is outlined. Human PSCs that were inefficient at endoderm differentiation using our previous lung differentiation protocol were able to generate substantial lung progenitor cell populations. Augmented CFTR activity can be observed in all cultures as early as at 35 d of differentiation, and full maturation of the cells in air-liquid interface cultures occurs in <5 weeks. This protocol can be used for drug discovery, tissue regeneration or disease modeling. PMID:25654755

Wong, Amy P; Chin, Stephanie; Xia, Sunny; Garner, Jodi; Bear, Christine E; Rossant, Janet

2015-03-01

385

Epithelial monolayer culture system for real?time single?cell analyses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single?cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications. PMID:24771696

Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk?Su

2014-01-01

386

Endothelial cells stimulate growth of normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells in 3D culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epithelial-stromal interaction provides regulatory signals that maintain correct histoarchitecture and homeostasis in the normal breast and facilitates tumor progression in breast cancer. However, research on the regulatory role of the endothelial component in the normal and malignant breast gland has largely been neglected. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of endothelial cells on growth and

Saevar Ingthorsson; Valgardur Sigurdsson; Agla JR Fridriksdottir; Jon G Jonasson; Jens Kjartansson; Magnus K Magnusson; Thorarinn Gudjonsson

2010-01-01

387

Establishment and characterization of a bovine mammary epithelial cell line with unique properties.  

PubMed

Clonal cell lines (BME-UV) were established from primary epithelial cells by stable transfection with a plasmid, carrying the sequence of the simian virus 40 early region mutant tsA58, encoding the thermolabile large T antigen. The BME-UV cells have undergone more than 300 population doublings and produce intranuclear large T antigen. At low confluency, growing islands of cells are apparent exhibiting the characteristic cobblestone morphology of epithelial cells. The BME-UV cells expressed functional markers such as microvilli and desmosomes and biochemical markers of mammary epithelial cells such as a repertoire of cytokeratins. The BME-UV cells are capable of synthesizing low levels of alpha-lactalbumin and alpha s1-casein (50 ng/ml of medium/24 h). One of the cell lines, BME-UV1 showed enhanced proliferation in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I). The BME-UV1 cell line is the only known bovine mammary epithelial cell line responsive to EGF. The BME-UV cells grown on collagen at low confluency are capable of developing very long projections that most likely allow for communication between cells at a distance from each other. The BME-UV cells may become a valid model system to examine bovine mammary epithelial proliferation and differentiation and cell-to-cell communication. PMID:8925136

Zavizion, B; van Duffelen, M; Schaeffer, W; Politis, I

1996-03-01

388

Nanoparticle incorporation of melittin reduces sperm and vaginal epithelium cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Melittin is a cytolytic peptide component of bee venom which rapidly integrates into lipid bilayers and forms pores resulting in osmotic lysis. While the therapeutic utility of free melittin is limited by its cytotoxicity, incorporation of melittin into the lipid shell of a perfluorocarbon nanoparticle has been shown to reduce its toxicity in vivo. Our group has previously demonstrated that perfluorocarbon nanoparticles containing melittin at concentrations <10 µM inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro. In the current study, we assessed the impact of blank and melittin-containing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles on sperm motility and the viability of both sperm and vaginal epithelial cells. We found that free melittin was toxic to sperm and vaginal epithelium at concentrations greater than 2 µM (p<0.001). However, melittin nanoparticles were not cytotoxic to sperm (p?=?0.42) or vaginal epithelium (p?=?0.48) at an equivalent melittin concentration of 10 µM. Thus, nanoparticle formulation of melittin reduced melittin cytotoxicit