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Sample records for vaginal epithelial cells

  1. Growth of Normal Mouse Vaginal Epithelial Cells in and on Collagen Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Taisen; Uchima, Francis-Dean A.; Ostrander, Patricia L.; Bern, Howard A.

    1983-06-01

    Sustained growth in primary culture of vaginal epithelial cells from ovariectomized adult BALB/cCrg1 mice embedded within or seeded on collagen gel matrix was achieved in a serum-free medium composed of Ham's F-12 medium/Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, 1:1 (vol/vol), supplemented with insulin, bovine serum albumin fraction V, epidermal growth factor, cholera toxin, and transferrin. Three-dimensional growth of vaginal epithelial cells occurred inside the collagen gel matrix. Cell numbers increased 4- to 8-fold in collagen gel and about 4-fold on collagen gel after 9-10 days in culture. The effect of 17? -estradiol (0.00018-180 nM in gel or 0.018-180 nM on gel) and diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.0186-186 nM in gel) on the growth of vaginal epithelial cells was examined. The addition of estrogen did not enhance the growth of vaginal epithelial cells during this time period either in the complete medium or in a suboptimal medium. Cultures on floating collagen gels in the serum-free medium are composed of 1-3 cell layers with superficial cornification. Estrogen does not appear to be a direct mitogen for vaginal epithelial cells, at least in this system.

  2. Analysis of the Oxidative Stress Status in Nonspecific Vaginitis and Its Role in Vaginal Epithelial Cells Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaojie; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Haiyan; Xie, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    Nonspecific vaginitis (NSV), also named bacterial vaginosis, is one of the most common genital system diseases in women during their reproductive years. The specific pathogenic mechanism of NSV is not clear yet. Upon the balance alteration, large amount of reactive oxidant species (ROS) is generated and accumulated in the genital tract, and thus resulting in oxidative stress, which has been reported to be an important trigger of mitochondrial pathway cell apoptosis. In this study, the antioxidant secretion level and antioxidant enzyme activity in the vaginal discharge were evaluated to analyze the oxidative status in the vaginal tract of NSV patients. The effect of oxidative stress on the vaginal mucosa epithelial cell apoptosis was then studied. The role of oxidative stress on NSV development was uncovered; thus open new direction for the prevention and treatment of NSV by providing antiradical agents was revealed. PMID:26558281

  3. Factors influencing adherence of group B streptococci to human vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zawaneh, S M; Ayoub, E M; Baer, H; Cruz, A C; Spellacy, W N

    1979-01-01

    Factors affecting the adherence of group B streptococci to human vaginal epithelial cells in vitro were examined. Maximal adherence was achieved within 15 min of incubation of bacteria with epithelial cells. Adherence was temperature and pH dependent; maximal adherence occurred at 37 degrees C and pH 5.5. Killing of streptococci with ultraviolet light or penicillin did not affect adherence. Similarly, adherence was not altered by preincubating epithelial cells at 65 degrees C for 30 min. Thus neither bacterial nor epithelial cell viability appears to be a prerequisite for adherence. Preincubation of streptococci at 65 degrees C for 30 min resulted in a marked decrease in adherence, whereas preincubation of group B streptococci with neuraminidase was associated with a significant increase in adherence. The adherence of strains belonging to five different group B streptococcal serotypes was not altered by group-specific or type-specific rabbit antisera. These findings suggest that the site for adherence on the bacterial cell wall is heat sensitive and is marked by sialic acid, but is not related to either group-specific or type-specific antigens. PMID:44701

  4. Transcytosis of HIV-1 through Vaginal Epithelial Cells Is Dependent on Trafficking to the Endocytic Recycling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kinlock, Ballington L.; Wang, Yudi; Turner, Tiffany M.; Wang, Chenliang; Liu, Bindong

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is accepted that viruses can enter epithelial cells by endocytosis, the lack of an established biological mechanism for the trafficking of infectious virions through vaginal epithelial cells and their release from the plasma membrane has contributed to ongoing controversy about whether endocytosis is a mere artifact of some cell culture systems and whether squamous vaginal epithelial cells are even relevant as it pertains to HIV-1 transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we investigated the intracellular trafficking pathway that HIV-1 exploits to transcytose vaginal epithelial cells. The reduction of endosome tubulation by recycling endosome inhibitors blocked transcytosis of HIV-1 in a cell culture and transwell system. In addition, we demonstrate that although heat-inactivated virus was endocytosed as efficiently as native virus, heat-inactivated virus was trafficked exclusively to the lysosomal pathway for degradation following endocytosis. Lysosomal protease-specific inhibitors blocked the degradation of inactivated virions. Immunofluorescence analysis not only demonstrated that HIV-1 was inside the cells but the different colocalization pattern of native vs. heat inactivated virus with transferrin provided conclusive evidence that HIV-1 uses the recycling pathway to get across vaginal epithelial cells. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our findings demonstrate the precise intracellular trafficking pathway utilized by HIV-1 in epithelial cells, confirms that HIV-1 transcytosis through vaginal epithelial cells is a biological phenomenon and brings to light the differential intracellular trafficking of native vs heat-inactivated HIV-1 which with further exploration could prove to provide valuable insights that could be used in the prevention of transcytosis/transmission of HIV-1 across the mucosal epithelia. PMID:24830293

  5. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F.; Vörös, Andrea; Heged?s, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  6. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Vörös, Andrea; Heged?s, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  7. The proteins secreted by Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal epithelial cell response to secreted and episomally expressed AP65

    PubMed Central

    Kucknoor, Ashwini S.; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Alderete, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Summary We showed recently that contact of human vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) by Trichomonas vaginalis and incubation with trichomonad proteins in conditioned medium induced expression of VEC genes. We performed 2-D SDS-PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF to identify the major secreted proteins. Based on protein abundance and separation of spots in 2-D gels, 32 major secreted proteins were examined, which gave 19 proteins with accession numbers. These proteins included known secreted cysteine proteinases. In addition, other secreted proteins were enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, adhesin protein AP65, heat shock proteins, thioredoxin reductase and coronins. We confirmed that the secreted trichomonad proteins induced expression of VEC genes, including interleukin 8 (IL-8), COX-2 and fibronectin. Purified AP65 added to VECs had a pronounced effect only on IL-8 gene expression, which was inhibited in the presence of 12G4 monoclonal antibody to AP65. Moreover, AP65 expressed episomally within epithelial cells was found to enhance the expression of IL-8 and COX-2. This may be the first report of analysis of the secreted proteins of T. vaginalis and of the host epithelial cell response to these proteins and to the prominent adhesin AP65. PMID:17590165

  8. Protocol for Examining Human Vaginal Epithelial Cell Signaling in Response to Staphylococcal Superantigens.

    PubMed

    Breshears, Laura M; Peterson, Marnie L

    2016-01-01

    A detailed investigation of eukaryotic signaling pathways affected by bacterial products is key to our understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Cytokine expression appears to be an important initial host cell response to many bacterial products, including the Staphylococcus aureus superantigens (SAgs). While much is understood about how SAgs signal to immune cells, very little is known about the specific cellular pathways activated by SAgs on nonimmune cells such as those of the epithelium. Here, we describe methods for analyzing SAg signaling in cultured epithelial cells, which may be extrapolated to the analysis of signaling pathways induced by other bacterial ligands on a variety of cell types. PMID:26676045

  9. Mannose-binding lectin is produced by vaginal epithelial cells and its level in the vaginal fluid is influenced by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bulla, R; De Seta, F; Radillo, O; Agostinis, C; Durigutto, P; Pellis, V; De Santo, D; Crovella, S; Tedesco, F

    2010-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is a recognition molecule of the complement (C) system and binds to carbohydrate ligands present on a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. MBL has been detected in the cervico-vaginal cavity where it can provide a first-line defence against infectious agents colonizing the lower tract of the reproductive system. Analysis of the cervico-vaginal lavage (CVL) obtained from 11 normal cycling women at different phases of the menstrual cycle revealed increased levels of MBL in the secretive phase. Part of this MBL derives from the circulation as indicated by the presence of transferrin in CVL tested as a marker of vascular and tissue permeability. The local synthesis of MBL is suggested by the finding that its level is substantially higher than that of transferrin in the secretive phase. The contribution of endometrium is negligible since the MBL level did not change before and after hysterectomy. RT-PCR and in situ RT-PCR analysis showed that the vaginal tissue, and in particular the basal layer of the epithelium, is a source of MBL which binds to the basal membrane and to cells of the outer layers of the epithelium. In conclusion, we have shown that MBL detected in CVL derives both from plasma as result of transudation and from local synthesis and its level is progesterone dependent increasing in the secretive phase of the menstrual cycle. PMID:20728220

  10. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Is Dependent on Cell Type Rather than Treatment in Colonic and Vaginal Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Annette V.; Yemaneab, Bisrat T.; Jass, Jana; Scherbak, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    The ability of commensal bacteria to influence gene expression in host cells under the influence of pathogenic bacteria has previously been demonstrated, however the extent of this interaction is important for understanding how bacteria can be used as probiotics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive tool for evaluating relative changes to gene expression levels. However as a result of its sensitivity an appropriate method of normalisation should be used to account for any variation incurred in preparatory experimental procedures. These variations may result from differences in the amount of starting material, quality of extracted RNA, or in the efficiency of the reverse transcriptase or polymerase enzymes. Selection of an endogenous control gene is the preferred method of normalisation, and ideally a proper validation of the gene's appropriateness for the study in question should be performed. In this study we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction data and applied four different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and comparative ?Cq) to evaluate eleven different genes as to their suitability as endogenous controls for use in studies involving colonic (HT-29) and vaginal (VK2/E6E7) human mucosal epithelial cells treated with probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. We found phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to be most appropriate for HT-29 cells, and ribosomal protein large P0 to be the best choice for VK2/E6E7 cells. We also showed that use of less stable reference genes can lead to less accurate quantification of expression levels of gene of interest (GOI) and also can result in decreased statistical significance for GOI expression levels when compared to control. Additionally, we found the cell type being analysed had greater influence on reference gene selection than the treatment performed. This study provides recommendations for stable endogenous control genes for use in further studies involving colonic and vaginal cell lines after bacterial challenge. PMID:25526394

  11. Anti-Retroviral Lectins Have Modest Effects on Adherence of Trichomonas vaginalis to Epithelial Cells In Vitro and on Recovery of Tritrichomonas foetus in a Mouse Vaginal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Aparajita; Ratner, Daniel M.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Johnson, Patricia J.; O’Keefe, Barry R.; Secor, W. Evan; Anderson, Deborah J.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis and increases the risk of HIV transmission by heterosexual sex, while Tritrichomonas foetus causes premature abortion in cattle. Our goals were to determine the effects, if any, of anti-retroviral lectins, which are designed to prevent heterosexual transmission of HIV, on adherence of Trichomonas to ectocervical cells and on Tritrichomonas infections in a mouse model. We show that Trichomonas Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans), like those of HIV, bind the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) that is part of the innate immune system. N-glycans of Trichomonas and Tritrichomonas bind anti-retroviral lectins (cyanovirin-N and griffithsin) and the 2G12 monoclonal antibody, each of which binds HIV N-glycans. Binding of cyanovirin-N appears to be independent of susceptibility to metronidazole, the major drug used to treat Trichomonas. Anti-retroviral lectins, MBL, and galectin-1 cause Trichomonas to self-aggregate and precipitate. The anti-retroviral lectins also increase adherence of ricin-resistant mutants, which are less adherent than parent cells, to ectocervical cell monolayers and to organotypic EpiVaginal tissue cells. Topical application of either anti-retroviral lectins or yeast N-glycans decreases by 40 to 70% the recovery of Tritrichomonas from the mouse vagina. These results, which are explained by a few simple models, suggest that the anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating human infections with Trichomonas. PMID:26252012

  12. NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Dampen Vaginal CD8 T Cell Responses following Local Immunization with a Cholera Toxin-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luci, Carmelo; Bekri, Selma; Bihl, Franck; Pini, Jonathan; Bourdely, Pierre; Nouhen, Kelly; Malgogne, Angélique; Walzer, Thierry; Braud, Véronique M.; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of local dendritic cells (DC). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of lymphocytes localized in epithelial tissues that have important immune functions against pathogens and in tissue homeostasis. Their contribution to vaccine-induced mucosal T cell responses is an important issue for the design of protective vaccines. We report here that the vaginal mucosa contains a heterogeneous population of NKp46+ ILC that includes conventional NK cells and ILC1-like cells. We show that vaginal NKp46+ ILC dampen vaccine-induced CD8 T cell responses generated after local immunization. Indeed, in vivo depletion of NKp46+ ILC with anti-NK1.1 antibody or NKG2D blockade increases the magnitude of vaginal OVA-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, such treatments also increase the number of DC in the vagina. NKG2D ligands being expressed by vaginal DC but not by CD8 T cells, these results support that NKp46+ ILC limit mucosal CD8 T cell responses indirectly through the NKG2D-dependent elimination of vaginal DC. Our data reveal an unappreciated role of NKp46+ ILC in the regulation of mucosal CD8 T cell responses. PMID:26630176

  13. Lactobacillus Decelerates Cervical Epithelial Cell Cycle Progression

    PubMed Central

    Vielfort, Katarina; Weyler, Linda; Söderholm, Niklas; Engelbrecht, Mattias; Löfmark, Sonja; Aro, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cell cycle progression in epithelial cervical ME-180 cells during colonization of three different Lactobacillus species utilizing live cell microscopy, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays, and flow cytometry. The colonization of these ME-180 cells by L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri, originating from human gastric epithelia and saliva, respectively, was shown to reduce cell cycle progression and to cause host cells to accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The G1 phase accumulation in L. rhamnosus-colonized cells was accompanied by the up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of p21. By contrast, the vaginal isolate L. crispatus did not affect cell cycle progression. Furthermore, both the supernatants from the lactic acid-producing L. rhamnosus colonies and lactic acid added to cell culture media were able to reduce the proliferation of ME-180 cells. In this study, we reveal the diversity of the Lactobacillus species to affect host cell cycle progression and demonstrate that L. rhamnosus and L. reuteri exert anti-proliferative effects on human cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:23675492

  14. Progress Towards Drosophila Epithelial Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Simcox, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila epithelial research is at the forefront of the field; however, there are no well-characterized epithelial cell lines that could provide a complementary in vitro model for studies conducted in vivo. Here, a protocol is described that produces epithelial cell lines. The method uses genetic manipulation of oncogenes or tumor suppressors to induce embryonic primary culture cells to rapidly progress to permanent cell lines. It is, however, a general method and the type of cells that comprise a given line is not controlled experimentally. Indeed, only a small fraction of the lines produced are epithelial in character. For this reason, additional work needs to be done to develop a more robust epithelial cell-specific protocol. It is expected that Drosophila epithelial cell lines will have great utility for in vitro analysis of epithelial biology, particularly high-throughput analyses such as RNAi screens. PMID:23097097

  15. Epithelial TRPV1 signaling accelerates gingival epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, N; Matsuda, Y; Yamada, H; Tabeta, K; Nakajima, T; Murakami, S; Yamazaki, K

    2014-11-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), a member of the calcium-permeable thermosensitive transient receptor potential superfamily, is a sensor of thermal and chemical stimuli. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat (> 43°C), acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), capsaicin, and endovanilloids. This pain receptor was discovered on nociceptive fibers in the peripheral nervous system. TRPV1 was recently found to be expressed by non-neuronal cells, such as epithelial cells. The oral gingival epithelium is exposed to multiple noxious stimuli, including heat and acids derived from endogenous and exogenous substances; however, whether gingival epithelial cells (GECs) express TRPV1 is unknown. We show that both TRPV1 mRNA and protein are expressed by GECs. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the gingival epithelial cell line, epi 4. Moreover, TRPV1 activation in epi 4 cells accelerated proliferation. These responses to capsaicin were inhibited by a specific TRPV1 antagonist, SB-366791. We also observed GEC proliferation in capsaicin-treated mice in vivo. No effects were observed on GEC apoptosis by epithelial TRPV1 signaling. To examine the molecular mechanisms underlying this proliferative effect, we performed complementary (c)DNA microarray analysis of capsaicin-stimulated epi 4 cells. Compared with control conditions, 227 genes were up-regulated and 232 genes were down-regulated following capsaicin stimulation. Several proliferation-related genes were validated by independent experiments. Among them, fibroblast growth factor-17 and neuregulin 2 were significantly up-regulated in capsaicin-treated epi 4 cells. Our results suggest that functional TRPV1 is expressed by GECs and contributes to the regulation of cell proliferation. PMID:25266715

  16. Epithelial cell polarity and cell junctions in drosophila

    E-print Network

    Tepass, Ulrich; Tanentzapf­ , Guy; Ward, Robert; Fehon, Richard G.

    2001-12-01

    The polarized architecture of epithelial cells and tissues is a fundamental determinant of animal anatomy and physiology. Recent progress made in the genetic and molecular analysis of epithelial polarity and cellular ...

  17. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  18. [Streptococcus group B--association with Aerobic vaginitis and ability to human cell lines activation].

    PubMed

    Romanik, Ma?gorzata; Kafel, Joanna; Lagergård, Teresa; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate: the frequency of aerobic vaginitis, susceptibility of the GBS isolated from vagina of non-pregnant women with and without cervicitis to selected antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and the proinflammatory cytokines production by HeLa, THP-I, U - 937 cells after stimulation by vaginal GBS. Our results indicated low frequency of the aerobic vaginitis -4.5% among non-pregnant young women and ability of the vaginal GBS to release proinflammatory cytokines by human cell lines in vitro. PMID:17929406

  19. Interaction with Epithelial Cells Modifies Airway Macrophage Response to Ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (03) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived...

  20. Epithelial Cell Shedding and Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. M.; Duckworth, C. A.; Burkitt, M. D.; Watson, A. J. M.; Campbell, B. J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a critical component of the gut barrier. Composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) held together by tight junctions, this delicate structure prevents the transfer of harmful microorganisms, antigens, and toxins from the gut lumen into the circulation. The equilibrium between the rate of apoptosis and shedding of senescent epithelial cells at the villus tip, and the generation of new cells in the crypt, is key to maintaining tissue homeostasis. However, in both localized and systemic inflammation, this balance may be disturbed as a result of pathological IEC shedding. Shedding of IECs from the epithelial monolayer may cause transient gaps or microerosions in the epithelial barrier, resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been observed in mouse models of inflammation and human intestinal conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. This process may also be an important contributor to systemic and intestinal inflammatory diseases and gut barrier dysfunction in domestic animal species. This review aims to summarize current knowledge about intestinal epithelial cell shedding, its significance in gut barrier dysfunction and host-microbial interactions, and where research in this field is directed. PMID:25428410

  1. Attenuated infectivity of HIV type 1 from epithelial cells pretreated with a tight-binding nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Borkow, Gadi; Salomon, Horacio; Wainberg, Mark A; Parniak, Michael A

    2002-07-01

    Short exposure of uninfected lymphocytes to UC781, a tight-binding nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), renders these cells refractory to subsequent HIV infection in the absence of exogenous drug (Borkow et al: J Virol 1997;71:3023-3030). Since epithelial cells may play a role in the sexual transmission of HIV-1, we examined the ability of NNRTI pretreatment to protect ME180 cervical epithelial cells and I407 intestinal epithelial cells from subsequent HIV-1 infection. Epithelial cells were pretreated with NNRTI, then exposed to HIV-1 chronically infected H9(+) cells for a short time following removal of the exogenous drug. The epithelial cells were productively infected by HIV-1, as shown by the presence of integrated HIV-1 proviral DNA, the presence of intracellular p24 antigen, and the production of nascent HIV-1 virions (cell-free p24) at various times postinfection. UC781 pretreatment of the epithelial cells did not prevent HIV-1 infection, since the cells had integrated proviral DNA, but the infectivity of virus subsequently produced from the UC781-treated cells was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner and virtually abolished at UC781 concentrations readily attainable in vivo. In contrast, nevirapine was ineffective in this respect, suggesting that not all NNRTI have microbicidal potential. The abrogation of infectivity of virus produced from UC781-pretreated epithelial cells suggests that this NNRTI may be useful in vaginal microbicide formulations targeted to inhibit HIV-1 in the vaginal/cervical or rectal milieus of a newly exposed individual. PMID:12167278

  2. Proliferation and lineage potential in fetal thymic epithelial progenitor cells 

    E-print Network

    Cook, Alistair Martin

    2010-01-01

    The thymic stroma primarily comprises epithelial, mesenchymal and endothelial cells, interspersed with those of haematopoietic origin. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are highly heterogeneous, but can be divided into two ...

  3. Neonatal Estrogen Receptor ? Is Important in the Permanent Inhibition of Epithelial Cell Proliferation in the Mouse Uterus.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Tanimoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Masami; Chambon, Pierre; Watanabe, Hajime; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen receptor ? (ER?) plays a pivotal role in the mouse uterine and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation stimulated by estrogen, whereas ER? inhibits cell proliferation. ER? mRNA is expressed in neonatal uteri and vaginae; however, its functions in neonatal tissues have not been ascertained. In this study, we investigated the ontogenic mRNA expression and localization of ER?, and its roles in cell proliferation in neonatal uteri and vaginae of ER? knockout (?ERKO) mice. ER? mRNA and protein were abundant in the uterine and vaginal epithelia of 2-day-old mice and decreased with age. In uterine and vaginal epithelia of 2-day-old ?ERKO mice, cell proliferation was greater than that in wild-type animals and in uterine epithelia of 90- and 365-day-old ?ERKO mice. In addition, p27 protein, known as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was decreased in the uteri of 90- and 365-day-old ?ERKO mice. Inhibition of neonatal ERs by ICI 182780 (an ER antagonist) treatment stimulated cell proliferation and decreased p27 protein in the uterine luminal epithelium of 90-day-old mice but not in the vaginal epithelium. These results suggest that neonatal ER? is important in the persistent inhibition of epithelial cell proliferation with accumulation of p27 protein in the mouse uterus. Thus, suppression of ER? function in the uterine epithelium during the neonatal period may be responsible for a risk for proliferative disease in adults. PMID:26020796

  4. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  5. Respiratory epithelial cells orchestrate pulmonary innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Alenghat, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial surfaces of the lungs are in direct contact with the environment and are subjected to dynamic physical forces as airway tubes and alveoli are stretched and compressed during ventilation. Mucociliary clearance in conducting airways, reduction of surface tension in the alveoli, and maintenance of near sterility have been accommodated by the evolution of a multi-tiered innate host-defense system. The biophysical nature of pulmonary host defenses are integrated with the ability of respiratory epithelial cells to respond to and ‘instruct’ the professional immune system to protect the lungs from infection and injury. PMID:25521682

  6. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  7. What Is Vaginal Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer There are several types of vaginal cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma About 70 of every 100 cases of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinomas . These cancers begin in the squamous cells that ...

  8. Phenotypic plasticity in normal breast derived epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Normal, healthy human breast tissue from a variety of volunteer donors has become available for research thanks to the establishment of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure® Tissue Bank at the IU Simon Cancer Center (KTB). Multiple epithelial (K-HME) and stromal cells (K-HMS) were established from the donated tissue. Explant culture was utilized to isolate the cells from pieces of breast tissue. Selective media and trypsinization were employed to select either epithelial cells or stromal cells. The primary, non-transformed epithelial cells, the focus of this study, were characterized by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and in vitro cell culture. Results All of the primary, non-transformed epithelial cells tested have the ability to differentiate in vitro into a variety of cell types when plated in or on biologic matrices. Cells identified include stratified squamous epithelial, osteoclasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, neural progenitors/neurons, immature muscle and melanocytes. The cells also express markers of embryonic stem cells. Conclusions The cell culture conditions employed select an epithelial cell that is pluri/multipotent. The plasticity of the epithelial cells developed mimics that seen in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), a subtype of triple negative breast cancer; and may provide clues to the origin of this particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The KTB is a unique biorepository, and the normal breast epithelial cells isolated from donated tissue have significant potential as new research tools. PMID:24915897

  9. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1? (IL-1?) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1? and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1? receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. PMID:26037125

  10. HIV-1 VAGINAL TRANSMISSION: CELL-FREE OR CELL-ASSOCIATED VIRUS?

    PubMed Central

    Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Arakelyan, Anush; Margolis, Leonid; Vanpouille, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of new HIV infections in male-to-female transmission occurs through semen, where HIV-1 is present in two different forms: as free and as cell-associated virus. In the female lower genital tract, semen mixes with female genital secretions that contain various factors, some of which facilitate or inhibit HIV-1 transmission. Next, HIV-1 crosses the genital epithelia, reaches the regional lymph nodes, and disseminates through the female host. Cervico-vaginal mucosa contains multiple barriers, resulting in a low probability of vaginal transmission. However, in some cases HIV-1 is able to break these barriers. Although the exact mechanisms of how these barriers function remain unclear, their levels of efficiency against cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 are different, and both cell-free and cell-associated virions seem to use different strategies to overcome these barriers. Understanding the basic mechanisms of HIV-1 vaginal transmission is required for the development of new antiviral strategies to contain HIV-1 epidemics. PMID:24730358

  11. Interaction with epithelial cells modifies airway macrophage response to ozone.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca N; Müller, Loretta; Brighton, Luisa E; Duncan, Kelly E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-03-01

    The initial innate immune response to ozone (O3) in the lung is orchestrated by structural cells, such as epithelial cells, and resident immune cells, such as airway macrophages (Macs). We developed an epithelial cell-Mac coculture model to investigate how epithelial cell-derived signals affect Mac response to O3. Macs from the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of healthy volunteers were cocultured with the human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) or alveolar (A549) epithelial cell lines. Cocultures, Mac monocultures, and epithelial cell monocultures were exposed to O3 or air, and Mac immunophenotype, phagocytosis, and cytotoxicity were assessed. Quantities of hyaluronic acid (HA) and IL-8 were compared across cultures and in BAL fluid from healthy volunteers exposed to O3 or air for in vivo confirmation. We show that Macs in coculture had increased markers of alternative activation, enhanced cytotoxicity, and reduced phagocytosis compared with Macs in monoculture that differed based on coculture with A549 or 16HBE. Production of HA by epithelial cell monocultures was not affected by O3, but quantities of HA in the in vitro coculture and BAL fluid from volunteers exposed in vivo were increased with O3 exposure, indicating that O3 exposure impairs Mac regulation of HA. Together, we show epithelial cell-Mac coculture models that have many similarities to the in vivo responses to O3, and demonstrate that epithelial cell-derived signals are important determinants of Mac immunophenotype and response to O3. PMID:25054807

  12. IL-22 contributes to TGF-?1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergic asthma is characterized by airway inflammation in response to antigen exposure, leading to airway remodeling and lung dysfunction. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may play a role in airway remodeling through the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype in airway epithelial cells. TGF-?1 is known to promote EMT; however, other cytokines expressed in severe asthma with extensive remodeling, such as IL-22, may also contribute to this process. In this study, we evaluated the contribution of IL-22 to EMT in primary bronchial epithelial cells from healthy and asthmatic subjects. Methods Primary bronchial epithelial cells were isolated from healthy subjects, mild asthmatics and severe asthmatics (n=5 patients per group). The mRNA and protein expression of epithelial and mesenchymal cell markers and EMT-associated transcription factors was evaluated following stimulation with TGF-?1, IL-22 and TGF-?1+IL-22. Results Primary bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with TGF-?1 underwent EMT, demonstrated by decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and MUC5AC) and increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and EMT-associated transcription factors. IL-22 alone had no effect on epithelial or mesenchymal gene expression. However, IL-22+TGF-?1 promoted the expression of some EMT transcription factors (Snail1 and Zeb1) and led to a more profound cadherin shift, but only in cells obtained from severe asthmatics. Conclusion The impact of IL-22 on airway epithelial cells depends on the cytokine milieu and the clinical phenotype of the patient. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism of IL-22 and TGF-?1 cooperativity in driving EMT in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:24283210

  13. Establishment of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez cell line from human periodontium.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Jae-Won; Seo, Byoung-Moo; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Wook; Lee, Gene

    2014-07-01

    Human Hertwig's epithelial root sheath/epithelial rests of Malassez (HERS/ERM) cells are epithelial remnants of teeth residing in the periodontium. Although the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells have yet to be elucidated, they are a unique epithelial cell population in adult teeth and are reported to have stem cell characteristics. Therefore, HERS/ERM cells might play a role as an epithelial component for the repair or regeneration of dental hard tissues; however, they are very rare population in periodontium and the primary isolation of them is considered to be difficult. To overcome these problems, we immortalized primary HERS/ERM cells isolated from human periodontium using SV40 large T antigen (SV40 LT) and performed a characterization of the immortalized cell line. Primary HERS/ERM cells could not be maintained for more than 6 passages; however, immortalized HERS/ERM cells were maintained for more than 20 passages. There were no differences in the morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of HERS/ERM cells and immortalized HERS/ERM cells. The expression of epithelial stem cell and embryonic stem cell markers was maintained in immortalized HERS/ERM cells. Moreover, immortalized HERS/ERM cells could acquire mesenchymal phenotypes through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via TGF-?1. In conclusion, we established an immortalized human HERS/ERM cell line with SV40 LT and expect this cell line to contribute to the understanding of the functional roles of HERS/ERM cells and the tissue engineering of teeth. PMID:25081036

  14. Stromal-epithelial interactions in aging and cancer: Senescent fibroblasts alter epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Parrinello, Simona; Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Krtolica, Ana; Campisi, Judith

    2004-07-14

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cells at risk for malignant tumorigenesis. However, senescent cells also secrete molecules that can stimulate premalignant cells to proliferate and form tumors, suggesting the senescence response is antagonistically pleiotropic. We show that premalignant mammary epithelial cells exposed to senescent human fibroblasts in mice irreversibly lose differentiated properties, become invasive and undergo full malignant transformation. Moreover, using cultured mouse or human fibroblasts and non-malignant breast epithelial cells, we show that senescent fibroblasts disrupt epithelial alveolar morphogenesis, functional differentiation, and branching morphogenesis. Further, we identify MMP-3 as the major factor responsible for the effects of senescent fibroblasts on branching morphogenesis. Our findings support the idea that senescent cells contribute to age-related pathology, including cancer, and describe a new property of senescent fibroblasts--the ability to alter epithelial differentiation--that might also explain the loss of tissue function and organization that is a hallmark of aging.

  15. Documentation of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, M.; Sharma, R.; Greene, A. S.; McCarthy, E. T.; Savin, V. J.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin II decreases glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and glomerular capillary hydraulic conductivity. Although angiotensin II receptors have been demonstrated in mesangial cells and proximal tubule cells, the presence of angiotensin II receptors in glomerular epithelial cells has not previously been shown. Previously, we have reported that angiotensin II caused an accumulation of cAMP and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in cultured glomerular epithelial cells. Current studies were conducted to verify the presence of angiotensin II receptors by immunological and non-peptide receptor ligand binding techniques and to ascertain the activation of intracellular signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells in response to angiotensin II. Confluent monolayer cultures of glomerular epithelial cells were incubated with angiotensin II, with or without losartan and/or PD-123,319 in the medium. Membrane vesicle preparations were obtained by homogenization of washed cells followed by centrifugation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of membrane proteins followed by multiscreen immunoblotting was used to determine the presence of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) or type 2 (AT2). Angiotensin II-mediated signal transduction in glomerular epithelial cells was studied by measuring the levels of cAMP, using radioimmunoassay. Results obtained in these experiments showed the presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptor types in glomerular epithelial cells. Angiotensin II was found to cause an accumulation of cAMP in glomerular epithelial cells, which could be prevented only by simultaneous use of losartan and PD-123,319, antagonists for AT1 and AT2, respectively. The presence of both AT1 and AT2 receptors and an increase in cAMP indicate that glomerular epithelial cells respond to angiotensin II in a manner distinct from that of mesangial cells or proximal tubular epithelial cells. Our results suggest that glomerular epithelial cells participate in angiotensin II-mediated control of the glomerular filtration barrier.

  16. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  17. Goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to infection with Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, using immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization, whether CAEV is capable of infecting goat uterine epithelial cells in vivo. Five CAEV seropositive goats confirmed as infected using double nested polymerase chain reaction (dnPCR) on leucocytes and on vaginal secretions were used as CAEV positive goats. Five CAEV-free goats were used as controls. Samples from the uterine horn were prepared for dnPCR, in situ hybridization, and immunofluorescence. The results from dnPCR confirmed the presence of CAEV proviral DNA in the uterine horn samples of infected goats whereas no CAEV proviral DNA was detected in samples taken from the uninfected control goats. The in situ hybridization probe was complementary to part of the CAEV gag gene and confirmed the presence of CAEV nucleic acids in uterine samples. The positively staining cells were seen concentrated in the mucosa of the lamina propria of uterine sections. Finally, laser confocal analysis of double p28/cytokeratin immunolabelled transverse sections of CAEV infected goat uterus, demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine epithelial cells are susceptible to CAEV infection in vivo. This finding could help to further our understanding of the epidemiology of CAEV, and in particular the possibility of vertical transmission. PMID:22276529

  18. Progressive transformation of immortalized esophageal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhong-Ying; Xu, Li-Yan; Chen, Min-Hua; Shen, Jian; Cai, Wei-Jia; Zeng, Yi

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the progressive transformation of immortal cells of human fetal esophageal epithelium induced by human papillomavirus, and to examine biological criteria of sequential passage of cells, including cellular phenotype, proliferative rate, telomerase, chromosome and tumorigenicity. METHODS: The SHEE cell series consisted of immortalized embryonic esophageal epithelium which was in malignant transformation when cultivated over sixty passages without co-carcinogens. Cells of the 10th, 31st, 60th and 85th passages were present in progressive development after being transfected with HPV. Cells were cultivated in a culture flask and 24-hole cultural plates. Progressive changes of morphology, cell growth, contact-inhibition, and anchorage-dependent growth characteristics were examined by phase contrast microscopy. The cell proliferation rate was assayed by flow cytometry. The modal number of chromosomes was analyzed. HPV18E6E7 was detected by Western blot methods and activities of telomerase were analyzed by TRAP. Tumorigenicity of cells was detected with soft agar plates cultivated and with tumor formation in SCID mice. RESULTS: In morphological examination the 10th passage cells were in good differentiation, the 60th and 85th passages cells were in relatively poor differentiation, and the 31st passage cells had two distinct differentiations. The characteristics of the 85th and 60th passage cells were weakened at contact-inhibition and anchorage-dependent growth. Karyotypes of four stages of cells belonged to hyperdiploid or hypotriploid, and bimodal distribution of chromosomes appeared in the 31st and 60th passage cells. All of these characteristics combined with a increasing trend. The activities of telomerase were expressed in the latter three passages. Four fourths of SCID mice in the 85th passage cells and one fourth of SCID mice in the 60th passage cells developed tumors, but the cells in the 10th and 31st passage displayed no tumor formation. CONCLUSION: In continual cultivation of fetal esophageal epithelial cells with transduction of HPV18E6E7, cells from the 10th to the 85th passage were changed gradually from preimmortal, immortal, precancerous to malignantly transformed stages. All of these changes were in a dynamic progressive process. The establishment of a continuous line of esophageal epithelium may provide a in vitro model of carcinogenesis induced by HPV. PMID:12439909

  19. Desmosomal adhesion regulates epithelial morphogenesis and cell positioning.

    PubMed

    Runswick, S K; O'Hare, M J; Jones, L; Streuli, C H; Garrod, D R

    2001-09-01

    Desmosomes are intercellular junctions of epithelia and are of widespread importance in the maintenance of tissue architecture. We provide evidence that desmosomal adhesion has a function in epithelial morphogenesis and cell-type-specific positioning. Blocking peptides corresponding to the cell adhesion recognition (CAR) sites of desmosomal cadherins block alveolar morphogenesis by epithelial cells from mammary lumen. Desmosomal CAR-site peptides also disrupt positional sorting of luminal and myoepithelial cells in aggregates formed by the reassociation of isolated cells. We demonstrate that desmosomal cadherins and E-cadherin are comparably involved in epithelial morphoregulation. The results indicate a wider role for desmosomal adhesion in morphogenesis than has previously been considered. PMID:11533662

  20. Novel neurotrophic factor secreted by amniotic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Sankar; Palaniappan, Tamilselvi; Jayapal, Prem Kumar; Neelamegan, Sridharan; Rajan, Sridhar Skylab; Muthiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan

    2009-08-01

    By virtue of expressions of glial and neural surface markers and capability of neurotransmitter metabolism, amniotic epithelial cells are considered as candidate cell type for transplantation strategies to treat neurological disorders. Previously, we have reported neurotrophism exhibited by human amniotic epithelial cells when transplanted after spinal cord injury in bonnet monkeys. Amniotic epithelial cells were believed to secrete an "Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)-like" factor and exact identification was not made. At this juncture, through the present study it was found that, chicken neural retinal cells when grown alone failed to survive and contrarily when either co-cultured with chicken amniotic epithelial cells/cultured in amniotic epithelial cell conditioned medium not only survived but also showed extensive differentiation. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) plays a critical role in retinal development especially in chicken neural retinal development. However, immunoassay using western blot did not revealed the presence of any already known isoforms of FGF-2 in the medium. It is interesting to note that while factor secreted by amniotic epithelial cells resembles EGF and/or FGF-2 in its biological action, known isoforms of them were not detected. Considering the biological closeness between EGF and FGF-2, results indicate the possibility of a novel isoform of these growth factors secreted by amniotic epithelial cells. Further studies will establish the nature of this novel factor which will enhance the application of this interesting cell type for neural transplantations. PMID:19886035

  1. Observing planar cell polarity in multiciliated mouse airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Lee, Yin Loon; Stearns, Tim; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The concerted movement of cilia propels inhaled contaminants out of the lungs, safeguarding the respiratory system from toxins, pathogens, pollutants, and allergens. Motile cilia on the multiciliated cells (MCCs) of the airway epithelium are physically oriented along the tissue axis for directional motility, which depends on the planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling pathway. The MCCs of the mouse respiratory epithelium have emerged as an important model for the study of motile ciliogenesis and the PCP signaling mechanism. Unlike other motile ciliated or planar polarized tissues, airway epithelial cells are relatively easily accessible and primary cultures faithfully model many of the essential features of the in vivo tissue. There is growing interest in understanding how cells acquire and polarize motile cilia due to the impact of mucociliary clearance on respiratory health. Here, we present methods for observing and quantifying the planar polarized orientation of motile cilia both in vivo and in primary culture airway epithelial cells. We describe how to acquire and evaluate electron and light microscopy images of ciliary ultrastructural features that reveal planar polarized orientation. Furthermore, we describe the immunofluorescence localization of PCP pathway components as a simple readout for airway epithelial planar polarization and ciliary orientation. These methods can be adapted to observe ciliary orientation in other multi- and monociliated cells and to detect PCP pathway activity in any tissue or cell type. PMID:25837385

  2. Extensive Podocyte Loss Triggers a Rapid Parietal Epithelial Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Hakroush, Samy; Cebulla, Angelika; Schaldecker, Thomas; Behr, Daniel; Mundel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Damage to podocytes is a central pathomechanism of proteinuric kidney disease. However, it is not fully understood how podocyte injury evolves to progressive glomerulopathies such as FSGS or collapsing glomerulopathy. In particular, the role of parietal epithelial cells remains controversial. Here, we show that adriamycin induces DNA damage and podocyte lysis in mice without evidence of autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, or necroptosis. After extensive podocyte loss, activated parietal cells mediated tuft re-epithelialization by two distinct mechanisms. In the majority of glomeruli, vacuolized parietal epithelial cells attached to denuded glomerular basement membrane and, occasionally, disengaged from the parietal basement membrane. Less frequently, parietal epithelial cells covered the denuded visceral basement membrane via formation of proliferative pseudocrescents. Notably, “visceralized” parietal epithelial cells did not express vascular endothelial growth factor but upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1 expression. The presence of visceralized parietal epithelial cells in sclerosing and collapsing lesions in a kidney biopsy from a patient with diabetes underscores the human relevance of our findings. In conclusion, repopulation of the glomerular tuft by parietal cells may represent a compensatory response to extensive podocyte loss. Our results suggest, however, that visceralized parietal epithelial cells cannot induce revascularization of the hyalinized tuft, resulting in hypoxic cell death and irreversible destruction of the glomerulus. PMID:24335975

  3. Cholecystokinin octapeptide antagonizes apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Yueling; Gu, Zhaohui; Hao, Lina; Du, Juan; Yang, Qian; Li, Suping; Wang, Liying; Gong, Shilei

    2014-01-01

    Although cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 is important for neurological function, its neuroprotective properties remain unclear. We speculated that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against oxidative injury. In this study, retinal pigment epithelial cells were treated with peroxynitrite to induce oxidative stress. Peroxynitrite triggered apoptosis in these cells, and increased the expression of Fas-associated death domain, Bax, caspa-se-8 and Bcl-2. These changes were suppressed by treatment with cholecystokinin octapeptide-8. These results suggest that cholecystokinin octapeptide-8 can protect human retinal pigment epithelial cells against apoptosis induced by peroxynitrite. PMID:25221599

  4. Recycling of galectin-3 in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hönig, Ellena; Schneider, Katharina; Jacob, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Galectins, a family of ?-galactoside binding proteins, do not possess a signalling sequence to enter the endoplasmic reticulum as a starting point for the classical secretory pathway. They use a so-called unconventional secretion mechanism for translocation across the plasma membrane and/or into the lumen of transport vesicles. The ?-galactoside binding protein galectin-3 is highly expressed in a variety of epithelial cell lines. Polarized MDCK cells secrete this lectin predominantly into the apical medium. The lectin re-enters the cell by non-clathrin mediated endocytosis and passages through endosomal organelles. This internalized galectin-3 plays an important role in apical protein trafficking by directing the subcellular targeting of apical glycoproteins via oligomerization into high molecular weight clusters, a process that can be fine-tuned by changes in the environmental pH. Following release at the apical plasma membrane, the lectin can reenter the cell for another round of recycling and apical protein sorting. This review will briefly address galectin-3-functions in epithelia and focus on distinct phases in apical recycling of the lectin. PMID:26059399

  5. Cell Chirality Induces Collective Cell Migration in Epithelial Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-10-01

    During early development, epithelial cells form a monolayer sheet and migrate in a uniform direction. Here, we address how this collective migration can occur without breaking the cell-to-cell attachments. Repeated contraction and expansion of the cell-to-cell interfaces enables the cells to rearrange their positions autonomously within the sheet. We show that when the interface tension is strengthened in a direction that is tilted from the body axis, cell rearrangements occur in such a way that unidirectional movement is induced. We use a vertex model to demonstrate that such anisotropic tension can generate the unidirectional motion of cell sheets. Our results suggest that cell chirality facilitates collective cell migration during tissue morphogenesis.

  6. Cytomatrix synthesis in MDCK epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J.J.; Low, R.B.; Woodcock-Mitchell, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    Detailed information regarding the synthesis rates of individual protein components is important in understanding the assembly and dynamics of the cytoskeletal matrix of eukaryotic cells. As an approach to this topic, the dual isotope technique of Clark and Zak, was employed to measure fractional synthesis rates (FSRs) in growing and quiescent cultures of MDCK epithelial cells. Cell protein was labeled to equilibrium with (14C)leucine over several days and then pulse-labeled for 4 hours with (3H)leucine. FSRs (as percent per hour) were calculated from the 3H/14C ratio of cell extracts or individual proteins separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the 3H/14C ratio of free leucine in the medium. Synthesis of total cell protein rose from approximately 1.4%/hour in quiescent cells to 3.5%/hour in the growing cultures. The latter rate was sufficient to account for the rate of protein accumulation and a low level of turnover in the growing cultures. The FSR of the buffered-Triton soluble extract was higher and the cytoskeletal FSR significantly lower than that for total protein in quiescent monolayers. This difference, however, was not observed in growing cultures. A distinct pattern of differences was seen in the FSRs of individual cytoskeletal proteins in the quiescent cultures. Vimentin synthesis was significantly lower than that of the keratins and the keratin FSRs were not obviously matched in pairwise fashion. Unexpectedly, the FSRs of alpha- and beta-tubulin diverged in quiescent cells with alpha-tubulin turnover exceeding beta-tubulin. Likewise, components of the microfilament lattice showed unequal fractional synthesis rates, myosin and alpha-actinin being faster than actin. In addition, the FSR for globular actin exceeded that of the cytoskeletal associated form.

  7. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  8. Clinical implications of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Luis A; Blanco, Moisés; Castosa, Raquel; Concha, Ángel; Valladares, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Figueroa, Angélica

    2015-09-28

    In the last few years, the role of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer biology research has gained increasing attention. This concept refers to the ability of the epithelial cells to dynamically switch between different phenotypic cellular states. This programme is particularly relevant during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression. During colonization, epithelial cells first activate the EMT programme to disseminate from a primary tumour to reach a distant tissue site. During this process, cells are transported into the circulation and are able to escape the immune system of the host. Then, a reverse process called mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occurs on cells that settle in the distant organs. Although epithelial cell plasticity has an important impact on tumour biology, the clinical relevance of this concept remains to be recapitulated. In this review, we will update the current state of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression and its clinical implications for the design of therapeutic strategies, the acquisition of multidrug resistance, and future perspectives for the management of cancer patients. PMID:26099173

  9. Genetics and epithelial cell dysfunction in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riordan, J.R.; Buchwald, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines the advances being made in the study of the physiology, cell biology, and molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. Emphasis is placed on various areas of research that involve epithelial cells (e.g., the CF-specific phenotypes exhibited by epithelial cells, abnormalities in epithelium ion transport, chloride channel regulation in CF epithelial.) Coverage is presented on the current status of CF, including data on the incidence of the disease, its mode of inheritance, chromosomal localization, genetic heterogeneity, and screening and management.

  10. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  11. Microfluidic approaches for epithelial cell layer culture and characterisation

    PubMed Central

    Thuenauer, Roland; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique; Römer, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, epithelial cell layers line most body cavities and form selective barriers that regulate the exchange of solutes between compartments. In order to fulfil these functions, the cells assume a polarised architecture and maintain two distinct plasma membrane domains, the apical domain facing the lumen and the basolateral domain facing other cells and the extracellular matrix. Microfluidic biochips offer the unique opportunity to establish novel in vitro models of epithelia in which the in vivo microenvironment of epithelial cells is precisely reconstituted. In addition, analytical tools to monitor biologically relevant parameters can be directly integrated on-chip. In this review we summarise recently developed biochip designs for culturing epithelial cell layers. Since endothelial cell layers, which line blood vessels, have similar barrier functions and polar organisation as epithelial cell layers, we also discuss biochips for culturing endothelial cell layers. Furthermore, we review approaches to integrate tools to analyse and manipulate epithelia and endothelia in microfluidic biochips, including methods to perform electrical impedance spectroscopy, methods to detect substances undergoing trans-epithelial transport via fluorescence, spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry, techniques to mechanically stimulate cells via stretching and fluid flow-induced shear stress, and methods to carry out high-resolution imaging of vesicular trafficking with light microscopy. Taken together, this versatile microfluidic toolbox enables novel experimental approaches to characterise epithelial monolayers. PMID:24668405

  12. Flow Cytometry Analysis of Thymic Epithelial Cells and Their Subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Ohigashi, Izumi; Takahama, Yousuke

    2016-01-01

    The parenchyma of the thymus is compartmentalized into the cortex and the medulla, which are constructed by cortical thymic epithelial cells (cortical TECs, cTECs) and medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), respectively. cTECs and mTECs essentially and differentially regulate the development and repertoire selection of T cells. Consequently, the biology of T cell development and selection includes the study of TECs in addition to the study of developing T cells and other hematopoietic cells including dendritic cells. In this chapter, we describe the methods for flow cytometric analysis and sorting of TECs and their subpopulations, including cTECs and mTECs. PMID:26294398

  13. Characteristics and EGFP expression of porcine mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue-Mao; He, Xiao-Ying

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a porcine mammary gland epithelial (PMGE) cell line, and to determine if these PMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of PMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating pig. The passage sixteen PMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in PMGE cells was tested by immunofluorescence. ?eta-Casein gene mRNA was tested for PMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that PMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the cells contained different cell types. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells, and the PMGE cells could express transcript encoding a ?eta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the PMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected porcine mammary gland epithelial (ET-PMGE) cell line. PMID:20400167

  14. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot; Egan, Jim J.; Doran, Peter P.

    2009-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  15. Behavioral Heterogeneity of Adult Mouse Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shinin, Vasily; Liu, Yuru

    2014-01-01

    The existence and identity of multipotent stem cells in the adult lung is currently highly debated. At present, it remains unclear whether candidate stem/progenitor cells are located in the airways, alveoli, or throughout the epithelial lining of the lung. Here, we introduce a method of airway microdissection, which enabled us to study the progenitor behavior of pulmonary epithelial cells in region-specific contexts. The progenitor characteristics of epithelial cells isolated from the trachea, proximal and distal airways, and lung parenchyme were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. We identified a population of airway-derived basal-like epithelial cells with the potential to self-renew and differentiate into airway and alveolar lineages in culture and in vivo after subcutaneous transplantation. The multipotent candidate progenitors originated from a minor fraction of the airway epithelial cell population characterized by high expression of ?6 integrin. Results of the current study provide new insights into the regenerative potential of region-specific integrin ?6-positive pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:24950291

  16. ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

  17. Stochastic Terminal Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Grosshans, Joerg; Wolf, Fred

    2015-03-01

    We found that the constriction of epithelial cell contacts during intercalation in germ band extension in Drosophila embryos follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. The mean contact length < L > follows < L > (t) ~(T - t) ? , where T is the finite collapse time; the time dependent variance of contact length is proportional to the square of the mean; finally the time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations suggest that the dynamics of contact collapse can be captured by a stochastic differential equation analytically tractable in small noise approximation. Here, we present such a model, providing an effective description of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. All model parameters are fixed by measurements of time dependent mean and variance of contact lengths. The model predicts the contact length covariance function that we obtain in closed form. The contact length covariance function closely matches experimental observations suggesting that the model well captures the dynamics of contact collapse.

  18. Control of Francisella tularensis Intracellular Growth by Pulmonary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, Savannah; Takeda, Kazuyo; Stark, Felicity; Meierovics, Anda I.; Yabe, Idalia; Cowley, Siobhan C.

    2015-01-01

    The virulence of F. tularensis is often associated with its ability to grow in macrophages, although recent studies show that Francisella proliferates in multiple host cell types, including pulmonary epithelial cells. Thus far little is known about the requirements for killing of F. tularensis in the non-macrophage host cell types that support replication of this organism. Here we sought to address this question through the use of a murine lung epithelial cell line (TC-1 cells). Our data show that combinations of the cytokines IFN-?, TNF, and IL-17A activated murine pulmonary epithelial cells to inhibit the intracellular growth of the F. tularensis Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) and the highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strain. Although paired combinations of IFN-?, TNF, and IL-17A all significantly controlled LVS growth, simultaneous treatment with all three cytokines had the greatest effect on LVS growth inhibition. In contrast, Schu S4 was more resistant to cytokine-induced growth effects, exhibiting significant growth inhibition only in response to all three cytokines. Since one of the main antimicrobial mechanisms of activated macrophages is the release of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) via the activity of iNOS, we investigated the role of RNI and iNOS in Francisella growth control by pulmonary epithelial cells. NOS2 gene expression was significantly up-regulated in infected, cytokine-treated pulmonary epithelial cells in a manner that correlated with LVS and Schu S4 growth control. Treatment of LVS-infected cells with an iNOS inhibitor significantly reversed LVS killing in cytokine-treated cultures. Further, we found that mouse pulmonary epithelial cells produced iNOS during in vivo respiratory LVS infection. Overall, these data demonstrate that lung epithelial cells produce iNOS both in vitro and in vivo, and can inhibit Francisella intracellular growth via reactive nitrogen intermediates. PMID:26379269

  19. Epimorphin Functions as a Key Morphoregulator for Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, H.; Lochter, A.; Galosy, S.; Koshida, S.; Niwa, S.; Bissell, M.J.

    1997-10-13

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and EGF have been reported to promote branching morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells. We now show that it is epimorphin that is primarily responsible for this phenomenon. In vivo, epimorphin was detected in the stromal compartment but not in lumenal epithelial cells of the mammary gland; in culture, however, a subpopulation of mammary epithelial cells produced significant amounts of epimorphin. When epimorphin-expressing epithelial cell clones were cultured in collagen gels they displayed branching morphogenesis in the presence of HGF, EGF, keratinocyte growth factor, or fibroblast growth factor, a process that was inhibited by anti-epimorphin but not anti-HGF antibodies. The branch length, however, was roughly proportional to the ability of the factors to induce growth. Accordingly, epimorphin-negative epithelial cells simply grew in a cluster in response to the growth factors and failed to branch. When recombinant epimorphin was added to these collagen gels, epimorphin-negative cells underwent branching morphogenesis. The mode of action of epimorphin on morphogenesis of the gland, however, was dependent on how it was presented to the mammary cells. If epimorphin was overexpressed in epimorphin-negative epithelial cells under regulation of an inducible promoter or was allowed to coat the surface of each epithelial cell in a nonpolar fashion, the cells formed globular, alveoli-like structures with a large central lumen instead of branching ducts. This process was enhanced also by addition of HGF, EGF, or other growth factors and was inhibited by epimorphin antibodies. These results suggest that epimorphin is the primary morphogen in the mammary gland but that growth factors are necessary to achieve the appropriate cell numbers for the resulting morphogenesis to be visualized.

  20. Characteristics and EGFP expression of goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y-M; He, X-Y; Zhang, Y

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to establish a goat mammary gland epithelial (GMGE) cell line, and (ii) to determine if these GMGE cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing following transfection with a reporter gene, enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP). Primary culture of GMGE cells was achieved by outgrowth of migrating cells from the fragments of the mammary gland tissue of a lactating goat. The passage 16 GMGE cells were transfected with EGFP gene using lipofection. The expression of Cell keratins of epithelial cells in GMGE cells was test by immunofluorescence. ?eta-Casein gene mRNA was test for GMGE cells by RT-PCR. The results showed that when grown at low density on a plastic substratum, the GMGE cells formed islands, and when grown to confluency, the cells formed a monolayer and aggregated with the characteristic cobble-stone morphology of epithelial cells. GMGE cells could form dome-like structure which looked like nipple, and the lumen-like structures formed among the cells. Several blister-like structures appeared in the appearance of the cells. The GMGE cells contained different cell types, majority of the cells were short shuttle-like or polygon which were beehive-like. A part of cells were round and flat, a small number of cells were elongated. Some of the GMGE cells contained milk drops. The cell nuclei were round which had 2-4 obvious cores. The expression of Cell keratins demonstrated the property of epithelial cells in GMGE cells by immunofluorescence. The GMGE cells could express transcript encoding a ?eta-Casein protein. EGFP gene was successfully transferred into the GMGE cells, and the transfected cells could be maintained long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. In conclusion, we have established a EGFP gene transfected GMGE (ET-GMGE) cell line and maintained it long-term in culture by continuous subculturing. PMID:20113446

  1. Inhibition of corneal epithelial cell migration by cadmium and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Ubels, J.L.; Osgood, T.B. Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee )

    1991-02-01

    In a previous comparative study of corneal healing in fish, the authors observed that corneal epithelial healing occurs very rapidly in vivo in the marine teleost Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus (longhorn sculpin) with a 6-mm diameter wound on the mammalian cornea. This rapid healing which permits prompt restoration of the epithelial barrier is apparently an adaptation to the large ionic and osmotic gradients between the environment and the intraocular fluids of the fish. These observations suggested that epithelial healing in the sculpin cornea might be useful model in aquatic biomedical toxicology if an in vitro method for measurement of healing rates could be developed. In this report the authors demonstrate that sculpin eyes maintained in short-term organ culture have a rapid corneal epithelial healing response and that this model can be used to demonstrate the toxic effects of heavy metals on epithelial cell migration.

  2. Regulated Mucin Secretion from Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Kenneth B.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2013-01-01

    Secretory epithelial cells of the proximal airways synthesize and secrete gel-forming polymeric mucins. The secreted mucins adsorb water to form mucus that is propelled by neighboring ciliated cells, providing a mobile barrier which removes inhaled particles and pathogens from the lungs. Several features of the intracellular trafficking of mucins make the airway secretory cell an interesting comparator for the cell biology of regulated exocytosis. Polymeric mucins are exceedingly large molecules (up to 3?×?106?Da per monomer) whose folding and initial polymerization in the ER requires the protein disulfide isomerase Agr2. In the Golgi, mucins further polymerize to form chains and possibly branched networks comprising more than 20 monomers. The large size of mucin polymers imposes constraints on their packaging into transport vesicles along the secretory pathway. Sugar side chains account for >70% of the mass of mucins, and their attachment to the protein core by O-glycosylation occurs in the Golgi. Mature polymeric mucins are stored in large secretory granules ?1??m in diameter. These are translocated to the apical membrane to be positioned for exocytosis by cooperative interactions among myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate, cysteine string protein, heat shock protein 70, and the cytoskeleton. Mucin granules undergo exocytic fusion with the plasma membrane at a low basal rate and a high stimulated rate. Both rates are mediated by a regulated exocytic mechanism as indicated by phenotypes in both basal and stimulated secretion in mice lacking Munc13-2, a sensor of the second messengers calcium and diacylglycerol (DAG). Basal secretion is induced by low levels of activation of P2Y2 purinergic and A3 adenosine receptors by extracellular ATP released in paracrine fashion and its metabolite adenosine. Stimulated secretion is induced by high levels of the same ligands, and possibly by inflammatory mediators as well. Activated receptors are coupled to phospholipase C by Gq, resulting in the generation of DAG and of IP3 that releases calcium from apical ER. Stimulated secretion requires activation of the low affinity calcium sensor Synaptotagmin-2, while a corresponding high affinity calcium sensor in basal secretion is not known. The core exocytic machinery is comprised of the SNARE proteins VAMP8, SNAP23, and an unknown Syntaxin protein, together with the scaffolding protein Munc18b. Common and distinct features of this exocytic system in comparison to neuroendocrine cells and neurons are highlighted. PMID:24065956

  3. The Epithelial Cell in Lung Health and Emphysema Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Becky A.; Lemaître, Vincent; Powell, Charles A.; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of the irreversible lung disease emphysema. Historically, inflammatory cells such as macrophages and neutrophils have been studied for their role in emphysema pathology. However, recent studies indicate that the lung epithelium is an active participant in emphysema pathogenesis and plays a critical role in the lung’s response to cigarette smoke. Tobacco smoke increases protease production and alters cytokine expression in isolated epithelial cells, suggesting that these cells respond potently even in the absence of a complete inflammatory program. Tobacco smoke also acts as an immunosuppressant, reducing the defense function of airway epithelial cells and enhancing colonization of the lower airways. Thus, the paradigm that emphysema is strictly an inflammatory-cell based disease is shifting to consider the involvement of resident epithelial cells. Here we review the role of epithelial cells in lung development and emphysema. To better understand tobacco-epithelial interactions we performed microarray analyses of RNA from human airway epithelial cells exposed to smoke extract for 24 hours. These studies identified differential regulation of 425 genes involved in diverse biological processes, such as apoptosis, immune function, cell cycle, signal transduction, proliferation, and antioxidants. Some of these genes, including VEGF, glutathione peroxidase, IL-13 receptor, and cytochrome P450, have been previously reported to be altered in the lungs of smokers. Others, such as pirin, cathepsin L, STAT1, and BMP2, are shown here for the first time to have a potential role in smoke-associated injury. These data broaden our understanding of the importance of epithelial cells in lung health and cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. PMID:19662102

  4. Probiotics promote endocytic allergen degradation in gut epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Chun-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON ; Huang, Shelly; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antigens transported across A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers conserved antigenicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Probiotic proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Epithelial barrier dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases; the mechanism is to be further understood. The ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) plays a role in the endocytic protein degradation in the cells. This study aims to elucidate the role of A20 in the maintenance of gut epithelial barrier function. Methods: Gut epithelial cell line, HT-29 cell, was cultured into monolayers to evaluate the barrier function in transwells. RNA interference was employed to knock down the A20 gene in HT-29 cells to test the role of A20 in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function. Probiotic derived proteins were extracted from the culture supernatants using to enhance the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells. Results: The results showed that the knockdown of A20 compromised the epithelial barrier function in HT-29 monolayers, mainly increased the intracellular permeability. The fusion of endosome/lysosome was disturbed in the A20-deficient HT-29 cells. Allergens collected from the transwell basal chambers of A20-deficient HT-29 monolayers still conserved functional antigenicity. Treating with probiotic derived proteins increased the expression of A20 in HT-29 cells and promote the barrier function. Conclusion: A20 plays an important role in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function as shown by HT-29 monolayer. Probiotic derived protein increases the expression of A20 and promote the HT-29 monolayer barrier function.

  5. REceptors in proximal tubular epithelial cells for tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Krishnamurti, U; Wayner, E A; Michael, A F; Charonis, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis antigen (TIN-ag) is a novel basement membrane macromolecule that is involved in human antitubular-basement-membrane-mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis. The presence of antibodies to TIN-ag may result in an alteration of proximal tubule epithelial cell interaction with surrounding matrix and contribute to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated tubulointerstitial disease. To study the adhesive interactions between TIN-ag and proximal tubule epithelial cells and the macromolecules that mediate these interactions, an immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney (HK-2) was used. Plastic-coated TIN-ag was able to promote adhesion of HK-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. the strength of the adhesive interaction was comparable to that of type IV collagen or laminin. to explore which members of the integrin family of cell surface receptors were involved in this interaction, we performed fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis and adhesion-inhibition studies using monoclonal antibodies against various integrins. Both approaches suggested that integrins alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 3 are crucial for the adhesion of proximal tubule epithelial cells on TIN-ag, and that they are probably using independent domains of TIN-ag for their action. These data will help us to understand the interactions between proximal tubule epithelial cells and the underlying basement membrane, and will provide tubule clues to the pathogenesis of kidney tubular diseases at the molecular level. PMID:8770961

  6. Epithelial cell guidance by self-generated EGF gradients†

    PubMed Central

    Scherber, Cally; Aranyosi, Alexander J.; Kulemann, Birte; Thayer, Sarah P.; Toner, Mehmet; Iliopoulos, Othon

    2012-01-01

    Cancer epithelial cells often migrate away from the primary tumor to invade into the surrounding tissues. Their migration is commonly assumed to be directed by pre-existent spatial gradients of chemokines and growth factors in the target tissues. Unexpectedly however, we found that the guided migration of epithelial cells is possible in vitro in the absence of pre-existent chemical gradients. We observed that both normal and cancer epithelial cells can migrate persistently and reach the exit along the shortest path from microscopic mazes filled with uniform concentrations of media. Using microscale engineering techniques and biophysical models, we uncovered a self-guidance strategy during which epithelial cells generate their own guiding cues under conditions of biochemical confinement. The self-guidance strategy depends on the balance between three interdependent processes: epidermal growth factor (EGF) uptake by the cells (U), the restricted transport of EGF through the structured microenvironment (T), and cell chemotaxis toward the resultant EGF gradients (C). The UTC self-guidance strategy can be perturbed by inhibition of signalling through EGF-receptors and appears to be independent from chemokine signalling. Better understanding of the UTC self-guidance strategy could eventually help devise new ways for modulating epithelial cell migration and delaying cancer cell invasion or accelerating wound healing. PMID:22314635

  7. Lateral adhesion drives reintegration of misplaced cells into epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bergstralh, Dan T; Lovegrove, Holly E; St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cells in simple epithelia orient their mitotic spindles in the plane of the epithelium so that both daughter cells are born within the epithelial sheet. This is assumed to be important to maintain epithelial integrity and prevent hyperplasia, because misaligned divisions give rise to cells outside the epithelium. Here we test this assumption in three types of Drosophila epithelium; the cuboidal follicle epithelium, the columnar early embryonic ectoderm, and the pseudostratified neuroepithelium. Ectopic expression of Inscuteable in these tissues reorients mitotic spindles, resulting in one daughter cell being born outside the epithelial layer. Live imaging reveals that these misplaced cells reintegrate into the tissue. Reducing the levels of the lateral homophilic adhesion molecules Neuroglian or Fasciclin 2 disrupts reintegration, giving rise to extra-epithelial cells, whereas disruption of adherens junctions has no effect. Thus, the reinsertion of misplaced cells seems to be driven by lateral adhesion, which pulls cells born outside the epithelial layer back into it. Our findings reveal a robust mechanism that protects epithelia against the consequences of misoriented divisions. PMID:26414404

  8. Development of human epithelial cell systems for radiation risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. H.; Craise, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    The most important health effect of space radiation for astronauts is cancer induction. For radiation risk assessment, an understanding of carcinogenic effect of heavy ions in human cells is most essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed a human mammary epithelial cell system for studying the neoplastic transformation in vitro. Growth variants were obtained from heavy ion irradiated immortal mammary cell line. These cloned growth variants can grow in regular tissue culture media and maintain anchorage dependent growth and density inhibition property. Upon further irradiation with high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation, transformed foci were found. Experimental results from these studies suggest that multiexposure of radiation is required to induce neoplastic tranformation of human epithelial cells. This multihits requirement may be due to high genomic stability of human cells. These growth variants can be useful model systems for space flight experiments to determine the carcinogenic effect of space radiation in human epithelial cells.

  9. Effects of ethanol on an intestinal epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nano, J.L.; Cefai, D.; Rampal, P. )

    1990-02-01

    The effect of exposure of an intestinal epithelial cell line to various concentrations of ethanol (217 mM (1%) to 652 mM (3%)) during 24, 48, and 72 hr was investigated in vitro using a rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IRD 98). Incubation of these cells in the presence of ethanol significantly decreased cell growth. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong increase in cellular protein. Stimulation of specific disaccharidases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and aminopeptidase activities by ethanol was dose- and time-dependent. Ethanol induces a change in the relative proportions of the different lipid classes synthesized; triglycerides, fatty acids, and cholesterol esters were preferentially synthethysed. Our findings show that cell lines are good models for investigation of the effects of ethanol, and that alcohol considerably modifies the functions of intestinal epithelial cells.

  10. Lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling limits mucosal damage through driving IL-23 production by epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Macho-Fernandez, E; Koroleva, E P; Spencer, C M; Tighe, M; Torrado, E; Cooper, A M; Fu, Y-X; Tumanov, A V

    2015-03-01

    The immune mechanisms regulating epithelial cell repair after injury remain poorly defined. We demonstrate here that lymphotoxin beta receptor (LT?R) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells promotes self-repair after mucosal damage. Using a conditional gene-targeted approach, we demonstrate that LT?R signaling in intestinal epithelial cells is essential for epithelial interleukin-23 (IL-23) production and protection against epithelial injury. We further show that epithelial-derived IL-23 promotes mucosal wound healing by inducing the IL-22-mediated proliferation and survival of epithelial cells and mucus production. Additionally, we identified CD4(-)CCR6(+)T-bet(-) RAR-related orphan receptor gamma t (ROR?t)(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells as the main producers of protective IL-22 after epithelial damage. Thus, our results reveal a novel role for LT?R signaling in epithelial cells in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis to limit mucosal damage. PMID:25183367

  11. Expression and function of the epithelial sodium channel ?-subunit in human respiratory epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schwagerus, Elena; Sladek, Svenja; Buckley, Stephen T; Armas-Capote, Natalia; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Harvey, Brian J; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Huwer, Hanno; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Ehrhardt, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Using human airway epithelial cell lines (i.e. NCI-H441 and Calu-3) as well as human alveolar epithelial type I-like (ATI) cells in primary culture, we studied the contribution of the epithelial sodium channel ?-subunit (?-ENaC) to transepithelial sodium transport in human lung in vitro. Endogenous ?-ENaC protein was present in all three cell types tested; however, protein abundance was low, and no expression was detected in the apical cell membrane of these cells. Similarly, known modulators of ?-ENaC activity, such as capsazepine and icilin (activators) and Evans blue (inhibitor), did not show effects on short-circuit current (I SC), suggesting that ?-ENaC is not involved in the modulation of transcellular sodium absorption in NCI-H441 cell monolayers. Over-expression of ?-ENaC in NCI-H441 cells resulted in detectable protein expression in the apical cell membrane, as well as capsazepine and icilin-stimulated increases in I SC that were effectively blocked by Evans blue and that were consistent with ?-ENaC activation and inhibition, respectively. Consequently, these observations suggest that ?-ENaC expression is low in NCI-H441, Calu-3, and ATI cells and does not contribute to transepithelial sodium absorption. PMID:25677639

  12. Human Epithelial Cell Intermediate Filaments: Isolation, Purification, and Characterization

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Robert D.

    epithelial cells (HeLa) can be disassembled in 8 M urea and reassembled in phosphate-buffered solutions that was seen in HeLa cells with this antiserum is complex. It consisted of a juxtanuclear accumulation with individual HeLa IF proteins, the immunofluorescence pattern in HeLa cells was altered to suggest the presence

  13. FOXM1 confers to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, stemness and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Wen-Tai; Huang, Yu-Fang; Tsai, Huei-Yu; Chen, Chien-Chin; Chang, Chang-Hwa; Huang, Soon-Cen; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chou, Cheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chemoresistance to anti-cancer drugs substantially reduces survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. In this study, we showed that chemoresistance to cisplatin and paclitaxel induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a stem cell phenotype in ovarian cancer cells. Chemoresistance was associated with the downregulation of epithelial markers and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers, EMT-related transcription factors, and cancer stem cell markers, which enhanced invasion and sphere formation ability. Overexpression of FOXM1 increased cisplatin-resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-sensitive and low FOXM1-expressing ovarian cancer cells. Conversely, depletion of FOXM1 via RNA interference reduced cisplatin resistance and sphere formation in cisplatin-resistant and high FOXM1-expressing cells. Overexpression of FOXM1 also increased the expression, nuclear accumulation, and activity of ?-CATENIN in chemoresistant cells, whereas downregulation of FOXM1 suppressed these events. The combination of cisplatin and the FOXM1 inhibitor thiostrepton inhibited the expression of stem cell markers in chemoresistant cells and subcutaneous ovarian tumor growth in mouse xenografts. In an analysis of 106 ovarian cancer patients, high FOXM1 levels in tumors were associated with cancer progression and short progression-free intervals. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of FOXM1 in chemoresistance and suggest that FOXM1 inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:25537512

  14. Change in cell shape is required for matrix metalloproteinase-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Khauv, Davitte; Bissell, Mina J.; Radisky, Derek C.

    2008-06-26

    Cell morphology dictates response to a wide variety of stimuli, controlling cell metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and death. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process in which epithelial cells acquire migratory characteristics, and in the process convert from a 'cuboidal' epithelial structure into an elongated mesenchymal shape. We had shown previously that matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) can stimulate EMT of cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells through a process that involves increased expression of Rac1b, a protein that stimulates alterations in cytoskeletal structure. We show here that cells treated with MMP-3 or induced to express Rac1b spread to cover a larger surface, and that this induction of cell spreading is a requirement of MMP-3/Rac1b-induced EMT. We find that limiting cell spreading, either by increasing cell density or by culturing cells on precisely defined micropatterned substrata, blocks expression of characteristic markers of EMT in cells treated with MMP-3. These effects are not caused by general disruptions in cell signaling pathways, as TGF-{beta}-induced EMT is not affected by similar limitations on cell spreading. Our data reveal a previously unanticipated cell shape-dependent mechanism that controls this key phenotypic alteration and provide insight into the distinct mechanisms activated by different EMT-inducing agents.

  15. Stem Cell Reports Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Shane T.

    Stem Cell Reports Resource Single-Cell Analysis of Proxy Reporter Allele-Marked Epithelial Cells Establishes Intestinal Stem Cell Hierarchy Ning Li,1 Maryam Yousefi,1,5 Angela Nakauka-Ddamba,1 Rajan Jain,2 development of targeted murine reporter alleles as proxies for intestinal stem cell activity has led

  16. Establishment and Characterization of Immortalized Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kaixuan; Koike, Chika; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Fathy, Moustafa; Kyo, Satoru; Kiyono, Tohru; Saito, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAEs) have a low immunogenic profile and possess potent immunosuppressive properties. HAEs also have several characteristics similar to stem cells, and they are discarded after parturition. Thus, they could potentially be used in cell therapy with fewer ethical problems. HAEs have a short life, so our aim is to establish and characterize immortalized human amniotic epithelial cells (iHAEs). HAEs were introduced with viral oncogenes E6/E7 and with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to create iHAEs. These iHAEs have proliferated around 200 population doublings (PDs) for at least 12 months. High expression of stem cell markers (Oct 3/4, Nanog, Sox2, Klf4) and epithelial markers (CK5, CK18) were detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These iHAEs were expanded in ultra-low-attachment dishes to form spheroids similarly to epithelial stem/precursor cells. High expression of mesenchymal (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105) and somatic (CD24, CD29, CD271, Nestin) stem cell markers was detected by flow cytometry. The iHAEs showed adipogenic, osteogenic, neuronal, and cardiac differentiation abilities. In conclusion, the immortalization of HAEs with the characteristics of stem cells has been established, allowing these iHAEs to become useful for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:23298399

  17. [Isolation, purification and identification of epithelial cells derived from fetal islet-like cell clusters].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai; Zhao, Ting; Wang, Yun; Yang, Chun-Rong; Xiao, Mei; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this article is to provide methods for the isolation and identification of pancreatic stem cells and cell source for research and therapy of diabetes. ICCs were isolated by collagenase IV digesting and then cultured; epithelial cells were purified from monolayer cultured ICCs. The growth curve of the epithelial cells was measured by MTT. The expression of molecular markers in the cells was identified by immunohistochemical staining. The surface markers in the epithelial cells were analyzed by FACS. Epithelial cells were purified from isolated human fetal ICCs and passaged 40 times, and 10(6) - 10(8) cells were cryopreservated per passage. The growth curve demonstrated that the epithelial cells proliferated rapidly. The epithelial cells expressed PDX-1, PCNA, CK-7, CK-19, Nestin, Glut2, and Vimentin, but Insulin was undetected. The cells expressed CD29, CD44, and CD166, but did not express CD11a, CD14, CD34, CD45, CD90, CD105, and CD117. Taken together, these results indicate that self-renewable epithelial cells can be isolated and purified from human fetal pancreas. These also show that the epithelial cells originate from ducts and have the characteristics of pancreatic stem cells. PMID:17460896

  18. Vaginal Abnormalities: Vaginal Agenesis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for approximately six months. Vaginal stenosis, or a tightening of the vagina, is the major complication of this procedure. Only ... in three months. Some women will experience a tightening of the vagina. If this occurs, dilation will be performed under ...

  19. Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Kinnin, Leslie A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

  20. Transcriptional PROFILING OF MUCOCILIARY DIFFERENTIATION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When cultured at an air-liquid interface (ALI) in the appropriate medium, primary human airway epithelial cells form a polarized, pseudostratified epithelium composed of ciliated and mucus-secreting cells. This culture system provides a useful tool for the in vitro study of...

  1. AN IN VITRO MODEL FOR MURINE URETERIC EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a model developed to study growth and differentiation of primary cultures of ureteric epithelial cells from embryonic C57BL/6N mouse urinary tracts. Single cells were resuspended in medium and plated onto transwells coated with collagen IV and laminin. Basa...

  2. Vitreous stimulates proliferation of fibroblasts and retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, P; Ryan, S J; Novak, P; Sorgente, N

    1985-11-01

    In proliferative vitreoretinopathy, retinal pigment epithelial cells and glial cells migrate into the vitreous, proliferate, and assume characteristics of myofibroblasts. The addition of vitreous to the culture media stimulates the proliferation of porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells, bovine and lapine dermal fibroblasts but not the proliferation of bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The mitogenic activity is not species-specific, since vitreous from various species stimulates the proliferation of these cells. The mitogenic activity is destroyed by heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min or by trypsin treatment. Since the vitreous, under our assay conditions, was not mitogenic for endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells, the mitogenic activity is probably not derived from leakage into the vitreous of circulating fibroblast, epidermal or platelet-derived growth factor. PMID:4092753

  3. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance.

    PubMed

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-03-26

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the LESC hypothesis. PMID:25815115

  4. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed by the LESC hypothesis. PMID:25815115

  5. Preparation of viable single cell suspensions of tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N. F.; Margiotta, E. A.; Wilson, J. S.; Sebring, R. J.; Smith, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports a procedure used for isolating the entire epithelial lining of the rat trachea. Isolated trachea was initially filled with 0.2% hyaluronidase and incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Tracheas were flushed with medium and then reinflated with 0.5 microgram/ml cytochalasin B and re-incubated for 60 min. The tracheal lumens were again flushed and reinstilled with 24 iu/ml pronase and incubated for a further 30 min. The tracheas were flushed again and the cells removed enumerated and viability assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Cell yields (X 10(6)) from 30 consecutive Fischer 344 rats were 5.06 +/- 0.16 (s.e.m.) and the mean percentage of viable cells was 83.13 +/- 1.10 (s.e.m.). This cell yield was close to the estimated tracheal cell population (5.3 X 10(6)). The suspensions were predominantly single cells which apparently retained a normal ultrastructural appearance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3555592

  6. Apoptotic cell clearance by bronchial epithelial cells critically influences airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Juncadella, Ignacio J.; Kadl, Alexandra; Sharma, Ashish K.; Shim, Yun M.; Hochreiter-Hufford, Amelia; Borish, Larry; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2013-01-01

    Lung epithelial cells can influence immune responses to airway allergens1,2. Airway epithelial cells also undergo apoptosis after encountering environmental allergens3; yet, relatively little is known about how these are cleared, and their effect on airway inflammation. Here we show that airway epithelial cells efficiently engulf apoptotic epithelial cells and secrete anti-inflammatory cytokines, dependent upon intracellular signalling by the small GTPase Rac1. Inducible deletion of Rac1 expression specifically in airway epithelial cells in a mouse model resulted in defective engulfment by epithelial cells and aberrant anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Intranasal priming and challenge of these mice with house dust mite extract or ovalbumin as allergens led to exacerbated inflammation, augmented Th2 cytokines and airway hyper-responsiveness, with decreased interleukin (IL)-10 in bronchial lavages. Rac1-deficient epithelial cells produced much higher IL-33 upon allergen or apoptotic cell encounter, with increased numbers of nuocyte-like cells1,4,5. Administration of exogenous IL-10 ‘rescued’ the airway inflammation phenotype in Rac1-deficient mice, with decreased IL-33. Collectively, these genetic and functional studies suggest a new role for Rac1-dependent engulfment by airway epithelial cells and in establishing the anti-inflammatory environment, and that defects in cell clearance in the airways could contribute to inflammatory responses towards common allergens. PMID:23235830

  7. Vaginal Protection by H2O2-Producing Lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    V. Sgibnev, Andrey; A. Kremleva, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peroxide-producing lactobacilli provide protection from infection for the female reproductive tract. However, in vitro studies demonstrated that H2O2-produced by Lactobacillus is not the cause of inhibition of pathogens. It is not exactly known how H2O2-producing lactobacilli are involved in the protection of the vaginal environment. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the importance of the interaction between H2O2-producing lactobacilli and their host for the resistance of the vaginal biotope. Materials and Methods: In this study, we used vaginal lactobacilli (11 H2O2-roducing strains and 11 non-H2O2-producing strains). The influence of epithelial cells on the growth and antibacterial activity of lactobacilli were evaluated. The effects of lactobacilli on the antibacterial activity of the epithelial cells, muramidase and lactoferrin were also determined. Results: Vaginal epithelial cells stimulated the growth and antibacterial activity of H2O2-producing lactobacilli in a greater extent than that of the non-H2O2-producing lactobacilli. Mainly, the H2O2-producing lactobacilli were capable of increasing the activity of the host antimicrobial peptides (muramidase and lactoferrin) as well as the antibacterial activity of the epithelial cells. Conclusions: The involvement of the peroxide-producing lactobacilli in the protection of vagina was due to their ability to effectively interact with the host. This is expressed on one side to stimulate the growth and antagonistic activity of lactobacilli and on the other side to increase the antibacterial activity of the host defense factors (muramidase, lactoferrin and metabolites of epithelial cells). PMID:26587206

  8. A novel closed cell culture device for fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Ryota; Kobayashi, Toyoshige; Moriya, Noboru; Mizutani, Manabu; Kan, Kazutoshi; Nozaki, Takayuki; Saitoh, Kazuo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Takeda, Shizu

    2015-11-01

    Automation technology for cell sheet-based tissue engineering would need to optimize the cell sheet fabrication process, stabilize cell sheet quality and reduce biological contamination risks. Biological contamination must be avoided in clinical settings. A closed culture system provides a solution for this. In the present study, we developed a closed culture device called a cell cartridge, to be used in a closed cell culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured on the surface of a porous membrane with 3T3 feeder cells, which are separate from the epithelial cells in the cell cartridges and in the cell-culture inserts as a control. To fabricate the stratified cell sheets, five different thicknesses of the membranes which were welded to the cell cartridge, were examined. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated in cell cartridges that were welded to a 25?µm-thick gas-permeable membrane, which was similar to the results with the cell-culture inserts. However, stratification of corneal epithelial cell sheets did not occur with cell cartridges that were welded to 100-300?µm-thick gas-permeable membranes. The fabricated cell sheets were evaluated by histological analyses to examine the expression of corneal epithelial-specific markers. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that a putative stem cell marker, p63, a corneal epithelial differentiation maker, CK3, and a barrier function marker, Claudin-1, were expressed in the appropriate position in the cell sheets. These results suggest that the cell cartridge is effective for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23239605

  9. Airway epithelial cell response to human metapneumovirus infection

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, X.; Liu, T.; Spetch, L.; Kolli, D.; Garofalo, R.P.; Casola, A.

    2007-11-10

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants, elderly and immunocompromised patients. In this study, we show that hMPV can infect in a similar manner epithelial cells representative of different tracts of the airways. hMPV-induced expression of chemokines IL-8 and RANTES in primary small alveolar epithelial cells (SAE) and in a human alveolar type II-like epithelial cell line (A549) was similar, suggesting that A549 cells can be used as a model to study lower airway epithelial cell responses to hMPV infection. A549 secreted a variety of CXC and CC chemokines, cytokines and type I interferons, following hMPV infection. hMPV was also a strong inducer of transcription factors belonging to nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B, interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) families, which are known to orchestrate the expression of inflammatory and immunomodulatory mediators.

  10. Cigarette smoke extract affects mitochondrial function in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ballweg, Korbinian; Mutze, Kathrin; Königshoff, Melanie; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure of cells to cigarette smoke induces an initial adaptive cellular stress response involving increased oxidative stress and induction of inflammatory signaling pathways. Exposure of mitochondria to cellular stress alters their fusion/fission dynamics. Whereas mild stress induces a prosurvival response termed stress-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, severe stress results in mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondrial response to mild and nontoxic doses of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in alveolar epithelial cells. We characterized mitochondrial morphology, expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission genes, markers of mitochondrial proteostasis, as well as mitochondrial functions such as membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Murine lung epithelial (MLE)12 and primary mouse alveolar epithelial cells revealed pronounced mitochondrial hyperfusion upon treatment with CSE, accompanied by increased expression of the mitochondrial fusion protein mitofusin 2 and increased metabolic activity. We did not observe any alterations in mitochondrial proteostasis, i.e., induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response or mitophagy. Therefore, our data indicate an adaptive prosurvival response of mitochondria of alveolar epithelial cells to nontoxic concentrations of CSE. A hyperfused mitochondrial network, however, renders the cell more vulnerable to additional stress, such as sustained cigarette smoke exposure. As such, cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial hyperfusion, although part of a beneficial adaptive stress response in the first place, may contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:25326581

  11. Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; McNeil, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research. PMID:23619298

  12. Cholinergic epithelial cell with chemosensory traits in murine thymic medulla.

    PubMed

    Panneck, Alexandra Regina; Rafiq, Amir; Schütz, Burkhard; Soultanova, Aichurek; Deckmann, Klaus; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Weihe, Eberhard; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Grau, Veronika; del Rey, Adriana; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    Specialized epithelial cells with a tuft of apical microvilli ("brush cells") sense luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to potentially harmful substances. They utilize the canonical taste transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum-sensing molecules. In the respiratory tract, most of these cells are cholinergic and are approached by cholinoceptive sensory nerve fibers. Utilizing two different reporter mouse strains for the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), we observed intense labeling of a subset of thymic medullary cells. ChAT expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization. These cells showed expression of villin, a brush cell marker protein, and ultrastructurally exhibited lateral microvilli. They did not express neuroendocrine (chromogranin A, PGP9.5) or thymocyte (CD3) markers but rather thymic epithelial (CK8, CK18) markers and were immunoreactive for components of the taste transduction cascade such as G?-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5), and phospholipase C?2. Reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the expression of G?-gustducin, TRPM5, and phospholipase C?2. Thymic "cholinergic chemosensory cells" were often in direct contact with medullary epithelial cells expressing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit ?3. These cells have recently been identified as terminally differentiated epithelial cells (Hassall's corpuscle-like structures in mice). Contacts with nerve fibers (identified by PGP9.5 and CGRP antibodies), however, were not observed. Our data identify, in the thymus, a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensitive cell that probably utilizes acetylcholine for paracrine signaling. This cell might participate in intrathymic infection-sensing mechanisms. PMID:25300645

  13. Epithelial cell adhesion and gastrointestinal colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry.

    PubMed

    Spivey, Megan A; Dunn-Horrocks, Sadie L; Duong, Tri

    2014-11-01

    Administration of probiotic Lactobacillus cultures is an important alternative to the use of antibiotic growth promoters and has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and preharvest food safety in poultry production. Whereas gastrointestinal colonization is thought to be critical to their probiotic functionality, factors important to Lactobacillus colonization in chickens are not well understood. In this study we investigate epithelial cell adhesion in vitro and colonization of Lactobacillusin vivo in broiler chickens. Adhesion of Lactobacillus cultures to epithelial cells was evaluated using the chicken LMH cell line. Lactobacillus cultures were able adhere effectively to LMH cells relative to Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella Typhimurium. Epithelial cell adhesion was similar for Lactobacillus crispatus TDCC 75, L. cristpatus TDCC 76, and Lactobacillus gallinarum TDCC 77, and all 3 were more adherent than L. gallinarum TDCC 78. However, when colonization was evaluated in the ileum and cecum of broiler chicks, L. crispatus TDCC 75 and L. gallinarum TDCC 77 were more persistent than L. crispatus TDCC 76 and L. gallinarum TDCC 78. The reduction of growth in medium supplemented with oxgal was greater for L. gallinarum TDCC 78 than L. gallinarum TDCC 77, suggesting that whereas adhesion was similar for the 2 strains, the difference in colonization between L. gallinarum strains may be due in part to their bile sensitivity. This study demonstrates that whereas adhesion to epithelial cells may be important in predicting gastrointestinal colonization, other factors including bile tolerance may also contribute to the colonization of Lactobacillus in poultry. Additionally, the chicken LMH cell line is expected to provide a platform for investigating mechanisms of Lactobacillus adhesion to epithelial tissue and evaluating the probiotic potential Lactobacillus in poultry. PMID:25239531

  14. [Stem cell factor production from cultured nasal epithelial cells--effect on SCF production by drugs].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Mamoru; Otsuka, Hirokuni; Kusumi, Taeko; Yamauchi, Yoko

    2002-02-01

    We studied whether epithelial cells cultured in serum-free medium contained other cells or not, there were differences in SCF production from cultured nasal epithelial cells between groups of nonallergic and allergic patients, and among degrees of serum mite-CAP RAST classes of allergic patients, and how drugs inhibited SCF production. As a result, no other contaminating cells except mast cell existed in cultured cells. There was a significant difference in SCF production of cultured cells between nonallergic and class 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, and between class 1-2 and 3-4, 5-6 of mite CAP-RAST class. Cyclosporin, prednisolone, fluticasone, ketotifen, and clemastine inhibited SCF production from cultured epithelial cells, but cromoglicate and suplatast did not. Inhibition means the reduction of SCF from cells, not the growth of cultured nasal epithelial cells. PMID:11905054

  15. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into type II alveolar epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Gai, Hui; Mei, Ju; Ding, Fang-Bao; Bao, Chun-Rong; Nguyen, David M; Zhong, Hong

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that BMSCs (bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells) can be successfully differentiated into type II alveolar epithelial cells in vitro under mimic pulmonary microenvironment. BMSCs were co-cultured with MRC-5 cells in modified SAGM (small airway growth medium). The BMSC-derived type II alveolar epithelial cells morphologically resemble human lung epithelial cells. They began to appear after 10 days in co-culture and became morphologically dominant after day 15. Correspondingly, SPC (surfactant protein C), a specific functional marker of human type II alveolar epithelial cells, was detected in differentiated cells by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis after day 15. Immunostaining analysis revealed the present of scattered SPC-positive cells with a differentiation efficiency of 2.43-4.21%. Our study further showed that the SPC gene expression level in differentiated cells was related to the ratio of BMSCs to MRC-5 cells and the components of modified SAGM. PMID:21542803

  16. Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers

    E-print Network

    Swigon, David

    Using a continuum model to predict closure time of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell layers Julia model of collective cell migration is used to predict the closure of gaps in intestinal epithelial cell the environment1 and injuries to the intestinal epithelial layer could result in bacterial sepsis. Tissue repair

  17. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  18. Characterisation of epithelial progenitor cells for human and mouse thymus 

    E-print Network

    Farley, Alison

    2009-01-01

    , but is at low frequency even by E12.5. ii) That a unipotent progenitor population committed to a cortical epithelial cell fate is also present as early as E11.5. iii) That E11.5 TEC can be propagated in vitro in semi defined conditions, but appear to revert ro...

  19. Metabolic cooperativity between epithelial cells and adipocytes of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.C.; Emerman, J.T.; Bissell, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    We have demonstrated that glycogen and lipid synthesis in adipocytes is modulated by the lactational state and that this modulation in mammary adipocytes requires the presence of the adjacent epithelial cells. Glycogen and lipid synthesis from (/sup 14/C)glucose was measured in mammary fat pads cleared of epithelium, in abdominal fat pads, and in adipocytes from both sources and from intact mammary gland of mature virgin, pregnant, and lactating mice. Accumulation of glycogen, the activity of glycogen synthase, and the lipogenic rate in abdominal and mammary adipocytes remained high during pregnancy but decreased to insignificant levels by early lactation. The depressant effects of lactation were observed solely in those mammary adipocytes isolated from intact glands. The presence of mammary epithelial cells was also required to effect the stimulated lipogenesis in mammary adipocytes during pregnancy. We conclude that the metabolic activity of adipocytes is modulated both during pregnancy and lactation to channel nutrients to the mammary epithelial cell. The fact that the changes occur in mammary adipocytes only when epithelial cells are present indicates that local as well as systemic factors are operating in these modulations.

  20. Limbal Stromal Tissue Specific Stem Cells and Their Differentiation Potential to Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Katikireddy, Kishore Reddy; Jurkunas, Ula V

    2016-01-01

    From the derivation of the first human embryonic stem (hES) cell line to the development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells; it has become evident that tissue specific stem cells are able to differentiate into a specific somatic cell types. The understanding of key processes such as the signaling pathways and the role of the microenvironment in epidermal/epithelial development has provided important clues for the derivation of specific epithelial cell types.Various differentiation protocols/methods were used to attain specific epithelial cell types. Here, we describe in detail the procedure to follow for isolation of tissue specific stem cells, mimicking their microenvironment to attain stem cell characteristics, and their potential differentiation to corneal epithelial cells. PMID:25762299

  1. Circulating progenitor epithelial cells traffic via CXCR4/CXCL12 in response to airway injury.

    PubMed

    Gomperts, Brigitte N; Belperio, John A; Rao, P Nagesh; Randell, Scott H; Fishbein, Michael C; Burdick, Marie D; Strieter, Robert M

    2006-02-01

    Recipient airway epithelial cells are found in human sex-mismatched lung transplants, implying that circulating progenitor epithelial cells contribute to the repair of the airway epithelium. Markers of circulating progenitor epithelial cells and mechanisms for their trafficking remain to be elucidated. We demonstrate that a population of progenitor epithelial cells exists in the bone marrow and the circulation of mice that is positive for the early epithelial marker cytokeratin 5 (CK5) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. We used a mouse model of sex-mismatched tracheal transplantation and found that CK5+ circulating progenitor epithelial cells contribute to re-epithelialization of the airway and re-establishment of the pseudostratified epithelium. The presence of CXCL12 in tracheal transplants provided a mechanism for CXCR4+ circulating progenitor epithelial cell recruitment to the airway. Depletion of CXCL12 resulted in the epithelium defaulting to squamous metaplasia, which was derived solely from the resident tissue progenitor epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate that CK5+CXCR4+ cells are markers of circulating progenitor epithelial cells in the bone marrow and circulation and that CXCR4/CXCL12-mediated recruitment of circulating progenitor epithelial cells is necessary for the re-establishment of a normal pseudostratified epithelium after airway injury. These findings support a novel paradigm for the development of squamous metaplasia of the airway epithelium and for developing therapeutic strategies for circulating progenitor epithelial cells in airway diseases. PMID:16424223

  2. Nesfatin-1 inhibits ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell proliferation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yang; Pang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Fang Zhang, Yi

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest. •Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis. •Nesfatin-1 inhibits HO-8910 cell proliferation via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. •The first report of nesfatin-1-mediated proliferation in ovarian epithelial carcinoma. -- Abstract: Nesfatin-1, an 82-amino-acid peptide derived from a 396-amino-acid precursor protein nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of food intake. It was recently reported that nesfatin-1 is a novel depot specific adipokine preferentially produced by subcutaneous tissue, with obesity- and food deprivation-regulated expression. Although a relation between ovarian cancer mortality and obesity has been previously established, a role of nesfatin-1 in ovarian epithelial carcinoma remains unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of nesfatin-1 on ovary carcinoma cells proliferation. We found that nesfatin-1 inhibits the proliferation and growth of HO-8910 cells by G1 phase arrest, this inhibition could be abolished by nesfatin-1 neutralizing antibody. Nesfatin-1 enhances HO-8910 cell apoptosis, activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway block the effects of nesfatin-1-induced apoptosis, therefore reverses the inhibition of HO-8910 cell proliferation by nesfatin-1. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that nesfatin-1 can inhibit the proliferation in human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cell line HO-8910 cells through inducing apoptosis via mTOR and RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. This study provides a novel regulatory signaling pathway of nesfatin-1-regulated ovarian epithelial carcinoma growth and may contribute to ovarian cancer prevention and therapy, especially in obese patients.

  3. Lectin-resistant mutants of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Meiss, H K; Green, R F; Rodriguez-Boulan, E J

    1982-01-01

    Two lectin-resistant mutants derived from Madin Darby canine kidney cells, with constitutive alterations in the asparagine-linked carbohydrate moieties, retained the characteristic structural and functional epithelial polarity of the parental cells. A ricin-resistant cell line was unable to incorporate galactose-sialic acid into glycoproteins and, from the pattern of cross-resistance to other lectins, appears to be different from previously described lines resistant to this lectin: the mutation in a concanavalin A-resistant line results, probably, in the production of defective carbohydrate cores of glycoproteins. In spite of glycosylation defects which result in an increased electrophoretic mobility of many cellular glycoproteins, both mutants retained the typical asymmetric structure of the plasma membrane (microvilli on the apical surface, junctional elements on the basolateral surface), functional tight junctions, and unidirectional active transport of electrolytes and water. These results suggest that glycoproteins with terminal galactose-sialic acid moieties are not critically involved in the development and maintenance of polarity in epithelial cells. The mutant cells, particularly the ricin-resistant line, exhibited, however, morphological and electrophysiological changes which suggest a quantitative effect of the mutations on intracellular traffic of membranes and tight junction formation. The cell lines described in this paper, the first lectin-resistant mutants of epithelial lineage, should prove useful tools for studying the peculiarities of glycosylating pathways in polarized cells. Images PMID:7177111

  4. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S; Ramesh, Govindarajan T

    2007-06-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system's response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. PMID:17124605

  5. Uranium induces oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Kumar, Felix; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Sharma, Chidananda S.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, antitank weapons, tank armor, and also as a pigment to color ceramics and glass. Effective management of waste uranium compounds is necessary to prevent exposure to avoid adverse health effects on the population. Health risks associated with uranium exposure includes kidney disease and respiratory disorders. In addition, several published results have shown uranium or depleted uranium causes DNA damage, mutagenicity, cancer and neurological defects. In the current study, uranium toxicity was evaluated in rat lung epithelial cells. The study shows uranium induces significant oxidative stress in rat lung epithelial cells followed by concomitant decrease in the antioxidant potential of the cells. Treatment with uranium to rat lung epithelial cells also decreased cell proliferation after 72 h in culture. The decrease in cell proliferation was attributed to loss of total glutathione and superoxide dismutase in the presence of uranium. Thus the results indicate the ineffectiveness of antioxidant system’s response to the oxidative stress induced by uranium in the cells. PMID:17124605

  6. Melanosome Motility in Fish Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) Cells.

    PubMed

    King-Smith, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Several model systems have been developed to investigate mechanism and regulation of intracellular organelle motility. The fish retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell represents a novel yet simple system for the study of organelle motility. Primary cultures of dissociated RPE cells are easily prepared and amenable to motility studies. In vivo, melanin-containing pigment granules (melanosomes) within fish RPE migrate distances up to 100 ?m in response to light flux. When dissociated from the epithelial layer and cultured in vitro, RPE cells attach to the substrate with the apical projections extending radially from the central cell body. Melanosomes can be chemically triggered to aggregate or disperse throughout the projections, and are easily observed using phase contrast microscopy. Melanosome migration in RPE apical projections is dependent on actin filaments, and thus renders this model system useful for investigations of actin-dependent organelle motility. PMID:26498793

  7. Iron upregulates melanogenesis in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wolkow, Natalie; Li, Yafeng; Maminishkis, Arvydas; Song, Ying; Alekseev, Oleg; Iacovelli, Jared; Song, Delu; Lee, Jennifer C; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our studies was to examine the relationship between iron and melanogenesis in retinal pigment epithelial cells, as prior observations had suggested that iron may promote melanogenesis. This relationship has potential clinical importance, as both iron overload and hyperpigmentation are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Human fetal retinal pigment epithelial cells and ARPE-19 cells were treated with iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate, after which quantitative RT-PCR and electron microscopy were performed. Melanogenesis genes tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 3, premelanosome protein and dopachrome tautomerase were upregulated, as was the melanogenesis-controlling transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Iron-treated cells had increased pigmentation and melanosome number. Multiple transcription factors upstream of MITF were upregulated by iron. PMID:25277027

  8. Interleukin-22 promotes intestinal-stem-cell-mediated epithelial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lindemans, Caroline A; Calafiore, Marco; Mertelsmann, Anna M; O'Connor, Margaret H; Dudakov, Jarrod A; Jenq, Robert R; Velardi, Enrico; Young, Lauren F; Smith, Odette M; Lawrence, Gillian; Ivanov, Juliet A; Fu, Ya-Yuan; Takashima, Shuichiro; Hua, Guoqiang; Martin, Maria L; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Lo, Yuan-Hung; Mokry, Michal; Romera-Hernandez, Monica; Cupedo, Tom; Dow, Lukas E; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E; Shroyer, Noah F; Liu, Chen; Kolesnick, Richard; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Hanash, Alan M

    2015-12-24

    Epithelial regeneration is critical for barrier maintenance and organ function after intestinal injury. The intestinal stem cell (ISC) niche provides Wnt, Notch and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signals supporting Lgr5(+) crypt base columnar ISCs for normal epithelial maintenance. However, little is known about the regulation of the ISC compartment after tissue damage. Using ex vivo organoid cultures, here we show that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), potent producers of interleukin-22 (IL-22) after intestinal injury, increase the growth of mouse small intestine organoids in an IL-22-dependent fashion. Recombinant IL-22 directly targeted ISCs, augmenting the growth of both mouse and human intestinal organoids, increasing proliferation and promoting ISC expansion. IL-22 induced STAT3 phosphorylation in Lgr5(+) ISCs, and STAT3 was crucial for both organoid formation and IL-22-mediated regeneration. Treatment with IL-22 in vivo after mouse allogeneic bone marrow transplantation enhanced the recovery of ISCs, increased epithelial regeneration and reduced intestinal pathology and mortality from graft-versus-host disease. ATOH1-deficient organoid culture demonstrated that IL-22 induced epithelial regeneration independently of the Paneth cell niche. Our findings reveal a fundamental mechanism by which the immune system is able to support the intestinal epithelium, activating ISCs to promote regeneration. PMID:26649819

  9. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  10. Review: Corneal epithelial stem cells, their niche and wound healing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells emerged as a concept during the second half of 19th century, first as a theoretical entity, but then became one of the most promising research fields in cell biology. This work describes the most important characteristics of adult stem cells, including the experimental criteria used to identify them, and discusses current knowledge that led to the proposal that stem cells existed in different parts of the eye, such as the retina, lens, conjunctiva, corneal stroma, Descemet’s membrane, and the subject of this review: the corneal epithelium. Evidence includes results that support the presence of corneal epithelial stem cells at the limbus, as well as the major obstacles to isolating them as pure cell populations. Part of this review describes the variation in the basement membrane composition between the limbus and the central cornea, to show the importance of the corneal stem cell niche, its structure, and the participation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components in regulating corneal stem cell compartment. Results obtained by various laboratories suggest that the extracellular matrix plays a central role in regulating stem cell commitment, corneal differentiation, and participation in corneal wound healing, in addition to other environmental signals such as cytokines and growth factors. The niche could define cell division patterns in corneal stem cell populations, establishing whether stem cells divide asymmetrically or symmetrically. Characterization and understanding of the factors that regulate corneal epithelial stem cells should open up new paths for developing new therapies and strategies for accelerating and improving corneal wound healing. PMID:23901244

  11. In vitro methods to culture primary human breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raouf, Afshin; Sun, Yu Jia

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that much like leukemia, breast tumors are maintained by a small subpopulation of tumor cells that have stem cell properties. These cancer stem cells are envisaged to be responsible for tumor formation and relapse. Therefore, knowledge about their nature will provide a platform to develop therapies to eliminate these breast cancer stem cells. This concept highlights the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the normal functions of the breast stem cells and their immediate progeny as alterations to these same mechanisms can cause these primitive cells to act as cancer stem cells. The study of the primitive cell functions relies on the ability to isolate them from primary sources of breast tissue. This chapter describes processing of discarded tissue from reduction mammoplasty samples as sources of normal primary human breast epithelial cells and describes cell culture systems to grow single-cell suspensions prepared from these reduction samples in vitro. PMID:23179844

  12. Neuroendocrinelike (small granule) epithelial cells of the lung.

    PubMed Central

    DiAugustine, R P; Sonstegard, K S

    1984-01-01

    The presence of neuroendocrinelike epithelial cells in the lung of numerous species has been demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Histochemical methods used to identify these cells have included staining with silver, amine-type fluorescence (APUD cell), periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-lead hematoxylin, and immunohistochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase. Cytoplasmic dense core vesicles (70-200 nm in diameter) have served as the major ultrastructural characteristic. Lung neuroendocrinelike cells have been shown to occur in fetal and adult mammals as solitary-type cells or as distinct organoids known as neuroepithelial bodies ( NEBs ). Although the frequency of both populations is considered low, solitary-type cells with dense-core granules can be found in as high as 5% of epithelial cells in the cricoid region of the guinea-pig larynx. The solitary cells can be found throughout the airways of mammals, whereas the NEBs are confined to the intrapulmonary airways. Unmyelinated fibers have been traced from the lamina propria and into the NEB, where they ramified between the component cells of the NEB. The function of lung neuroendocrinelike cells is not known, but morphological and cytochemical studies suggest that the NEBs are intrapulmonary chemoreceptors that can respond to changes in airway gas composition. Hypoxia or hypercapnia has been shown to decrease the amine cytofluorescence in these organoids and apparently to increase the exocytosis of dense core vesicles from the basal region of the cell. Immunohistochemical studies have suggested that some lung epithelial cells may contain a known neuropeptide(s), but further investigation is needed to confirm the presence of such compounds in lung neuroendocrinelike cells and their physiochemical properties. Apparent hyperplasia of lung neuroendocrinelike cells can occur readily in hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine. It has been postulated that human lung tumors with endocrinelike properties, namely, bronchial carcinoids and lung small cell carcinomas, may originate from lung neuroendocrinelike cells. However, a more plausible explanation, based on cytokinetic studies of epithelial neuroendocrinelike cells in the lung and other organs, is that these cells originate from a nonneuroendocrine population. Interaction of such a progenitor cell population with selected carcinogens may lead to stimulation of the rate of normal differentiation or, alternately, to selection of an abnormal route of differentiation that possesses a neuroendocrine phenotype. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. PMID:6376101

  13. Vangl2 Regulates E-Cadherin in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Tadahiro; Inutsuka, Ayumu; Begum, Khadiza; hafiz, Khandakar musabbir bin; Kishi, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin belongs to the classic cadherin subfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules and is crucial for the formation and function of epithelial adherens junctions. In this study, we demonstrate that Vangl2, a vertebrate regulator of planar cell polarity (PCP), controls E-cadherin in epithelial cells. E-cadherin co-immunoprecipitates with Vangl2 from embryonic kidney extracts, and this association is also observed in transfected fibroblasts. Vangl2 enhances the internalization of E-cadherin when overexpressed. Conversely, the quantitative ratio of E-cadherin exposed to the cell surface is increased in cultured renal epithelial cells derived from Vangl2Lpt/+ mutant mice. Interestingly, Vangl2 is also internalized through protein traffic involving Rab5- and Dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Taken together with recent reports regarding the transport of Frizzled3, MMP14 and nephrin, these results suggest that one of the molecular functions of Vangl2 is to enhance the internalization of specific plasma membrane proteins with broad selectivity. This function may be involved in the control of intercellular PCP signalling or in the PCP-related rearrangement of cell adhesions. PMID:25373475

  14. Estradiol Increases Mucus Synthesis in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Anthony; Wadsworth, Samuel; Dorscheid, Delbert; Man, Shu-Fan Paul; Sin, Don D.

    2014-01-01

    Airway epithelial mucus hypersecretion and mucus plugging are prominent pathologic features of chronic inflammatory conditions of the airway (e.g. asthma and cystic fibrosis) and in most of these conditions, women have worse prognosis compared with male patients. We thus investigated the effects of estradiol on mucus expression in primary normal human bronchial epithelial cells from female donors grown at an air liquid interface (ALI). Treatment with estradiol in physiological ranges for 2 weeks caused a concentration-dependent increase in the number of PAS-positive cells (confirmed to be goblet cells by MUC5AC immunostaining) in ALI cultures, and this action was attenuated by estrogen receptor beta (ER-?) antagonist. Protein microarray data showed that nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) in the nuclear fraction of NHBE cells was increased with estradiol treatment. Estradiol increased NFATc1 mRNA and protein in ALI cultures. In a human airway epithelial (1HAE0) cell line, NFATc1 was required for the regulation of MUC5AC mRNA and protein. Estradiol also induced post-translational modification of mucins by increasing total fucose residues and fucosyltransferase (FUT-4, -5, -6) mRNA expression. Together, these data indicate a novel mechanism by which estradiol increases mucus synthesis in the human bronchial epithelium. PMID:24964096

  15. Vectorial secretion of proteoglycans by polarized rat uterine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    We have studied proteoglycan secretion using a recently developed system for the preparing of polarized primary cultures of rat uterine epithelial cells. To mimic their native environment better and provide a system for discriminating apical from basolateral compartments, we cultured cells on semipermeable supports impregnated with biomatrix. Keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPG) as well as heparan sulfate- containing molecules (HS[PG]) were the major sulfated products synthesized and secreted by these cells. The ability of epithelial cells to secrete KSPG greatly increased in parallel with the development of cell polarity. Furthermore, KSPG secretion occurred preferentially to the apical medium in highly polarized cultures. In contrast, HS(PG) secretion did not increase along with development of polarity, although most HS(PG) (85%) were secreted apically as well. Pulse-chase studies indicated that highly polarized cultures secreted 80-90% of the sulfated macromolecules they synthesized, predominantly to the apical secretory compartment. The half-lives for KSPG and HS(PG) secretion were approximately 3 and 4 h, respectively. Parallel studies of cells cultured on tissue culture plastic-coated with biomatrix indicated that neither the state of confluency nor the biomatrix was primarily responsible for inducing the KSPG secretion observed in polarizing cultures. Experiments with uterine strips indicated that the steroid hormone, 17-beta-estradiol, markedly stimulated synthesis and secretion of sulfated macromolecules, but had no preferential effect on KSPG production. The ratio of KSPG to HS(PG) secretion from uterine strips was similar to that found in the apical medium of highly polarized cell cultures. Thus, the pattern of proteoglycan secretion observed in polarized cell cultures mimicked that observed for uterine cells, although the preferential increase in KSPG production by polarized cells could not be attributed to an estrogen response. Collectively, these studies describe the major sulfated molecules secreted by rat uterine epithelial cells under varying conditions and provide evidence for a novel influence of cell polarity on the cell's ability to secrete sulfated glycoconjugates. PMID:3198693

  16. Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sarah X L; Islam, Mohammad Naimul; O'Neill, John; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Ya-Wen; Mumau, Melanie; Green, Michael D; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Bhattacharya, Jahar; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

    2014-01-01

    The ability to generate lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) would have applications in regenerative medicine, modeling of lung disease, drug screening and studies of human lung development. We have established, based on developmental paradigms, a highly efficient method for directed differentiation of hPSCs into lung and airway epithelial cells. Long-term differentiation of hPSCs in vivo and in vitro yielded basal, goblet, Clara, ciliated, type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells. The type II alveolar epithelial cells were capable of surfactant protein-B uptake and stimulated surfactant release, providing evidence of specific function. Inhibiting or removing retinoic acid, Wnt and BMP-agonists to signaling pathways critical for early lung development in the mouse-recapitulated defects in corresponding genetic mouse knockouts. As this protocol generates most cell types of the respiratory system, it may be useful for deriving patient-specific therapeutic cells. PMID:24291815

  17. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    c-myc, epidermal growth receptor, transforming growth factorM. Transforming growth factor-beta and epidermal growthTransforming growth factor ?1, TGF?; ionizing radiation, IR; human mammary epithelial cells, HMEC; epidermal

  18. Temporal Monitoring of Differentiated Human Airway Epithelial Cells Using Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Cornelia; Reale, Riccardo; Held, Marie; Millar, Timothy M.; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.; Morgan, Hywel; Swindle, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    The airway epithelium is exposed to a variety of harmful agents during breathing and appropriate cellular responses are essential to maintain tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence has highlighted the contribution of epithelial barrier dysfunction in the development of many chronic respiratory diseases. Despite intense research efforts, the responses of the airway barrier to environmental agents are not fully understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models that recapitulate the complex in vivo situation accurately. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we describe a novel dynamic 3D in vitro model of the airway epithelium, incorporating fully differentiated primary human airway epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface and a basolateral microfluidic supply of nutrients simulating the interstitial flow observed in vivo. Through combination of the microfluidic culture system with an automated fraction collector the kinetics of cellular responses by the airway epithelium to environmental agents can be analysed at the early phases for the first time and with much higher sensitivity compared to common static in vitro models. Following exposure of primary differentiated epithelial cells to pollen we show that CXCL8/IL–8 release is detectable within the first 2h and peaks at 4–6h under microfluidic conditions, a response which was not observed in conventional static culture conditions. Such a microfluidic culture model is likely to have utility for high resolution temporal profiling of toxicological and pharmacological responses of the airway epithelial barrier, as well as for studies of disease mechanisms. PMID:26436734

  19. CCL20, (gamma)(delta) T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6 (+) IL-17(+) gamma delta T cells migrate into the epithelium. Gamma delta T-cell-deficient (TCRd(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mR...

  20. Radiogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Tavakoli, A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1996-01-01

    Cancer induction by space radiations is a major concern for manned space exploration. Accurate assessment of radiation risk at low doses requires basic understanding of mechanism(s) of radiation carcinogenesis. For determining the oncogenic effects of ionizing radiation in human epithelial cells, we transformed a mammary epithelial cell line (185B5), which was immortalized by benzo(a)pyrene, with energetic heavy ions and obtained several transformed clones. These transformed cells showed growth properties on Matrigel similar to human mammary tumor cells. To better understand the mechanisms of radiogenic transformation of human cells, we systematically examined the alterations in chromosomes and cancer genes. Among 16 autosomes examined for translocations, by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, chromosomes 3, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 18 appeared to be normal in transformed cells. Chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 8, and 17 in transformed cells, however, showed patterns different from those in nontransformed cells. Southern blot analyses indicated no detectable alterations in myc, ras, Rb, or p53 genes. Further studies of chromosome 17 by using in situ hybridization with unique sequence p53 gene probe and a centromere probe showed no loss of p53 gene in transformed cells. Experimental results from cell fusion studies indicated that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. The role of genomic instability and tumor suppressor gene(s) in radiogenic transformation of human breast cells remains to be identified.

  1. Medullary thymic epithelial cell depletion leads to autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bonito, Anthony J.; Aloman, Costica; Fiel, M. Isabel; Danzl, Nichole M.; Cha, Sungwon; Weinstein, Erica G.; Jeong, Seihwan; Choi, Yongwon; Walsh, Matthew C.; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina

    2013-01-01

    TRAF6, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, plays a critical role in T cell tolerance by regulating medullary thymic epithelial cell (mTEC) development. mTECs regulate T cell tolerance by ectopically expressing self-antigens and eliminating autoreactive T cells in the thymus. Here we show that mice with mTEC depletion due to conditional deletion of Traf6 expression in murine thymic epithelial cells (Traf6?TEC mice) showed a surprisingly narrow spectrum of autoimmunity affecting the liver. The liver inflammation in Traf6?TEC mice exhibited all the histological and immunological characteristics of human autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). The role of T cells in AIH establishment was supported by intrahepatic T cell population changes and AIH development after transfer of liver T cells into immunodeficient mice. Despite a 50% reduction in natural Treg thymic output, peripheral tolerance in Traf6?TEC mice was normal, whereas compensatory T regulatory mechanisms were evident in the liver of these animals. These data indicate that mTECs exert a cell-autonomous role in central T cell tolerance and organ-specific autoimmunity, but play a redundant role in peripheral tolerance. These findings also demonstrate that Traf6?TEC mice are a relevant model with which to study the pathophysiology of AIH, as well as autoantigen-specific T cell responses and regulatory mechanisms underlying this disease. PMID:23867620

  2. Phenotypic Fidelity (or not?) of Epithelial Cells in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has contradicted the prevailing view that homeostasis and regeneration of the adult liver are mediated by self duplication of lineage-restricted hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. These new data suggest that liver progenitor cells do not function solely as a backup system in chronic liver injury; rather, they also produce hepatocytes after acute injury and are in fact the main source of new hepatocytes during normal hepatocyte turnover. In addition, other evidence suggests that hepatocytes are capable of lineage conversion, acting as precursors of biliary epithelial cells during biliary injury. To test these concepts, we generated a hepatocyte fate-tracing model based on timed and specific Cre recombinase expression and marker gene activation in all hepatocytes of adult Rosa26 reporter mice with an adenoassociated viral vector. We found that newly formed hepatocytes derived from preexisting hepatocytes in the normal liver and that liver progenitor cells contributed minimally to acute hepatocyte regeneration. Further, we found no evidence that biliary injury induced conversion of hepatocytes into biliary epithelial cells. These results therefore restore the previously prevailing paradigms of liver homeostasis and regeneration. In addition, our new vector system will be a valuable tool for timed, efficient, and specific loop out of floxed sequences in hepatocytes. PMID:22407729

  3. Spraying Respiratory Epithelial Cells to Coat Tissue-Engineered Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Thiebes, Anja Lena; Albers, Stefanie; Klopsch, Christian; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Cornelissen, Christian G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Applying cells in a spray can overcome current hurdles in coating tissue engineered constructs with a thin layer of endo- or epithelial cells. We report here a structured study on the influences of spray application with a medical spray device on vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and respiratory epithelial cells (RECs) with and without fibrin gel. Next to viability and cytotoxicity assays, the in vitro differentiation capacity after spray processing was analyzed. For vSMC, no influence of air pressures till 0.8 bar could be shown, whereas the viability decreased for higher pressures. The viability of RECs was reduced to 88.5% with 0.4 bar air pressure. Lactate dehydrogenase-levels in the culture medium increased the first day after spraying but normalized afterward. In the short term, no differences by means of morphology and expression-specific markers for vSMCs and RECs were seen between the control and study group. In addition, in a long-term study for 28 days with the air–liquid interface, RECs differentiated and built up an organized epithelial layer with ciliary development that was comparable to the control for cells sprayed without fibrin gel. When spraying within fibrin gel, ciliary development was lower at 28 days. Thus, spraying of vSMCs and RECs was proved to be a suitable method for tissue engineering. Especially for RECs, this application is of special significance when coating luminal structures or other unfavorable topographies. PMID:26309803

  4. Knowledge translation: airway epithelial cell migration and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Helan; Li, Debbie X; Liu, Mingyao

    2012-12-01

    Airway epithelial cell migration is essential for lung development and growth, as well as the maintenance of respiratory tissue integrity. This vital cellular process is also important for the repair and regeneration of damaged airway epithelium. More importantly, several lung diseases characterized by aberrant tissue remodeling result from the improper repair of damaged respiratory tissue. Epithelial cell migration relies upon extracellular matrix molecules and is further regulated by numerous local, neuronal, and hormonal factors. Under inflammatory conditions, cell migration can also be stimulated by certain cytokines and chemokines. Many well-known environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases (e.g., cigarette smoking, air pollution, alcohol intake, inflammation, viral and bacterial infections) can inhibit airway epithelial cell migration. Further investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms of cell migration with advanced techniques may provide knowledge that is relevant to physiological and pathological conditions. These studies may eventually lead to the development of therapeutic interventions to improve lung repair and regeneration and to prevent aberrant remodeling in the lung. PMID:22718093

  5. In vitro differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells into endothelial- and epithelial-like cells.

    PubMed

    Do?an, Ay?egül; Demirci, Selami; ?ahin, Fikrettin

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical techniques in dental practice include stem cell and tissue engineering applications. Dental stem cells are promising primary cell source for mainly tooth tissue engineering. Interaction of mesenchymal stem cell with epithelial and endothelial cells is strictly required for an intact tooth morphogenesis. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) derived from wisdom tooth are suitable for endothelial and epithelial cell transformation in dental tissue regeneration approaches. Differentiation into endothelial and epithelial cell lineages were mimicked under defined conditions, confirmed by real time PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis by qualitative and quantitative methods. HUVECs and HaCaT cells were used as positive controls for the endothelial and epithelial differentiation assays, respectively. Immunocytochemical and western blotting analysis revealed that terminally differentiated cells expressed cell-lineage markers including CD31, VEGFR2, VE-Cadherin, vWF (endothelial cell markers), and cytokeratin (CK)-17, CK-19, EpCaM, vimentin (epithelial cell markers) in significant levels with respect to undifferentiated control cells. Moreover, high expression levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGF, CK-18, and CK-19 genes were detected in differentiated endothelial and epithelial-like cells. Endothelial-like cells derived from hTGSCs were cultured on Matrigel, tube-like structure formations were followed as an indication for functional endothelial differentiation. hTGSCs successfully differentiate into various cell types with a broad range of functional abilities using an in vitro approach. These findings suggest that hTGSCs may serve a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering and cell therapy of epithelial and endothelial tissue. PMID:25077982

  6. *Iron accumulation in bronchial epithelial cells is dependent on concurrent sodium transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airway epithelial cells prevent damaging effects of extracellular iron by taking up the metal and sequestering it within intracellular ferritin. Epithelial iron transport is associated with transcellular movement of other cations including changes in the expression or activity of...

  7. Small molecule mediated proliferation of primary retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Swoboda, Jonathan G.; Elliott, Jimmy; Deshmukh, Vishal; de Lichtervelde, Lorenzo; Shen, Weijun; Tremblay, Matthew S.; Peters, Eric C.; Cho, Charles Y.; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Wang, Shaomei; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form a monolayer adjacent to the retina and play a critical role in the visual light cycle. Degeneration of RPE cells results in retinal disorders such as age-related macular degeneration. Cell transplant strategies have potential therapeutic value for such disorders; however, risks associated with and an inadequate supply of donor cells limit their therapeutic success. The identification of factors that proliferate RPE cells ex vivo could provide a renewable source of cells for transplantation. Here we report that a small molecule (WS3) can reversibly proliferate primary RPE cells isolated from fetal and adult human donors. Following withdrawal of WS3, RPE cells differentiate into a functional monolayer, as exhibited by their expression of mature RPE genes and phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Furthermore, chemically expanded RPE cells preserve vision when transplanted into dystrophic Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a well-established model of retinal degeneration. PMID:23621521

  8. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  9. Left-right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left-right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left-right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left-right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction. PMID:26656655

  10. Left–right asymmetric cell intercalation drives directional collective cell movement in epithelial morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsuhiko; Hiraiwa, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Emi; Isomura, Ayako; Shibata, Tatsuo; Kuranaga, Erina

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenetic epithelial movement occurs during embryogenesis and drives complex tissue formation. However, how epithelial cells coordinate their unidirectional movement while maintaining epithelial integrity is unclear. Here we propose a novel mechanism for collective epithelial cell movement based on Drosophila genitalia rotation, in which epithelial tissue rotates clockwise around the genitalia. We found that this cell movement occurs autonomously and requires myosin II. The moving cells exhibit repeated left–right-biased junction remodelling, while maintaining adhesion with their neighbours, in association with a polarized myosin II distribution. Reducing myosinID, known to cause counter-clockwise epithelial-tissue movement, reverses the myosin II distribution. Numerical simulations revealed that a left–right asymmetry in cell intercalation is sufficient to induce unidirectional cellular movement. The cellular movement direction is also associated with planar cell-shape chirality. These findings support a model in which left–right asymmetric cell intercalation within an epithelial sheet drives collective cellular movement in the same direction. PMID:26656655

  11. Hepatic stellate cells promote upregulation of epithelial cell adhesion molecule and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    NAGAHARA, TERUYA; SHIRAHA, HIDENORI; SAWAHARA, HIROAKI; UCHIDA, DAISUKE; TAKEUCHI, YASUTO; IWAMURO, MASAYA; KATAOKA, JUNRO; HORIGUCHI, SHIGERU; KUWAKI, TAKESHI; ONISHI, HIDEKI; NAKAMURA, SHINICHIRO; TAKAKI, AKINOBU; NOUSO, KAZUHIRO; YAMAMOTO, KAZUHIDE

    2015-01-01

    Microenvironment plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness of cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is known as a tumor stemness marker of HCC. To investigate the relationship between microenvi-ronment and stemness, we performed an in vitro co-culture assay. Four HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) were co-cultured with the TWNT-1 immortalized hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which create a microenvironment with HCC. Cell proliferation ability was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphe-nyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while migration ability was assessed by a wound healing assay. Expression of EpCAM was analyzed by immunoblotting and FCM. HCC cell lines were co-cultured with TWNT-1 treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for TGF-? and HB-EGF; we then analyzed proliferation, migration ability and protein expression using the methods described above. Proliferation ability was unchanged in HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Migration ability was increased in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, HuH-7 and PLC/PRF/5) directly (216.2±67.0, 61.0±22.0, 124.0±66.2 and 51.5±40.3%) and indirectly (102.5±22.0, 84.6±30.9, 86.1±25.7 and 73.9±29.7%) co-cultured with TWNT-1 compared with the HCC uni-culture. Immunoblot analysis revealed increased EpCAM expression in the HCC cell lines co-cultured with TWNT-1. Flow cytometry revealed that the population of E-cadherin?/N-cadherin+ and EpCAM-positive cells increased and accordingly, EMT and stemness in the HCC cell line were activated. These results were similar in the directly and indirectly co-cultured samples, indicating that humoral factors were at play. Conversely, HCC cell lines co-cultured with siRNA-treated TWNT-1 showed decreased migration ability, a decreased population of EpCAM-positive and E-cadherin?/N-cadherin+ cells. Taken together, humoral factors secreted from TWNT-1 promote upregulation of EpCAM and EMT in hepatic cancer cells. PMID:26165819

  12. Cytosolic calcium measurements in renal epithelial cells by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wing-Kee; Dittmar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A variety of cellular processes, both physiological and pathophysiological, require or are governed by calcium, including exocytosis, mitochondrial function, cell death, cell metabolism and cell migration to name but a few. Cytosolic calcium is normally maintained at low nanomolar concentrations; rather it is found in high micromolar to millimolar concentrations in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial matrix and the extracellular compartment. Upon stimulation, a transient increase in cytosolic calcium serves to signal downstream events. Detecting changes in cytosolic calcium is normally performed using a live cell imaging set up with calcium binding dyes that exhibit either an increase in fluorescence intensity or a shift in the emission wavelength upon calcium binding. However, a live cell imaging set up is not freely accessible to all researchers. Alternative detection methods have been optimized for immunological cells with flow cytometry and for non-immunological adherent cells with a fluorescence microplate reader. Here, we describe an optimized, simple method for detecting changes in epithelial cells with flow cytometry using a single wavelength calcium binding dye. Adherent renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, which are normally difficult to load with dyes, were loaded with a fluorescent cell permeable calcium binding dye in the presence of probenecid, brought into suspension and calcium signals were monitored before and after addition of thapsigargin, tunicamycin and ionomycin. PMID:25407650

  13. Vitamin C inhibit the proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition of lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Quan, Yanlong; Wang, Jianming; Wang, Feng; Zheng, Yuping; Zhou, Aiyi

    2015-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO), the main complication of cataract surgery, is mainly caused by the proliferation, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs).Vitamin C was reported to reduce the risk of forming a cataract. However, there has been no study showing the association between vitamin C and PCO. In this study, we found that vitamin C could inhibit the migration and proliferation of human lens epithelial cells. We also found that vitamin C could increase the proline hydroxylation of HIF-1? and reduce the activity of HIF-1?. Moreover, vitamin C could not inhibit the activity of proline-mutant HIF-1? (402/564). Overexpression of wild-type HIF-1? or proline-mutant HIF-1? was found to increase the proliferation and migration of human lens epithelial cells. Differently, vitamin C could inhibit the proliferation and migration in wild-type HIF-1?-overexpressing lens epithelial cells but not the proline-mutant HIF-1?-overexpressing cells. Additionally, vitamin C was also found to inhibit the expression of EMT transcription factors TWIST. We then found that vitamin C could repress the EMT phenotypes induced by the overexpression of wild-type HIF-1? but not the proline-mutant HIF-1?. These results provide evidence that vitamin C plays a role in the repression of proliferation, migration, and EMT of human lens epithelial cells by destabilizing HIF-1?. PMID:26628999

  14. DNA analysis of epithelial cell suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Johnson, N.F.; Holland, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cell suspensions of skin were obtained by animals exposed by skin painting of several crude oils. DNA analysis of these cell suspensions labeled with mithramycin provide determination of percentages of cells in the G/sub 1/, S and G/sub 2/M phases of the cell cycle. Data acquired showed differences from control animals occurring as early as 7 days after treatment and persisting through 21 days afterwards. There was histological evidence of erythema and hyperplasia in shale oil-exposed skins. Flow cytometric analysis of DNA content in shale-oil-exposed skin cells showed an increased percentage of cycling cells plus evidence of aneuploidy. Similar data from simply abraded skin showed increased percentages of cycling cells, but no aneuploidy. The shale-oil-exposed group, when compared to a standard petroleum-exposed group, had significantly increased percentages of cycling cells. This early indication of differing response to different complex mixtures was also seen in long-term skin exposures to these compounds. Similar analytical techniques were applied to tracheal cell suspensions from ozone-exposed rats. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  15. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Kidney Tubular Epithelial Cells Induced by Globotriaosylsphingosine and Globotriaosylceramide

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Yeo Jin; Jung, Namhee; Park, Joo-Won; Park, Hae-Young; Jung, Sung-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (?-gal A), which results in the deposition of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in the vascular endothelium. Globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3), a deacylated Gb3, is also increased in the plasma of patients with Fabry disease. Renal fibrosis is a key feature of advanced Fabry disease patients. Therefore, we evaluated the association of Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 accumulation and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) on tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. In HK2 cells, exogenous treatments of Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 increased the expression of TGF-?, EMT markers (N-cadherin and ?-SMA), and phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. Lyso-Gb3, rather than Gb3, strongly induced EMT in HK2 cells. In the mouse renal mesangial cell line, SV40 MES 13 cells, Gb3 strongly induced phenotype changes. The EMT induced by Gb3 was inhibited by enzyme ?-gal A treatment, but EMT induced by lyso-Gb3 was not abrogated by enzyme treatment. However, TGF-? receptor inhibitor (TRI, SB525334) inhibited the activation of TGF-? and EMT markers in HK2 cells with Gb3 and lyso-Gb3 treatments. This study suggested that increased plasma lyso-Gb3 has a crucial role in the development of renal fibrosis through the cell-specific induction of the EMT in Fabry disease, and that TRI treatment, alongside enzyme replacement therapy, could be a potential therapeutic option for patients with Fabry disease. PMID:26291612

  16. Photodynamic treatment of lens epithelial cells for cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingua, Robert W.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Simon, Gabriel; Li, Kam

    1991-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) eiiploying Dihematopor*iyrin ethers (DHE) (Photofrin II) at pharmacologic lvels, has been denonstrate3 to kill rabbit lens epithelial cells, in vivo. This in vitro study, reports on the minimal necessary parameters for rabbit lens epithelial cell death. Explants of rabbit lenses were incubated in various concentrations of DHE (1O,, 100, 500, 1000 ug/ml) for 1, 2, or 5 minutes. 30 to 120 Joules/an of collimated 514.5 nm Argon laser light re delivered to the locier concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 ug,'ml DHE treated cells. One hundre1 fifteen explants were treated, in all. Higher concentrations of DHE alone (500 and 1000 ug/ml) were sufficient to induce cellular swelling. Lower concentrations required light for cellular effect. Trypan blue staining revealed cell death at these minimal pa9ieters: DHE 50 ug/ml, incubation 1 minute, 514.5 r Argon light 1.0 Watt/an for 30 sec (30 Joules) . In future studies, these rameters will be tested in vivo, for their ability to eliminate lens epithelial proliferation after cataract surgery.

  17. Protective Effects of Trehalose on the Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aragona, Pasquale; Colosi, Pietro; Colosi, Francesca; Pisani, Antonina; Puzzolo, Domenico; Micali, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of the trehalose on the corneal epithelium undergoing alcohol delamination. Methods. Twelve patients undergoing laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) were consecutively included in the study. The right eyes were pretreated with 3% trehalose eye drops, whilst left eyes were used as control. Epithelial specimens were processed for cells vitality assessment, apoptosis, and light and transmission electron microscopy; a morphometric analysis was performed in both groups. Results. In both trehalose-untreated eyes (TUE) and trehalose-treated eyes (TTE), the percentage of vital cells was similar and no apoptotic cells were observed. In TUE, the corneal epithelium showed superficial cells with reduced microfolds, wing cells with vesicles and dilated intercellular spaces, and dark basal cells with vesicles and wide clefts. In TTE, superficial and wing cells were better preserved, and basal cells were generally clear with intracytoplasmatic vesicles. The morphometric analysis showed statistically significant differences between the two groups: the TTE epithelial height was higher, the basal cells showed larger area and clearer cytoplasm. The distribution of desmosomes and hemidesmosomes was significantly different between the groups. Conclusions. Trehalose administration better preserved morphological and morphometric features of alcohol-treated corneal epithelium, when compared to controls. PMID:25045743

  18. A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Das, Tamal; Safferling, Kai; Rausch, Sebastian; Grabe, Niels; Boehm, Heike; Spatz, Joachim P

    2015-03-01

    Collective movement of epithelial cells drives essential multicellular organization during various fundamental physiological processes encompassing embryonic morphogenesis, cancer and wound healing. Yet the molecular mechanism that ensures the coordinated movement of many cells remains elusive. Here we show that a tumour suppressor protein, merlin, coordinates collective migration of tens of cells, by acting as a mechanochemical transducer. In a stationary epithelial monolayer and also in three-dimensional human skin, merlin localizes to cortical cell-cell junctions. During migration initiation, a fraction of cortical merlin relocalizes to the cytoplasm. This relocalization is triggered by the intercellular pulling force of the leading cell and depends on the actomyosin-based cell contractility. Then in migrating cells, taking its cue from the intercellular pulling forces, which show long-distance ordering, merlin coordinates polarized Rac1 activation and lamellipodium formation on the multicellular length scale. Together, these results provide a distinct molecular mechanism linking intercellular forces to collective cell movements in migrating epithelia. PMID:25706233

  19. Epithelial Cell Polarity Determinant CRB3 in Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingping; Mao, Xiaona; Ren, Yu; Liu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    Cell polarity, which is defined as asymmetry in cell shape, organelle distribution and cell function, is essential in numerous biological processes, including cell growth, cell migration and invasion, molecular transport, and cell fate. Epithelial cell polarity is mainly regulated by three conserved polarity protein complexes, the Crumbs (CRB) complex, partitioning defective (PAR) complex and Scribble (SCRIB) complex. Research evidence has indicated that dysregulation of cell polarity proteins may play an important role in cancer development. Crumbs homolog 3 (CRB3), a member of the CRB complex, may act as a cancer suppressor in mouse kidney epithelium and mouse mammary epithelium. In this review, we focus on the current data available on the roles of CRB3 in cancer development. PMID:25552927

  20. Melanoregulin (MREG) modulates lysosome function in pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Damek-Poprawa, Monika; Diemer, Tanja; Lopes, Vanda S; Lillo, Concepción; Harper, Dawn C; Marks, Michael S; Wu, Yalin; Sparrow, Janet R; Rachel, Rivka A; Williams, David S; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen

    2009-04-17

    Melanoregulin (MREG), the product of the Mreg(dsu) gene, is a small highly charged protein, hypothesized to play a role in organelle biogenesis due to its effect on pigmentation in dilute, ashen, and leaden mutant mice. Here we provide evidence that MREG is required in lysosome-dependent phagosome degradation. In the Mreg(-/-) mouse, we show that loss of MREG function results in phagosome accumulation due to delayed degradation of engulfed material. Over time, the Mreg(-/-) mouse retinal pigment epithelial cells accumulate the lipofuscin component, A2E. MREG-deficient human and mouse retinal pigment epithelial cells exhibit diminished activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, cathepsin D, due to defective processing. Moreover, MREG localizes to small intracellular vesicles and associates with the endosomal phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate. Collectively, these studies suggest that MREG is required for lysosome maturation and support a role for MREG in intracellular trafficking. PMID:19240024

  1. Irsogladine maleate regulates gap junctional intercellular communication-dependent epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Ryo; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Takano, Ken-Ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The airway epithelium of the human nasal mucosa acts as the first physical barrier that protects against inhaled substances and pathogens. Irsogladine maleate (IM) is an enhancer of gastric mucosal protective factors via upregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). GJIC is thought to participate in the formation of functional tight junctions. However, the effects of IM on GJIC and the epithelial barrier in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the effects of IM on GJIC and the tight junctional barrier in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were treated with IM and the GJIC inhibitors oleamide and 18?-GA. Some cells were pretreated with IM before treatment with TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) to examine whether IM prevented the changes via TLR3-mediated signal pathways. In hTERT-HNECs, GJIC blockers reduced the expression of tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7, occludin, tricellulin, and JAM-A. IM induced GJIC activity and enhanced the expression of claudin-1, -4, and JAM-A at the protein and mRNA levels with an increase of barrier function. GJIC blockers prevented the increase of the tight junction proteins induced by IM. Furthermore, IM prevented the reduction of JAM-A but not induction of IL-8 and TNF-? induced by poly(I:C). In conclusion, IM can maintain the GJIC-dependent tight junctional barrier via regulation of GJIC in upper airway nasal epithelium. Therefore, it is possible that IM may be useful as a nasal spray to prevent the disruption of the epithelial barrier by viral infections and exposure to allergens in human nasal mucosa. PMID:25652184

  2. Elevated tropomyosin expression is associated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Eri; Hasanova, Nailia; Fatma, Nigar; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2013-01-01

    Injury to lens epithelial cells (LECs) leads to epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) with resultant fibrosis. The tropomyosin (Tpm) family of cytoskeleton proteins is involved in regulating and stabilizing actin microfilaments. Aberrant expression of Tpms leads to abnormal morphological changes with disintegration of epithelial integrity. The EMT of LECs has been proposed as a major cause of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. Using in vivo rodent PCO and human cataractous LECs, we demonstrated that the aberrant expression of rat Tpm and human Tpm1?/2? suggested their association in remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton during EMT of LECs. Expression analysis from abnormally growing LECs after lens extraction revealed elevated expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), a marker for EMT. Importantly, these cells displayed increased expression of Tpm1?/2? following EMT/PCO formation. Expression of Tpm1?/2? was up-regulated in LECs isolated from cataractous lenses of Shumiya Cataract Rats (SCRs), compared with non-cataractous lenses. Also, LECs from human patients with nuclear cataract and anterior subcapsular fibrosis (ASF) displayed significantly increased expression of Tpm2? mRNA, suggesting that similar signalling invokes the expression of these molecules in LECs of cataractous SCR and human lenses. EMT was observed in LECs overexpressed with Tpm1?/2?, as evidenced by increased expression of ?-SMA. These conditions were correlated with remodelling of actin filaments, possibly leading to EMT/PCO and ASF. The present findings may help clarify the condition of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenetic EMT, and may contribute to development of Tpm-based inhibitors for postponing PCO and cataractogenesis. PMID:23205574

  3. Elevated tropomyosin expression is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Eri; Hasanova, Nailia; Fatma, Nigar; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Singh, Dhirendra P

    2013-01-01

    Injury to lens epithelial cells (LECs) leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with resultant fibrosis. The tropomyosin (Tpm) family of cytoskeleton proteins is involved in regulating and stabilizing actin microfilaments. Aberrant expression of Tpms leads to abnormal morphological changes with disintegration of epithelial integrity. The EMT of LECs has been proposed as a major cause of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) after cataract surgery. Using in vivo rodent PCO and human cataractous LECs, we demonstrated that the aberrant expression of rat Tpm and human Tpm1?/2? suggested their association in remodelling of the actin cytoskeleton during EMT of LECs. Expression analysis from abnormally growing LECs after lens extraction revealed elevated expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), a marker for EMT. Importantly, these cells displayed increased expression of Tpm1?/2? following EMT/PCO formation. Expression of Tpm1?/2? was up-regulated in LECs isolated from cataractous lenses of Shumiya Cataract Rats (SCRs), compared with non-cataractous lenses. Also, LECs from human patients with nuclear cataract and anterior subcapsular fibrosis (ASF) displayed significantly increased expression of Tpm2? mRNA, suggesting that similar signalling invokes the expression of these molecules in LECs of cataractous SCR and human lenses. EMT was observed in LECs overexpressed with Tpm1?/2?, as evidenced by increased expression of ?-SMA. These conditions were correlated with remodelling of actin filaments, possibly leading to EMT/PCO and ASF. The present findings may help clarify the condition of the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenetic EMT, and may contribute to development of Tpm-based inhibitors for postponing PCO and cataractogenesis. PMID:23205574

  4. Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Obtained from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Possess Functional Visual

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cells Obtained from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Possess for retinal degenerative diseases. Significance: hiPS-RPE cells with functional visual cycle proteins (RPE) cells have been obtained from human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. However, the visual

  5. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, ?ENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-?. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  6. Human alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Pu; Wu, Songling; Li, Jianchun; Fu, Wei; He, Weiqun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Slutsky, Arthur S; Zhang, Haibo; Li, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (AEII) cells are a key structure and defender in the lung but also are the targets in many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, ventilator-induced lung injury, and pulmonary fibrosis. We sought to establish an optimized method for high yielding and long maintenance of characteristics of primary human AEII cells to facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms of lung diseases at the cellular and molecular levels. Adult human peripheral normal lung tissues of oncologic patients undergoing lung resection were collected. The AEII cells were isolated and identified by the expression of pro-surfactant protein (SP)C, epithelial sodium channel (?ENaC) and cytokeratin (CK)-8, the lamellar bodies specific for AEII cells, and confirmed by the histology using electron microscopy. The phenotype of AEII cells was characterized by the expression of surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D), CK-8, KL-6, ?ENaC, and aquaporin (AQP)-3, which was maintained over 20 days. The biological activity of the primary human AEII cells producing SP-C, cytokines, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was vigorous in response to stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-?. We have modified previous methods and optimized a method for isolation of high purity and long maintenance of the human AEII cell phenotype in primary culture. This method provides an important tool for studies aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of lung diseases exclusively in AEII cells. PMID:25677546

  7. Elastic properties of epithelial cells probed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Bastian R; Janshoff, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Cellular mechanics plays a crucial role in many biological processes such as cell migration, cell growth, embryogenesis, and oncogenesis. Epithelia respond to environmental cues comprising biochemical and physical stimuli through defined changes in cell elasticity. For instance, cells can differentiate between certain properties such as viscoelasticity or topography of substrates by adapting their own elasticity and shape. A living cell is a complex viscoelastic body that not only exhibits a shell architecture composed of a membrane attached to a cytoskeleton cortex but also generates contractile forces through its actomyosin network. Here we review cellular mechanics of single cells in the context of epithelial cell layers responding to chemical and physical stimuli. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:26193077

  8. Epithelial cells from smokers modify dendritic cell responses in the context of influenza infection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for infection with influenza, but the mechanisms underlying this susceptibility remain unknown. To ascertain if airway epithelial cells from smokers demonstrate a decreased ability to orchestrate an influenza...

  9. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

  10. Microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of postmenopausal atrophic vaginal mucosa after fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Serati, Maurizio; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Iannitti, Tommaso; Salvatore, Stefano; Marotta, Francesco; Calligaro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy occurring during menopause is closely related to the dramatic decrease in ovarian estrogens due to the loss of follicular activity. Particularly, significant changes occur in the structure of the vaginal mucosa, with consequent impairment of many physiological functions. In this study, carried out on bioptic vaginal mucosa samples from postmenopausal, nonestrogenized women, we present microscopic and ultrastructural modifications of vaginal mucosa following fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment. We observed the restoration of the vaginal thick squamous stratified epithelium with a significant storage of glycogen in the epithelial cells and a high degree of glycogen-rich shedding cells at the epithelial surface. Moreover, in the connective tissue constituting the lamina propria, active fibroblasts synthesized new components of the extracellular matrix including collagen and ground substance (extrafibrillar matrix) molecules. Differently from atrophic mucosa, newly-formed papillae of connective tissue indented in the epithelium and typical blood capillaries penetrating inside the papillae, were also observed. Our morphological findings support the effectiveness of fractional CO2 laser application for the restoration of vaginal mucosa structure and related physiological trophism. These findings clearly coupled with striking clinical relief from symptoms suffered by the patients before treatment. PMID:25410301

  11. Redistribution of membrane proteins in isolated mouse intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Single mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) may be isolated by the use of a combination of methods used for the isolation of IEC from other species. Isolated cells remain viable for several hours. The membrane integral enzymes alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase of isolated IEC are localized to the brush borders of IEC in tissue and in most newly isolated IEC. With time, both enzymes are found distributed over the entire cell surface. Redistribution appears to occur by diffusion in the plane of the membrane. It is slowed, but not blocked, if cells are maintained at 0 degrees C instead of at 37 degrees C, and it is not blocked by fixation in 0.5-3% paraformaldehyde. Drugs that alter cell membrane potential or that affect cell levels of ATP enhance the rate of redistribution of the enzymes. PMID:7410482

  12. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sidjanin, D.; Grdina, D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  13. Comparison of upstream regulators in human ex vivo cultured cornea limbal epithelial stem cells and differentiated corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The surface of the human eye is covered by corneal epithelial cells (CECs) which regenerate from a small population of limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs). Cell therapy with LESCs is a non-penetrating treatment for preventing blindness due to LESC deficiency or dysfunction. Our aim was to identify new putative molecular markers and upstream regulators in the LESCs and associated molecular pathways. Results Genome-wide microarray transcriptional profiling was used to compare LESCs to differentiated human CECs. Ingenuity-based pathway analysis was applied to identify upstream regulators and pathways specific to LESCs. ELISA and flow cytometry were used to measure secreted and surface expressed proteins, respectively. More than 2 fold increase and decrease in expression could be found in 1830 genes between the two cell types. A number of molecules functioning in cellular movement (381), proliferation (567), development (552), death and survival (520), and cell-to-cell signaling (290) were detected having top biological functions in LESCs and several of these were confirmed by flow cytometric surface protein analysis. Custom-selected gene groups related to stemness, differentiation, cell adhesion, cytokines and growth factors as well as angiogenesis could be analyzed. The results show that LESCs play a key role not only in epithelial differentiation and tissue repair, but also in controlling angiogenesis and extracellular matrix integrity. Some pro-inflammatory cytokines were found to be important in stemness-, differentiation- and angiogenesis-related biological functions: IL-6 and IL-8 participated in most of these biological pathways as validated by their secretion from LESC cultures. Conclusions The gene and molecular pathways may provide a more specific understanding of the signaling molecules associated with LESCs, therefore, help better identify and use these cells in the treatment of ocular surface diseases. PMID:24344983

  14. Proteomic profiling of acrolein adducts in human lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Spiess, Page C.; Deng, Bin; Hondal, Robert J.; Matthews, Dwight E.; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Acrolein (2,3-propenal) is a major indoor and outdoor air pollutant originating largely from tobacco smoke or organic combustion. Given its high reactivity, the adverse effects of inhaled acrolein are likely due to direct interactions with the airway epithelium, resulting in altered epithelial function, but only limited information exists to date regarding the primary direct cellular targets for acrolein. Here, we describe a global proteomics approach to characterize the spectrum of airway epithelial protein targets for Michael adduction in acrolein-exposed bronchial epithelial (HBE1) cells, based on biotin hydrazide labeling and avidin purification of biotinylated proteins or peptides for analysis by LC-MS/MS. Identified protein targets included a number of stress proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and several key proteins involved in redox signaling, including thioredoxin reductase, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione S-transferase ?. Because of the central role of thioredoxin reductase in cellular redox regulation, additional LC-MS/MS characterization was performed on purified mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase to identify the specific site of acrolein adduction, revealing the catalytic selenocysteine residue as the target responsible for enzyme inactivation. Our findings indicate that these approaches are useful in characterizing major protein targets for acrolein, and will enhance mechanistic understanding of the impact of acrolein on cell biology. PMID:21704744

  15. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  16. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that showed signs of damage by viruses and virus titers (see figure) that indicated large increases in the populations of viruses during the days following inoculation.

  17. IL-4 Attenuates Pulmonary Epithelial Cell-Mediated Suppression of T Cell Priming

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Melanie; Arnhold, Markus; Lingner, Sandra; Mahapatra, Subhashree; Bruder, Dunja; Hansen, Gesine; Dittrich, Anna-Maria

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that Th2-polarized airway inflammation facilitates sensitization towards new, protein antigens. In this context, we could demonstrate that IL-4 needs to act on cells of the hematopoetic and the structural compartment in order to facilitate sensitization towards new antigens. We thus aimed to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of IL-4 on structural cells choosing to analyze pulmonary epithelial cells as an important part of the lung's structural system. We used a co-culture system of DC- or APC-dependent in vitro priming of T cells, co-cultivated on a layer of cells of a murine pulmonary epithelial cell line (LA-4) pretreated with or without IL-4. Effects on T cell priming were analyzed via CFSE-dilution and flow cytometric assessment of activation status. Pulmonary epithelial cells suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro but this effect was attenuated by pre-treatment of the epithelial cells with IL-4. Transwell experiments suggest that epithelial-mediated suppression of T cell activation is mostly cell-contact dependent and leads to attenuation in an early naive T cell phenotype. Secretion of soluble factors like TARC, TSLP, GM-CSF and CCL20 by epithelial cells did not change after IL-4 treatment. However, analysis of co-stimulatory expression on pulmonary epithelial cells revealed that pre-treatment of epithelial cells with IL-4 changed expression GITR-L, suggesting a possible mechanism for the effects observed. Our studies provide new insight into the role of IL-4 during the early phases of pulmonary sensitization: The inhibitory activity of pulmonary epithelial cells in homeostasis is reversed in the presence of IL-4, which is secreted in the context of Th2-dominated allergic airway inflammation. This mechanism might serve to explain facilitated sensitization in the clinical context of polysensitization where due to a pre-existing sensitization increased levels of IL-4 in the airways might facilitate T cell priming towards new antigens. PMID:23029313

  18. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-01

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-? activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  19. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  20. Generation of alveolar epithelial spheroids via isolated progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Shimpei; Ito, Isao; Nagasaki, Tadao; Yamamoto, Yuki; Konishi, Satoshi; Korogi, Yohei; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Funato, Michinori; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Toyoda, Taro; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Osafune, Kenji; Mishima, Michiaki

    2014-09-01

    No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1(+) "ventralized" anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs) in vitro and in fetal human and murine lungs. Using SFTPC-GFP reporter hPSCs and a 3D coculture system with fetal human lung fibroblasts, we showed that CPM(+) cells isolated from VAFECs differentiate into AECs, demonstrating that CPM is a marker of AEPCs. Moreover, 3D coculture differentiation of CPM(+) cells formed spheroids with lamellar-body-like structures and an increased expression of surfactant proteins compared with 2D differentiation. Methods to induce and isolate AEPCs using CPM and consequently generate alveolar epithelial spheroids would aid human pulmonary disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:25241738

  1. Probing the mechanics of pulsed contractions in embryonic epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Hutson, M. Shane

    2010-03-01

    During the dorsal closure stage of fruit fly embryogenesis, epithelial cells in the amnioserosa undergo multiple pulsed contractions of their apical surfaces. These pulsed contractions are important for proper dorsal closure and models have been proposed for the force feedbacks that lead to pulsed contractions; however, the correlation between the observed contractions and the hypothesized forces has not yet been experimentally investigated. We performed laser hole-drilling to probe how the cellular mechanics change during a contraction cycle. We find that cell-center wounds expand faster and farther when a cell is in the expanded half of its cycle. In contrast, cell-edge wounds expand faster and farther when the edge is in the process of contracting. These results imply different roles for cortical tensions along the lateral and apical cell surfaces during the contraction cycle.

  2. Isoprenaline induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Jie; Geng, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yu-Hong; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Zhao, Xiang-Yang; Wei, Bo

    2015-10-01

    The emerging role of stress-related signaling in regulating cancer development and progression has been recognized. However, whether stress serves as a mechanism to promote gastric cancer metastasis is not clear. Here, we show that the ?2-AR agonist, isoprenaline, upregulates expression levels of CD44 and CD44v8-10 in gastric cancer cells. CD44, a cancer stem cell-related marker, is expressed at high levels in gastric cancer tissues, which strongly correlates with the occurrence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated phenotypes both in vivo and in vitro. Combined with experimental observations in two human gastric cancer cell lines, we found that ?2-AR signaling can initiate EMT. It led to an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as ?-SMA, vimentin, and snail at mRNA and protein levels, and conversely a decrease in epithelial markers, E-cadherin and ?-catenin. Isoprenaline stimulation of ?2-AR receptors activates the downstream target STAT3, which functions as a positive regulator and mediated the phenotypic switch toward a mesenchymal cell type in gastric cancer cells. Our data provide a mechanistic understanding of the complex signaling cascades involving stress-related hormones and their effects on EMT. In light of our observations, pharmacological interventions targeting ?2-AR-STAT3 signaling can potentially be used to ameliorate stress-associated influences on gastric cancer development and progression. PMID:26253173

  3. Inhibition of autophagy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by vaginal fluid from women with a malignant adnexal mass.

    PubMed

    Orfanelli, Theofano; Doulaveris, Georgios; Holcomb, Kevin; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Sisti, Giovanni; Kanninen, Tomi T; Caputo, Thomas A; Gupta, Divya; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-12-15

    Inhibition of autophagy is a characteristic of ovarian cancer. We determined whether inhibition of autophagy by vaginal fluid could provide a non-invasive test for cancer risk stratification in women presenting with an adnexal mass. Vaginal fluid supernatants from 90 women undergoing evaluation for a suspicious adnexal mass were incubated with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy women under conditions that induce autophagy. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, was added to some cultures. After 48 hr the cells were collected, lysed and assayed by ELISA for intracellular p62 concentration. p62 is a cytoplasmic protein that is consumed during autophagy induction. Its concentration is inversely proportional to the extent of autophagy induction. Clinical information including pathological diagnoses was obtained after completion of laboratory studies. Mean p62 levels were 9.4 ng/ml in the 21 women with a subsequent malignant diagnosis, 4.5 ng/ml in the eight women with a borderline tumor diagnosis and 3.6 ng/ml in the 61 women with benign disease (p?vaginal fluid-PBMC co-incubation, p62 levels in samples from women with a malignant diagnosis decreased to 3.3 ng/ml, a level comparable to what was observed with the nonmalignant samples. Vaginal fluid inhibition of autophagy can differentiate between women with malignant and benign adnexal masses. PMID:26132572

  4. Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Promoted Limbal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Corneal Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yi-Fang; Lee, Kuo-Ying; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells is proven effective in restoring limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the promoting effect of Y-27632 on limbal epithelial cell proliferation. Limbal explants isolated from human donor eyes were expanded three weeks on culture dishes and outgrowth of epithelial cells was subsequently subcultured for in vitro experiments. In the presence of Y-27632, the ex vivo limbal outgrowth was accelerated, particularly the cells with epithelial cell-like morphology. Y-27632 dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of in vitro cultured human limbal epithelial cells as examined by phase contrast microscopy and luminescent cell-viability assay 30 hours after the treatment. The colony forming efficacy determined 7 days after the treatment was enhanced by Y-27632 also in a dose-dependent manner. The number of p63- or Ki67-positive cells was dose-dependently increased in Y-27632-treated cultures as detected by immunofluorescent staining and western blotanalysis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometric method revealed an increase in S-phase proliferating cells. The epithelial woundclosure rate was shown to be faster in experimental group received topical treatment withY-27632 than the sham control using a rat corneal wounding model. These resultsdemonstrate that Y-27632 can promote both the ex vivo and in vitro proliferation oflimbal epithelial cell proliferation. The in vivo enhanced epithelial wound healingfurther implies that the Y-27632 may act as a new strategy for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:26673160

  5. Y-27632, a ROCK Inhibitor, Promoted Limbal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Corneal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chi-Chin; Chiu, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yi-Fang; Lee, Kuo-Ying; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial cells is proven effective in restoring limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed to investigate the promoting effect of Y-27632 on limbal epithelial cell proliferation. Limbal explants isolated from human donor eyes were expanded three weeks on culture dishes and outgrowth of epithelial cells was subsequently subcultured for in vitro experiments. In the presence of Y-27632, the ex vivo limbal outgrowth was accelerated, particularly the cells with epithelial cell-like morphology. Y-27632 dose-dependently promoted the proliferation of in vitro cultured human limbal epithelial cells as examined by phase contrast microscopy and luminescent cell-viability assay 30 hours after the treatment. The colony forming efficacy determined 7 days after the treatment was enhanced by Y-27632 also in a dose-dependent manner. The number of p63- or Ki67-positive cells was dose-dependently increased in Y-27632-treated cultures as detected by immunofluorescent staining and western blotanalysis. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometric method revealed an increase in S-phase proliferating cells. The epithelial woundclosure rate was shown to be faster in experimental group received topical treatment withY-27632 than the sham control using a rat corneal wounding model. These resultsdemonstrate that Y-27632 can promote both the ex vivo and in vitro proliferation oflimbal epithelial cell proliferation. The in vivo enhanced epithelial wound healingfurther implies that the Y-27632 may act as a new strategy for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:26673160

  6. Activated endothelial cells elicit paracrine induction of epithelial chloride secretion. 6-Keto-PGF1alpha is an epithelial secretagogue.

    PubMed Central

    Blume, E D; Taylor, C T; Lennon, P F; Stahl, G L; Colgan, S P

    1998-01-01

    Endothelial cells play a central role in the coordination of the inflammatory response. In mucosal tissue, such as the lung and intestine, endothelia are anatomically positioned in close proximity to epithelia, providing the potential for cell-cell crosstalk. Thus, in this study endothelial-epithelial biochemical crosstalk pathways were studied using a human intestinal crypt cell line (T84) grown in noncontact coculture with human umbilical vein endothelia. Exposure of such cocultures to endothelial-specific agonists (LPS) resulted in activation of epithelial electrogenic Cl- secretion and vectorial fluid transport. Subsequent experiments revealed that in response to diverse stimuli (LPS, IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha, hypoxia), endothelia produce and secrete a small, stable epithelial secretagogue into conditioned media supernatants. Further experiments identified this secretagogue as 6-keto-PGF1alpha, a stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin (PGI2). Results obtained with synthetic prostanoids indicated that 6-keto-PGF1alpha (EC50 = 80 nM) and PGI2 stable analogues (EC50 = 280 nM) activate the same basolaterally polarized, Ca2+-coupled epithelial receptor. In summary, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated 6-keto-PGF1alpha receptor on intestinal epithelia, the ligation of which results in activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, these data reveal a novel action for the prostacyclin hydrolysis product 6-keto-PGF1alpha and provide a potential endothelial- epithelial crosstalk pathway in mucosal tissue. PMID:9739050

  7. Novel strategies to enforce an epithelial phenotype in mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Swiss, Rachel; Gao, Beile; Agaisse, Hervé

    2014-07-15

    E-cadherin downregulation in cancer cells is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic prowess, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. In this study, we probed E-cadherin expression at the plasma membrane as a functional assay to identify genes involved in E-cadherin downregulation. The assay was based on the E-cadherin-dependent invasion properties of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. On the basis of a functional readout, automated microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis were used to screen siRNAs targeting 7,000 human genes. The validity of the screen was supported by its definition of several known regulators of E-cadherin expression, including ZEB1, HDAC1, and MMP14. We identified three new regulators (FLASH, CASP7, and PCGF1), the silencing of which was sufficient to restore high levels of E-cadherin transcription. In addition, we identified two new regulators (FBXL5 and CAV2), the silencing of which was sufficient to increase E-cadherin expression at a posttranscriptional level. FLASH silencing regulated the expression of E-cadherin and other ZEB1-dependent genes, through posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB1, but it also regulated the expression of numerous ZEB1-independent genes with functions predicted to contribute to a restoration of the epithelial phenotype. Finally, we also report the identification of siRNA duplexes that potently restored the epithelial phenotype by mimicking the activity of known and putative microRNAs. Our findings suggest new ways to enforce epithelial phenotypes as a general strategy to treat cancer by blocking invasive and metastatic phenotypes associated with EMT. PMID:24845104

  8. Quantification of regenerative potential in primary human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Linnemann, Jelena R.; Miura, Haruko; Meixner, Lisa K.; Irmler, Martin; Kloos, Uwe J.; Hirschi, Benjamin; Bartsch, Harald S.; Sass, Steffen; Beckers, Johannes; Theis, Fabian J.; Gabka, Christian; Sotlar, Karl; Scheel, Christina H.

    2015-01-01

    We present an organoid regeneration assay in which freshly isolated human mammary epithelial cells are cultured in adherent or floating collagen gels, corresponding to a rigid or compliant matrix environment. In both conditions, luminal progenitors form spheres, whereas basal cells generate branched ductal structures. In compliant but not rigid collagen gels, branching ducts form alveoli at their tips, express basal and luminal markers at correct positions, and display contractility, which is required for alveologenesis. Thereby, branched structures generated in compliant collagen gels resemble terminal ductal-lobular units (TDLUs), the functional units of the mammary gland. Using the membrane metallo-endopeptidase CD10 as a surface marker enriches for TDLU formation and reveals the presence of stromal cells within the CD49fhi/EpCAM? population. In summary, we describe a defined in vitro assay system to quantify cells with regenerative potential and systematically investigate their interaction with the physical environment at distinct steps of morphogenesis. PMID:26071498

  9. Force dependence of phagosome trafficking in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Rebekah; Koll, Andrew T.; Altman, David

    2014-09-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play an integral role in the renewal of photoreceptor disk membranes. As rod and cone cells shed their outer segments, they are phagocytosed and degraded by the RPE, and a failure in this process can result in retinal degeneration. We have studied the role of myosin VI in nonspecific phagocytosis in a human RPE primary cell line (ARPE-19), testing the hypothesis that this motor generates the forces required to traffic phagosomes in these cells. Experiments were conducted in the presence of forces through the use of in vivo optical trapping. Our results support a role for myosin VI in phagosome trafficking and demonstrate that applied forces modulate rates of phagosome trafficking.

  10. Links between cancer stem cells and epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sha-sha; Jiang, Jian; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Ya-ling

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to be an important program that is often activated during the process of cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) that can initiate and maintain cancer are also involved in invasion and metastasis of cancer. Recently, insights into the molecular mechanisms and functional features of mesenchymal cells have been greatly colored by findings that some of them have been endowed with the self-renewal trait associated with normal tissue stem cells and CSCs. Among cancer cells experiencing EMT, only some of the most competent CSCs will succeed in planting in another organ. In this paper, we review the molecular mechanism behind the link of EMT and CSCs in cancer progression. PMID:26527883

  11. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cell behavior during initial acellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Yamada, Tamaki; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to examine developing acellular cementum in rat molars by immunohistochemistry, to elucidate (1) how Hertwig's epithelial root sheath disintegrates and (2) whether epithelial sheath cells transform into cementoblasts through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Initial acellular cementogenesis was divided into three developmental stages, which can be seen in three different portions of the root: portion 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; portion 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and portion 3, where acellular cementogenesis begins. Antibodies against three kinds of matrix proteinases, which degrade epithelial sheath-maintaining factors, including basement membrane and desmosomes, were used to investigate proteolytic activity of the epithelial sheath. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and keratin were used to investigate EMT. Epithelial sheath cells showed immunoreactivity for all three enzymes at fragmentation, which suggests that epithelial sheath disintegration is enzymatically mediated. Dental follicle cells and cementoblasts showed intense immunoreactivity for TNALP, and from portion 1 through to 3, the reaction extended from the alveolar bone-related zone to the root-related zone. Cells possessing keratin/TNALP double immunoreactivity were virtually absent. Keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells showed negligible immunoreactivity for TNALP, and epithelial cells did not appear to migrate to the dental follicle. Together, these findings suggest that a transition phenotype between epithelial cells and cementoblasts does not exist in the developing dental follicle and hence that epithelial sheath cells do not undergo EMT during initial acellular cementogenesis. In brief, this study supports the notion that cementoblasts derive from the dental follicle. PMID:24859538

  12. Limbal stem cells: Central concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jinny J; Ismail, Salim; Sherwin, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    A strong cohort of evidence exists that supports the localisation of corneal stem cells at the limbus. The distinguishing characteristics of limbal cells as stem cells include slow cycling properties, high proliferative potential when required, clonogenicity, absence of differentiation marker expression coupled with positive expression of progenitor markers, multipotency, centripetal migration, requirement for a distinct niche environment and the ability of transplanted limbal cells to regenerate the entire corneal epithelium. The existence of limbal stem cells supports the prevailing theory of corneal homeostasis, known as the XYZ hypothesis where X represents proliferation and stratification of limbal basal cells, Y centripetal migration of basal cells and Z desquamation of superficial cells. To maintain the mass of cornea, the sum of X and Y must equal Z and very elegant cell tracking experiments provide strong evidence in support of this theory. However, several recent studies have suggested the existence of oligopotent stem cells capable of corneal maintenance outside of the limbus. This review presents a summary of data which led to the current concepts of corneal epithelial homeostasis and discusses areas of controversy surrounding the existence of a secondary stem cell reservoir on the corneal surface PMID:25258661

  13. Comparative proteomics reveals human pluripotent stem cell-derived limbal epithelial stem cells are similar to native ocular surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mikhailova, Alexandra; Jylhä, Antti; Rieck, Jochen; Nättinen, Janika; Ilmarinen, Tanja; Veréb, Zoltán; Aapola, Ulla; Beuerman, Roger; Petrovski, Goran; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

    2015-01-01

    Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are tissue-specific stem cells responsible for renewing the corneal epithelium. Acute trauma or chronic disease affecting LESCs may disrupt corneal epithelial renewal, causing vision threatening and painful ocular surface disorders, collectively referred to as LESC deficiency (LESCD). These disorders cannot be treated with traditional corneal transplantation and therefore alternative cell sources for successful cell-based therapy are needed. LESCs derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a prospective source for ocular surface reconstruction, yet critical evaluation of these cells is crucial before considering clinical applications. In order to quantitatively evaluate hPSC-derived LESCs, we compared protein expression in native human corneal cells to that in hPSC-derived LESCs using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology. We identified 860 unique proteins present in all samples, including proteins involved in cell cycling, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, various LESC niche components, and limbal and corneal epithelial markers. Protein expression profiles were nearly identical in LESCs derived from two different hPSC lines, indicating that the differentiation protocol is reproducible, yielding homogeneous cell populations. Their protein expression profile suggests that hPSC-derived LESCs are similar to the human ocular surface epithelial cells, and possess LESC-like characteristics. PMID:26423138

  14. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis, and function of the intestinal epithelial stem cell marker Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, C-M; Yan, H-C; Fu, H-L; Xu, G-F; Wang, X-Q

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we cloned the full-length cDNA of the pig Bmi1 gene (BMI1 polycomb ring finger oncogene), which has been indicated as an intestinal epithelial stem cell (IESC) marker in other mammals. This paper provides the first report of the function of Bmi1 in pig intestinal epithelial cells and a brief description of its underlying mechanism. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends technology was used to clone the complete pig Bmi1 sequence, and a Bmi1-pcDNA3.1 vector was constructed for transfection into an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-1). The proliferation ability of the cells was estimated using the MTT assay and the EdU incorporation method at different time points after seeding. Cell cycle information was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA abundances of cell cycle-related genes were also measured. The results indicated that the pig Bmi1 cDNA is 3,193 bp in length and consists of a 981 bp open reading frame, a 256 bp 5´ untranslated region (UTR), and a 1,956 bp 3' UTR. The transcript contains no signal peptides, and there are no transmembrane regions in the pig Bmi1 coded protein, which has a total of 326 AA. The overexpression of the pig Bmi1 in the IPEC-1 cells led to increased cell proliferation and a lower percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases (P < 0.05), along with a higher percentage of cells in the G2 phase (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the gene expression levels of PCNA, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D2, Cyclin B, CDK1, and CDK2 were all elevated (P < 0.05) by Bmi1 overexpression, while the gene expression levels of Cyclin A2 and p21 showed little difference (P > 0.05). Our data suggested that pig Bmi1 can increase the proliferation of IPEC-1 cells by promoting the G1/S transition and the overall cell cycle process. PMID:24352954

  15. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Joan E. Wielgus, Albert R. Boyes, William K. Andley, Usha Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26}] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 {mu}M. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of > 5 {mu}M fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 {mu}M lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein {alpha}-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C{sub 60}(OH){sub 22-26} is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo.

  16. Phototoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Fullerol in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Joan E.; Wielgus, Albert R.; Boyes, William K.; Andley, Usha; Chignell, Colin F.

    2008-01-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C60(OH)22–26] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol’s potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C60(OH)22–26 in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 µM. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of >5 µM fullerol induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 µM lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM L-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA > visible light > dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein ?-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water soluble nano-C60(OH)22–26 is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo. PMID:18234258

  17. Phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of fullerol in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Joan E; Wielgus, Albert R; Boyes, William K; Andley, Usha; Chignell, Colin F

    2008-04-01

    The water-soluble, hydroxylated fullerene [fullerol, nano-C60(OH)22-26] has several clinical applications including use as a drug carrier to bypass the blood ocular barriers. We have assessed fullerol's potential ocular toxicity by measuring its cytotoxicity and phototoxicity induced by UVA and visible light in vitro with human lens epithelial cells (HLE B-3). Accumulation of nano-C60(OH)22-26 in the cells was confirmed spectrophotometrically at 405 nm and cell viability estimated using MTS and LDH assays. Fullerol was cytotoxic to HLE B-3 cells maintained in the dark at concentrations higher than 20 microM. Exposure to either UVA or visible light in the presence of >5 microM fullerol-induced phototoxic damage. When cells were pretreated with non-toxic antioxidants: 20 microM lutein, 1 mM N-acetyl cysteine, or 1 mM l-ascorbic acid prior to irradiation, only the singlet oxygen quencher-lutein significantly protected against fullerol photodamage. Apoptosis was observed in lens cells treated with fullerol whether or not the cells were irradiated, in the order UVA>visible light>dark. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that in the presence of the endogenous lens protein alpha-crystallin, large aggregates of fullerol were reduced. In conclusion, fullerol is both cytotoxic and phototoxic to human lens epithelial cells. Although the acute toxicity of water-soluble nano-C60(OH)22-26 is low, these compounds are retained in the body for long periods, raising concern for their chronic toxic effect. Before fullerols are used to deliver drugs to the eye, they should be tested for photo- and cytotoxicity in vivo. PMID:18234258

  18. Stepwise Protocol for Cytospin-enhanced Smearing for Scraped Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeyalatha, Mani V; Malathi, Jambulingam; Madhavan, Hajib N

    2016-01-01

    Proteins and antigens present on the cell surface are usually determined by immunofluorescence staining. Uniform distribution of cells is required to appreciate the presence of surface proteins. Improper smearing or crushing of the corneal epithelial cells can potentially destroy the cellular integrity. Thus a simplified, systemic method was designed to smear the cells scraped from the cornea. The procedure includes trypsinisation for dissociation of corneal epithelial cells and cytospinning for concentrating the cells in a smear. The standardized protocol was found to be efficient in maintaining the integrity of the corneal epithelial cells and also the distribution of the cells in the smear. PMID:26633702

  19. Pancreatic Epithelial Cells Form Islet-Like Clusters in the Absence of Directed Migration

    E-print Network

    Pancreatic Epithelial Cells Form Islet-Like Clusters in the Absence of Directed Migration STEVEN J--The endocrine differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells is dependent upon their transition from- ments that may improve long-term outcomes include whole pancreas or pancreatic islet cell

  20. Proliferation of Epithelial Cells on PDMS Substrates with Micropillars Fabricated with Different Curvature

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    ] and migration [9­12]. For example, mesenchymal stem cells preferentially differentiated [5] and osteosarcomaARTICLE Proliferation of Epithelial Cells on PDMS Substrates with Micropillars Fabricated The present work studied the proliferation of epithelial cells when they were cultivated on substrates

  1. Epithelial Cell Reconstruction and Visualization of the Developing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc

    E-print Network

    Breen, David E.

    Epithelial Cell Reconstruction and Visualization of the Developing Drosophila Wing Imaginal Disc- tuting cells. To better understand the mechanisms that guide tissues into their final shape- niques that produces detailed 3D models of the individual cells in an epithelial sheet. The inputs

  2. Temporal association of serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology in walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, K; Kiwata, M; Kuwano, R; Sato, N; Tanaka, T; Nagata, M; Taira, H; Kusunoki, H

    2012-03-15

    Concentrations of serum estradiol-17? and progesterone were monitored in six female walruses using an enzyme immunoassay. Progesterone concentrations increased from March to May in females aged 6 y or older, and subsequently declined (October). No significant elevation of estradiol-17? concentration was detected before an elevation of progesterone concentration. Vaginal smears from four females were examined with Papanicolaou staining. In all females, most epithelial cells were basophilic intermediate-superficial cells; no color change from basophilic to eosinophilic of the cells was detected. Meanwhile, the percentage of anucleate cells in vaginal smears reached its highest value before the elevation of progesterone concentration, followed by an increase in the percentage of leukocytes. We inferred that the change in populations of anucleate cells and leukocytes in vaginal smears reflected ovarian status and CL formation in female walruses. PMID:22153266

  3. Efficient T cell repertoire selection in tetraparental chimeric mice independent of thymic epithelial MHC

    PubMed Central

    Martinic, Marianne M.; Rülicke, Thomas; Althage, Alana; Odermatt, Bernhard; Höchli, Matthias; Lamarre, Alain; Dumrese, Tilman; Speiser, Daniel E.; Kyburz, Diego; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonthymic epithelial cells were compared with thymic epithelial cells for their role in T cell repertoire selection. Tetraparental aggregation chimeras were generated from T and B cell-deficient mice (H-2d SCID or H-2b Rag?/?) and thymus-deficient nude mice (H-2b or H-2d). These tetraparental mice showed primary protective CD8+ T cell responses, after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, that were peptide-specifically restricted to either thymic or nonthymic epithelial MHC at comparable levels. These chimeras also mounted neutralizing IgG responses dependent on cognate CD4+ T helper cell activity restricted to nonthymic epithelial MHC. Therefore, in contrast to earlier results with irradiation or thymus chimeras, these relatively undisturbed tetraparental mice reveal that the MHC of nonthymic epithelial cells efficiently selects a functional T cell repertoire. PMID:12574503

  4. Antibody inhibition of human cytomegalovirus spread in epithelial cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiaohong; Lee, Ronzo; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies reduce the incidence of CMV transmission and ameliorate the severity of CMV-associated disease. Neutralizing activity, measured as the ability of antibodies to prevent entry of cell-free virus, is an important component of natural immunity. However, in vivo CMV amplification may occur mainly via spread between adjacent cells within tissues. Thus, inhibition of cell-to-cell spread may be important when evaluating therapeutic antibodies or humoral responses to infection or immunization. In vitro CMV cell-to-cell spread is largely resistant to antibodies in fibroblast cultures but sensitive in endothelial cell cultures. In the present study antibodies in CMV hyperimmuneglobulin or seropositive human sera inhibited CMV cell-to-cell spread in epithelial cell cultures. Spread inhibition activity was quantitated with a GFP reporter assay employing GFP-tagged epithelialtropic variants of CMV strains Towne or AD169. Measurement of spread inhibition provides an additional parameter for the evaluation of candidate vaccines or immunotherapeutics and to further characterize the role of antibodies in controlling CMV transmission and disease. PMID:23669101

  5. Barrier Epithelial Cells and the Control of Type 2 Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2015-07-21

    Type-2-cell-mediated immunity, rich in eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, CD4(+) T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), protects the host from helminth infection but also drives chronic allergic diseases like asthma and atopic dermatitis. Barrier epithelial cells (ECs) represent the very first line of defense and express pattern recognition receptors to recognize type-2-cell-mediated immune insults like proteolytic allergens or helminths. These ECs mount a prototypical response made up of chemokines, innate cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), as well as the alarmins uric acid, ATP, HMGB1, and S100 proteins. These signals program dendritic cells (DCs) to mount Th2-cell-mediated immunity and in so doing boost ILC2, basophil, and mast cell function. Here we review the general mechanisms of how different stimuli trigger type-2-cell-mediated immunity at mucosal barriers and how this leads to protection or disease. PMID:26200011

  6. Reduced microtubule acetylation in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rymut, Sharon M.; Harker, Alyssa; Corey, Deborah A.; Burgess, James D.; Sun, Hongtao; Clancy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to many cellular consequences, including perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol due to impaired endosomal transport. The hypothesis being tested is that CF-related perinuclear cholesterol accumulation due to disrupted endocytic trafficking occurs as a result of reduced microtubule (MT) acetylation. Here, it is identified that acetylated-?-tubulin (Ac-tub) content is reduced by ?40% compared with respective wild-type controls in both cultured CF cell models (IB3) and primary Cftr?/? mouse nasal epithelial tissue. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to regulate MT acetylation, which provides reasonable grounds to test its impact on reduced Ac-tub content on CF cellular phenotypes. Inhibition of HDAC6, either through tubastatin treatment or HDAC6 knockdown in CF cells, increases Ac-tub content and results in redistributed free cholesterol and reduced stimulation of NF-?B activity. Mechanistically, endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is widely reported in CF and leads to aggresome formation, is identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. F508del CFTR correction with C18 in primary airway epithelial cells restores MT acetylation and cholesterol transport. A significant role for phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase p110? is also identified as a regulator of MT acetylation. PMID:23873844

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. Results The interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and cultured airway epithelial cells was analysed. K. pneumoniae infection triggered cytotoxicity, evident by cell rounding and detachment from the substrate. This effect required the presence of live bacteria and of capsule polysaccharide, since it was observed with isolates expressing different amounts of capsule and/or different serotypes but not with non-capsulated bacteria. Cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase and formazan measurements, ethidium bromide uptake and analysis of DNA integrity, obtaining consistent and complementary results. Moreover, cytotoxicity of non-capsulated strains was restored by addition of purified capsule during infection. While a non-capsulated strain was avirulent in a mouse infection model, capsulated K. pneumoniae isolates displayed different degrees of virulence. Conclusion Our observations allocate a novel role to K. pneumoniae capsule in promotion of cytotoxicity. Although this effect is likely to be associated with virulence, strains expressing different capsule levels were not equally virulent. This fact suggests the existence of other bacterial requirements for virulence, together with capsule polysaccharide. PMID:19650888

  8. Alveolar epithelial cells orchestrate DC function in murine viral pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Unkel, Barbara; Hoegner, Katrin; Clausen, Björn E.; Lewe-Schlosser, Peter; Bodner, Johannes; Gattenloehner, Stefan; Janßen, Hermann; Seeger, Werner; Lohmeyer, Juergen; Herold, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses (IVs) cause pneumonia in humans with progression to lung failure. Pulmonary DCs are key players in the antiviral immune response, which is crucial to restore alveolar barrier function. The mechanisms of expansion and activation of pulmonary DC populations in lung infection remain widely elusive. Using mouse BM chimeric and cell-specific depletion approaches, we demonstrated that alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) GM-CSF mediates recovery from IV-induced injury by affecting lung DC function. Epithelial GM-CSF induced the recruitment of CD11b+ and monocyte-derived DCs. GM-CSF was also required for the presence of CD103+ DCs in the lung parenchyma at baseline and for their sufficient activation and migration to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) during IV infection. These activated CD103+ DCs were indispensable for sufficient clearance of IVs by CD8+ T cells and for recovery from IV-induced lung injury. Moreover, GM-CSF applied intratracheally activated CD103+ DCs, inducing increased migration to MLNs, enhanced viral clearance, and attenuated lung injury. Together, our data reveal that GM-CSF–dependent cross-talk between IV-infected AECs and CD103+ DCs is crucial for effective viral clearance and recovery from injury, which has potential implications for GM-CSF treatment in severe IV pneumonia. PMID:22996662

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Nasal Epithelial Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Papon, Jean-François; Chhuon, Cerina; Zadigue, Patricia; Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Amselem, Serge; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Edelman, Aleksander

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease remains incompletely understood. New explanations for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease may be discovered by studying the patterns of protein expression in cultured human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). To that aim, we compared the level of protein expressions in primary cultures of HNEC from nasal polyps secondary to CF (CFNP, n?=?4), primary nasal polyps (NP, n?=?8) and control mucosa (CTRL, n?=?4) using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. The analysis of the data revealed 42 deregulated protein expressions in CFNP compared to NP and CTRL, suggesting that these alterations are related to CF. Overall, AmiGo analysis highlighted six major pathways important for cell functions that seem to be impaired: metabolism, G protein process, inflammation and oxidative stress response, protein folding, proteolysis and structural proteins. Among them, glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways could be impaired in CF with nine deregulated proteins. Our proteomic study provides a reproducible set of differentially expressed proteins in airway epithelial cells from CF patients and reveals many novel deregulated proteins that could lead to further studies aiming to clarify the involvement of such proteins in CF pathophysiology. PMID:25268127

  10. Growth factor responsiveness of human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Leschey, K H; Hackett, S F; Singer, J H; Campochiaro, P A

    1990-05-01

    Growth factor effects on DNA synthesis in density-arrested human retinal pigment epithelial cells were assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Acidic and basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor were potent stimulators, whereas platelet-derived growth factor, insulinlike growth factor-1, and insulin were weak or modest stimulators when used alone. When used in combination, each of the above growth factors caused a significant enhancement of [3H]-thymidine incorporation regardless of its effect when used alone. The combination of all four growth factors was significantly more effective than all other combinations, demonstrating synergism in their action. Similar results were found in cell proliferation assays. In contrast to this, transforming growth factor-beta inhibited the ability of each of the other growth factors and serum-containing media to stimulate [3H]-thymidine incorporation. These data suggest that DNA synthesis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells can be modulated by several growth factors, some in a stimulatory or synergistic manner and at least one in an inhibitory manner. A better understanding of these complex interactions may provide insights relevant to normal and abnormal ocular wound healing. PMID:2186011

  11. Thrombin is a stimulator of retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Hackett, S F; Singer, J H; Leschey, K H; Campochiaro, P A

    1991-07-01

    Two preparations of bovine thrombin were found to stimulate DNA synthesis in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells. DNA synthesis was assessed by both [3H]thymidine incorporation into TCA precipitable material and nuclear labeling with [3H]thymidine. Cultures grown in the presence of thrombin for 48 hr showed a significant increase in cell number. When the concentrations of the two thrombin preparations were normalized for clotting activity, they had almost identical dose-response curves and both caused a tenfold maximal stimulation of [3H]thymidine incorporation. The EC50 for the preparation with higher specific activity was 20 ng ml(-1). Hirudin, a specific high affinity inhibitor of thrombin, completely blocked the mitogenic effect. When a maximally effective concentration of thrombin was used in combination with maximally effective concentrations of other growth factors (insulin, acidic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor), they were found to be strongly synergistic in stimulating DNA synthesis. These data suggest that thrombin may act as an endocrine mediator of retinal pigment epithelial cell proliferation and participate in normal and exaggerated ocular wound healing. PMID:1879507

  12. TLR4 is constitutively expressed in chick thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Bo; Xiang, Quan-Hang; Wu, Hui; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Wen, Le; Ge, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Ji-Xiang; Peng, Ke-Mei; Liu, Hua-Zhen

    2014-04-15

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been suggested to play a regulatory role in immune cell development; however, studies regarding the role of TLR4 in the development of the chick thymus are scarce. In this study, we investigated the distribution and expression pattern of TLR4 in normal chick thymi at different stages of development, in order to better understand the role of TLR4 in chick thymus development. We studied the thymi from 15 chicks, collected at days 7, 21 and 35 of age. The relative change in TLR4 mRNA expression in the chick thymus at different ages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and changes in protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Furthermore, the distribution of TLR4 in the chick thymus was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and compared with the distribution of TLR4 expression in juvenile female pigs (gilts). Our results indicated that TLR4 was constitutively expressed in the chick thymus. TLR4 was primarily expressed in the thymic cortico-medullary junction and the medulla, particularly in the epithelial cells of Hassall's corpuscles. The mRNA and protein expression level of TLR4 increased in the thymus with increasing age (p<0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by epithelial cells in the chick thymus, suggesting it may participate in thymic development by inducing factors affecting its development. PMID:24507560

  13. Expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    López-Meza, Joel E; Gutiérrez-Barroso, Angelina; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra

    2009-08-01

    The production of antimicrobial peptides is an important key of innate immunity. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP) expression has been reported in bovine tracheal epithelial cells and it can be modulated by bacterial infection or bacterial components. In mammary gland TAP expression has been reported, but the cell type that produces it is unknown. The objective of this work was to evaluate if bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) express TAP mRNA, and evaluate the regulation of its expression in response to Staphylococcus aureus infection, bovine prolactin (bPRL) or acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). By retrotranscription and PCR, we demonstrated that bMEC express TAP mRNA. bMEC infected with live S. aureus down-regulates TAP expression, whereas the challenge with gentamicin-killed S. aureus up-regulates it. Also, bPRL do not significantly modify TAP expression, but in the presence of 5 mM ASA it was down-regulated, suggesting that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway can be involved in its regulation. PMID:19181355

  14. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Wu, Yan; Meng, Yi-Fang; Wang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Tao, Jian-Jun; Lu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD. PMID:26445530

  15. Interactions between airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells during viral infections using an in vitro co-culture model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Historically, single cell culture models have been limited in pathological and physiological relevance. A co-culture model of dendritic cells (DCs) and differentiated human airway epithelial cells was developed to examine potential interactions between these two cell t...

  16. Hyperoxia induces alveolar epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyi; Kato, Satomi; Colvocoresses-Dodds, Jennifer; Fifadara, Nimita H.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Helms, My N.; Carlton, David P.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblast accumulation is a pathological feature of lung diseases requiring oxygen therapy. One possible source for myofibroblasts is through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). To study the effects of oxygen on alveolar EMT, we used RLE-6TN and ex vivo lung slices and found that hyperoxia (85% O2, H85) decreased epithelial proteins, presurfactant protein B (pre-SpB), pro-SpC, and lamellar protein by 50% and increased myofibroblast proteins, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), and vimentin by over 200% (P < 0.05). In AEC freshly isolated from H85-treated rats, mRNA for pre-SpB and pro-SpC was diminished by ?50% and ?-SMA was increased by 100% (P < 0.05). Additionally, H85 increased H2O2 content, and H2O2 (25–50 ?M) activated endogenous transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1), as evident by H2DCFDA immunofluorescence and ELISA (P < 0.05). Both hyperoxia and H2O2 increased SMAD3 phosphorylation (260% of control, P < 0.05). Treating cultured cells with TGF-?1 inhibitors did not prevent H85-induced H2O2 production but did prevent H85-mediated ?-SMA increases and E-cadherin downregulation. Finally, to determine the role of TGF-?1 in hyperoxia-induced EMT in vivo, we evaluated AEC from H85-treated rats and found that vimentin increased ?10-fold (P < 0.05) and that this effect was prevented by intraperitoneal TGF-?1 inhibitor SB-431542. Additionally, SB-431542 treatment attenuated changes in alveolar histology caused by hyperoxia. Our studies indicate that hyperoxia promotes alveolar EMT through a mechanism that is dependent on activation of TGF-?1 signaling. PMID:24375795

  17. Spatiotemporally Regulated Ablation of Klf4 in Adult Mouse Corneal Epithelial Cells Results in Altered Epithelial Cell Identity and Disrupted Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Delp, Emili E.; Swamynathan, Sudha; Kao, Winston W.; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. In previous studies, conditional disruption of Klf4 in the developing mouse ocular surface from embryonic day 10 resulted in corneal epithelial fragility, stromal edema, and loss of conjunctival goblet cells, revealing the importance of Klf4 in ocular surface maturation. Here, we use spatiotemporally regulated ablation of Klf4 to investigate its functions in maintenance of adult corneal epithelial homeostasis. Methods. Expression of Cre was induced in ternary transgenic (Klf4LoxP/LoxP/Krt12rtTA/rtTA/Tet-O-Cre) mouse corneal epithelium by doxycycline administered through intraperitoneal injections and drinking water, to generate corneal epithelium–specific deletion of Klf4 (Klf4?/?CE). Corneal epithelial barrier function was tested by fluorescein staining. Expression of selected Klf4-target genes was determined by quantitative PCR (QPCR), immunoblotting, and immunofluorescent staining. Results. Klf4 was efficiently ablated within 5 days of doxycycline administration in adult Klf4?/?CE corneal epithelium. The Klf4?/?CE corneal epithelial barrier function was disrupted, and the basal cells were swollen and rounded after 15 days of doxycycline treatment. Increased numbers of cell layers and Ki67-positive proliferating cells suggested deregulated Klf4?/?CE corneal epithelial homeostasis. Expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin, desmosomal Dsg and Dsp, basement membrane laminin-332, and corneal epithelial–specific keratin-12 was decreased, while that of matrix metalloproteinase Mmp9 and noncorneal keratin-17 increased, suggesting altered Klf4?/?CE corneal epithelial cell identity. Conclusions. Ablation of Klf4 in the adult mouse corneas resulted in the absence of characteristic corneal epithelial cell differentiation, disrupted barrier function, and squamous metaplasia, revealing that Klf4 is essential for maintenance of the adult corneal epithelial cell identity and homeostasis. PMID:26047041

  18. Toxic mechanisms of copper oxide nanoparticles in epithelial kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Thit, Amalie; Selck, Henriette; Bjerregaard, Henning F

    2015-08-01

    CuO NPs have previously been reported as toxic to a range of cell cultures including kidney epithelial cells from the frog, Xenopus laevis (A6). Here we examine the molecular mechanisms affecting toxicity of Cu in different forms and particle sizes. A6 cells were exposed to ionic Cu (Cu2+) or CuO particles of three different sizes: CuO NPs of 6 nm (NP6), larger Poly-dispersed CuO NPs of <100 nm (Poly) and CuO Micro particles of <5 ?m (Micro), at 200 ?M, equal to 12.7 mg Cu/L. Poly was significantly more toxic than NP6, Micro and Cu2+ to A6 cells, causing DNA damage, decreased cell viability and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and eventually cell death. We show that ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) generation plays a key role and occurs early in Poly toxicity as Poly-induced DNA damage and cell death could be mitigated by the antioxidant NAC (N-acetyl-cysteine). Here we propose a model of the sequence of events explaining Poly toxicity. Briefly, the events include: cellular uptake, most likely via endocytosis, production of ROS, which cause DNA damage that activates a signaling pathway which eventually leads to cell death, mainly via apoptosis. PMID:25862124

  19. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  20. Depleted uranium induces neoplastic transformation in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; LaCerte, Carolyne; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-02-15

    Depleted uranium (DU) is commonly used in military armor and munitions, and thus, exposure of soldiers and noncombatants is frequent and widespread. Previous studies have shown that DU has both chemical and radiological toxicity and that the primary route of exposure of DU to humans is through inhalation and ingestion. However, there is limited research information on the potential carcinogenicity of DU in human bronchial cells. Accordingly, we determined the neoplastic transforming ability of particulate DU to human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). We observed the loss of contact inhibition and anchorage independent growth in cells exposed to DU after 24 h. We also characterized these DU-induced transformed cell lines and found that 40% of the cell lines exhibit alterations in plating efficiency and no significant changes in the cytotoxic response to DU. Cytogenetic analyses showed that 53% of the DU-transformed cell lines possess a hypodiploid phenotype. These data indicate that human bronchial cells are transformed by DU and exhibit significant chromosome instability consistent with a neoplastic phenotype. PMID:20000475

  1. Expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene in cells of non-epithelial origin.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, K; Nakamura, H; Trapnell, B C; Chu, C S; Dalemans, W; Pavirani, A; Lecocq, J P; Crystal, R G

    1991-01-01

    Consistent with the fact that the clinical disorder cystic fibrosis (CF) is manifested on epithelial surfaces, active transcription of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene and CFTR mRNA transcripts are detectable in a variety of epithelial cells, suggesting CFTR gene expression might be epithelial cell-specific. However, analysis of the CFTR gene promoter suggests it is a housekeeping gene, implying more widespread expression than only in epithelial cells. To evaluate the latter hypothesis, various human cells of non-epithelial origin, including lung fibroblasts, U-937 histiocytic lymphoma cells, K-562 erythroleukemia cells, HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells as well as freshly isolated blood lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages were examined for CFTR gene expression. Although Northern analysis failed to show CFTR mRNA transcripts in these cells, amplification of mRNA (after conversion to cDNA) by polymerase chain reaction combined with Southern analysis demonstrated the presence of CFTR mRNA transcripts at low levels in all cells evaluated except HL-60 cells. Comparative quantitative analysis showed fibroblasts contained 200-400 fold less CFTR mRNA transcripts than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma epithelial cell lines, but had similar levels of CFTR transcripts to those of other epithelial cell lines. Nuclear transcription run-on analyses demonstrated very low level CFTR gene transcription in fibroblasts and U-937 cells, similar to that of other epithelial cells, but lower than the T84 and HT-29 colon carcinoma cell lines. Interestingly, while chromatin DNA of fibroblasts had no DNase I hypersensitivity sites in the 5' flanking region of the CFTR gene, HT-29 chromatin DNA exhibited four DNase I accessible sites in the same region, suggesting that these sites may be related to more active transcription of the CFTR gene in the intestinal epithelial cells than in fibroblasts. Images PMID:1717947

  2. Urokinase and the intestinal mucosa: evidence for a role in epithelial cell turnover

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, P; Birchall, I; Rosella, O; Albert, V; Finch, C; Barkla, D; Young, G

    1998-01-01

    Background—The functions of urokinase in intestinal epithelia are unknown. ?Aims—To determine the relation of urokinase expressed by intestinal epithelial cells to their position in the crypt-villus/surface axis and of mucosal urokinase activity to epithelial proliferative kinetics in the distal colon. ?Methods—Urokinase expression was examined immunohistochemically in human intestinal mucosa. Urokinase activity was measured colorimetrically in epithelial cells isolated sequentially from the crypt-villus axis of the rat small intestine. In separate experiments, urokinase activity and epithelial kinetics (measured stathmokinetically) were measured in homogenates of distal colonic mucosa of 14 groups of eight rats fed diets known to alter epithelial turnover. ?Results—From the crypt base, an ascending gradient of expression and activity of urokinase was associated with the epithelial cells. Median mucosal urokinase activities in each of the dietary groups of rats correlated positively with autologous median number of metaphase arrests per crypt (r=0.68; p<0.005) and per 100 crypt cells (r=0.75; p<0.001), but not with crypt column height. ?Conclusions—Localisation of an enzyme capable of leading to digestion of cell substratum in the region where cells are loosely attached to their basement membrane, and the association of its activity with indexes of cell turnover, suggest a role for urokinase in facilitating epithelial cell loss in the intestine. ?? Keywords: urokinase; intestinal epithelium; colon; epithelial proliferation PMID:9824347

  3. Effects of cigarette smoke on the human airway epithelial cell transcriptome

    E-print Network

    of lung disease created by cigarette smoking, surprisingly few studies (7, 8) have been done in humans of genes in humans, studies investigating the effects of tobacco on airway epithelial cells have beenEffects of cigarette smoke on the human airway epithelial cell transcriptome Avrum Spira

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Epithelial Cell Extrusion Leads to Breaches in the Intestinal

    E-print Network

    Alberta, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Epithelial Cell Extrusion Leads to Breaches in the Intestinal Epithelium Julia J: Two distinct forms of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) extrusion are described: 1 with preserved. Conclusions: IEC extrusion mediated by caspase-1 activation contributes to altered intestinal permeability

  5. Diet Does Not Affect Putative Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells in Pre-weaned Holstein Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overfeeding prepubertal heifers can impair mammary epithelial growth and development, processes that depend on stem cells. In this study we evaluated effects of diet composition on putative bovine mammary epithelial stem cell populations using a 5-bromo-2-deoxyrudine (BrdU; a thymidine analog) label...

  6. ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS.
    OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

  7. In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic

    E-print Network

    In Vivo Autofluorescence Imaging of the Human and Macaque Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Mosaic. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are critical for the health of the retina, especially by detecting autofluorescence with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). The current study

  8. Immunochemical recognition of A2E, a pigment in the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    Immunochemical recognition of A2E, a pigment in the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelial cells by Nicholas J. Turro, July 19, 2007 (sent for review May 15, 2007) The autofluorescent lipofuscin pigment A2E accumulates in retinal pigment epithelial cells with age and is particularly abundant in some retinal

  9. CYTOTOXICITY OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS TOWARDS HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EVALUATED IN A CLONAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survival of human bronchial epithelial cells after administration of four chemical carcinogens was measured in a clonal assay. Human bronchial epithelial cells were obtained from outgrowths of explanted tissue pieces. Serum-free medium was used for both explant culture and clonal...

  10. DECREASED INTRACELLULAR ZINC IN HUMAN TUMORIGENIC PROSTATE EPITHELIAL CELLS: A POSSIBLE ROLE IN PROSTATE CANCER PROGRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc plays important roles in maintaining normal function of the prostate and in tumorigenesis of prostate epithelia. Evidence has shown that prostate malignant epithelial cells contain much less cellular zinc than the surrounding normal epithelial cells. We characterized the zinc homeostatic featur...

  11. The contribution of serum opacity factor to group A streptococcal epithelial cell invasion

    E-print Network

    Nizet, Victor

    and isogenic mutants lacking SOF or SfbX to invade cultured Hep-2 human pharyngeal epithelial cells: Group A Streptococcus; Serum opacity factor; SOF; SfbX; Cellular invasion; Fibronectin binding; Epithelial cell 1. Introduction Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide spectrum of human disease

  12. Phenomenological approaches to collective behavior in epithelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Matthias L; Marel, Anna-Kristina; Segerer, Felix J; Rädler, Joachim O

    2015-11-01

    Collective cell migration in epithelial tissues resembles fluid-like behavior in time-lapse recordings. In the last years, hydrodynamic velocity fields in living matter have been studied intensely. The emergent properties were remarkably similar to phenomena known from active soft matter systems. Here, we review migration experiments of large cellular ensembles as well as of mesoscopic cohorts in micro-structured environments. Concepts such as diffusion, velocity correlations, swirl strength and polarization are metrics to quantify the cellular dynamics both in experiments as well as in computational simulations. We discuss challenges relating collective migration to single cell and oligocellular behavior as well as linking the phenotypic parameters to the underlying cytoskeleton dynamics and signaling networks. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology. PMID:26028592

  13. Roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in epithelial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yajing; Sun, Zhaorui; Qiu, Xuefeng; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 ; Li, Yan; Qin, Jizheng; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093 ; Han, Xiaodong; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Nanjing 210093

    2009-12-25

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be able to differentiate into epithelial lineage, but the precise mechanisms controlling this process are unclear. Our aim is to explore the roles of Wnt/{beta}-catenin in the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Using indirect co-culture of rat MSCs with rat airway epithelial cells (RTE), MSCs expressed several airway epithelial markers (cytokeratin 18, tight junction protein occudin, cystic fibrosis transmembrance regulator). The protein levels of some important members in Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling were determined, suggested down-regulation of Wnt/{beta}-catenin with epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Furthermore, Wnt3{alpha} can inhibit the epithelial differentiation of MSCs. A loss of {beta}-catenin induced by Dickkopf-1 can enhance MSCs differentiation into epithelial cells. Lithium chloride transiently activated {beta}-catenin expression and subsequently decreased {beta}-catenin level and at last inhibited MSCs to differentiate into airway epithelium. Taken together, our study indicated that RTE cells can trigger epithelial differentiation of MSCs. Blocking Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling may promote MSCs to differentiate towards airway epithelial cells.

  14. Carcinoma cells induce lumen filling and EMT in epithelial cells through soluble E-cadherin-mediated activation of EGFR.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pratima U; D'Ambrosio, Julia; Inge, Landon J; Mason, Robert W; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K

    2015-12-01

    In epithelial cancers, carcinoma cells coexist with normal cells. Although it is known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, it is not completely understood how the tumor influences adjacent normal epithelial cells. In this study, a three-dimensional co-culture system comprising non-transformed epithelial cells (MDCK) and transformed carcinoma cells (MSV-MDCK) was used to demonstrate that carcinoma cells sequentially induce preneoplastic lumen filling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cysts. MMP-9 secreted by carcinoma cells cleaves cellular E-cadherin (encoded by CDH1) from epithelial cells to generate soluble E-cadherin (sE-cad), a pro-oncogenic protein. We show that sE-cad induces EGFR activation, resulting in lumen filling in MDCK cysts. Long-term sE-cad treatment induced EMT. sE-cad caused lumen filling by induction of the ERK signaling pathway and triggered EMT through the sustained activation of the AKT pathway. Although it is known that sE-cad induces MMP-9 release and consequent EGFR activation in tumor cells, our results, for the first time, demonstrate that carcinoma cells can induce sE-cad shedding in adjacent epithelial cells, which leads to EGFR activation and the eventual transdifferentiation of the normal epithelial cells. PMID:26483386

  15. A FOXM1 Dependent Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Parul; Dodsworth, Benjamin Thomas; Sidders, Ben; Gutteridge, Alex; Michaelides, Christos; Duckworth, Joshua Kane; Whiting, Paul John; Benn, Caroline Louise

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of the epithelium is maintained by a complex but regulated interplay of processes that allow conversion of a proliferative state into a stably differentiated state. In this study, using human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) cells as a model; we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect attainment of the epithelial phenotype. We demonstrate that RPE undergo a Mesenchymal–Epithelial Transition in culture before acquiring an epithelial phenotype in a FOXM1 dependent manner. We show that FOXM1 directly regulates proliferation of RPE through transcriptional control of cell cycle associated genes. Additionally, FOXM1 modulates expression of the signaling ligands BMP7 and Wnt5B which act reciprocally to enable epithelialization. This data uncovers a novel effect of FOXM1 dependent activities in contributing towards epithelial fate acquisition and furthers our understanding of the molecular regulators of a cell type that is currently being evaluated as a cell therapy. PMID:26121260

  16. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  17. Integrins regulate epithelial cell differentiation by modulating Notch activity

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lamarca, M. Jesús; Cobreros-Reguera, Laura; Ibáñez-Jiménez, Beatriz; Palacios, Isabel M.; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coordinating exit from the cell cycle with differentiation is crucial for proper development and tissue homeostasis. Failure to do so can lead to aberrant organogenesis and tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the developmental signals that regulate the switch from cell cycle exit to differentiation. Signals downstream of two key developmental pathways, Notch and Salvador–Warts–Hippo (SWH), and signals downstream of myosin activity regulate this switch during the development of the follicle cell epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. Here, we have identified a fourth player, the integrin signaling pathway. Elimination of integrin function blocks the mitosis-to-endocycle switch and differentiation in posterior follicle cells (PFCs), by regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) dacapo. In addition, integrin-mutant PFCs show defective Notch signaling and endocytosis. Furthermore, integrins act in PFCs by modulating the activity of the Notch pathway, as reducing the amount of Hairless, the major antagonist of Notch, or misexpressing Notch intracellular domain rescues the cell cycle and differentiation defects. Taken together, our findings reveal a direct involvement of integrin signaling on the spatial and temporal regulation of epithelial cell differentiation during development. PMID:25179603

  18. Tension-oriented cell divisions limit anisotropic tissue tension in epithelial spreading during zebrafish epiboly

    E-print Network

    Campinho, Pedro; Ranft, Jonas; Risler, Thomas; Minc, Nicolas; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial spreading is a common and fundamental aspect of various developmental and disease-related processes such as epithelial closure and wound healing. A key challenge for epithelial tissues undergoing spreading is to increase their surface area without disrupting epithelial integrity. Here we show that orienting cell divisions by tension constitutes an efficient mechanism by which the Enveloping Cell Layer (EVL) releases anisotropic tension while undergoing spreading during zebrafish epiboly. The control of EVL cell-division orientation by tension involves cell elongation and requires myosin II activity to align the mitotic spindle with the main tension axis. We also found that in the absence of tension-oriented cell divisions and in the presence of increased tissue tension, EVL cells undergo ectopic fusions, suggesting that the reduction of tension anisotropy by oriented cell divisions is required to prevent EVL cells from fusing. We conclude that cell-division orientation by tension constitutes a key ...

  19. Mitotic cells contract actomyosin cortex and generate pressure to round against or escape epithelial confinement.

    PubMed

    Sorce, Barbara; Escobedo, Carlos; Toyoda, Yusuke; Stewart, Martin P; Cattin, Cedric J; Newton, Richard; Banerjee, Indranil; Stettler, Alexander; Roska, Botond; Eaton, Suzanne; Hyman, Anthony A; Hierlemann, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how mitotic cells round against epithelial confinement. Here, we engineer micropillar arrays that subject cells to lateral mechanical confinement similar to that experienced in epithelia. If generating sufficient force to deform the pillars, rounding epithelial (MDCK) cells can create space to divide. However, if mitotic cells cannot create sufficient space, their rounding force, which is generated by actomyosin contraction and hydrostatic pressure, pushes the cell out of confinement. After conducting mitosis in an unperturbed manner, both daughter cells return to the confinement of the pillars. Cells that cannot round against nor escape confinement cannot orient their mitotic spindles and more likely undergo apoptosis. The results highlight how spatially constrained epithelial cells prepare for mitosis: either they are strong enough to round up or they must escape. The ability to escape from confinement and reintegrate after mitosis appears to be a basic property of epithelial cells. PMID:26602832

  20. Survival of Exfoliated Epithelial Cells: A Delicate Balance between Anoikis and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Kaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of exfoliated cells from biological fluids is a noninvasive technology which is in high demand in the field of translational research. Exfoliated epithelial cells can be isolated from several body fluids (i.e., breast milk, urines, and digestives fluids) as a cellular mixture (senescent, apoptotic, proliferative, or quiescent cells). The most intriguing are quiescent cells which can be used to derive primary cultures indicating that some phenotypes retain clonogenic potentials. Such exfoliated cells are believed to enter rapidly in anoikis after exfoliation. Anoikis can be considered as an autophagic state promoting epithelial cell survival after a timely loss of contact with extracellular matrix and cell neighbors. This paper presents current understanding of exfoliation along with the influence of methodology on the type of gastrointestinal epithelial cells isolated and, finally, speculates on the balance between anoikis and apoptosis to explain the survival of gastrointestinal epithelial cells in the environment. PMID:22131811

  1. Epstein-Barr virus infection in ex vivo tonsil epithelial cell cultures of asymptomatic carriers.

    PubMed

    Pegtel, Dirk M; Middeldorp, Jaap; Thorley-Lawson, David A

    2004-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is found frequently in certain epithelial pathologies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and oral hairy leukoplakia, indicating that the virus can infect epithelial cells in vivo. Recent studies of cell lines imply that epithelial cells may also play a role in persistent EBV infection in vivo. In this report, we show the establishment and characterization of an ex vivo culture model of tonsil epithelial cells, a likely site for EBV infection in vivo. Primary epithelial-cell cultures, generated from tonsil explants, contained a heterogeneous mixture of cells with an ongoing process of differentiation. Keratin expression profiles were consistent with the presence of cells from both surface and crypt epithelia. A small subset of cells could be latently infected by coculture with EBV-releasing cell lines, but not with cell-free virus. We also detected viral-DNA, -mRNA, and -protein expression in cultures from EBV-positive tonsil donors prior to in vitro infection. We conclude that these cells were either already infected at the time of explantation or soon after through cell-to-cell contact with B cells replicating EBV in the explant. Taken together, these findings suggest that the tonsil epithelium of asymptomatic virus carriers is able to sustain EBV infection in vivo. This provides an explanation for the presence of EBV in naso- and oropharyngeal pathologies and is consistent with epithelial cells playing a role in the egress of EBV during persistent infection. PMID:15507648

  2. Detection of H. pylori DNA in gastric epithelial cells by in situ hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin-Liang; Qian, Ke-Da; Tang, Xun-Qiu; Zhu, Yong-Liang; Du, Qin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of H. pylori DNA within gastric epithelial cells in patients with H. pylori infection and its possible carcinogenic mechanism. METHODS: Total 112 patients, with pathologically confirmed chronic superficial gastritis, chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, atypical hyperplasia or gastric cancer were studied. Among them, 28 were H. pylori negative and 84 H. pylori positive. H. pylori DNA in gastric epithelial cells was detected by GenPoint catalyzed signal amplification system for in situhybridization. RESULTS: In the H. pylori positive group, zero out of 24 chronic superficial gastritis (0.0%), four out of 25 precancerous changes (16.0%) and thirteen out of 35 gastric cancers (37.1%) showed H. pylori DNA in the nucleus of gastric epithelial cells, the positive rates of H. pylori DNA in the nucleus of gastric epithelial cells were progressively increased in chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes and gastric cancer groups (?² = 12.56, P = 0.002); One out of 24 chronic superficial gastritis (4.2%), eleven out of 25 precancerous changes (44.0%) and thirteen out of 35 gastric cancers (37.1%) showed H. pylori DNA in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells (?² = 10.86, P = 0.004). In the H. pylori negative group, only one patient with gastric cancer was found H. pylori DNA in the nucleus of gastric epithelial cells; Only two patients, one patient with precancerous changes and another with gastric cancer, showed H. pylori DNA in the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, H. pylori DNA must have been in the cytoplasm as long as it existed in the nucleus of gastric epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: H. pylori DNA exists both in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of gastric epithelial cells in patients with H. pylori infections. The pathological progression from chronic superficial gastritis, precancerous changes to gastric cancer is associated with higher positive rates of H. pylori DNA presence in the nucleus of gastric epithelial cells. PMID:11925613

  3. IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells negatively regulate fucosylation of epithelial cells in the gut

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yoshiyuki; Lamichhane, Aayam; Kamioka, Mariko; Sato, Shintaro; Honda, Kenya; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Fucosylated glycans on the surface of epithelial cells (ECs) regulate intestinal homeostasis by serving as attachment receptors and a nutrient source for some species of bacteria. We show here that epithelial fucosylation in the ileum is negatively regulated by IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. The number of fucosylated ECs was increased in the ileum of mice lacking T cells, especially those expressing ?? T cell receptor (TCR), CD4, and IL-10. No such effect was observed in mice lacking B cells. Adoptive transfer of ??TCR+ CD4+ T cells from normal mice, but not IL-10-deficient mice, normalized fucosylation of ECs. These findings suggest that IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells contribute to the maintenance of the function of ECs by regulating their fucosylation. PMID:26522513

  4. Apoptosis and Engulfment by Bronchial Epithelial Cells. Implications for Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, Kristen K.; Juncadella, Ignacio J.

    2014-01-01

    Insult or injury to the lung epithelial cells from pathogens, pollutants, and allergens can initiate the process of apoptotic cell death. Although “Creola bodies,” which are clusters of uncleared, apoptotic, epithelial cells, have been seen in the sputum of patients with asthma, the clearance of these dying epithelial cells and the consequence of failed clearance in the airway have not been directly addressed. We have observed that bronchial epithelial cells efficiently engulf their apoptotic neighbors and produce antiinflammatory cytokines when engulfing apoptotic cells. Furthermore, when the phagocytic capacity of bronchial epithelial cells was impaired, mice developed severe, IL-33–dependent, allergic airway inflammation. This inflammation could be ameliorated by exogenous administration of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. Our data suggest that the process of apoptotic cell engulfment is a mechanism by which bronchial epithelial cells regulate the inflammatory environment within the lung. Collectively, these studies suggest that impaired engulfment pathways in airway epithelial cells can contribute to allergic airway inflammation and that targeting these pathways may be of benefit in human airway inflammation. PMID:25525729

  5. KLF5 Activates MicroRNA 200 Transcription To Maintain Epithelial Characteristics and Prevent Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Baotong; Zhang, Zhiqian; Xia, Siyuan; Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Li, Xin; Zhao, Ranran; Tian, Sha; Ma, Gui; Zhu, Zhengmao; Fu, Liya

    2013-01-01

    KLF5 is an essential basic transcriptional factor that regulates a number of physiopathological processes. In this study, we tested whether and how KLF5 modulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Using transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated epithelial cells as an established model of EMT, we found that KLF5 was downregulated during EMT and that knockdown of KLF5 induced EMT even in the absence of TGF-? and EGF treatment, as indicated by phenotypic and molecular EMT properties. Array-based screening suggested and biochemical analyses confirmed that the microRNA 200 (miR-200) microRNAs, a group of well-established EMT repressors, were transcriptionally activated by KLF5 via its direct binding to the GC boxes in miR-200 gene promoters. Functionally, overexpression of miR-200 prevented the EMT induced by KLF5 knockdown or by TGF-? and EGF treatment, and ectopic expression of KLF5 attenuated TGF-?- and EGF-induced EMT by rescuing the expression of miR-200. In mouse prostates, knockout of Klf5 downregulated the miR-200 family and induced molecular changes indicative of EMT. These findings indicate that KLF5 maintains epithelial characteristics and prevents EMT by transcriptionally activating the miR-200 family in epithelial cells. PMID:24126055

  6. Phase I Study of Intravenous Triapine (IND # 68338) in Combination With Pelvic Radiation Therapy With or Without Weekly Intravenous Cisplatin Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical, Vaginal, or Pelvic Gynecologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-10

    Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  7. Generation of Epithelial Cell Populations from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Src Family Kinases.

    PubMed

    Selekman, Joshua A; Lian, Xiaojun; Palecek, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), under the right conditions, can be engineered to generate populations of any somatic cell type. Knowledge of what mechanisms govern differentiation towards a particular lineage is often quite useful for efficiently producing somatic cell populations from hPSCs. Here, we have outlined a strategy for deriving populations of simple epithelial cells, as well as more mature epidermal keratinocyte progenitors, from hPSCs by exploiting a mechanism previously shown to direct epithelial differentiation of hPSCs. Specifically, we describe how to direct epithelial differentiation of hPSCs using an Src family kinase inhibitor, SU6656, which has been shown to modulate ?-catenin translocation to the cell membrane and thus promote epithelial differentiation. The differentiation platform outlined here produces cells with the ability to terminally differentiate to epidermal keratinocytes in culture through a stable simple epithelial cell intermediate that can be expanded in culture for numerous (>10) passages. PMID:24500899

  8. Hormonal regulation of Na -K -ATPase in cultured epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.P.; Jones, D.; Wiesmann, W.P.

    1986-08-01

    Aldosterone and insulin stimulate Na transport through mechanisms involving protein synthesis. Na -K -ATPase has been implicated in the action of both hormones. The authors examined the effect of aldosterone and insulin on Na -K -ATPase in epithelial cells in culture derived from toad urinary bladder (TB6C) and toad kidney (A6). Aldosterone, but not insulin, increases short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) in TB6C cells. Aldosterone increases Na -K -(TSP)ATPase activity after 18 h of incubation, but no effect can be seen at 3 and 6 h. Amiloride, which inhibits aldosterone-induced increases in I/sub sc/, has no effect on either basal or aldosterone stimulated enzyme activity. Both aldosterone and insulin increase I/sub sc/ in A6 cells and when added together are synergistic. Aldosterone stimulates enzyme activity in A6 cells, but insulin alone has no effect. However, aldosterone and insulin together stimulate enzyme activity more than aldosterone alone. It appears that stimulation of Na -K -ATPase activity is involved in aldosterone action in both cell lines but does not appear to be due to increased Na entry, since enhanced enzyme activity is not inhibited by amiloride. In contrast, insulin alone has no direct effect on Na -K -ATPase, although the increased enzyme activity following both agents in combination may explain their synergism on I/sub sc/.

  9. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    1996-01-01

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  10. ABCF1 extrinsically regulates retinal pigment epithelial cell phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feiye; Ding, Ying; Caberoy, Nora; Alvarado, Gabriela; Wang, Feng; Chen, Rui; Li, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor outer segments (POSs) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is critical to retinal homeostasis and shares many conserved signaling pathways with other phagocytes, including extrinsic regulations. Phagocytotic ligands are the key to cargo recognition, engulfment initiation, and activity regulation. In this study, we identified intracellular protein ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) as a novel RPE phagocytotic ligand by a new approach of functional screening. ABCF1 was independently verified to extrinsically promote phagocytosis of shed POSs by D407 RPE cells. This finding was further corroborated with primary RPE cells and RPE explants. Internalized POS vesicles were colocalized with a phagosome marker, suggesting that ABCF1-mediated engulfment is through a phagocytic pathway. ABCF1 was released from apoptotic cells and selectively bound to shed POS vesicles and apoptotic cells, possibly via externalized phosphatidylserine. ABCF1 is predominantly expressed in POSs and colocalized with the POS marker rhodopsin, providing geographical convenience for regulation of RPE phagocytosis. Collectively these results suggest that ABCF1 is released from and binds to shed POSs in an autocrine manner to facilitate RPE phagocytosis through a conserved pathway. Furthermore, the new approach is broadly applicable to many other phagocytes and will enable systematic elucidation of their ligands to understand extrinsic regulation and cargo recognition. PMID:25904329

  11. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Yang, T. C.

    Karyotypes of human cells surviving X- and alpha-irradiation have been studied. Human mammary epithelial cells of the immortal, non-tumorigenic cell line H184B5 F5-1 M/10 were irradiated and surviving clones isolated and expanded in culture. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using dedicated software with an image analyzer. We have found that both high- and low-LET radiation induced chromosomal instability in long-term cultures, but with different characteristics. Complex chromosomal rearrangements were observed after X-rays, while chromosome loss predominated after alpha-particles. Deletions were observed in both cases. In clones derived from cells exposed to alpha-particles, some cells showed extensive chromosome breaking and double minutes. Genomic instability was correlated to delayed reproductive death and neoplastic transformation. These results indicate that chromosomal instability is a radiation-quality-dependent effect which could determine late genetic effects, and should therefore be carefully considered in the evaluation of risk for space missions.

  12. Aire unleashes stalled RNA polymerase to induce ectopic gene expression in thymic epithelial cells

    E-print Network

    Giraud, Matthieu

    Aire is a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTA) in thymic medullary epithelial cells (MECs), driving immunological self-tolerance in differentiating T cells. To elucidate its ...

  13. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cell Line Suppression of Phagolysosome Activation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, AW; Dixit, S; Yu, J

    2015-01-01

    The eye is an immune privileged tissue with multiple mechanisms of immunosuppression to protect the light gathering tissues from the damage of inflammation. One of theses mechanisms involves retinal pigment epithelial cell suppression of phagosome activation in macrophages. The objective of this work is to determine if the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 is capable of suppressing the activation of the phagolysosome in macrophages in a manner similar to primary RPE. The conditioned media of RPE eyecups, sub-confluent, just confluent cultures, or established confluent cultures of human ARPE-19 cells were generated. These condition media were used to treat macrophages phagocytizing pHrodo bioparticles. After 24 hours incubation the macrophages were imaged by fluorescent microscopy, and fluorescence was measured. The fluorescent intensity is proportional to the amount of bioparticles phagocytized and are in an activated phagolysosome. The conditioned media of in situ mouse RPE eyecups significantly suppressed the activation of phagolysosome. The conditioned media from cultures of human ARPE-19 cells, grown to sub-confluence (50%) or grown to confluence had no effect on phagolysosome activation. In contrast, the conditioned media from established confluent cultures significantly suppressed phagolysosome activation. The neuropeptides alpha-MSH and NPY were depleted from the conditioned media of established confluent ARPE-19 cell cultures. This depleted conditioned media had diminished suppression of phagolysosome activation while promoting macrophage cell death. In addition, the condition media from cultures of ARPE-19 monolayers wounded with a bisecting scrape was diminished in suppressing phagolysosome activation. This technical report suggests that like primary RPE monolayers, established confluent cultures of ARPE-19 cells produce soluble factors that suppress the activation of macrophages, and can be used to study the molecular mechanisms of retinal immunobiology. In addition, the results further demonstrate the importance of an intact monolayer of RPE cells to modulate immune cell activity within the eye. PMID:25905107

  14. Differential deposition of fibronectin by asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi; Zeng, Qingxiang; Tjin, Gavin; Lau, Edmund; Black, Judith L; Oliver, Brian G G; Burgess, Janette K

    2015-11-15

    Altered ECM protein deposition is a feature in asthmatic airways. Fibronectin (Fn), an ECM protein produced by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), is increased in asthmatic airways. This study investigated the regulation of Fn production in asthmatic or nonasthmatic HBECs and whether Fn modulated HBEC proliferation and inflammatory mediator secretion. The signaling pathways underlying transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-regulated Fn production were examined using specific inhibitors for ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, and activin-like kinase 5 (ALK5). Asthmatic HBECs deposited higher levels of Fn in the ECM than nonasthmatic cells under basal conditions, whereas cells from the two groups had similar levels of Fn mRNA and soluble Fn. TGF-?1 increased mRNA levels and ECM and soluble forms of Fn but decreased cell proliferation in both cells. The rate of increase in Fn mRNA was higher in nonasthmatic cells. However, the excessive amounts of ECM Fn deposited by asthmatic cells after TGF-?1 stimulation persisted compared with nonasthmatic cells. Inhibition of ALK5 completely prevented TGF-?1-induced Fn deposition. Importantly, ECM Fn increased HBEC proliferation and IL-6 release, decreased PGE2 secretion, but had no effect on VEGF release. Soluble Fn had no effect on cell proliferation and inflammatory mediator release. Asthmatic HBECs are intrinsically primed to produce more ECM Fn, which when deposited into the ECM, is capable of driving remodeling and inflammation. The increased airway Fn may be one of the key driving factors in the persistence of asthma and represents a novel, therapeutic target. PMID:26342086

  15. Cell-contact dependent inhibition of monocytes by airway epithelial cells and reversion by infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Oumouna, Mustapha; Weitnauer, Michael; Mijošek, Vedrana; Schmidt, Lotte M; Eigenbrod, Tatjana; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2015-11-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AEC) are the first line of defense against airborne infectious microbes and play an important role in regulating the local immune response. However, the interplay of epithelial cells and professional immune cells during both homeostasis and infection has only been partially studied. The present study was performed to determine how bronchial epithelial cells affect the activation of monocytes. Under healthy conditions, AECs were shown to inhibit reactivity of monocytes. We hypothesized that upon infection, monocytes might be released from inhibition by AECs. We report that direct contact of monocytes with unstimulated BEAS2B epithelial cells results in inhibition of TNF secretion by activated monocytes. In addition to the known soluble modulators, we show that cell contacts between epithelial cells and monocytes or macrophages also contribute to homeostatic inhibitory actions. We find AECs to express the inhibitory molecule PD-L1 and blockade of PD-L1 results in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes. Contrary to the inhibitory activities during homeostasis, epithelial cells infected with Respiratory Syncitial Virus (RSV) induce a significant release of inhibition. However, release of inhibition was not due to modulation of PD-L1 expression in AECs. We conclude that airway epithelial cells control the reactivity of monocytes through direct and indirect interactions; however tonic inhibition can be reverted upon stimulation of AECs with RSV and thereof derived molecular patterns. The study confirms the important role of airway epithelial cells for local immune reactions. PMID:26153873

  16. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaginal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the vagina. The vagina is the ... diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the vagina or to other ...

  17. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... mild soap and warm water. Do not use hot water or boil the applicator. Ask your pharmacist ...

  18. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer.Net Editorial Board , which is composed of medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer ...

  19. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    Menstruation, or period, is a woman's monthly bleeding. Abnormal vaginal bleeding is different from normal menstrual periods. It could be bleeding that is between periods, lasts several weeks, or happens before ...

  20. Vaginal Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Two common vaginal infections are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections . Bacterial vaginosis (BV) happens when a certain ... increases the chances that you’ll get BV. Yeast infections happen when a fungus (a type of ...

  1. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  2. Normal Human Lung Epithelial Cells Inhibit Transforming Growth Factor-? Induced Myofibroblast Differentiation via Prostaglandin E2

    PubMed Central

    Epa, Amali P.; Thatcher, Thomas H.; Pollock, Stephen J.; Wahl, Lindsay A.; Lyda, Elizabeth; Kottmann, R. M.; Phipps, Richard P.; Sime, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with very few effective treatments. The key effector cells in fibrosis are believed to be fibroblasts, which differentiate to a contractile myofibroblast phenotype with enhanced capacity to proliferate and produce extracellular matrix. The role of the lung epithelium in fibrosis is unclear. While there is evidence that the epithelium is disrupted in IPF, it is not known whether this is a cause or a result of the fibroblast pathology. We hypothesized that healthy epithelial cells are required to maintain normal lung homeostasis and can inhibit the activation and differentiation of lung fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. To investigate this hypothesis, we employed a novel co-culture model with primary human lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts to investigate whether epithelial cells inhibit myofibroblast differentiation. Measurements and Main Results In the presence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial cells expressed significantly less ?-smooth muscle actin and collagen and showed marked reduction in cell migration, collagen gel contraction, and cell proliferation compared to fibroblasts grown without epithelial cells. Epithelial cells from non-matching tissue origins were capable of inhibiting TGF-? induced myofibroblast differentiation in lung, keloid and Graves’ orbital fibroblasts. TGF-? promoted production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 in lung epithelial cells, and a PGE2 neutralizing antibody blocked the protective effect of epithelial cell co-culture. Conclusions We provide the first direct experimental evidence that lung epithelial cells inhibit TGF-? induced myofibroblast differentiation and pro-fibrotic phenotypes in fibroblasts. This effect is not restricted by tissue origin, and is mediated, at least in part, by PGE2. Our data support the hypothesis that the epithelium plays a crucial role in maintaining lung homeostasis, and that damaged and/ or dysfunctional epithelium contributes to the development of fibrosis. PMID:26248335

  3. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB-responsive gene associated with loss of cell anchorage. There is also a range of aneuploidy amongst the transformed clones and ongoing chromosomal analysis by array-based comparative genomic hybridization has identified single or two copy loss of the tumor suppressor gene FHIT, in 8 of 15 transformed clones. This is accompanied by a 6-fold reduction, overall, in FHIT gene expression amongst the 15 clones under examination. Interestingly, in spite of these changes at the molecular level, when implanted subcutaneously into immune-compromised mice, the transformed clones from the HBEC3 KT cell line do not form tumors. This suggests that additional hits are required for oncogenesis, at least in a subcutaneous model, and/or, 2-D tissue culture models to not adequately reflect the underlying biology. We have therefore, begun to examine transformation in a 3-D tissue culture model, bronchocysts, where HBEC cells ultimately differentiate and stop cycling. We have shown that cells in 3-D have reduced gene expression of key DNA repair genes, and are less effective at repairing complex damage. We are now irradiating at dose rates as low as 0.2 cGy/min to test the notion of an inverse dose rate effect for carcinogenesis by HZE particles. In our early experiments we have shown that as the dose rate dropped from 20 cGy/min to 0.2 cGy/min, for the same total dose (0.25 and 0.50 Gy) an increasing percentage of bronchocysts become mis-shapen, suggesting that some cells within the cyst have de-differentiated and have reentered the cell cycle. We are now testing whether those cells are, in fact, cycling and wherther they are transformed by disaggregating the cyst and placing the cells into soft agar culture.

  4. Upregulated CDK16 Expression in Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi; Yu, Yanni

    2015-01-01

    Background As CDK-16 has been shown to be upregulated in several transformed cancer lines, we hypothesized that the cyclin-dependent kinase 16 (CDK-16) may be upregulated in serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells. Therefore, we comparatively examined the mRNA and protein expression of CDK-16 in samples resected from serous EOC patients and normal controls. Material/Methods Tissue samples were collected from 70 serous EOC patients and 40 normal controls. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted to assess mRNA expression. CDK-16 protein expression was assessed by semi-quantitative immunohistochemical staining. Differences in mRNA and protein expression between serous EOC cells and normal tissue cells were tested with the Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Both CDK-16 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in serous EOC tumor cells as compared to normal control ovarian cells (p<0.01). Although there was no significant correlation between CDK-16 mRNA expression and serous EOC stage (p=0.0794), there was a significant correlation between CDK-16 mRNA expression and serous EOC grade (p<0.0001). Moreover, there were significant correlations between CDK-16 protein expression and serous EOC stage (p<0.0001) and grade (p<0.0001). Conclusions CDK-16 upregulation in serous EOC cells may represent a negative feedback loop to promote ovarian cell differentiation in malignantly-transformed serous EOC cells. Further in-depth investigation on CDK-16’s role in serous EOC is needed. PMID:26546806

  5. Asialo GM1 is a receptor for Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to regenerating respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    de Bentzmann, S; Roger, P; Dupuit, F; Bajolet-Laudinat, O; Fuchey, C; Plotkowski, M C; Puchelle, E

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the implication of asialo GM1 as an epithelial receptor in the increased Pseudomonas aeruginosa affinity for regenerating respiratory epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF patients. Human respiratory epithelial cells were obtained from nasal polyps of non-CF subjects and of CF patients homozygous for the delta F 508 transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) mutation and cultured according to the explant-outgrowth model. At the periphery of the outgrowth, regenerating respiratory epithelial cells spreading over the collagen I matrix with lamellipodia were observed, characteristic of respiratory epithelial wound repair after injury. P aeruginosa adherence to regenerating respiratory epithelial cells was found to be significantly greater in the delta F 508 homozygous CF group than in the non-CF group (P < 0.001). In vitro competitive binding inhibition assays performed with rabbit polyclonal antibody against asialo GM1 demonstrated that blocking asialo GM1 reduces P. aeruginosa adherence to regenerating respiratory epithelial cells in delta F 508 homozygous cultures (P < 0.001) as well as in non-CF cultures (P < 0.001). Blocking of asialo GM1 was significantly more efficient in CF patients than in non-CF subjects (P < 0.05). Distribution of asialo GM1 as determined by preembedding labelling and immunoelectron microscopy clearly demonstrated the specific apical membrane expression of asialo GM1 by regenerating respiratory epithelial cells, whereas other cell phenotypes did not apically express asialo GM1. These results demonstrate that (i) asialo GM1 is an apical membrane receptor for P. aeruginosa expressed at the surface of CF and non-CF regenerating respiratory epithelial cells and (ii) asialo GM1 is specifically recovered in regenerating respiratory epithelium. These results suggest that in CF, epithelial repair represents the major event which exposes asialo GM1 for P. aeruginosa adherence. PMID:8613364

  6. Transport and epithelial secretion of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin, by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cavet, M. E.; West, M.; Simmons, N. L.

    1996-01-01

    1. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells have been used to investigate the transepithelial permeation of the cardiac glycoside, digoxin. 2. Transepithelial basal to apical [3H]-digoxin flux exceeds apical to basal flux, a net secretion of [3H]-digoxin being observed. At 200 microM digoxin, net secretory flux (Jnet) was 10.8 +/- 0.6 nmol cm-2 h-1. Maximal secretory flux (Jmax) of vinblastine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 nmol cm-2 h-1. Cellular uptake of digoxin was different across apical and basal cell boundaries. It was greatest across the basal surface at 1 microM, whereas at 200 microM, apical uptake exceeded basal uptake. 3. Net secretion of [3H]-digoxin was subject to inhibition by digitoxin and bufalin but was not inhibited by ouabain, convallatoxin, and strophanthidin (all 100 microM). Inhibition was due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Uptake of [3H]-digoxin at the apical surface was increased by digitoxin and bufalin. All cardiac glycosides decreased [3H]-digoxin uptake at the basal cell surface (except for 100 microM digitoxin). 4. The competitive P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil (100 microM), nifedipine (50 microM) and vinblastine (50 microM) all abolished net secretion of [3H]-digoxin due to both a decrease in Jb-a and an increase in Ja-b. Cellular accumulation of [3H]-digoxin was also increased across both the apical and basal cell surfaces. I-Chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene (10 microM), a substrate for glutathione-S-transferase and subsequent ATP-dependent glutathione-S-conjugate secretion, failed to inhibit net secretion of [3H]-digoxin. The increase in absorptive permeability Pa-b (= Ja-b/Ca) and cellular [3H]-digoxin uptake upon P-glycoprotein inhibition, showed that the intestinal epithelium was rendered effectively impermeable by ATP-dependent extrusion at the apical surface. 5. A model for [3H]-digoxin secretion by the intestinal epithelium is likely to involve both diffusional uptake and Na(+)-K+ pump-mediated endocytosis, followed by active extrusion at the apical membrane. PMID:8832062

  7. Interleukin-1 stimulates zinc uptake by human thymic epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Coto, J.A.; Hadden, J.W. )

    1991-03-15

    Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to secrete peptides which influence the differentiation and maturation of T-lymphocytes. These peptides include the thymic hormones thymulin, thymosin-{alpha}1, and thymopoietin. The biological activity of thymulin is dependent on the presence of zinc in an equimolar ratio. The authors have shown that both interleukin-1{alpha}(IL-1{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}(IL-1{beta}), which stimulate proliferation of TEC, stimulate the uptake of Zn-65 in-vitro independent of this proliferation. Mitomycin-C was used to inhibit the proliferation of TEC. Two other stimulators of proliferation of TEC, bovine pituitary extract (BPE) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), did not stimulate zinc uptake by the TEC independent of proliferation. They have also shown, utilizing in-situ hybridization, that IL-1 and zinc induce metallothionein(MT) mRNA expression in human thymic epithelial cells. The exact role of metallothionein is not clear, but it is thought to be involved in regulation of trace metal metabolism, especially in maintenance of zinc homeostasis. Their current hypothesis is that IL-1 stimulates uptake of zinc into the TEC, followed by its complexing with metallothionein. Zinc is then thought to be transferred from metallothionein to thymulin. Immunostaining, utilizing an antithymulin antibody and a fluoresceinated goat anti-rabbit second antibody, confirms the presence of thymulin in TEC and its dependence on zinc. Upon stimulation, thymulin is then secreted. Known stimulants for thymulin include progesterone, dexamethasone, estradiol, testosterone, and prolactin. None of these secretagogues increase zinc uptake, suggesting the priming of the zinc-thymulin complex is unrelated to the regulation of its secretion.

  8. Host Resistance to Lung Infection Mediated by Major Vault Protein in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Dubouix-Bourandy, Anne; Bajmoczi, Milan; Golan, David E.; Zaidi, Tanweer; Coutinho-Sledge, Yamara S.; Gygi, Melanie P.; Gygi, Steven P.; Wiemer, Erik A. C.; Pier, Gerald B.

    2013-01-01

    The airway epithelium plays an essential role in innate immunity to lung pathogens. Ribonucleoprotein particles primarily composed of major vault protein (MVP) are highly expressed in cells that encounter xenobiotics. However, a clear biologic function for MVP is not established. We report here that MVP is rapidly recruited to lipid rafts when human lung epithelial cells are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and maximal recruitment is dependent on bacterial binding to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. MVP was also essential for optimal epithelial cell internalization and clearance of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that MVP makes a substantial contribution to epithelial cell–mediated resistance to infection. PMID:17615361

  9. Romo1 expression contributes to oxidative stress-induced death of lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jung Ar; Chung, Jin Sil; Cho, Sang-Ho; Kim, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Young Do

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Romo1 mediates oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial ROS production. •Romo1 induction by oxidative stress plays an important role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. •Romo1 overexpression correlates with epithelial cell death in patients with IPF. -- Abstract: Oxidant-mediated death of lung epithelial cells due to cigarette smoking plays an important role in pathogenesis in lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, the exact mechanism by which oxidants induce epithelial cell death is not fully understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator 1 (Romo1) is localized in the mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial ROS production through complex III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Here, we show that Romo1 mediates mitochondrial ROS production and apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) treatment increased Romo1 expression, and Romo1 knockdown suppressed the cellular ROS levels and cell death triggered by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment. In immunohistochemical staining of lung tissues from patients with IPF, Romo1 was mainly localized in hyperplastic alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells. Romo1 overexpression was detected in 14 of 18 patients with IPF. TUNEL-positive alveolar epithelial cells were also detected in most patients with IPF but not in normal controls. These findings suggest that Romo1 mediates apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in lung epithelial cells.

  10. Curcumin Prevents Replication of Respiratory Syncytial Virus and the Epithelial Responses to It in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Kazufumi; Kojima, Takashi; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Yokota, Shinichi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Takasawa, Akira; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Fuchimoto, Jun; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    The human nasal epithelium is the first line of defense during respiratory virus infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of bronchitis, asthma and severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. We previously reported in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), the replication and budding of RSV and the epithelial responses, including release of proinflammatory cytokines and enhancement of the tight junctions, are in part regulated via an NF-?B pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of the NF-?B in HNECs infected with RSV. Curcumin prevented the replication and budding of RSV and the epithelial responses to it without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the upregulation of the epithelial barrier function caused by infection with RSV was enhanced by curcumin. Curcumin also has wide pharmacokinetic effects as an inhibitor of NF-?B, eIF-2? dephosphorylation, proteasome and COX2. RSV-infected HNECs were treated with the eIF-2? dephosphorylation blocker salubrinal and the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and inhibitors of COX1 and COX2. Treatment with salubrinal, MG132 and COX2 inhibitor, like curcumin, prevented the replication of RSV and the epithelial responses, and treatment with salubrinal and MG132 enhanced the upregulation of tight junction molecules induced by infection with RSV. These results suggest that curcumin can prevent the replication of RSV and the epithelial responses to it without cytotoxicity and may act as therapy for severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children caused by RSV infection. PMID:24058438

  11. Passage of cell-penetrating peptides across a human epithelial cell layer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Maria E; Hällbrink, Mattias M; Elmquist, Anna M; Langel, Ulo

    2004-01-01

    Cell barriers are essential for the maintenance and regulation of the microenvironments of the human body. Cell-penetrating peptides have simplified the delivery of bioactive cargoes across the plasma membrane. Here, the passage of three cell-penetrating peptides (transportan, the transportan analogue transportan 10, and penetratin) across a Caco-2 human colon cancer cell layer in vitro was investigated. The peptides were internalized into epithelial Caco-2 cells as visualized by indirect fluorescence microscopy and quantified by fluorimetry. Studies of peptide outflow from cells showed that the peptides were in equilibrium across the plasma membrane. The ability of the peptides to cross a Caco-2 cell layer was tested in a two-chambered model system. After 120 min, 7.0%, 2.8% and 0.6% of added transportan, transportan 10 and penetratin respectively was detected in the lower chamber. Both transportan and transportan 10 reversibly decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of the barrier model, with minimum values after 60 min of 46% and 60% of control respectively. Penetratin did not affect the resistance of the cell layer to the same extent. Although transportan markedly increased the passage of ions, the paracellular flux of 4.4 kDa fluorescein-labelled dextran was limited. In conclusion, the results indicate that the transportan peptides pass the epithelial cell layer mainly by a mechanism involving a transcellular pathway. PMID:12968950

  12. Regulation of growth of cultured hepatic epithelial cells by transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, Mingsound ); Sanders, G.H.S.; Grisham, J.W. )

    1987-07-01

    Late-passage cells of a nontumorigenic and anchorage-dependent hepatic epithelial line (WB-F344), which produce insulinlike growth factor II and transforming growth factor {beta} constitutively, grow in serum-free medium supplemented only with transferrin. In the presence of transferrin, epidermal growth factor further augments population growth, although epidermal growth factor alone is without effect. Insulin, platelet-derived growth factor, and several inorganic iron salts are also ineffective in supporting cell growth in the absence of transferrin. The population growth-promoting effect of transferrin occurs at concentrations of 0.5 nM or greater and the maximal effect is reached with a concentration of approximately 6 nM. A lipophilic iron chelator, ferric pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (FePIH), can fully mimic the effect of transferrin on the proliferation of WB-F344 cells. These results suggest that the critical function of transferrin in the proliferation of WB-F344 cells may be in the delivery of iron to the cells. In the absence of transferrin the proliferation of WB-F344 cells is arrested in serum-free medium in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, and a period of protein synthesis after the addition of transferrin is necessary before the cells can proceed to S phase and initiate DNA synthesis. Epidermal growth factor does not alter the length of the latency period prior to S phase but appears to stimulate the uptake of ({sup 3}H)thymidine subsequently.

  13. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibition enhances airway epithelial Basal-cell proliferation and lentivirus transduction.

    PubMed

    Horani, Amjad; Nath, Aditya; Wasserman, Mollie G; Huang, Tao; Brody, Steven L

    2013-09-01

    The identification of factors that regulate airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of airway diseases. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are downstream effector proteins of RhoA GTPase that direct the functions of cell cytoskeletal proteins. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 has been shown to enhance the survival and cloning of human embryonic stem cells and pluripotent cells in other tissues. We hypothesized that Y27632 treatment exerts a similar effect on airway epithelial basal cells, which function as airway epithelial progenitor cells. Treatment with Y27632 enhanced basal-cell proliferation in cultured human tracheobronchial and mouse tracheal epithelial cells. ROCK inhibition accelerated the maturation of basal cells, characterized by a diminution of the cell size associated with cell compaction and the expression of E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. Transient treatment of cultured basal cells with Y27632 did not affect subsequent ciliated or mucous cell differentiation under air-liquid interface conditions, and allowed for the initial use of lower numbers of human or mouse primary airway epithelial cells than otherwise possible. Moreover, the use of Y27632 during lentivirus-mediated transduction significantly improved posttransduction efficiency and the selection of a transduced cell population, as determined by reporter gene expression. These findings suggest an important role for ROCKs in the regulation of proliferation and maturation of epithelial basal cells, and demonstrate that the inhibition of ROCK pathways using Y27632 provides an adjunctive tool for the in vitro genetic manipulation of airway epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. PMID:23713995

  14. Rho-Associated Protein Kinase Inhibition Enhances Airway Epithelial Basal-Cell Proliferation and Lentivirus Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Horani, Amjad; Nath, Aditya; Wasserman, Mollie G.; Huang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The identification of factors that regulate airway epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation are essential for understanding the pathophysiology of airway diseases. Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) are downstream effector proteins of RhoA GTPase that direct the functions of cell cytoskeletal proteins. ROCK inhibition with Y27632 has been shown to enhance the survival and cloning of human embryonic stem cells and pluripotent cells in other tissues. We hypothesized that Y27632 treatment exerts a similar effect on airway epithelial basal cells, which function as airway epithelial progenitor cells. Treatment with Y27632 enhanced basal-cell proliferation in cultured human tracheobronchial and mouse tracheal epithelial cells. ROCK inhibition accelerated the maturation of basal cells, characterized by a diminution of the cell size associated with cell compaction and the expression of E-cadherin at cell–cell junctions. Transient treatment of cultured basal cells with Y27632 did not affect subsequent ciliated or mucous cell differentiation under air–liquid interface conditions, and allowed for the initial use of lower numbers of human or mouse primary airway epithelial cells than otherwise possible. Moreover, the use of Y27632 during lentivirus-mediated transduction significantly improved posttransduction efficiency and the selection of a transduced cell population, as determined by reporter gene expression. These findings suggest an important role for ROCKs in the regulation of proliferation and maturation of epithelial basal cells, and demonstrate that the inhibition of ROCK pathways using Y27632 provides an adjunctive tool for the in vitro genetic manipulation of airway epithelial cells by lentivirus vectors. PMID:23713995

  15. Topical KGF treatment as a therapeutic strategy for vaginal atrophy in a model of ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Simona; D'Amici, Sirio; Vescarelli, Enrica; Coluccio, Paolo; Matricardi, Pietro; di Gioia, Cira; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Romano, Ferdinando; Frati, Luigi; Angeloni, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia

    2014-09-01

    One of the most frequent complaints for post-menopausal women is vaginal atrophy, because of reduction in circulating oestrogens. Treatments based on local oestrogen administration have been questioned as topic oestrogens can reach the bloodstream, thus leading to consider their safety as controversial, especially for patients with a history of breast or endometrial cancers. Recently, growth factors have been shown to interact with the oestrogen pathway, but the mechanisms still need to be fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), a known mitogen for epithelial cells, on human vaginal mucosa cells, and its potential crosstalk with oestrogen pathways. We also tested the in vivo efficacy of KGF local administration on vaginal atrophy in a murine model. We demonstrated that KGF is able to induce proliferation of vaginal mucosa, and we gained insight on its mechanism of action by highlighting its contribution to switch ER? signalling towards non-genomic pathway. Moreover, we demonstrated that KGF restores vaginal trophism in vivo similarly to intravaginal oestrogenic preparations, without systemic effects. Therefore, we suggest a possible alternative therapy for vaginal atrophy devoid of the risks related to oestrogen-based treatments, and a patent (no. RM2012A000404) has been applied for this study. PMID:25088572

  16. Epithelial monolayer culture system for real?time single?cell analyses

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jong Bae; Moody, Mark; Koh, Duk?Su

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Many epithelial cells form polarized monolayers under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Typically, epithelial cells are cultured for differentiation on insert systems where cells are plated on a porous filter membrane. Although the cultured monolayers have been a standard system to study epithelial physiology, there are some limits: The epithelial cells growing inside the commercial inserts are not optimal to visualize directly through lenses on inverted microscopes. The cell images are optically distorted and background fluorescence is bright due to the filter membrane positioned between the cells and the lens. In addition, the cells are not easily accessible by electrodes due to the presence of tall side walls. Here, we present the design, fabrication, and practical applications of an improved system for analysis of polarized epithelial monolayers. This new system allows (1) direct imaging of cells without an interfering filter membrane, (2) electrophysiological measurements, and (3) detection of apical secretion with minimal dilution. Therefore, our culture method is optimized to study differentiated epithelial cells at the single?cell and subcellular levels, and can be extended to other cell types with minor modifications. PMID:24771696

  17. Effect of Growth Factors on the Proliferation and Gene Expression of Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaohui; Kam, Wendy R.; Ding, Juan; Hatton, Mark P.; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE), induce proliferation, but not differentiation (e.g., lipid accumulation), of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. We also hypothesize that these actions involve a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle processes, and a significant downregulation of genes associated with differentiation. Our objective was to test these hypotheses. Methods. Immortalized human meibomian gland and conjunctival epithelial cells were cultured for varying time periods in the presence or absence of EGF, BPE, EGF + BPE, or serum, followed by cell counting, neutral lipid staining, or RNA isolation for molecular biological procedures. Results. Our studies show that growth factors stimulate a significant, time-dependent proliferation of human meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects are associated with a significant upregulation of genes linked to cell cycle, DNA replication, ribosomes, and translation, and a significant decrease in those related to cell differentiation, tissue development, lipid metabolic processes, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. Serum-induced differentiation, but not growth factor-related proliferation, elicits a pronounced lipid accumulation in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. This lipogenic response is unique, and is not duplicated by human conjunctival epithelial cells. Conclusions. Our results demonstrate that EGF and BPE stimulate human meibomian gland epithelial cells to proliferate. Further, our findings show that action is associated with an upregulation of cell cycle and translation ontologies, and a downregulation of genetic pathways linked to differentiation and lipid biosynthesis. PMID:23493293

  18. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Osherov, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia) into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just “innocent bystanders” or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome. PMID:23055997

  19. Interaction of the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus with lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Osherov, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic environmental mold that can cause severe allergic responses in atopic individuals and poses a life-threatening risk for severely immunocompromised patients. Infection is caused by inhalation of fungal spores (conidia) into the lungs. The initial point of contact between the fungus and the host is a monolayer of lung epithelial cells. Understanding how these cells react to fungal contact is crucial to elucidating the pathobiology of Aspergillus-related disease states. The experimental systems, both in vitro and in vivo, used to study these interactions, are described. Distinction is made between bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. The experimental findings suggest that lung epithelial cells are more than just "innocent bystanders" or a purely physical barrier against infection. They can be better described as an active extension of our innate immune system, operating as a surveillance mechanism that can specifically identify fungal spores and activate an offensive response to block infection. This response includes the internalization of adherent conidia and the release of cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, and reactive oxygen species. In the case of allergy, lung epithelial cells can dampen an over-reactive immune response by releasing anti-inflammatory compounds such as kinurenine. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the interaction of A. fumigatus with lung epithelial cells. A better understanding of the interactions between A. fumigatus and lung epithelial cells has therapeutic implications, as stimulation or inhibition of the epithelial response may alter disease outcome. PMID:23055997

  20. Respiratory syncytial virus potentiates ABCA3 mutation-induced loss of lung epithelial cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Eva; Kern, Suncana; Frixel, Sabrina; Fragnet, Laetitia; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus; Zarbock, Ralf; Griese, Matthias

    2012-06-15

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transporter active in lung alveolar epithelial type II cells (ATII) and is essential for their function as surfactant-producing cells. ABCA3 mutational defects cause respiratory distress in newborns and interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children. The molecular pathomechanisms are largely unknown; however, viral infections may initiate or aggravate ILDs. Here, we investigated the impact of the clinically relevant ABCA3 mutations, p.Q215K and p.E292V, by stable transfection of A549 lung epithelial cells. ABCA3 mutations strongly impaired expression of the ATII differentiation marker SP-C and the key epithelial cell adhesion proteins E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1. Concurrently, cells expressing ABCA3 mutation acquired mesenchymal features as observed by increased expression of SNAI1, MMP-2 and TGF-?1, and elevated phosphorylation of Src. Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the most common viral respiratory pathogen in small children, potentiated the observed mutational effects on loss of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics. In addition, RSV infection of cells harboring ABCA3 mutations resulted in a morphologic shift to a mesenchymal phenotype. We conclude that ABCA3 mutations, potentiated by RSV infection, induce loss of epithelial cell differentiation in ATII. Loss of key epithelial features may disturb the integrity of the alveolar epithelium, thereby comprising its functionality. We suggest the impairment of epithelial function as a mechanism by which ABCA3 mutations cause ILD. PMID:22434821

  1. How tubular epithelial cells dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis?

    PubMed

    Louis, Kevin; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    The main threat to a kidney injury, whatever its cause and regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, is the initiation of a process of renal fibrogenesis, since fibrosis can auto-perpetuate and is of high prognostic significance in individual patients. In the clinic, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate correlates better with tubulointerstitial damage than with glomerular injury. Accumulation of the extracellular matrix should not be isolated from other significant cellular changes occurring in the kidney, such as infiltration by inflammatory cells, proliferation of myofibroblasts, obliteration of peritubular capillaries and atrophy of tubules. The aim of this review is to focus on tubular epithelial cells (TEC), which, necessarily involved in the repair process, eventually contribute to accelerating fibrogenesis. In the context of injury, TEC rapidly exhibit phenotypic and functional changes that recall their mesenchymal origin, and produce several growth factors known to activate myofibroblasts. Because they are high-demanding energy cells, TEC will subsequently suffer from the local hypoxia that progressively arises in a microenvironment where the matrix increases and capillaries become rarified. The combination of hypoxia and metabolic acidosis may induce a vicious cycle of sustained inflammation, at the center of which TEC dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis. PMID:26167460

  2. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  3. Milk Modulates Campylobacter Invasion into Caco-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Rogier; van Neerven, R. J. Joost

    2015-01-01

    Raw milk is a recognized source of Campylobacter outbreaks, but pasteurization is an effective way to eliminate the causative agent of Campylobacteriosis. Whereas breastfeeding is protective against infectious diseases, consumption of formula milk is thought to be not. However, in relation to Campylobacter, such data is currently unavailable. Although both pasteurized and formula milk are pathogen free and prepared in a quality controlled manner, the effect they have on the virulence of Campylobacter species is unknown. Here, we studied the effect of cow, goat, horse, and formula milk on Campylobacter invasion into intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, a pathogenic feature of this bacterial species, using a gentamicin exclusion invasion assay. We found that all milk products modulated the invasion of Campylobacter species into the Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Control experiments showed that the milks were not toxic for the Caco-2 cells and that the effect on invasion is caused by heat labile (e.g., milk proteins) or heat stable (e.g., sugar/lipids) components depending on the Campylobacter species studied. This in vitro study shows for the first time that pasteurized and formula milk affect the invasion of Campylobacter. We recommend a prospective study to examine whether pasteurized and formula milk affect Campylobacteriosis. PMID:26495128

  4. How tubular epithelial cells dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Kevin; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The main threat to a kidney injury, whatever its cause and regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, is the initiation of a process of renal fibrogenesis, since fibrosis can auto-perpetuate and is of high prognostic significance in individual patients. In the clinic, a decrease in glomerular filtration rate correlates better with tubulointerstitial damage than with glomerular injury. Accumulation of the extracellular matrix should not be isolated from other significant cellular changes occurring in the kidney, such as infiltration by inflammatory cells, proliferation of myofibroblasts, obliteration of peritubular capillaries and atrophy of tubules. The aim of this review is to focus on tubular epithelial cells (TEC), which, necessarily involved in the repair process, eventually contribute to accelerating fibrogenesis. In the context of injury, TEC rapidly exhibit phenotypic and functional changes that recall their mesenchymal origin, and produce several growth factors known to activate myofibroblasts. Because they are high-demanding energy cells, TEC will subsequently suffer from the local hypoxia that progressively arises in a microenvironment where the matrix increases and capillaries become rarified. The combination of hypoxia and metabolic acidosis may induce a vicious cycle of sustained inflammation, at the center of which TEC dictate the rate of renal fibrogenesis. PMID:26167460

  5. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  6. Culture models of human mammary epithelial cell transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Yaswen, Paul

    2000-11-10

    Human pre-malignant breast diseases, particularly ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)3 already display several of the aberrant phenotypes found in primary breast cancers, including chromosomal abnormalities, telomerase activity, inactivation of the p53 gene and overexpression of some oncogenes. Efforts to model early breast carcinogenesis in human cell cultures have largely involved studies in vitro transformation of normal finite lifespan human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to immortality and malignancy. We present a model of HMEC immortal transformation consistent with the know in vivo data. This model includes a recently described, presumably epigenetic process, termed conversion, which occurs in cells that have overcome stringent replicative senescence and are thus able to maintain proliferation with critically short telomeres. The conversion process involves reactivation of telomerase activity, and acquisition of good uniform growth in the absence and presence of TFGB. We propose th at overcoming the proliferative constraints set by senescence, and undergoing conversion, represent key rate-limiting steps in human breast carcinogenesis, and occur during early stage breast cancer progression.

  7. Salmonella interactions with polarized human intestinal Caco-2 epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Finlay, B B; Falkow, S

    1990-11-01

    Polarized monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line were grown on permeable filters and infected apically with either Salmonella choleraesuis or Salmonella typhimurium. Both Salmonella species penetrated through the monolayer, requiring 2 h before appearing in the basolateral medium. Both species caused a loss in transepithelial resistance by 3-4 h, and the monolayer's integrity was completely disrupted by 6 h. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria interacted with well-defined apical microvilli and caused disruptions in the brush border, including elongation and denuding of the microvilli. The cytoplasm was also disrupted locally, with blebs protruding from the apical surface. The bacteria entered (invaded) these cells and were enclosed in membrane-bound vacuoles within the cytoplasm. By 6 h there were many bacteria within most Caco-2 cells, and these organisms caused serious cytopathic consequences. These morphologic observations correlated well with animal infection models, indicating that this in vitro system will be useful to study pathogens that interact with human intestinal epithelia. PMID:2230236

  8. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Peana, Massimiliano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-10-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten's ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer-related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA sequencing. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data show the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  9. Modeling epithelial cell homeostasis: assessing recovery and control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Alan M

    2004-09-01

    Critical to epithelial cell viability is prompt and direct recovery, following a perturbation of cellular conditions. Although a number of transporters are known to be activated by changes in cell volume, cell pH, or cell membrane potential, their importance to cellular homeostasis has been difficult to establish. Moreover, the coordination among such regulated transporters to enhance recovery has received no attention in mathematical models of cellular function. In this paper, a previously developed model of proximal tubule (Weinstein, 1992, Am. J. Physiol. 263, F784-F798), has been approximated by its linearization about a reference condition. This yields a system of differential equations and auxiliary linear equations, which estimate cell volume and composition and transcellular fluxes in response to changes in bath conditions or membrane transport coefficients. Using the singular value decomposition, this system is reduced to a linear dynamical system, which is stable and reproduces the full model behavior in a useful neighborhood of the reference. Cost functions on trajectories formulated in the model variables (e.g., time for cell volume recovery) are translated into cost functions for the dynamical system. When the model is extended by the inclusion of linear dependence of membrane transport coefficients on model variables, the impact of each such controller on the recovery cost can be estimated with the solution of a Lyapunov matrix equation. Alternatively, solution of an algebraic Riccati equation provides the ensemble of controllers that constitute optimal state feedback for the dynamical system. When translated back into the physiological variables, the optimal controller contains some expected components, as well as unanticipated controllers of uncertain significance. This approach provides a means of relating cellular homeostasis to optimization of a dynamical system. PMID:15294423

  10. Entamoeba histolytica Induces Cell Death of HT29 Colonic Epithelial Cells via NOX1-Derived ROS

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil

    2013-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. PMID:23467460

  11. Autonomous assembly of epithelial structures by subrenal implantation of dissociated embryonic inner-ear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Kaiqing; Zhu, Helen He; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2015-05-27

    Microenvironment and cell-cell interactions play an important role during embryogenesis and are required for the stemness and differentiation of stem cells. The inner-ear sensory epithelium, containing hair cells and supporting cells, is derived from the stem cells within the otic vesicle at early embryonic stages. However, whether or not such microenvironment or cell-cell interactions within the embryonic otic tissue have the capacity to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells and to autonomously reassemble the cells into epithelial structures is unknown. Here, we report that on enzymatic digestion and dissociation to harvest all the single cells from 13.5-day-old rat embryonic (E13.5) inner-ear tissue as well as on implantation of these cells under renal capsules; the dissociated cells are able to reassemble themselves to form epithelial structures as early as 7 days after implantation. By 25 days after implantation, more mature epithelial structures are formed. Immunostaining with cell-type-specific markers reveals that hair cells and supporting cells are not only formed, but are also well aligned with the hair cells located in the apical layer surrounded by the supporting cells. These findings suggest that microenvironment and cell-cell interactions within the embryonic inner-ear tissue have the autonomous signals to induce the formation of sensory epithelial structures. This method may also provide a useful system to study the potential of stem cells to differentiate into hair cells in vivo. PMID:25919994

  12. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-03-01

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients. PMID:19947928

  13. ?-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host ?-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ?4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host ?-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the ?-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of ?-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, ?-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid ?-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of ?-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P < .001), hyaluronidase-1 (P < .001), NGAL (P = .001), and MMP-8 (P = .005). The exfoliation of glycogen-rich epithelial cells into the vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote ?-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. PMID:25878210

  14. Lactobacillus crispatus L1: high cell density cultivation and exopolysaccharide structure characterization to highlight potentially beneficial effects against vaginal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Vaginal lactic acid bacteria defend the host against pathogens through a combination of competitive exclusion, competition for nutrients, production of antimicrobial substances and through the activation of the immune system. A new human isolate named Lactobacillus crispatus L1 was characterized in this work, and a preliminary evaluation of its probiotic potential is described together with a process to obtain a high productivity of viable biomass. Results In a simulated digestion process 1.8?1010 cells?ml?1 survived the gastric environment with 80% viability, without being affected by small intestine juices. Experiments on six different C sources were performed to analyze growth and organic acids production and, glucose, provided the best performances. A microfiltration strategy was exploited to improve the cellular yield in 2 L-fermentation processes, reaching 27 g?·?l?1 of dry biomass. Moreover, L. crispatus L1 demonstrated a greater stability to high concentrations of lactic acid, compared to other lactobacilli. The specific L. crispatus L1 exopolysaccharide was purified from the fermentation broth and characterized by NMR showing structural features and similarity to exopolysaccharides produced by pathogenic strains. Live L. crispatus L1 cells strongly reduced adhesion of a yeast pathogenic strain, Candida albicans in particular, in adherence assays. Interestingly a higher expression of the human defensin HBD-2 was also observed in vaginal cells treated with the purified exopolysaccharide, indicating a possible correlation with C. albicans growth inhibition. Conclusions The paper describes the evaluation of L. crispatus L1 as potential vaginal probiotic and the fermentation processes to obtain high concentrations of viable cells. PMID:24884965

  15. Preferential Release of 11-cis-retinol from Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Presence of Cellular

    E-print Network

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    Preferential Release of 11-cis-retinol from Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells in the Presence in photoreceptors and in adjacent retinal pigment epithelial cells where all-trans- retinol is isomerized to 11-cis effect by trapping the 11-cis-retinol product. When reti- noid-depleted retinal pigment epithelial

  16. Generation of Alveolar Epithelial Spheroids via Isolated Progenitor Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Shimpei; Ito, Isao; Nagasaki, Tadao; Yamamoto, Yuki; Konishi, Satoshi; Korogi, Yohei; Matsumoto, Hisako; Muro, Shigeo; Hirai, Toyohiro; Funato, Michinori; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Toyoda, Taro; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Osafune, Kenji; Mishima, Michiaki

    2014-01-01

    Summary No methods for isolating induced alveolar epithelial progenitor cells (AEPCs) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been reported. Based on a study of the stepwise induction of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we identified carboxypeptidase M (CPM) as a surface marker of NKX2-1+ “ventralized” anterior foregut endoderm cells (VAFECs) in vitro and in fetal human and murine lungs. Using SFTPC-GFP reporter hPSCs and a 3D coculture system with fetal human lung fibroblasts, we showed that CPM+ cells isolated from VAFECs differentiate into AECs, demonstrating that CPM is a marker of AEPCs. Moreover, 3D coculture differentiation of CPM+ cells formed spheroids with lamellar-body-like structures and an increased expression of surfactant proteins compared with 2D differentiation. Methods to induce and isolate AEPCs using CPM and consequently generate alveolar epithelial spheroids would aid human pulmonary disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:25241738

  17. The influence of age on colonic epithelial cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Roncucci, L; Ponz de Leon, M; Scalmati, A; Malagoli, G; Pratissoli, S; Perini, M; Chahin, N J

    1988-12-01

    Cancer of the large bowel is relatively rare in persons younger than 50 years of age, but its incidence increases sharply in persons older than 60 years of age. We thought that the evaluation of colonic cell proliferation, an accurate biomarker of predisposition to colorectal cancer, might help to elucidate the susceptibility of elderly persons to this common malignancy. Accordingly, 30 persons with normal lower endoscopy results were divided into three age groups (30 to 50,51 to 65, and 66 to 90 years of age; Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Samples of rectal mucosa were taken at endoscopic examination, incubated with [3H]thymidine, and processed with standard autoradiographic techniques. At histologic examination, each intestinal hemicrypt was divided into five equal longitudinal compartments from the fundus (compartment 1) to the surface (compartment 5). The number and the position of labeled cells along the crypt were recorded. The total labeling index (LI) (the ratio of labeled cells to total cells) was significantly higher in Group 3 than in the two other groups. Similarly, the LI per crypt compartment in the most superficial portions of the crypts was consistently higher in persons older than 65 years of age (P less than 0.01 at least), indicating an expansion of the proliferative zone to the most superficial portion of the colonic glands. When the proliferative profiles of the three groups of subjects investigated were compared with those of patients with polyps, an almost complete overlap of values was observed between this population at increased risk for cancer and the subjects in Group 3. We conclude that aging is characterized by an overall increase of epithelial cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa and by an upwards expansion of the proliferative compartment, similar to that observed in a population at risk for cancer of the large bowel. PMID:3179952

  18. TGF?-Smad signalling in postoperative human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Saika, S; Miyamoto, T; Ishida, I; Shirai, K; Ohnishi, Y; Ooshima, A; McAvoy, J W

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To localise Smads3/4 proteins in lens epithelial cells (LECs) of fresh and postoperative human specimens. Smads3/4 are involved in signal transduction between transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) cell surface receptors and gene promoters. Nuclear localisation of Smads indicates achievement of endogenous TGF? signalling in cells. Methods: Three circular sections of the anterior capsule, one lens, and 17 capsules undergoing postoperative healing were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Smads3/4 in paraffin sections of the specimens. The effect of exogenous TGF?2 on Smad3 subcellular localisation was examined in explant cultures of extracted human anterior lens epithelium. Results: The cytoplasm, but not the nuclei, of LECs of uninjured lenses was immunoreactive for Smads3/4. In contrast, nuclear immunoreactivity for Smads3/4 was detected in LECs during capsular healing. Nuclei positive for Smads3/4 were observed in monolayered LECs adjacent to the regenerated lens fibres of Sommerring’s ring. Interestingly, the nuclei of LECs that were somewhat elongated, and appeared to be differentiating into fibre-like cells, were negative for Smads3/4. Fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped lens cells with nuclear immunoreactivity for nuclear Smads3/4 were occasionally observed in the extracellular matrix accumulated in capsular opacification. Exogenous TGF? induced nuclear translocation of Smad3 in LECs of anterior capsule specimens in explant culture. Conclusions: This is consistent with TGF? induced Smad signalling being involved in regulating the behaviour of LECs during wound healing after cataract surgery. PMID:12446380

  19. Filamin acts as a key regulator in epithelial defence against transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Mihoko; Sugimura, Kaoru; Ohoka, Atsuko; Burden, Jemima; Suganuma, Hitomi; Ikegawa, Masaya; Shimada, Takashi; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Shindoh, Masanobu; Ishikawa, Susumu; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Saitoh, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu; Kikuta, Junichi; Maijima, Yumiko; Ishii, Masaru; Tada, Masazumi; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that certain types of transformed cells are extruded from an epithelial monolayer. However, it is not known whether and how neighbouring normal cells play an active role in this process. In this study, we demonstrate that filamin A and vimentin accumulate in normal cells specifically at the interface with Src- or RasV12-transformed cells. Knockdown of filamin A or vimentin in normal cells profoundly suppresses apical extrusion of the neighbouring transformed cells. In addition, we show in zebrafish embryos that filamin plays a positive role in the elimination of the transformed cells. Furthermore, the Rho/Rho kinase pathway regulates filamin accumulation and filamin acts upstream of vimentin in the apical extrusion. This is the first report demonstrating that normal epithelial cells recognize and actively eliminate neighbouring transformed cells and that filamin is a key mediator in the interaction between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:25079702

  20. Normal cell phenotypes of breast epithelial cells provide the foundation of a breast cancer taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Ince, Tan A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The current classification system for breast cancer is based on expression of prognostic and predictive biomarkers. As an alternative, we propose a hypothesis-based ontological breast cancer classification modeled after the taxonomy of species in evolutionary biology. This approach uses normal breast epithelial cell types and differentiation lineages as the gold standard to classify tumors. We show that there are at least eleven previously undefined normal cell types in human breast epithelium and that each breast carcinoma is related to one of these normal cell types. We find that triple negative breast cancers do not have a ‘basal-like’ phenotype. Normal breast epithelial cells conform to four novel hormonal differentiation states and almost all human breast tumors duplicate one of these hormonal differentiation states which have significant survival differences. This ontological classification scheme provides actionable treatment strategies and provides an alternative approach for understanding tumor biology with wide-ranging implications for tumor taxonomy. PMID:25263303

  1. Autotaxin induces lung epithelial cell migration through lysoPLD activity-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; He, Donghong; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Zhong, Mintao; Salgia, Ravi; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Zhao, Yutong

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Lung cell migration is a crucial step for re-epithelialization that in turn is essential for remodeling and repair after lung injury. We hypothesize that secreted autotaxin (ATX), which exhibits lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, stimulates lung epithelial cell migration through lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) generation-dependent and -independent pathways. Release of endogenous ATX protein and activity was detected in lung epithelial cell culture medium. ATX with V5 tag (ATX-V5) overexpressed conditional medium had higher LPA levels compared to control medium and stimulated cell migration through G?i-coupled LPA receptors, cytoskeleton rearrangement, phosphorylation of PKC? and cortactin at the leading edge of migrating cells. Inhibition of PKC? attenuated ATX-V5 overexpressed conditional medium-mediated phosphorylation of cortactin. In addition, a recombinant ATX mutant, lacking lysoPLD activity, or heat-inactived ATX also induced lung epithelial cell migration. Extracelluar ATX bound to LPA receptor and integrin ?4 complex on A549 cell surface. Finally, intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide into mouse airway induced ATX release and LPA production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These results suggested a significant role for ATX in lung epithelial cell migration and remodeling through its ability to induce LPA production-mediated phosphorylation of PKC? and cortactin. In addition we also demonstrated assocation of ATX with epithelial cell surface LPA receptor and integrin ?4. PMID:21696367

  2. Helicobacter pylori Protein JHP0290 Exhibits Proliferative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Raquel; Pathak, Sushil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric epithelial cell proliferation, apoptosis and signaling pathways contributes to the development of infection-associated diseases. Here we report that JHP0290, which is a poorly functionally characterized protein from H. pylori, regulates multiple responses in human gastric epithelial cells. The differential expression and release of JHP0290 homologues was observed among H. pylori strains. JHP0290 existed in monomeric and dimeric forms in H. pylori cell extracts and culture broth. Recombinant purified JHP0290 (rJHP0290) also showed monomeric and dimeric forms, whereas the rJHP0290 C162A mutant exhibited only a monomeric form. The dimeric form of the protein was found to bind more efficiently to gastric epithelial cells than the monomeric form. The exposure of gastric epithelial cells to rJHP0290 induced proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Faster progression into the cell cycle was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, we detected an anti-apoptotic effect of rJHP0290 in gastric epithelial cells when the cells were treated with rJHP0290 in combination with Camptothecin (CPT), which is an inducer of apoptosis. CPT-induced caspase 3 activation was significantly reduced in the presence of rJHP0290. In addition, the activation of ERK MAPK and the transcription factor NF?B was observed in rJHP0290-challenged gastric epithelial cells lines. Our results suggest that JHP0290 may affect H. pylori-induced gastric diseases via the regulation of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic pathways. PMID:25879227

  3. Clear cell variant of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor: Case report with immunohistochemical findings

    PubMed Central

    Turatti, Eveline; Brasil, Juviano; Romañach, Mário-José; de Almeida, Oslei-Paes

    2015-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm, locally aggressive, characterized by sheets and nests of polyhedral epithelial cells exhibiting eosinophilic cytoplasm or less often clear cytoplasm. Additional features include nuclear pleomorphism without mitotic activity, concentric calcifications, and deposits of amyloid. Herein, we present an additional example of clear cell variant of CEOT occurring in a 25-year-old female. Microscopically, the tumor consisted on proliferation of epithelial cells with eosinophilic, clear vacuolated cytoplasm interspersed with focal areas of amyloid deposition. Tumor cells were immunopositive for AE1/AE3, CK14, CK19, ?-catenin, CD138, and p63. Key words:Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, clear cell, histopathology, immunohistochemistry. PMID:25810830

  4. ROCK inhibitor and feeder cells induce the conditional reprogramming of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuefeng; Ory, Virginie; Chapman, Sandra; Yuan, Hang; Albanese, Chris; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Timofeeva, Olga A; Nealon, Caitlin; Dakic, Aleksandra; Simic, Vera; Haddad, Bassem R; Rhim, Johng S; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Riegel, Anna; McBride, Alison; Schlegel, Richard

    2012-02-01

    We demonstrate that a Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632), in combination with fibroblast feeder cells, induces normal and tumor epithelial cells from many tissues to proliferate indefinitely in vitro, without transduction of exogenous viral or cellular genes. Primary prostate and mammary cells, for example, are reprogrammed toward a basaloid, stem-like phenotype and form well-organized prostaspheres and mammospheres in Matrigel. However, in contrast to the selection of rare stem-like cells, the described growth conditions can generate 2 × 10(6) cells in 5 to 6 days from needle biopsies, and can generate cultures from cryopreserved tissue and from fewer than four viable cells. Continued cell proliferation is dependent on both feeder cells and Y-27632, and the conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) retain a normal karyotype and remain nontumorigenic. This technique also efficiently establishes cell cultures from human and rodent tumors. For example, CRCs established from human prostate adenocarcinoma displayed instability of chromosome 13, proliferated abnormally in Matrigel, and formed tumors in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. The ability to rapidly generate many tumor cells from small biopsy specimens and frozen tissue provides significant opportunities for cell-based diagnostics and therapeutics (including chemosensitivity testing) and greatly expands the value of biobanking. In addition, the CRC method allows for the genetic manipulation of epithelial cells ex vivo and their subsequent evaluation in vivo in the same host. PMID:22189618

  5. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  6. Thymic Epithelial Cell Development and Its Dysfunction in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haiying; Zhao, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are the key components in thymic microenvironment for T cells development. TECs, composed of cortical and medullary TECs, are derived from a common bipotent progenitor and undergo a stepwise development controlled by multiple levels of signals to be functionally mature for supporting thymocyte development. Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members including the receptor activator for NF?B (RANK), CD40, and lymphotoxin ? receptor (LT?R) cooperatively control the thymic medullary microenvironment and self-tolerance establishment. In addition, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), Wnt, and Notch signals are essential for establishment of functional thymic microenvironment. Transcription factors Foxn1 and autoimmune regulator (Aire) are powerful modulators of TEC development, differentiation, and self-tolerance. Dysfunction in thymic microenvironment including defects of TEC and thymocyte development would cause physiological disorders such as tumor, infectious diseases, and autoimmune diseases. In the present review, we will summarize our current understanding on TEC development and the underlying molecular signals pathways and the involvement of thymus dysfunction in human diseases. PMID:24672784

  7. Nanoceria have no genotoxic effect on human lens epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierscionek, Barbara K.; Li, Yuebin; Yasseen, Akeel A.; Colhoun, Liza M.; Schachar, Ronald A.; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    There are no treatments for reversing or halting cataract, a disease of the structural proteins in the eye lens, that has associations with other age-related degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of cataract and associated conditions is increasing as the average age of the population rises. Protein folding diseases are difficult to assess in vivo as proteins and their age-related changes are assessed after extraction. Nanotechnology can be used to investigate protein changes in the intact lens as well as for a potential means of drug delivery. Nanoparticles, such as cerium oxide (CeO2) which have antioxidant properties, may even be used as a means of treating cataract directly. Prior to use in treatments, nanoparticle genotoxicity must be tested to assess the extent of any DNA or chromosomal damage. Sister chromatid exchanges were measured and DNA damage investigated using the alkaline COMET assay on cultured human lens epithelial cells, exposed to 5 and 10 µg ml-1 of CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria). Nanoceria at these dosages did not cause any DNA damage or significant increases in the number of sister chromatid exchanges. The absence of genotoxic effects on lens cells suggests that nanoceria, in the doses and exposures tested in this study, are not deleterious to the eye lens and have the potential for use in studying structural alterations, in developing non-surgical cataract treatments and in investigating other protein folding diseases.

  8. Establishment and characterization of immortalized bovine endometrial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hanako; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Bai, Rulan; Yamakoshi, Sachiko; Aoki, Etsunari; Kuse, Mariko; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Bovine primary uterine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) are not ideal for long-term studies, because primary EECs lose hormone responsiveness quickly, and/or they tend to have a short life span. The aims of this study were to establish immortalized bovine EECs and to characterize these cells following long-term cultures. Immortalized bovine EECs were established by transfecting retroviral vectors encoding human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genes. Established bovine immortalized EECs (imEECs) showed the same morphology as primary EECs, and could be grown without any apparent changes for over 60 passages. In addition, imEECs have maintained the features as EECs, exhibiting oxytocin (OT) and interferon tau (IFNT) responsiveness. Therefore, these imEECs, even after numbers of passages, could be used as an in vitro model to investigate cellular and molecular mechanisms, by which the uterine epithelium responds to IFNT stimulation, the event required for the maternal recognition of pregnancy in the bovine species. PMID:24735401

  9. The Dynamics in Epithelial Cell Intercalation in Drosophila Morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Fred; Reichl, Lars; Kong, Deqing; Zhang, Yujun; Eule, Stephan; Metzger, Jakob; Großhans, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Epithelial cell rearrangement is important for many processes in morphogenesis. During germband extension in early gastrulation of Drosophila embryos, exchange of neighbors is achieved by junction remodeling that follows a topological T1 process. Its first step is the constriction of dorsal-ventral junctions and fusion of two 3x vertices into a 4x vertex a process believed to be junction autonomous. We established a high throughput imaging pipeline, by which we recorded, segmented and analysed more than 1000 neighbor exchanges in drosophila embryos. Characterizing the dynamics of junction lengths we find that the constriction of cell contacts follows intriguingly simple quantitative laws. (1) The mean contact length decreases approximately as a square root of time to collapse. (2) The time dependent variance of contact lengths is proportional to the square of the mean. (3) The time dependent probability density of the contact lengths remains close to Gaussian during the entire process. These observations are sufficient to derive a stochastic differential equation for contact length that captures the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of contact collapse. Supported by the German Research Foundation.

  10. KSA Antigen Ep-CAM Mediates Cell–Cell Adhesion of Pancreatic Epithelial Cells: Morphoregulatory Roles in Pancreatic Islet Development

    PubMed Central

    Cirulli, V.; Crisa, L.; Beattie, G.M.; Mally, M.I.; Lopez, A.D.; Fannon, A.; Ptasznik, A.; Inverardi, L.; Ricordi, C.; Deerinck, T.; Ellisman, M.; Reisfeld, R.A.; Hayek, A.

    1998-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are important mediators of cell–cell interactions and regulate cell fate determination by influencing growth, differentiation, and organization within tissues. The human pancarcinoma antigen KSA is a glycoprotein of 40 kD originally identified as a marker of rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Interestingly, most normal epithelia also express this antigen, although at lower levels, suggesting that a dynamic regulation of KSA may occur during cell growth and differentiation. Recently, evidence has been provided that this glycoprotein may function as an epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM). Here, we report that Ep-CAM exhibits the features of a morphoregulatory molecule involved in the development of human pancreatic islets. We demonstrate that Ep-CAM expression is targeted to the lateral domain of epithelial cells of the human fetal pancreas, and that it mediates calcium-independent cell–cell adhesion. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence in fetal pancreata identified the highest levels of Ep-CAM expression in developing islet-like cell clusters budding from the ductal epithelium, a cell compartment thought to comprise endocrine progenitors. A surprisingly reversed pattern was observed in the human adult pancreas, displaying low levels of Ep-CAM in islet cells and high levels in ducts. We further demonstrate that culture conditions promoting epithelial cell growth induce upregulation of Ep-CAM, whereas endocrine differentiation of fetal pancreatic epithelial cells, transplanted in nude mice, is associated with a downregulation of Ep-CAM expression. In addition, a blockade of Ep-CAM function by KS1/4 mAb induced insulin and glucagon gene transcription and translation in fetal pancreatic cell clusters. These results indicate that developmentally regulated expression and function of Ep-CAM play a morphoregulatory role in pancreatic islet ontogeny. PMID:9508783

  11. DDR1 triggers epithelial cell differentiation by promoting cell adhesion through stabilization of E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wu, Chia-Ching; Wang, Yang-Kao; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2011-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) promotes E-cadherin–mediated adhesion. The underlying mechanism and its significance, however, have not been elucidated. Here we show that DDR1 overexpression augmented, whereas dominant negative mutant (DN-DDR1) or knockdown of DDR1 inhibited E-cadherin localized in cell-cell junctions in epithelial cells. DDR1 changed the localization and abundance of E-cadherin, as well as epithelial plasticity, as manifested by enhancement of microvilli formation and alteration of cytoskeletal organization. DDR1 also reduced protein abundance of mesenchymal markers, whereas DN-DDR1 and sh-DDR1 showed opposite effects. These results suggest that expression of DDR1 increases epithelial plasticity. Expression of DDR1 augmented E-cadherin protein levels by decreasing its degradation rate. Photobleaching and photoconversion of E-cadherin conjugated with Eos fluorescence protein demonstrated that DDR1 increased the stability of E-cadherin on the cell membrane, whereas sh-DDR1 decreased it. Pull-down assay and expression of constitutively active or dominant-negative Cdc42 showed that DDR1 stabilized E-cadherin through inactivation of Cdc42. Altogether, our results show that DDR1 promotes cell-cell adhesion and differentiation through stabilization of E-cadherin, which is mediated by Cdc42 inactivation. PMID:21289093

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Human Adult Epithelial Stem Cells from the Periodontal Ligament.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou-Papaefthymiou, M; Papagerakis, P; Papagerakis, S

    2015-11-01

    We report a novel method for the isolation of adult human epithelial stem cells (hEpiSCs) from the epithelial component of the periodontal ligament-the human epithelial cell rests of Malassez (hERM). hEpiSC-rich integrin-?6(+ve) hERM cells derived by fluorometry can be clonally expanded, can grow organoids, and express the markers of pluripotency (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2), polycomb protein RING1B, and the hEpiSC supermarker LGR5. They maintain the growth profile of their originating hERM in vitro. Subcutaneous cotransplantation with mesenchymal stem cells from the dental pulp on poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds in nude mice gave rise to perfect heterotopic ossicles in vivo with ultrastructure of dentin, enamel, cementum, and bone. These remarkable fully mineralized ossicles underscore the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk in tissue regeneration using human progenitor stem cells, which may have already committed to lineage despite maintaining hallmarks of pluripotency. In addition, we report the clonal expansion and isolation of human LGR5(+ve) cells from the hERM in xeno-free culture conditions. The genetic profile of LGR5(+ve) cells includes both markers of pluripotency and genes important for secretory epithelial and dental epithelial cell differentiation, giving us a first insight into periodontal ligament-derived hEpiSCs. PMID:26392003

  13. Three-dimensional Mammary Epithelial Cell Morphogenesis Model for Analysis of TGFß Signaling.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Juliet; Luo, Kunxin

    2016-01-01

    Culturing mammary epithelial cells in laminin-rich extracellular matrices (three dimensional or 3D culture) offers significant advantages over that in the conventional two-dimensional (2D) tissue culture system in that it takes into considetation the impact of extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment on the proliferation, survival, and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. When grown in the 3D culture, untransformed mammary epithelial cells undergo morphogenesis to form a multicellular and polarized acini-like structure that functionally mimics the differentiated alveoli in the pregnancy mammary gland. This process is subjected to regulation by many growth factors and cytokines. The transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß) is a multipotent cytokine that regulates multiple aspects of development and tumorigenesis. In addition to its effects on epithelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, it is also a potent regulator of the cell-matrix interaction. Thus, the 3D culture model may recapitulate the complex in vivo epithelial cell microenvironment and allow us to fully evaluate the role of TGFß signaling in multiple aspects of normal and cancerous cell behavior. In this chapter we provide detailed protocols for growing mammary epithelial cells in the 3D Matrigel for analysis of signaling pathways. PMID:26520121

  14. Changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities using revised Bethesda system

    PubMed Central

    Mufti, Shagufta T.; Altaf, Fadwa J

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In developing countries and worldwide cervical cancer is an important cause of female mortality. Reports describing the frequency and pattern of abnormal Pap smears in Saudi Arabia, using the revised Bethesda system (RBS) are very few. The current study was conducted to explore the changing pattern of epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) detected in Pap smears (PS) in females of the Western region of Saudi Arabia at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah using the RBS. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was designed to review all the PSs from the archives of Cytopathology Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, starting from January 2000 to October 2012 using RBS. Cytological aspects of PSs were reviewed with age distribution. Results: Of the 15805 PS, 84 (0.53%) unsatisfactory smears were excluded. There were 2295 cases (14.52%) with ECA. In the abnormal squamous cell category the distribution of lesions was as follows: Atypical squamous cells of indeterminate significance (ASC-US) were 7.1%; atypical squamous cells, cannot exclude high squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) were 1.08%; low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) including human papillomavirus was 2.2%, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) was 0.8% and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with suspicious invasion was 0.06% smears. The mean age (MA) incidence was 39,43,45,46 and 45 years respectively. Conclusion: The percentage of abnormal PS is increasing (14.52%) over the last decade. This increase is evident by different studies conducted across Saudi Arabia. Under present circumstances the need for mass screening. PMID:25729547

  15. Capacity for epithelial differentiation in synovial sarcoma: analysis of a new human cell line

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T; Yonemura, K; Tsuruta, J; Nishida, K; Kato, T; Takagi, K

    2000-01-01

    Aim—To analyse the capacity for epithelial differentiation in synovial sarcoma using a new human cell line. Methods—A new human cell line, KU-SS-1, was established from a monophasic, spindle cell type of synovial sarcoma by grafting those cells on to severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and then transferring them to in vitro culture systems. The KU-SS-1 cells were characterised by light and electron microscopy, and by immunohistochemical, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic analysis. Results—Primary tumour and cultured cells at passage 20 showed a positive reaction for vimentin, which is a mesenchymal marker. After 40 passages, subcultured cells were injected into SCID mice to induce further tumours. These advanced subcultured cells and the tumour cells that they induced were positive for cytokeratin, an epithelial marker, and exhibited epithelial ultrastructural features such as intermediate junctions. Furthermore, two colour immunofluorescent analysis for proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) and intermediate filaments showed that a large number of PCNA expressing cells were positive for vimentin, and that part of this fraction also expressed cytokeratin. The existence of cells with reactivity for these three markers indicated that, in this cell line, a fraction with high proliferating capacity had both mesenchymal and epithelial markers. In addition, cytogenetically, this cell line expressed the SYT–SSX chimaeric transcript as a result of the t(X;18)(p11;q11) translocation. Conclusions—A human synovial sarcoma cell line was established and stably maintained in cell culture for more than 70 passages. In addition, this cell line showed epithelial differentiation, which supports the hypothesis that synovial sarcoma is a carcinosarcoma like tumour with true epithelial differentiation. This cell line will be a useful tool for investigating the nature of this tumour and will contribute to clinical studies. Key Words: synovial sarcoma • cell line • carcinosarcoma • differentiation PMID:10961176

  16. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ariga, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiromichi; Hamada, Shin; Satoh, Kennichi; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not altered by treatment with anti-TGF-{beta}-neutralizing antibody, excluding a central role of TGF-{beta} in this process. In conclusion, PSCs promoted EMT in pancreatic cancer cells suggesting a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells.

  17. Adult thymus contains FoxN1(-) epithelial stem cells that are bipotent for medullary and cortical thymic epithelial lineages.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Ahmet; Ucar, Olga; Klug, Paula; Matt, Sonja; Brunk, Fabian; Hofmann, Thomas G; Kyewski, Bruno

    2014-08-21

    Within the thymus, two major thymic epithelial cell (TEC) subsets-cortical and medullary TECs-provide unique structural and functional niches for T cell development and establishment of central tolerance. Both lineages are believed to originate from a common progenitor cell, yet the cellular and molecular identity of these bipotent TEC progenitors/stem cells remains ill defined. Here we identify rare stromal cells in the murine adult thymus, which under low-attachment conditions formed spheres (termed "thymospheres"). These thymosphere-forming cells (TSFCs) displayed the stemness features of being slow cycling, self-renewing, and bipotent. TSFCs could be significantly enriched based on their distinct surface antigen phenotype. The FoxN1 transcription factor was dispensable for TSFCs maintenance in situ and for commitment to the medullary and cortical TEC lineages. In summary, this study presents the characterization of the adult thymic epithelial stem cells and demonstrates the dispensability of FoxN1 function for their stemness. PMID:25148026

  18. Self-Organizing Actomyosin Patterns on the Cell Cortex at Epithelial Cell-Cell Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas; Wu, Selwin K.; Michael, Magdalene; Yap, Alpha S.; Gomez, Guillermo A.; Neufeld, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of actomyosin critically determines morphologically distinct patterns of contractility found at the interface between adherent cells. One such pattern is found at the apical region (zonula adherens) of cell-cell junctions in epithelia, where clusters of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin concentrate in a static pattern. Meanwhile, E-cadherin clusters throughout lateral cell-cell contacts display dynamic movements in the plane of the junctions. To gain insight into the principles that determine the nature and organization of these dynamic structures, we analyze this behavior by modeling the 2D actomyosin cell cortex as an active fluid medium. The numerical simulations show that the stability of the actin filaments influences the spatial structure and dynamics of the system. We find that in addition to static Turing-type patterns, persistent dynamic behavior occurs in a wide range of parameters. In the 2D model, mechanical stress-dependent actin breakdown is shown to produce a continuously changing network of actin bridges, whereas with a constant breakdown rate, more isolated clusters of actomyosin tend to form. The model qualitatively reproduces the dynamic and stable patterns experimentally observed at the junctions between epithelial cells. PMID:25468344

  19. Reconstitution of cultured intestinal epithelial monolayers with a mucosal-derived T lymphocyte cell line. Modulation of epithelial phenotype dependent on lymphocyte-basolateral membrane apposition.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzani, P; Colgan, S P; Cepek, K L; Burkard, P G; Carlson, S; Delp-Archer, C; Brenner, M B; Madara, J L

    1994-08-01

    In vivo, epithelial cells which line the intestine are intimately associated with lymphocytes, termed intraepithelial lymphocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that intraepithelial lymphocytes are present in the uninflamed mucosa, and become especially prominent in various human enteropathies including coeliac disease, tropical sprue, dermatitis herpetiformis, and giardiasis. Using the intestinal crypt cell line T84, and a previously well-defined human mucosa-derived lymphocyte (MDL) line with phenotypic features similar to (but not specific for) intraepithelial lymphocytes, we describe a co-culture model to study the functional sequellae of MDL-T84 cell interactions in vitro. A co-culture method was defined which permitted reconstitution of the paracellular spaces of physiologically confluent epithelial monolayers with MDL. Such co-cultures thus mimicked the correct geometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes-epithelial cell interactions. The presence of physiologically positioned MDL brought about specific and dramatic effects on intestinal epithelial monolayer function. In a dose-dependent fashion, the presence of MDL significantly attenuated barrier function (expressed as a decrease in monolayer resistance), decreased epithelial electrogenic Cl- secretion, and modulated epithelial-neutrophil interactions. Such effects were not reproduced in monolayers similarly reconstituted with inert polystyrene beads equivalent in size to MDL. These MDL-elicited effects on epithelial function specifically required direct MDL apposition to the epithelial basolateral membrane. Furthermore, this specific form of MDL-epithelial basolateral contact released soluble factors which were able to confer the MDL-reconstituted phenotype on virgin epithelial monolayers in the absence of MDL. We have previously shown that many aspects of the MDL converted epithelial phenotype described here can be induced by IFN-gamma. While IFN-gamma, a cytokine produced by many lymphocytes including intraepithelial lymphocytes, was detectable in conditioned supernatants from co-cultures, it existed at concentrations insufficient to fully explain the physiologic effects observed here. PMID:8040334

  20. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  1. Branching morphogenesis of immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Kaisani, Aadil; Delgado, Oliver; Fasciani, Gail; Kim, Sang Bum; Wright, Woodring E; Minna, John D; Shay, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    While mouse models have contributed in our understanding of lung development, repair and regeneration, inherent differences between the murine and human airways requires the development of new models using human airway epithelial cells. In this study, we describe a three-dimensional model system using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) cultured on reconstituted basement membrane. HBECs form complex budding and branching structures on reconstituted basement membrane when co-cultured with human lung fetal fibroblasts. These structures are reminiscent of the branching epithelia during lung development. The HBECs also retain markers indicative of epithelial cell types from both the central and distal airways suggesting their multipotent potential. In addition, we illustrate how the model can be utilized to understand respiratory diseases such as lung cancer. The 3D novel cell culture system recapitulates stromal-epithelial interactions in vitro that can be utilized to understand important aspects of lung development and diseases. PMID:24830354

  2. Gap junction intercellular communication: a microinjection investigation of fibroblast and epithelial cell lines 

    E-print Network

    Pahlka, Raymond Benton

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this research were threefold. The first objective was to develop a protocol for unbiased microinjection of the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow to normal fibroblast and epithelial cell lines. I determined the optimal equipment...

  3. Human corneal stromal stem cells support limbal epithelial cells cultured on RAFT tissue equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Kureshi, Alvena K; Dziasko, Marc; Funderburgh, James L; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    Human limbal epithelial cells (HLE) and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) reside in close proximity in vivo in the corneal limbal stem cell niche. However, HLE are typically cultured in vitro without supporting niche cells. Here, we re-create the cell-cell juxtaposition of the native environment in vitro, to provide a tool for investigation of epithelial-stromal cell interactions and to optimize HLE culture conditions for potential therapeutic application. RAFT (Real Architecture For 3D Tissue) tissue equivalents (TEs) were used as a 3-dimensional substrate for co-culturing HLE and CSSC. Our results demonstrate that a monolayer of HLE that maintained expression of p63?, ABCB5, CK8 and CK15 (HLE markers), formed on the surface of RAFT TEs within 13 days of culture. CSSC remained in close proximity to HLE and maintained expression of mesenchymal stem cell markers. This simple technique has a short preparation time of only 15 days with the onset of HLE layering and differentiation observed. Furthermore, co-cultivation of HLE with another niche cell type (CSSC) directly on RAFT TEs, eliminates the requirement for animal-derived feeder cells. RAFT TEs may be useful for future therapeutic delivery of multiple cell types to restore the limbal niche following ocular surface injury or disease. PMID:26531048

  4. Hydrogen Peroxide Contributes to the Epithelial Cell Death Induced by the Oral Mitis Group of Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Sakurai, Atsuo; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2014-01-01

    Members of the mitis group of streptococci are normal inhabitants of the commensal flora of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract of humans. Some mitis group species, such as Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus sanguinis, are primary colonizers of the human oral cavity. Recently, we found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by S. oralis is cytotoxic to human macrophages, suggesting that streptococcus-derived H2O2 may act as a cytotoxin. Since epithelial cells provide a physical barrier against pathogenic microbes, we investigated their susceptibility to infection by H2O2-producing streptococci in this study. Infection by S. oralis and S. sanguinis was found to stimulate cell death of Detroit 562, Calu-3 and HeLa epithelial cell lines at a multiplicity of infection greater than 100. Catalase, an enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of H2O2, inhibited S. oralis cytotoxicity, and H2O2 alone was capable of eliciting epithelial cell death. Moreover, S. oralis mutants lacking the spxB gene encoding pyruvate oxidase, which are deficient in H2O2 production, exhibited reduced cytotoxicity toward Detroit 562 epithelial cells. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that both S. oralis and H2O2 induced interleukin-6 production in Detroit 562 epithelial cells. These results suggest that streptococcal H2O2 is cytotoxic to epithelial cells, and promotes bacterial evasion of the host defense systems in the oral cavity and upper respiratory tracts. PMID:24498253

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) before birth affect a woman’s risk of vaginal cancer. Anything that increases your risk ... another part of the body, it is called metastasis . Cancer cells break away from where they began ( ...

  6. In vivo imaging of the retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jessica Ijams Wolfing

    The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells form an important layer of the retina because they are responsible for providing metabolic support to the photoreceptors. Techniques to image the RPE layer include autofluorescence imaging with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). However, previous studies were unable to resolve single RPE cells in vivo. This thesis describes the technique of combining autofluorescence, SLO, adaptive optics (AO), and dual-wavelength simultaneous imaging and registration to visualize the individual cells in the RPE mosaic in human and primate retina for the first time in vivo. After imaging the RPE mosaic non-invasively, the cell layer's structure and regularity were characterized using quantitative metrics of cell density, spacing, and nearest neighbor distances. The RPE mosaic was compared to the cone mosaic, and RPE imaging methods were confirmed using histology. The ability to image the RPE mosaic led to the discovery of a novel retinal change following light exposure; 568 nm exposures caused an immediate reduction in autofluorescence followed by either full recovery or permanent damage in the RPE layer. A safety study was conducted to determine the range of exposure irradiances that caused permanent damage or transient autofluorescence reductions. Additionally, the threshold exposure causing autofluorescence reduction was determined and reciprocity of radiant exposure was confirmed. Light exposures delivered by the AOSLO were not significantly different than those delivered by a uniform source. As all exposures tested were near or below the permissible light levels of safety standards, this thesis provides evidence that the current light safety standards need to be revised. Finally, with the retinal damage and autofluorescence reduction thresholds identified, the methods of RPE imaging were modified to allow successful imaging of the individual cells in the RPE mosaic while still ensuring retinal safety. This thesis has provided a highly sensitive method for studying the in vivo morphology of individual RPE cells in normal, diseased, and damaged retinas. The methods presented here also will allow longitudinal studies for tracking disease progression and assessing treatment efficacy in human patients and animal models of retinal diseases affecting the RPE.

  7. Microenvironmental reprogramming of thymic epithelial cells to skin multipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Paola; Claudinot, Stéphanie; Amici, Alessandro W; Farley, Alison; Blackburn, C Clare; Barrandon, Yann

    2010-08-19

    The thymus develops from the third pharyngeal pouch of the anterior gut and provides the necessary environment for thymopoiesis (the process by which thymocytes differentiate into mature T lymphocytes) and the establishment and maintenance of self-tolerance. It contains thymic epithelial cells (TECs) that form a complex three-dimensional network organized in cortical and medullary compartments, the organization of which is notably different from simple or stratified epithelia. TECs have an essential role in the generation of self-tolerant thymocytes through expression of the autoimmune regulator Aire, but the mechanisms involved in the specification and maintenance of TECs remain unclear. Despite the different embryological origins of thymus and skin (endodermal and ectodermal, respectively), some cells of the thymic medulla express stratified-epithelium markers, interpreted as promiscuous gene expression. Here we show that the thymus of the rat contains a population of clonogenic TECs that can be extensively cultured while conserving the capacity to integrate in a thymic epithelial network and to express major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules and Aire. These cells can irreversibly adopt the fate of hair follicle multipotent stem cells when exposed to an inductive skin microenvironment; this change in fate is correlated with robust changes in gene expression. Hence, microenvironmental cues are sufficient here to re-direct epithelial cell fate, allowing crossing of primitive germ layer boundaries and an increase in potency. PMID:20725041

  8. Characterization of cultured epithelial cells using a novel technique not requiring enzymatic digestion for subculturing.

    PubMed

    Peramo, Antonio; Feinberg, Stephen E; Marcelo, Cynthia L

    2013-09-01

    Our laboratory had developed a methodology to expand epithelial cells in culture by growing keratinocyte monolayers, under large volumes of medium that produces large numbers of keratinocytes that leave the monolayer and move into suspension. The cells have been defined as epithelial Pop Up Keratinocytes or ePUKs cells and appear to be highly suitable for clinical applications. In this publication we extend the characterization of the cells with a detailed analysis of the capabilities of the monolayer of a single culture flask to produce, over time, ePUK cells. The cells were characterized using standard epithelial markers for proliferation and differentiation. Analysis of morphology of the monolayer formed and total number of cells produced is presented for a variety of human epithelial cell strains. These keratinocytes provide an additional controlled human cell system for investigation of the mechanisms regulating epithelia cell growth and differentiation and since they are produced in large numbers, they are highly suitable for use in epithelial cell banking. PMID:23149549

  9. Alterations in Helicobacter pylori Triggered by Contact with Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Cover, Timothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori lives within the mucus layer of the human stomach, in close proximity to gastric epithelial cells. While a great deal is known about the effects of H. pylori on human cells and the specific bacterial products that mediate these effects, relatively little work has been done to investigate alterations in H. pylori that may be triggered by bacterial contact with human cells. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of changes in bacterial physiology and morphology that occur when H. pylori is in contact with gastric epithelial cells. Several studies have reported that cell contact causes alterations in H. pylori gene transcription. In addition, H. pylori contact with gastric epithelial cells promotes the formation of pilus-like structures at the bacteria–host cell interface. The formation of these structures requires multiple genes in the cag pathogenicity island, and these structures are proposed to have an important role in the type IV secretion system-dependent process through which CagA enters host cells. Finally, H. pylori contact with epithelial cells can promote bacterial replication and the formation of microcolonies, phenomena that are facilitated by the acquisition of iron and other nutrients from infected cells. In summary, the gastric epithelial cell surface represents an important niche for H. pylori, and upon entry into this niche, the bacteria alter their behavior in a manner that optimizes bacterial proliferation and persistent colonization of the host. PMID:22919609

  10. Lumican induces human corneal epithelial cell migration and integrin expression via ERK 1/2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Seomun, Young; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2008-07-18

    Lumican is a major proteoglycans of the human cornea. Lumican knock-out mice have been shown to lose corneal transparency and to display delayed wound healing. The purpose of this study was to define the role of lumican in corneal epithelial cell migration. Over-expression of lumican in human corneal epithelial (HCE-T) cells increased both cell migration and proliferation, and increased levels of integrins {alpha}2 and {beta}1. ERK 1/2 was also activated in lumican over-expressed cells. When we treated HCE-T cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor U0126, cell migration and the expression of integrin {beta}1 were completely blocked. These data provide evidence that lumican stimulates cell migration in the corneal epithelium by activating ERK 1/2, and point to a novel signaling pathway implicated in corneal epithelial cell migration.

  11. Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nawandar, Dhananjay M.; Wang, Anqi; Makielski, Kathleen; Lee, Denis; Ma, Shidong; Barlow, Elizabeth; Reusch, Jessica; Jiang, Ru; Wille, Coral K.; Greenspan, Deborah; Greenspan, John S.; Mertz, Janet E.; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey; Johannsen, Eric C.; Lambert, Paul F.; Kenney, Shannon C.

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1) promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs) cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells. PMID:26431332

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in glomerular epithelial cell injury.

    PubMed

    Cybulsky, Andrey V; Takano, Tomoko; Papillon, Joan; Kitzler, Thomas M; Bijian, Krikor

    2011-09-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) may be associated with glomerular epithelial cell (GEC; podocyte) apoptosis due to acquired injury or mutations in specific podocyte proteins. This study addresses mediation of GEC injury, focusing on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We studied signaling in cultured GECs in the presence or absence of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Adhesion to collagen supports cell survival, but adhesion to plastic (loss of contact with ECM) leads to apoptosis. Compared with collagen-adherent cells, GECs on plastic showed increased protein misfolding in the ER, and an adaptive-protective ER stress response, including increased expression of ER chaperones, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF2?), and a reduction in protein synthesis. Activation of these ER stress pathways counteracted apoptosis. However, tunicamycin (a potent stimulator of ER stress) changed the ER stress response from protective to cytotoxic, as tunicamycin induced the proapoptotic ER stress gene, C/EBP homologous protein-10, and exacerbated apoptosis in GECs adherent to plastic, but not collagen. In GECs adherent to plastic, adaptive ER stress was associated with an increase in polyubiquitinated proteins and "choking" of the proteasome. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome induced ER stress in GECs. Finally, we show that ER stress (induction of ER chaperones and eIF2? phosphorylation) was evident in experimental FSGS in vivo. Thus interactions of GECs with ECM may regulate protein folding and induction of the ER stress response. FSGS is associated with induction of ER stress. Enhancing protective aspects of the ER stress response may reduce apoptosis and possibly glomerulosclerosis. PMID:21159733

  13. Multipotent epithelial cells in the process of regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kazuo; Sugino, Yasuo; Sunanaga, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    The cellular and molecular features of multipotent epithelial cells during regeneration and asexual reproduction in colonial tunicates are described in the present study. The epicardium has been regarded as the endodermal tissue-forming epithelium in the order Enterogona, because only body fragments having the epicardium exhibit the regenerative potential. Epicardial cells in Polycitor proliferus have two peculiar features; they always accompany coelomic undifferentiated cells, and they contain various kinds of organelles in the cytoplasm. During strobilation a large amount of organelles are discarded in the lumen, and then, each tissue-forming cell takes an undifferentiated configuration. Septum cells in the stolon are also multipotent in Enterogona. Free cells with a similar configuration to the septum inhabit the hemocoel. They may provide a pool for epithelial septum cells. At the distal tip of the stolon, septum cells are columnar in shape and apparently undifferentiated. They are the precursor of the stolonial bud. In Pleurogona, the atrial epithelium of endodermal origin is multipotent. In Polyandrocarpa misakiensis, it consists of pigmented squamous cells. The cells have ultrastructurally fine granules in the cytoplasm. During budding, coelomic cells with similar morphology become associated with the atrial epithelium. Then, cells of organ placodes undergo dedifferentiation, enter a cell division cycle, and commence morphogenesis. Retinoic acid-related molecules are involved in this dedifferentiation process of multipotent cells. We conclude that in colonial tunicates two systems support the flexibility of tissue remodeling during regeneration and asexual reproduction; dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and epithelial transformation of coelomic free cells. PMID:17986261

  14. GM-CSF produced by nonhematopoietic cells is required for early epithelial cell proliferation and repair of injured colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Egea, Laia; McAllister, Christopher S; Lakhdari, Omar; Minev, Ivelina; Shenouda, Steve; Kagnoff, Martin F

    2013-02-15

    GM-CSF is a growth factor that promotes the survival and activation of macrophages and granulocytes, as well as dendritic cell differentiation and survival in vitro. The mechanism by which exogenous GM-CSF ameliorates the severity of Crohn's disease in humans and colitis in murine models has mainly been considered to reflect its activity on myeloid cells. We used GM-CSF-deficient (GM-CSF(-/-)) mice to probe the functional role of endogenous host-produced GM-CSF in a colitis model induced after injury to the colon epithelium. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), at doses that resulted in little epithelial damage and mucosal ulceration in wild type mice, caused marked colon ulceration and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice. Colon crypt epithelial cell proliferation in vivo was significantly decreased in GM-CSF(-/-) mice at early times after DSS injury. This was paralleled by decreased expression of crypt epithelial cell genes involved in cell cycle, proliferation, and wound healing. Decreased crypt cell proliferation and delayed ulcer healing in GM-CSF(-/-) mice were rescued by exogenous GM-CSF, indicating the lack of a developmental abnormality in the epithelial cell proliferative response in those mice. Nonhematopoietic cells, and not myeloid cells, produced the GM-CSF important for colon epithelial proliferation after DSS-induced injury, as revealed by bone marrow chimera and dendritic cell-depletion experiments, with colon epithelial cells being the cellular source of GM-CSF. Endogenous epithelial cell-produced GM-CSF has a novel nonredundant role in facilitating epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer healing in response to injury of the colon crypt epithelium. PMID:23325885

  15. Estrogen inhibits cell cycle progression and retinoblastoma phosphorylation in rhesus ovarian surface epithelial cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jay W.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-10-31

    Estrogen promotes the growth of some ovarian cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations, but has been shown to inhibit growth of normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells at micromolar concentrations (1?g/ml). OSE cells express the estrogen receptor (ER)-?, and are the source of 90% of various cancers. The potential sensitivity of OSE cells to estrogen stresses the importance of understanding the estrogen-dependent mechanisms at play in OSE proliferation and transformation, as well as in anticancer treatment. We investigated the effects of estradiol on cell proliferation in vitro, and demonstrate an intracellular locus of action of estradiol in cultured rhesus ovarian surface epithelial (RhOSE) cells. We show that ovarian and breast cells are growth-inhibited by micromolar concentration of estradiol and that this inhibition correlates with estrogen receptor expression. We further show that normal rhesus OSE cells do not activate ERK or Akt in response to estradiol nor does estradiol block the ability of serum to stimulate ERK or induce cyclin D expression. Contrarily, estradiol inhibits serum-dependent retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation and blocks DNA synthesis. This inhibition does not formally arrest cells and is reversible within hours of estrogen withdrawal. Our data are consistent with growth inhibition by activation of Rb and indicate that sensitivity to hormone therapy in anticancer treatment can be modulated by cell cycle regulators downstream of the estrogen receptor.

  16. TLR response pathways in NuLi-1 cells and primary human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cooksley, Clare; Roscioli, Eugene; Wormald, Peter John; Vreugde, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The present study describes and compares functional properties of Nuli-1 cells and primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC) including TLR expression and function. Differences in gene expression were identified for non-TLR genes that play a role in TLR response pathways. However, experiments comparing TLR gene expression for both Nuli-1 cells and HNECs indicated conserved expression in both cell types. Stimulation of the two cell types resulted in a conserved response to TLR3 agonists, but in differences in response to agonists for TLR5 and TLR6/2. HNECs were much more susceptible to infection with Staphylococcus aureus than NuLi-1 cells. Furthermore, when cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI), NuLi-1 cells possessed much lower trans-epithelial resistance than primary HNEC and did not exhibit maintenance of cell morphology or mucous production which was observed in HNECs. Nor did they produce the characteristic interconnecting pattern of tight junction complexes at the apicolateral margin of adjacent cells. Caution should therefore be exercised when selecting cell lines for immunological studies and a thorough screen of properties relevant to the study should always be carried out prior to commencement. PMID:26463158

  17. Polarizing intestinal epithelial cells electrically through Ror2

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lin; McCaig, Colin D.; Scott, Roderick H.; Zhao, Siwei; Milne, Gillian; Clevers, Hans; Zhao, Min; Pu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The apicobasal polarity of enterocytes determines where the brush border membrane (apical membrane) will form, but how this apical membrane faces the lumen is not well understood. The electrical signal across the epithelium could serve as a coordinating cue, orienting and polarizing enterocytes. Here, we show that applying a physiological electric field to intestinal epithelial cells, to mimic the natural electric field created by the transepithelial potential difference, polarized phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein ezrin, increased expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALPI, a differentiation marker) and remodeled the actin cytoskeleton selectively on the cathode side. In addition, an applied electric field also activated ERK1/2 and LKB1 (also known as STK11), key molecules in apical membrane formation. Disruption of the tyrosine protein kinase transmembrane receptor Ror2 suppressed activation of ERK1/2 and LKB1 significantly, and subsequently inhibited apical membrane formation in enterocytes. Our findings indicate that the endogenous electric field created by the transepithelial potential difference might act as an essential coordinating signal for apical membrane formation at a tissue level, through activation of LKB1 mediated by Ror2–ERK signaling. PMID:24928904

  18. Loss of ?-cytoplasmic actin triggers myofibroblast transition of human epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lechuga, Susana; Baranwal, Somesh; Li, Chao; Naydenov, Nayden G.; Kuemmerle, John F.; Dugina, Vera; Chaponnier, Christine; Ivanov, Andrei I.

    2014-01-01

    Transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells and myofibroblasts plays an important role in tumor progression and tissue fibrosis. Such epithelial plasticity is accompanied by dramatic reorganizations of the actin cytoskeleton, although mechanisms underlying cytoskeletal effects on epithelial transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. In the present study, we observed that selective siRNA-mediated knockdown of ?-cytoplasmic actin (?-CYA), but not ?-cytoplasmic actin, induced epithelial-to-myofibroblast transition (EMyT) of different epithelial cells. The EMyT manifested by increased expression of ?-smooth muscle actin and other contractile proteins, along with inhibition of genes responsible for cell proliferation. Induction of EMyT in ?-CYA–depleted cells depended on activation of serum response factor and its cofactors, myocardial-related transcriptional factors A and B. Loss of ?-CYA stimulated formin-mediated actin polymerization and activation of Rho GTPase, which appear to be essential for EMyT induction. Our findings demonstrate a previously unanticipated, unique role of ?-CYA in regulating epithelial phenotype and suppression of EMyT that may be essential for cell differentiation and tissue fibrosis. PMID:25143399

  19. Mammary epithelial cell: Influence of extracellular matrix composition and organization during development and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Laura; Erler, Janine T.; Dembo, Micah; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2009-01-01

    Stromal–epithelial interactions regulate mammary gland development and are critical for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. The extracellular matrix, which is a proteinaceous component of the stroma, regulates mammary epithelial growth, survival, migration and differentiation through a repertoire of transmembrane receptors, of which integrins are the best characterized. Integrins modulate cell fate by reciprocally transducing biochemical and biophysical cues between the cell and the extracellular matrix, facilitating processes such as embryonic branching morphogenesis and lactation in the mammary gland. During breast development and cancer progression, the extracellular matrix is dynamically altered such that its composition, turnover, processing and orientation change dramatically. These modifications influence mammary epithelial cell shape, and modulate growth factor and hormonal responses to regulate processes including branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation. Malignant transformation of the breast is also associated with significant matrix remodeling and a progressive stiffening of the stroma that can enhance mammary epithelial cell growth, perturb breast tissue organization, and promote cell invasion and survival. In this review, we discuss the role of stromal–epithelial interactions in normal and malignant mammary epithelial cell behavior. We specifically focus on how dynamic modulation of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix elicit a dialogue with the mammary epithelium through transmembrane integrin receptors to influence tissue morphogenesis, homeostasis and malignant transformation. PMID:17719831

  20. Development and characterization of a solid dispersion film for the vaginal application of the anti-HIV microbicide UAMC01398.

    PubMed

    Grammen, Carolien; Van den Mooter, Guy; Appeltans, Bernard; Michiels, Johan; Crucitti, Tania; Ariën, Kevin K; Augustyns, Koen; Augustijns, Patrick; Brouwers, Joachim

    2014-11-20

    The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a vaginal film delivery system for UAMC01398, a novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently under investigation for use as an anti-HIV microbicide. UAMC01398 (1mg) films consisting of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) in different ratios were prepared by solvent evaporation. Based on its flexibility, softness and translucent appearance, the 30% PEG400 and 70% HPMC containing film was selected for further assessment. The vaginal film formulation was fast-dissolving (<10 min in 1 mL of vaginal fluid simulant), stable up to at least one month and safe toward epithelial cells and lactobacilli. Furthermore, formulating UAMC01398 into the film dosage form did not influence its antiviral activity. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed the amorphous nature of the UAMC01398 film, resulting in enhanced compound permeation across the epithelial HEC-1A cell layer, presumably owing to the induction of supersaturation. The in vivo vaginal tissue uptake of UAMC01398 in rabbits, as measured by systemic concentrations, was increased compared to the previously established non-solubilizing gel (significant difference) and sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (5%) containing gel. To conclude, we identified a film formulation suitable for the vaginal delivery of UAMC01398. PMID:25175729

  1. Immunohistochemical characterisation of epithelial cells of rodent harderian glands in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    DJERIDANE, YASMINA; SIMONNEAUX, VALERIE; KLOSEN, PAUL; VIVIEN-ROELS, BERTHE; PEVET, PAUL

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the current investigation were (1) to establish an efficient procedure for the isolation of rodent harderian gland cells and to define conditions for maintenance of viable differentiated cells; (2) to compare the in vitro growth pattern of cultured epithelial cells; and (3) to characterise the cultured epithelial cells from 3 rodent species: Wistar rats, Syrian hamsters and Djungarian hamsters. We have established primary culture conditions that permit the maintenance of viable and differentiated secretory cells from adult rodent harderian gland. This study demonstrates that the cell growth pattern is faster in hamsters than in rats and despite morphological changes, epithelial cells reestablish their distinctive (biochemical/metabolic) phenotype as indicated by lipid-containing vacuoles, porphyrin pigment and serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase labelling. PMID:10634691

  2. Advanced Imaging and Tissue Engineering of the Human Limbal Epithelial Stem Cell Niche

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Isobel; Dziasko, Marc; Kureshi, Alvena; Levis, Hannah J.; Morgan, Louise; Neale, Michael; Sheth, Radhika; Tovell, Victoria E.; Vernon, Amanda J.; Funderburgh, James L.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    The limbal epithelial stem cell niche provides a unique, physically protective environment in which limbal epithelial stem cells reside in close proximity with accessory cell types and their secreted factors. The use of advanced imaging techniques is described to visualize the niche in three dimensions in native human corneal tissue. In addition, a protocol is provided for the isolation and culture of three different cell types, including human limbal epithelial stem cells from the limbal niche of human donor tissue. Finally, the process of incorporating these cells within plastic compressed collagen constructs to form a tissue-engineered corneal limbus is described and how immunohistochemical techniques may be applied to characterize cell phenotype therein. PMID:25388395

  3. Cannabinoid-Induced Chemotaxis in Bovine Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Murataeva, Natalia; Li, Shimin; Oehler, Olivia; Miller, Sally; Dhopeshwarkar, Amey; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Bonanno, Joseph A.; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken; McHugh, Douglas; Straiker, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Cannabinoid CB1 receptors are found in abundance in the vertebrate eye, with most tissue types expressing this receptor. However, the function of CB1 receptors in corneal epithelial cells (CECs) is poorly understood. Interestingly, the corneas of CB1 knockout mice heal more slowly after injury via a mechanism proposed to involve protein kinase B (Akt) activation, chemokinesis, and cell proliferation. The current study examined the role of cannabinoids in CEC migration in greater detail. Methods. We determined the role of CB1 receptors in corneal healing. We examined the consequences of their activation on migration and proliferation in bovine CECs (bCECs). We additionally examined the mRNA profile of cannabinoid-related genes and CB1 protein expression as well as CB1 signaling in bovine CECs. Results. We now report that activation of CB1 with physiologically relevant concentrations of the synthetic agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN) induces bCEC migration via chemotaxis, an effect fully blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716. The endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) also enhances migration. Separately, mRNA for most cannabinoid-related proteins are present in bovine corneal epithelium and cultured bCECs. Notably absent are CB2 receptors and the 2-AG synthesizing enzyme diglycerol lipase-? (DAGL?). The signaling profile of CB1 activation is complex, with inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Lastly, CB1 activation does not induce bCEC proliferation, but may instead antagonize EGF-induced proliferation. Conclusions. In summary, we find that CB1-based signaling machinery is present in bovine cornea and that activation of this system induces chemotaxis. PMID:26024113

  4. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  5. Vaginal histological changes after using intravaginal sponges for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Manes, J; Campero, C; Hozbor, F; Alberio, R; Ungerfeld, R

    2015-04-01

    To characterize the histological and cytological vaginal changes generated by the use of intravaginal sponge (IS) applied in oestrous synchronization treatments in ewes during mid-non-breeding season. Thirty-five multiparous ewes were allocated to three experimental groups according to the moment in which the samples were taken: (i) ewes treated with IS containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days, sampled the day of IS removal (group ISR; n = 10), (ii) or after sponge removal at time of oestrus or 72 h after removal (group AR; n = 14) and (iii) ewes without sponge treatment that were sampled at the day of IS removal of the other groups (group CG; n = 11). Vaginal biopsies and cytological samples were taken from the anterior vaginal fornix area. The vagina of the CG group had a stratified squamous epithelium with a moderate degree of cellular infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propia. Treated ewes (ISR and AR) had epithelial hyperplasia and hypertrophy. ISR ewes had haemorrhage and perivascular infiltrate and an increased number of epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages and erythrocytes at IS removal. The use of IS generated histological and cytological alterations in the vaginal wall when used for oestrous synchronization in anoestrous ewes. PMID:25604995

  6. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  7. Gene expression correlations in human cancer cell lines define molecular interaction networks for epithelial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Kurt W; Zeeberg, Barry M; Reinhold, William C; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute's CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:24940735

  8. Gene Expression Correlations in Human Cancer Cell Lines Define Molecular Interaction Networks for Epithelial Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Kurt W.; Zeeberg, Barry M.; Reinhold, William C.; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute’s CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:24940735

  9. Comparison of methods for the isolation of human breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zubeldia-Plazaola, Arantzazu; Ametller, Elisabet; Mancino, Mario; Prats de Puig, Miquel; López-Plana, Anna; Guzman, Flavia; Vinyals, Laia; Pastor-Arroyo, Eva M.; Almendro, Vanessa; Fuster, Gemma; Gascón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Two lineages, epithelial, and myoepithelial cells are the main cell populations in the normal mammary gland and in breast cancer. Traditionally, cancer research has been performed using commercial cell lines, but primary cell cultures obtained from fresh breast tissue are a powerful tool to study more reliably new aspects of mammary gland biology, including normal and pathological conditions. Nevertheless, the methods described to date have some technical problems in terms of cell viability and yield, which hamper work with primary mammary cells. Therefore, there is a need to optimize technology for the proper isolation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells. For this reason, we compared four methods in an effort to improve the isolation and primary cell culture of different cell populations of human mammary epithelium. The samples were obtained from healthy tissue of patients who had undergone mammoplasty or mastectomy surgery. We based our approaches on previously described methods, and incorporated additional steps to ameliorate technical efficiency and increase cell survival. We determined cell growth and viability by phase-contrast images, growth curve analysis and cell yield, and identified cell-lineage specific markers by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence in 3D cell cultures. These techniques allowed us to better evaluate the functional capabilities of these two main mammary lineages, using CD227/K19 (epithelial cells) and CD10/K14 (myoepithelial cells) antigens. Our results show that slow digestion at low enzymatic concentration combined with the differential centrifugation technique is the method that best fits the main goal of the present study: protocol efficiency and cell survival yield. In summary, we propose some guidelines to establish primary mammary epithelial cell lines more efficiently and to provide us with a strong research instrument to better understand the role of different epithelial cell types in the origin of breast cancer. PMID:26052514

  10. Smac-Mimetic–Induced Epithelial Cell Death Reduces the Growth of Renal Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lucy X.; Zhou, Xia; Sweeney, William E.; Wallace, Darren P.; Avner, Ellis D.; Grantham, Jared J.

    2013-01-01

    Past efforts to pharmacologically disrupt the development and growth of renal cystic lesions focused primarily on normalizing the activity of a specific signaling molecule, but the effects of stimulating apoptosis in the proliferating epithelial cells have not been well studied. Although benign, ADPKD renal cysts created by the sustained proliferation of epithelial cells resemble tumors, and malignant cell death can be achieved by cotreatment with TNF-? and a mimetic of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac). Notably, TNF-? accumulates to high levels in ADPKD cyst fluid. Here, we report that an Smac-mimetic selectively induces TNF-?–dependent cystic renal epithelial cell death, leading to the removal of cystic epithelial cells from renal tissues and delaying cyst formation. In vitro, a Smac-mimetic (GT13072) induced the degradation of cIAP1 that is required but not sufficient for cell death. Cotreatment with TNF-? augmented the formation and activation of the RIPK1-dependent death complex and the degradation and cleavage of FLIP, an inhibitor of caspase-8, in renal cystic epithelial cells. This approach produced death specifically in Pkd1 mutant epithelial cells, with no effect on normal renal epithelial cells. Moreover, treatment with the Smac-mimetic slowed cyst and kidney enlargement and preserved renal function in two genetic strains of mice with Pkd1 mutations. Thus, our mechanistic data characterize an apoptotic pathway, activated by the selective synergy of an Smac-mimetic and TNF-? in renal cyst fluid, that attenuates cyst development, providing an innovative translational platform for the rational development of novel therapeutics for ADPKD. PMID:23990677

  11. Increased Mammogram-Induced DNA Damage in Mammary Epithelial Cells Aged In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Laia; Terradas, Mariona; Martín, Marta; Feijoo, Purificación; Soler, David; Tusell, Laura; Genescà, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Concerned about the risks of mammography screening in the adult population, we analyzed the ability of human mammary epithelial cells to cope with mammogram-induced DNA damage. Our study shows that an X-ray dose of 20 mGy, which is the standard dose received by the breast surface per two-view mammogram X-ray exploration, induces increased frequencies of DNA double-strand breaks to in vitro aged–but not to young–human mammary epithelial cells. We provide evidence that aged epithelial breast cells are more radiosensitive than younger ones. Our studies point to an inefficient damage response of aged cells to low-dose radiation, this being due to both delayed and incomplete mobilization of repair proteins to DNA strand breaks. This inefficient damage response is translated into an important delay in double-strand break disappearance and consequent accumulation of unrepaired DNA breaks. The result of this is a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in the in vitro aged mammary epithelial cells exposed to doses equivalent to a single mammogram X-ray exploration. Since our experiments were carried out in primary epithelial cell cultures in which cells age at the same time as they undergo replication-dependent telomere shortening, we needed to determine the contribution of these two factors to their phenotype. In this paper, we report that the exogenous expression of human telomerase retrotranscriptase in late population doubling epithelial cells does not rescue its delayed repair phenotype. Therefore, retarded DNA break repair is a direct consequence of cellular aging itself, rather than a consequence of the presence of dysfunctional telomeres. Our findings of long-lasting double strand breaks and incomplete DNA break repair in the in vitro aged epithelial cells are in line with the increased carcinogenic risks of radiation exposures at older ages revealed by epidemiologic studies. PMID:23667571

  12. The potential of bovine vaginal smear for biomarker development to trace the misuse of anabolic agents.

    PubMed

    Riedmaier, I; Reiter, M; Tichopad, A; Pfaffl, M W; Meyer, H H D

    2011-02-01

    In the European Union the use of anabolic hormones in meat production is forbidden since 1988 and this ban of anabolic agents in animal production is strictly controlled. New hormone cocktails passing the detection systems are attractive for the practice and so new approaches to discover their illegal use have to be developed steadily. Verifying physiological effects caused by anabolic steroids will be a new way to develop potential monitoring systems. One promising matrix in female animals will be vaginal smear containing vaginal epithelial cells, because the vaginal epithelium is a primary steroid hormone responsive organ. In this study we quantified the gene expression in vaginal smear of sexually mature cattle in order to observe physiological effects. Further we aimed to establish a new screening method by testing the effect of a combination of certain anabolic steroid hormones on physiological regulations of mRNA expression of selected genes. In an animal trial Nguni heifers were treated with the anabolic combination trenbolone acetate plus estradiol. Vaginal smear samples were taken at 4 different time points. Gene expression of 27 candidate genes, selected by screening the actual literature for steroidal effects on vaginal epithelial cells, were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. There were different expression changes observed at different time points. It could be shown that the applied anabolic combination significantly influenced the expression of the steroid receptor ER?, the keratinization factor CK8, the proinflammatory interleukins IL-1? and IL-1?, the growth factors FGF7, EGF, EGFR, IGF-1R, TGF? and LTF, the oncogen c-jun and other factors like actin? and ubiquitin 3. Using biostatistical tools like principal components analysis or hierarchical cluster analysis, the potential to develop a gene expression pattern for targeting the illegal use of growth promoters could be demonstrated. PMID:21031338

  13. Thrombin-induced contraction in alveolar epithelial cells probed by traction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria; Sunyer, Raimon; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Farré, Ramon; Rotger, Mar; Navajas, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    Contractile tension of alveolar epithelial cells plays a major role in the force balance that regulates the structural integrity of the alveolar barrier. The aim of this work was to study thrombin-induced contractile forces of alveolar epithelial cells. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were challenged with thrombin, and time course of contractile forces was measured by traction microscopy. The cells exhibited basal contraction with total force magnitude 55.0 +/- 12.0 nN (mean +/- SE, n = 12). Traction forces were exerted predominantly at the cell periphery and pointed to the cell center. Thrombin (1 U/ml) induced a fast and sustained 2.5-fold increase in traction forces, which maintained peripheral and centripetal distribution. Actin fluorescent staining revealed F-actin polymerization and enhancement of peripheral actin rim. Disruption of actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D (5 microM, 30 min) and inhibition of myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 (10 microM, 30 min) and Rho kinase with Y-27632 (10 microM, 30 min) markedly depressed basal contractile tone and abolished thrombin-induced cell contraction. Therefore, the contractile response of alveolar epithelial cells to the inflammatory agonist thrombin was mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling and actomyosin activation through myosin light chain kinase and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Thrombin-induced contractile tension might further impair alveolar epithelial barrier integrity in the injured lung. PMID:16675616

  14. CD36 is involved in high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yanjuan; Wu, Ming; Wei, Jinying; Ren, Yunzhuo; Du, Chunyang; Wu, Haijiang; Li, Ying; Shi, Yonghong

    2015-12-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Our recent study showed that ROS mediated high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells. CD36, a class-B scavenger receptor, has been reported to mediate the production of ROS in chronic kidney disease. In the present study, we examined the effect of inhibition of CD36 with CD36 siRNA or sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO), a CD36 antagonist, on HG-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. HG induced CD36 expression in a time-dependent manner in HK-2 cells. HG was shown to induce EMT at 72 h. This was blocked by knockdown of CD36 or treatment with SSO. Meanwhile, we also found that knockdown of CD36 or treatment with SSO inhibited HG-induced ROS generation, activation of ERK1/2 and Smad2, expression of TGF-?1 and synthesis of fibronectin. These data suggest that inhibition of CD36 prevented HG-induced EMT in HK-2 cells, highlighting CD36 as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy. PMID:26505798

  15. Initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Craise, L. M.; Durante, M.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that high linear-energy transfer (LET) charged particles can be more effective than x-rays and gamma-rays in inducing oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumors in animals. Based on these results, experiments were designed and performed with an immortal human mammary epithelial cell line (H184B5), and several clones transformed by heavy ions were obtained. Cell fusion experiments were subsequently done, and results indicate that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. Chromosome analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques also showed additional translocations in transformed human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, studies with these cell lines indicate that heavy ions can effectively induce deletion, break, and dicentrics. Deletion of tumor suppressor gene(s) and/or formation of translocation through DNA double strand breaks is a likely mechanism for the initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells.

  16. Initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells by charged particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, T C; Georgy, K A; Craise, L M; Durante, M

    1997-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that high linear-energy transfer (LET) charged particles can be more effective than x-rays and gamma-rays in inducing oncogenic transformation in cultured cells and tumors in animals. Based on these results, experiments were designed and performed with an immortal human mammary epithelial cell line (H184B5), and several clones transformed by heavy ions were obtained. Cell fusion experiments were subsequently done, and results indicate that the transforming gene(s) is recessive. Chromosome analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques also showed additional translocations in transformed human mammary epithelial cells. In addition, studies with these cell lines indicate that heavy ions can effectively induce deletion, break, and dicentrics. Deletion of tumor suppressor gene(s) and/or formation of translocation through DNA double strand breaks is a likely mechanism for the initiation of oncogenic transformation in human mammary epithelial cells. PMID:9303071

  17. How do changes at the cell level affect the mechanical properties of epithelial monolayers?

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Yang; Li, Bo

    2015-11-11

    Epithelial monolayers play a vital role in gastrulation, tumor metastasis and wound healing, and protect the tissue from pathogens. During these processes, the monolayers sense, generate, and exert mechanical forces to perform their biological functions, but their mechanical properties are rarely known. Here, we use the vertex dynamics models to investigate the mechanical behaviors of an epithelial monolayer and the configurations of the cells within the monolayer during stretch. It was found that the epithelial monolayer exhibited elastic and plastic properties, due to the geometric extension of cells and cell division, respectively. Moreover, the elasticity of monolayers was increased by enhancing the cell adhesion or by reducing the active contractility of actin-myosin rings. This study furthers our understanding of the relationship between the mechanical properties of individual cells and of their monolayers, and may shed light on linking cell behavior to the patterning and morphogenesis of tissues. PMID:26388023

  18. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ju; Jin, Guoxiang; Yu, Bin; Wang, Zai; Lin, Raozhou; Huang, Jian-Dong

    Polarization of epithelial cells requires vectorial sorting and transport of polarity proteins to apical or basolateral domains. Kif5b is the mouse homologue of the human ubiquitous Kinesin Heavy Chain (uKHC). To investigate the function of Kif5b in epithelial cells, we examined the phenotypes of Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells resulted in reduced cell proliferation rate, profound changes in cell morphology, loss of epithelial cell marker, and gain of mesenchymal marker, as well as increased cell migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis abilities. E-cadherin and NMMIIA could interact with Kif5b in polarized MDCK cells, and their expression levels were decreased in Kif5b-deficient MDCK cells. Overexpression of E-cadherin and NMMIIA in Kif5b depleted MDCK cells could decrease mesenchymal marker expression and cell migration ability. These results indicate that stable knockdown of Kif5b in MDCK cells can lead to epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which is mediated by defective E-cadherin and NMMIIA expression. PMID:26002460

  19. Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Contribute to Gastric Immune Regulation by Providing Retinoic Acid to Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bimczok, Diane; Kao, John Y.; Zhang, Min; Cochrun, Steven; Mannon, Peter; Peter, Shajan; Wilcox, Charles M.; Mönkemüller, Klaus E.; Harris, Paul R.; Grams, Jayleen M.; Stahl, Richard D.; Smith, Phillip D.; Smythies, Lesley E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic gastritis caused by H. pylori, the gastric mucosa has received little investigative attention as a unique immune environment. Here, we analyzed whether retinoic acid (RA), an important homeostatic factor in the small intestinal mucosa, also contributes to gastric immune regulation. We report that human gastric tissue contains high levels of the RA precursor molecule, retinol, and that gastric epithelial cells express both RA biosynthesis genes and RA response genes, indicative of active RA biosynthesis. Moreover, primary gastric epithelial cells cultured in the presence of retinol synthesized RA in vitro and induced RA biosynthesis in co-cultured monocytes through an RA-dependent mechanism, suggesting that gastric epithelial cells may also confer the ability to generate RA on gastric DCs. Indeed, DCs purified from gastric mucosa had similar levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and RA biosynthesis gene expression as small intestinal DCs, although gastric DCs lacked CD103. In H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa, gastric RA biosynthesis gene expression was severely disrupted, which may lead to reduced RA signaling and thus contribute to disease progression. Collectively, our results support a critical role for RA in human gastric immune regulation. PMID:25249167

  20. Point mutations in EBV gH that abrogate or differentially affect B cell and epithelial cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Liguo; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M. . E-mail: lhuttf@lsuhsc.edu

    2007-06-20

    Cell fusion mediated by Epstein-Barr virus requires three conserved glycoproteins, gB and gHgL, but activation is cell type specific. B cell fusion requires interaction between MHC class II and a fourth virus glycoprotein, gp42, which complexes non-covalently with gHgL. Epithelial cell fusion requires interaction between gHgL and a novel epithelial cell coreceptor and is blocked by excess gp42. We show here that gp42 interacts directly with gH and that point mutations in the region of gH recognized by an antibody that differentially inhibits epithelial and B cell fusion significantly impact both the core fusion machinery and cell-specific events. Substitution of alanine for glycine at residue 594 completely abrogates fusion with either B cells or epithelial cells. Substitution of alanine for glutamic acid at residue 595 reduces fusion with epithelial cells, greatly enhances fusion with B cells and allows low levels of B cell fusion even in the absence of gL.

  1. Agonist binding to ?-adrenergic receptors on human airway epithelial cells inhibits migration and wound repair.

    PubMed

    Peitzman, Elizabeth R; Zaidman, Nathan A; Maniak, Peter J; O'Grady, Scott M

    2015-12-15

    Human airway epithelial cells express ?-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs), which regulate mucociliary clearance by stimulating transepithelial anion transport and ciliary beat frequency. Previous studies using airway epithelial cells showed that stimulation with isoproterenol increased cell migration and wound repair by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. In the present study, impedance-sensing arrays were used to measure cell migration and epithelial restitution following wounding of confluent normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) and Calu-3 cells by electroporation. Stimulation with epinephrine or the ?2-AR-selective agonist salbutamol significantly delayed wound closure and reduced the mean surface area of lamellipodia protruding into the wound. Treatment with the ?-AR bias agonist carvedilol or isoetharine also produced a delay in epithelial restitution similar in magnitude to epinephrine and salbutamol. Measurements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation following salbutamol or carvedilol stimulation showed no significant change in the level of phosphorylation compared with untreated control cells. However, inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity completely blocked the delay in wound closure produced by ?-AR agonists. In Calu-3 cells, where CFTR expression was inhibited by RNAi, salbutamol did not inhibit wound repair, suggesting that ?-AR agonist stimulation and loss of CFTR function share a common pathway leading to inhibition of epithelial repair. Confocal images of the basal membrane of Calu-3 cells labeled with anti-?1-integrin (clone HUTS-4) antibody showed that treatment with epinephrine or carvedilol reduced the level of activated integrin in the membrane. These findings suggest that treatment with ?-AR agonists delays airway epithelial repair by a G protein- and cAMP-independent mechanism involving protein phosphatase 2A and a reduction in ?1-integrin activation in the basal membrane. PMID:26491049

  2. Allergen particle binding by human primary bronchial epithelial cells is modulated by surfactant protein D

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Allergen-containing subpollen particles (SPP) are released from whole plant pollen upon contact with water or even high humidity. Because of their size SPP can preferentially reach the lower airways where they come into contact with surfactant protein (SP)-D. Our previous work demonstrated that SP-D increases the uptake of SPP by alveolar macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of SPP in human primary epithelial cells and the potential modulation by SP-D. The patho-physiological consequence was evaluated by measurement of pro-inflammatory mediators. Methods SPP were isolated from timothy grass and subsequently fluorescently labelled. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with SPP or polystyrene particles (PP) in the presence and absence of surfactant protein D. In addition, different sizes and surface charges of the PP were studied. Particle uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Soluble mediators were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or bead array. Results SPP were taken up by primary epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner. This uptake was coincided with secretion of Interleukin (IL)-8. SP-D increased the fraction of bronchial epithelial cells that bound SPP but not the fraction of cells that internalized SPP. SPP-induced secretion of IL-8 was further increased by SP-D. PP were bound and internalized by epithelial cells but this was not modulated by SP-D. Conclusions Epithelial cells bind and internalize SPP and PP which leads to increased IL-8 secretion. SP-D promotes attachment of SPP to epithelial cells and may thus be involved in the inflammatory response to inhaled allergen. PMID:20569420

  3. Transcriptional mechanisms link epithelial plasticity to adhesion and differentiation of epidermal progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Briana; Villarreal-Ponce, Alvaro; Fallahi, Magid; Ovadia, Jeremy; Sun, Peng; Yu, Qian-Chun; Ito, Seiji; Sinha, Satrajit; Nie, Qing; Dai, Xing

    2014-01-01

    During epithelial tissue morphogenesis, developmental progenitor cells undergo dynamic adhesive and cytoskeletal remodeling to trigger proliferation and migration. Transcriptional mechanisms that restrict such mild form of epithelial plasticity to maintain lineage-restricted differentiation in committed epithelial tissues are poorly understood. Here we report that simultaneous ablation of transcriptional repressor-encoding Ovol1 and Ovol2 results in expansion and blocked terminal differentiation of embryonic epidermal progenitor cells. Conversely, mice overexpressing Ovol2 in their skin epithelia exhibit precocious differentiation accompanied by smaller progenitor cell compartments. We show that Ovol1/2-deficient epidermal cells fail to undertake ?-catenin–driven actin cytoskeletal reorganization and adhesive maturation, and exhibit changes that resemble epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Remarkably, these alterations as well as defective terminal differentiation are reversed upon depletion of EMT-promoting transcriptional factor Zeb1. Collectively, our findings reveal Ovol-Zeb1-?-catenin sequential repression and highlight functions of Ovol as gatekeepers of epithelial adhesion and differentiation by inhibiting progenitor-like traits and epithelial plasticity. PMID:24735878

  4. OZONE-INDUCED RELEASE OF CYTOKINES AND FIBRONECTIN BY ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES AND AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although airway epithelial cells appear damaged following exposure of humans and animals to ozone, the contribution of these cells to inflammation observed after ozone exposure is unclear. ince human airway cells are infrequently available for in vitro studies, we have investigat...

  5. Selective functionalization of nanofiber scaffolds to regulate salivary gland epithelial cell proliferation and polarity

    PubMed Central

    Cantara, Shraddha I.; Soscia, David A.; Sequeira, Sharon; Jean-Gilles, Riffard; Castracane, James; Larsen, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial cell types typically lose apicobasal polarity when cultured on 2D substrates, but apicobasal polarity is required for directional secretion by secretory cells, such as salivary gland acinar cells. We cultured salivary gland epithelial cells on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofiber scaffolds that mimic the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix, and examined cell proliferation and apicobasal polarization. Although cells proliferated on nanofibers, chitosan-coated nanofiber scaffolds stimulated proliferation of salivary gland epithelial cells. Although apicobasal cell polarity was promoted by the nanofiber scaffolds relative to flat surfaces, as determined by the apical localization of ZO-1, it was antagonized by the presence of chitosan. Neither salivary gland acinar nor ductal cells fully polarized on the nanofiber scaffolds, as determined by the homogenous membrane distribution of the mature tight junction marker, occludin. However, nanofiber scaffolds chemically functionalized with the basement membrane protein, laminin-111, promoted more mature tight junctions, as determined by apical localization of occludin but did not affect cell proliferation. To emulate the multifunctional capabilities of the basement membrane, bifunctional PLGA nanofibers were generated. Both acinar and ductal cell lines responded to signals provided by bifunctional scaffolds coupled to chitosan and laminin-111, demonstrating the applicability of such scaffolds for epithelial cell types. PMID:22938763

  6. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  7. Placental Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Their Therapeutic Potential in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tahan, Asli Ceren; Tahan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    As a unique source of stem cells, there is a growing interest in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Placenta is readily available; in fact, it is often discarded following delivery. As such, it is without the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells. Further advantages to AE include that AE cells do not demonstrate tumorigenicity upon transplantation, and are gifted with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, AE cells have exceptional features for use as cell-based therapies for liver disease. PMID:25593921

  8. Placental amniotic epithelial cells and their therapeutic potential in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Asli Ceren; Tahan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    As a unique source of stem cells, there is a growing interest in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Placenta is readily available; in fact, it is often discarded following delivery. As such, it is without the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells. Further advantages to AE include that AE cells do not demonstrate tumorigenicity upon transplantation, and are gifted with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, AE cells have exceptional features for use as cell-based therapies for liver disease. PMID:25593921

  9. Stroma provides an intestinal stem cell niche in the absence of epithelial Wnts.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Zahra; Greicius, Gediminas; Madan, Babita; Biechele, Steffen; Zhong, Zhendong; Zaribafzadeh, Hamed; Edison; Aliyev, Jamal; Wu, Yonghui; Bunte, Ralph; Williams, Bart O; Rossant, Janet; Virshup, David M

    2014-06-01

    Wnt/?-catenin signaling supports intestinal homeostasis by regulating proliferation in the crypt. Multiple Wnts are expressed in Paneth cells as well as other intestinal epithelial and stromal cells. Ex vivo, Wnts secreted by Paneth cells can support intestinal stem cells when Wnt signaling is enhanced with supplemental R-Spondin 1 (RSPO1). However, in vivo, the source of Wnts in the stem cell niche is less clear. Genetic ablation of Porcn, an endoplasmic reticulum resident O-acyltransferase that is essential for the secretion and activity of all vertebrate Wnts, confirmed the role of intestinal epithelial Wnts in ex vivo culture. Unexpectedly, mice lacking epithelial Wnt activity (Porcn(Del)/Villin-Cre mice) had normal intestinal proliferation and differentiation, as well as successful regeneration after radiation injury, indicating that epithelial Wnts are dispensable for these processes. Consistent with a key role for stroma in the crypt niche, intestinal stromal cells endogenously expressing Wnts and Rspo3 support the growth of Porcn(Del) organoids ex vivo without RSPO1 supplementation. Conversely, increasing pharmacologic PORCN inhibition, affecting both stroma and epithelium, reduced Lgr5 intestinal stem cells, inhibited recovery from radiation injury, and at the highest dose fully blocked intestinal proliferation. We conclude that epithelial Wnts are dispensable and that stromal production of Wnts can fully support normal murine intestinal homeostasis. PMID:24821987

  10. Intracellular insulin-like growth factor-1 induces Bcl-2 expression in airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chand, Hitendra S; Harris, Jennifer Foster; Mebratu, Yohannes; Chen, Yangde; Wright, Paul S; Randell, Scott H; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2012-05-01

    Bcl-2, a prosurvival protein, regulates programmed cell death during development and repair processes, and it can be oncogenic when cell proliferation is deregulated. The present study investigated what factors modulate Bcl-2 expression in airway epithelial cells and identified the pathways involved. Microarray analysis of mRNA from airway epithelial cells captured by laser microdissection showed that increased expression of IL-1? and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) coincided with induced Bcl-2 expression compared with controls. Treatment of cultured airway epithelial cells with IL-1? and IGF-1 induced Bcl-2 expression by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA stability with no discernible changes in promoter activity. Silencing the IGF-1 expression using short hairpin RNA showed that intracellular IGF-1 (IC-IGF-1) was increasing Bcl-2 expression. Blocking epidermal growth factor receptor or IGF-1R activation also suppressed IC-IGF-1 and abolished the Bcl-2 induction. Induced expression and colocalization of IC-IGF-1 and Bcl-2 were observed in airway epithelial cells of mice exposed to LPS or cigarette smoke and of patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis but not in the respective controls. These studies demonstrate that IC-IGF-1 induces Bcl-2 expression in epithelial cells via IGF-1R and epidermal growth factor receptor pathways, and targeting IC-IGF-1 could be beneficial to treat chronic airway diseases. PMID:22461702

  11. Deregulated ephrin-B2 signaling in mammary epithelial cells alters the stem cell compartment and interferes with the epithelial differentiation pathway.

    PubMed

    Kaenel, Philip; Antonijevic, Milica; Richter, Stefanie; Küchler, Samuel; Sutter, Nora; Wotzkow, Carlos; Strange, Robert; Andres, Anne-Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Cancer most probably originates from stem/progenitor cells and exhibits a similar cell hierarchy as normal tissues. Moreover, there is growing evidence that only the stem cells are capable of metastasis formation. We have previously shown that overexpression of a dominant negative ephrin-B2 mutant interferes with mammary gland differentiation and confers a metastatic phenotype to NeuT-induced mammary tumors with an increase in cells with stem/progenitor characteristics. To investigate the role of ephrin-B2 in the control of the mammary stem cell niche, we analyzed the mammary stem and progenitor cell populations in transgenic mice overexpressing the mutant ephrin-B2. Quantification by FACS analysis revealed a significant increase of cells in the basal/alveolar cell-, the bi-potent progenitor- and the stem cell-enriched fractions. Moreover, the supposed precursors of estrogen receptor-positive cells were elevated in the stem cell-enriched fraction. In contrast, the epithelium from transgenic mice overexpressing the native ephrin-B2 gene showed an augmentation of the luminal cell- and the bi-potent progenitor-enriched fractions. Repopulation assays revealed that the epithelial cells of truncated ephrin-B2 transgenic epithelial cells have a higher regeneration capacity than those of controls and of native ephrin-B2 transgenic mice, confirming the augmentation of stem cells. Morphologically, these outgrowths exhibited impaired basal/luminal compartmentalization and epithelial polarization. These results demonstrate that deregulated ephrin-B2 expression interferes with the regulation of the stem cell niche and leads to a shift of the differentiation pathway and may thereby contribute to the acquisition of the metastatic phenotype long before carcinogenic growth becomes apparent. PMID:22020958

  12. Vaginal effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized rat preclinical model of menopause.

    PubMed

    Unkila, Mikko; Kari, Seppo; Yatkin, Emrah; Lammintausta, Risto

    2013-11-01

    Ospemifene is a unique tissue-selective estrogen agonist/antagonist (also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator [SERM]) with demonstrated efficacy in Phase 3 studies of postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). This report describes preclinical studies on the effects of ospemifene in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of menopause. Ospemifene (10mg/kg/day) and the SERM comparator, raloxifene (10mg/kg/day) were administered for 2 weeks and both increased vaginal weight; ospemifene was more effective than raloxifene. In addition, ospemifene had a greater effect on increasing vaginal epithelial height compared with raloxifene. The effect on uterine weight was less pronounced for both ospemifene and raloxifene. The ED50 of ospemifene on vaginal epithelial height was 0.39mg/kg/day and the magnitude was nearly the same as was seen with the positive control, 17?-ethinyl estradiol (EE2). In a histological analysis of ospemifene-treated rat vaginas, basal cells were overlaid by 2 to 3 cell layers of thickened goblet-like mucified cells apically; however, the cornification observed with EE2 was absent. Estrogenic activity of ospemifene was confirmed by upregulation of progesterone receptors in vaginal epithelium and stroma. Ospemifene showed similar affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER-?, but an overall lower affinity than estradiol. Ospemifene antagonized estrogen response element (ERE)-mediated transactivation on MCF-7 cells, confirming its anti-estrogenic activity in breast cancer cells. The dose response for ospemifene in the rat is consistent with that observed in clinical studies of ospemifene 30 and 60mg, showing that the OVX rat is a highly predictive model of SERM activity in postmenopausal VVA. PMID:23665515

  13. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.

    1982-08-01

    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  14. Characterisation of human thyroid epithelial cells immortalised in vitro by simian virus 40 DNA transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, N. R.; Mayall, E. S.; Jones, T.; Sheer, D.; McDermid, S.; Kendall-Taylor, P.; Wynford-Thomas, D.

    1989-01-01

    Human primary thyroid follicular epithelial cells were transfected with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 genome (SVori-) to produce several immortal cell lines. Two of the 10 cell lines analysed expressed specific features of thyroid epithelial function (iodide-trapping and thyroglobulin production). These two lines were characterised in detail and found to be growth factor-independent, capable of anchorage-independent growth at low frequency but non-tumorigenic in nude mice. These differentiated, These differentiated, partially transformed cell lines were shown to be suitable for gene transfer at high frequency using simple coprecipitation techniques. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2557880

  15. In vitro ultraviolet–induced damage in human corneal, lens, and retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Hyun-Yi; Sivak, Jacob G.; Jones, Lyndon W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to develop suitable in vitro methods to detect ocular epithelial cell damage when exposed to UV radiation, in an effort to evaluate UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials. Methods Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC), lens epithelial cells (HLEC), and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured and Ultraviolet A/Ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) blocking filters and UVB-only blocking filters were placed between the cells and a UV light source. Cells were irradiated with UV radiations at various energy levels with and without filter protections. Cell viability after exposure was determined using the metabolic dye alamarBlue and by evaluating for changes in the nuclei, mitochondria, membrane permeability, and cell membranes of the cells using the fluorescent dyes Hoechst 33342, rhodamine 123, calcein AM, ethidium homodimer-1, and annexin V. High-resolution images of the cells were taken with a Zeiss 510 confocal laser scanning microscope. Results The alamarBlue assay results of UV-exposed cells without filters showed energy level-dependent decreases in cellular viability. However, UV treated cells with 400 nm LP filter protection showed the equivalent viability to untreated control cells at all energy levels. Also, UV irradiated cells with 320 nm LP filter showed lower cell viability than the unexposed control cells, yet higher viability than UV-exposed cells without filters in an energy level-dependent manner. The confocal microscopy results also showed that UV radiation can cause significant dose-dependent degradations of nuclei and mitochondria in ocular cells. The annexin V staining also showed an increased number of apoptotic cells after UV irradiation. Conclusions The findings suggest that UV-induced HCEC, HLEC, and ARPE-19 cell damage can be evaluated by bioassays that measure changes in the cell nuclei, mitochondria, cell membranes, and cell metabolism, and these assay methods provide a valuable in vitro model for evaluating the effectiveness of UV-absorbing ophthalmic biomaterials, including contact lenses and intraocular lenses. PMID:21270970

  16. In vitro inhibition of lens epithelial cell growth by continuous wave Nd:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, K.; Iwata, S.; Ando, F.; Daikuzono, N.; Federman, J.L.

    1989-04-01

    Bovine lens epithelial cells were suspended in MEM medium and subjected to continuous wave, low power, pulsed neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation. The temperature of each suspension was maintained at 36 degrees C. Laser applications ranged from 1 to 10 watts and from 100 to 2000 seconds, but the total dose to each of the epithelial cell suspension was 2000 J. Six to thirty-nine percent of the cells were dead immediately after irradiation. Surviving cells, cultured for 15 days, showed decreased attachment and failed to grow. These preliminary results suggest that the Nd:YAG laser may be used during cataract surgery to prevent subsequent lens epithelial cell proliferation and the resulting vision reduction and glare.

  17. Early Alterations in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells and Induction of Ovarian Epithelial Tumors Triggered by Loss of FSH Receptor1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinlei; Aravindakshan, Jayaprakash; Yang, Yinzhi; Sairam, M. Ram

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the behavior of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), which plays a central role in ovarian cancer etiology. It has been suggested that incessant ovulation causes OSE changes leading to transformation and that high gonadotropin levels during postmenopause activate OSE receptors, inducing proliferation. We examined the chronology of OSE changes, including tumor appearance, in a mouse model where ovulation never occurs due to deletion of follitropin receptor. Changes in epithelial cells were marked by pan-cytokeratin (CK) staining. Histologic changes and CK staining in the OSE increased from postnatal day 2. CK staining was observed inside the ovary by 24 days and increased thereafter in tumor-bearing animals. Ovaries from a third of aged (1 year) mutant mice showed CK deep inside, indicating cell migration. These tumors resembled serous papillary adenoma of human ovaries. Weak expression of GATA-4 and elevation of PCNA, cyclooxygenase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors ? and ? in mutants indicated differences in cell proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation. Thus, we report that OSE changes occur long before epithelial tumors appear in FORKO mice. Our results suggest that neither incessant ovulation nor follicle-stimulating hormone receptor presence in the OSE is required for inducing ovarian tumors; thus, other mechanisms must contribute to ovarian tumorigenesis. PMID:17603635

  18. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tracy Chui-hsu; Craise, L.M; Prioleau, J.C.; Stampfer, M.R.; Rhim, J.S.

    1990-11-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude nice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiation cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level. 15 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Chromosomal changes in cultured human epithelial cells transformed by low- and high-LET radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craise, L. M.; Prioleau, J. C.; Stampfer, M. R.; Rhim, J. S.; Yang, TC-H (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    For a better assessment of radiation risk in space, an understanding of the responses of human cells, especially the epithelial cells, to low- and high-LET radiation is essential. In our laboratory, we have successfully developed techniques to study the neoplastic transformation of two human epithelial cell systems by ionizing radiation. These cell systems are human mammary epithelial cells (H184B5) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK). Both cell lines are immortal, anchorage dependent for growth, and nontumorigenic in athymic nude mice. Neoplastic transformation was achieved by irradiating cells successively. Our results showed that radiogenic cell transformation is a multistep process and that a single exposure of ionizing radiation can cause only one step of transformation. It requires, therefore, multihits to make human epithelial cells fully tumorigenic. Using a simple karyotyping method, we did chromosome analysis with cells cloned at various stages of transformation. We found no consistent large terminal deletion of chromosomes in radiation-induced transformants. Some changes of total number of chromosomes, however, were observed in the transformed cells. These transformants provide an unique opportunity for further genetic studies at a molecular level.

  20. Trehalose maintains vitality of mouse epididymal epithelial cells and mediates gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Bin; Gu, Yihua; Shen, Jian; Qin, Jinzhou; Bao, Jianqiang; Hu, Yuan; Zeng, Wenxian; Dong, Wuzi

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, trehalose was utilized to improve primary culture of mouse epididymal epithelial cells in vitro, and to enhance naked DNA delivery in epididymis in vivo. During the six-day culture, the proliferation activity of the cells in the medium with addition of trehalose was higher than that of those cells cultured in absence of trehalose (p<0.01). To determine the optimal concentration for cell proliferation, a series of trehalose concentrations (0, 60, 120, 180 mM) were tested, and the result indicated that the cell in the medium with 120 mM trehalose showed the highest proliferation potential. The epididymis epithelial cells were cultured in the medium containing 120 mM trehalose upon 16th passage, and they continued expressing markers of epididymal epithelial cell, such as rE-RABP, AR and ER-beta. Our study also indicated that trehalose concentrations of 120-240 mM, especially 180 mM, could effectively enhance DNA delivery into the mouse epididymis epithelial cell in vitro. Moreover, trehalose could induce in vivo expression of exogenous DNA in epididymal epithelial cells and help to internalize plasmid into sperm,which did not influence motility of sperm when the mixture of trehalose (180 mM) and DNA was injected into epididymal lumen through efferent tubule. This study suggested that trehalose, as an effective and safer reagent, could be employed potentially to maintain vitality of mouse epididymal epithelial cells during long-term culture in vitro and to mediate in vitro and in vivo gene transfer. PMID:24651491

  1. Lung epithelial stem cells and their niches: Fgf10 takes center stage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life adult animals crucially depend on stem cell populations to maintain and repair their tissues to ensure life-long organ function. Stem cells are characterized by their capacity to extensively self-renew and give rise to one or more differentiated cell types. These powerful stem cell properties are key to meet the changing demand for tissue replacement during normal lung homeostasis and regeneration after lung injury. Great strides have been made over the last few years to identify and characterize lung epithelial stem cells as well as their lineage relationships. Unfortunately, knowledge on what regulates the behavior and fate specification of lung epithelial stem cells is still limited, but involves communication with their microenvironment or niche, a local tissue environment that hosts and influences the behaviors or characteristics of stem cells and that comprises other cell types and extracellular matrix. As such, an intimate and dynamic epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk, which is also essential during lung development, is required for normal homeostasis and to mount an appropriate regenerative response after lung injury. Fibroblast growth factor 10 (Fgf10) signaling in particular seems to be a well-conserved signaling pathway governing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during lung development as well as between different adult lung epithelial stem cells and their niches. On the other hand, disruption of these reciprocal interactions leads to a dysfunctional epithelial stem cell-niche unit, which may culminate in chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). PMID:24891877

  2. Cripto-1 Promotes the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chun; Chen, Wangsheng; Wang, Xiaowen; Zhao, Jinqiu; Li, Qian; Fu, Zhongxue

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is a major public health problem worldwide and one of the most aggressively malignant neoplasms. Although considerable diagnostic and therapeutic progress has been made in recent years, the prognosis of EC patients still remains dismal due to high rates of recurrence/metastasis and invasion. Previous studies have demonstrated that Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is proposed as a critical mechanism for the acquisition of malignant phenotypes by epithelial cells. Several lines of evidence have shown that Cripto-1 plays an important oncogenic role during tumorigenesis by promoting EMT. The aim of our study was to evaluate the significance of Cripto-1 which plays a role in EMT and its metastasis in esophageal carcinoma. Data of this study suggest that Cripto-1 overexpression is connected with the tumorigenesis and progression of esophageal carcinoma; shRNA might be feasible for the inhibition of the invasion and metastasis of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:26472984

  3. Stromal-epithelial interaction study: The effect of corneal epithelial cells on growth factor expression in stromal cells using organotypic culture model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Hara, Yuko; Kadota, Yuko; Yang, Lujun; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Shirakata, Yuji; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between stromal and epithelial cells play important roles in the development, homeostasis, and pathological conditions of the cornea. Soluble cytokines are critical factors in stromal-epithelial interactions, and growth factors secreted from corneal stromal cells contribute to the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of corneal epithelial cells (CECs). However, the manner in which the expression of growth factors is regulated in stromal cells has not been completely determined. To study stromal-epithelial cell interactions, we used an organotypic culture model. Human or rabbit CECs (HCECs or RCECs) were cultured on amniotic membranes placed on human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) embedded in a collagen gel. The properties of the organotypic culture were examined by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence. In the organotypic culture, HCECs or RCECs were stratified into two-three layers after five days and five-seven layers after nine days. However, stratification was not observed when the HCECs were seeded on a collagen gel without fibroblasts. K3/K12 were expressed on day 9. The HCF-embedded collagen gels were collected on days 3, 5, or 9 after seeding the RCECs, and mRNA expression of growth factors FGF7, HGF, NGF, EGF, TGF-?, SCF, TGF-?1, TGF-?2, and TGF-?3 were quantified by real-time PCR. mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs cultured with RCECs were compared with those cultured without RCECs, as well as in monolayer cultures. mRNA expression of TGF-? was markedly increased in HCFs cultured with RCECs. However, mRNA expression of the TGF-? family was suppressed in HCFs cultured with RCECs. Principal component analysis revealed that mRNA expression of the growth factors in HCFs were generally similar when they were cultured with RCECs. In organotypic cultures, the morphological changes in the CECs and the expression patterns of the growth factors in the stromal cells clearly demonstrated stromal-epithelial cell interactions, and the results suggest that stromal cells and epithelial cells may act in concert in the cornea. PMID:25682729

  4. Immortalized mouse epithelial cell models to study the role of apoptosis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Robin; Degenhardt, Kurt; Haramaty, Liti; Karp, Cristina M; White, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are widely used to model cancer but also have serious limitations. As an alternate approach, we have developed immortalized mouse epithelial cell model systems that are applicable to different tissue types and involve generation of immortalized cell lines that are genetically defined. By applying these model systems to mutant mice, we have extended the powerful approach of mouse genetics to in vitro analysis. By use of this model we have generated immortal epithelial cells that are either competent or deficient for apoptosis by different gain- and loss-of-function mutations that have revealed important mechanisms of tumor progression and treatment resistance. Furthermore, we have derived immortalized, isogenic mouse kidney, mammary, prostate, and ovarian epithelial cell lines to address the issues of tissue specificity. One of the major advantages of these immortalized mouse epithelial cell lines is the ability to perform biochemical analysis, screening, and further genetic manipulations. Moreover, the ability to generate tumor allografts in mice allows the integration of in vitro and in vivo approaches to delineate the mechanistic aspects of tumorigenesis. These model systems can be used effectively to determine the molecular requirements of epithelial tumorigenesis and tumor-promoting functions. This approach provides an efficient way to study the role of apoptosis in cancer and also enables the interrogation and identification of potential chemotherapeutic targets involving this pathway. Applying this technology to other mouse models can provide insight into additional aspects of oncogenesis. PMID:18603117

  5. RSV-encoded NS2 promotes epithelial cell shedding and distal airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Buchholz, Ursula J.; Luongo, Cindy L.; Yang, Lijuan; Proia, Alan D.; DeVincenzo, John P.; Collins, Peter L.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. Together, these data indicate that RSV infection of the airway epithelium, via the action of NS2, promotes epithelial cell shedding, which not only accelerates viral clearance but also contributes to acute obstruction of the distal airways. Our results identify RSV NS2 as a contributing factor for the enhanced propensity of RSV to cause severe airway disease in young children and suggest NS2 as a potential therapeutic target for reducing the severity of distal airway disease. PMID:24713657

  6. Cell Stress Induces Upregulation of Osteopontin via the ERK Pathway in Type II Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Aki; Okura, Takafumi; Hamada, Chizuru; Miyoshi, Seigo; Katayama, Hitoshi; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ito, Ryoji

    2014-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, migration and tissue fibrosis. In human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and murine bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, OPN is upregulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II). However, the mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II and elucidate the functions of OPN in AEC II and lung fibroblasts. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE12), used as type II alveolar epithelial cell lines for in vitro assays, and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC) were treated with either bleomycin, doxorubicin or tunicamycin. The mechanism of OPN induction in these cells and its function as a pro-fibrotic cytokine on A549 and lung fibroblasts were analyzed. The DNA damaging reagents bleomycin and doxorubicin were found to induce OPN expression in A549, MLE12 and HPAEpiC. OPN expression was induced via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)-dependent signaling pathway in A549 and MLE12. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing reagent tunicamycin induced OPN mRNA expression in A549, MLE12 and HPAEpiC, and OPN mRNA expression was induced via activation of the ERK-dependent signaling pathway in A549 and MLE12. Another ER stress-inducing reagent thapsigargin induced the expression of OPN mRNA as well as the subsequent production of OPN in A549 and MLE12. Furthermore, OPN promoted the proliferation of A549 and the migration of normal human lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of OPN by small interference RNA or neutralizing antibody suppressed both of these responses. The results of this study suggest that cell stress induces the upregulation of OPN in AEC II by signaling through the ERK pathway, and that upregulated OPN may play a role in fibrogenesis of the lung. PMID:24963635

  7. Vitamin A is involved in maintenance of epithelial cells on the bronchioles and cells in the alveoli of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Y.; Miura, T.; Takahashi, K. )

    1993-04-01

    We examined the effects of mild vitamin A deficiency and ozone (O3) exposure on the labeling index, a marker of cell proliferation, of epithelial cells on the bronchiole and cells in the alveoli of rat lungs, to assess the role of vitamin A in maintenance of epithelial cells on the distal airway and alveolus. Three-week-old rats were fed a vitamin A-depleted diet for 4 wk to induce mild vitamin A deficiency. After 2 wk rats were exposed to 16.4 mumol O3/m3 for 1 to 14 d. In vitamin A-sufficient rats, labeling indices of epithelial cells on the bronchiole and cells in the alveolus increased significantly in comparison with those of controls exposed to clean air on d 2 and 3 of O3 exposure. In vitamin A-deficient rats as well, labeling indices were increased by O3 exposure, but the magnitude of increase was significantly smaller than for vitamin A-sufficient rats. These results indicate that vitamin A deficiency resulted in decrease of proliferation of epithelial cells on the distal airway and cells in the alveolus of rats when the proliferation of these cells was stimulated by O3 exposure, suggesting an involvement of vitamin A in maintenance of lung epithelial cells.

  8. Diacetyl Induces Amphiregulin Shedding in Pulmonary Epithelial Cells and in Experimental Bronchiolitis Obliterans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jesse; Fischer, Bernard M.; Voynow, Judith A.; Kummarapurugu, Apparao B.; Zhang, Helen L.; Nugent, Julia L.; Beasley, Robert F.; Martinu, Tereza; Gwinn, William M.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Diacetyl (DA), a component of artificial butter flavoring, has been linked to the development of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), a disease of airway epithelial injury and airway fibrosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor ligand, amphiregulin (AREG), has been implicated in other types of epithelial injury and lung fibrosis. We investigated the effects of DA directly on the pulmonary epithelium, and we hypothesized that DA exposure would result in epithelial cell shedding of AREG. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrate that DA increases AREG by the pulmonary epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and by multiple independent primary human airway epithelial donors grown under physiologically relevant conditions at the air–liquid interface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AREG shedding occurs through a TNF-?–converting enzyme (TACE)-dependent mechanism via inhibition of TACE activity in epithelial cells using the small molecule inhibitor, TNF-? protease inhibitor-1, as well as TACE-specific small inhibitor RNA. Finally, we demonstrate supportive in vivo results showing increased AREG transcript and protein levels in the lungs of rodents with DA-induced BO. In summary, our novel in vitro and in vivo observations suggest that further study of AREG is warranted in the pathogenesis of DA-induced BO. PMID:24816162

  9. Enhancement of cancer stem-like and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation property in oral epithelial cells with long-term nicotine exposure: Reversal by targeting SNAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan ; Chang, Yu-Chao; Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors in the development and further progression of tumorigenesis, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recent studies suggest that interplay cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and epithelial?mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) properties are responsible for the tumor maintenance and metastasis in OSCC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of long-term exposure with nicotine, a major component in cigarette, on CSCs and EMT characteristics. The possible reversal regulators were further explored in nicotine-induced CSCs and EMT properties in human oral epithelial (OE) cells. Long-term exposure with nicotine was demonstrated to up-regulate ALDH1 population in normal gingival and primary OSCC OE cells dose-dependently. Moreover, long-term nicotine treatment was found to enhance the self-renewal sphere-forming ability and stemness gene signatures expression and EMT regulators in OE cells. The migration/cell invasiveness/anchorage independent growth and in vivo tumor growth by nude mice xenotransplantation assay was enhanced in long-term nicotine-stimulated OE cells. Knockdown of Snail in long-term nicotine-treated OE cells was found to reduce their CSCs properties. Therapeutic delivery of Si-Snail significantly blocked the xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells and largely significantly improved the recipient survival. The present study demonstrated that the enrichment of CSCs coupled EMT property in oral epithelial cells induced by nicotine is critical for the development of OSCC tumorigenesis. Targeting Snail might offer a new strategy for the treatment of OSCC patients with smoking habit. -- Highlights: ? Sustained nicotine treatment induced CSCs properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine treatment enhance EMT properties of oral epithelial cells. ? Long-term nicotine exposure increased tumorigenicity of oral epithelial cells. ? Si-Snail blocked xenograft tumorigenesis of long-term nicotine-treated OSCC cells.

  10. Alternative Method for Primary Nasal Epithelial Cell Culture Using Intranasal Brushing and Feasibility for the Study of Epithelial Functions in Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Do Yang; Kim, Sujin; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although differentiated normal human nasal epithelial (NHNE) cells can be used to study the role of human nasal epithelium, there is a need for effective culture models of nasal epithelium in sinonasal disease status, including allergic rhinitis (AR). We aimed to examine the feasibility of intranasal brushing for culture of nasal epithelial cells in AR patients and to verify the hypothesis that allergic nasal epithelial (ARNE) cells differ in histologic and physiologic characteristics. Methods We established a system for isolating (via intranasal brushing) and culturing (with air-liquid interface, ALI) nasal epithelial cells from healthy volunteers (n=8) and AR patients (n=8). We used this system to compare the histologic findings and physiologic characteristics of NHNE and ARNE. Results The histology results showed that fully differentiated ALI culture was obtained at least 14 days after confluence and that both ciliated and secretory cells were well differentiated in ALI culture using nasal brushing. The histology results of ARNE culture were significantly different from NHNE. The number of ciliated cells was lower, and secretory cells were more dominant in ARNE cell culture compared to NHNE cells. We also observed, by electron microscopy, loose tight junctions and short cilia in cultured ARNE cells. In addition, the mRNA level of TSLP which was one of the epithelial-derived allergic cytokines was significantly higher, and the expressions of genes involved in ciliogenesis were lower in cultured ARNE cells without allergen stimulation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ALI culture of ARNE cells using intranasal brushing may be an alternative method for epithelial cell culture in AR patients and that cultured ARNE cells will be useful for in vitro studies of the mechanisms at play during AR because they maintain unique allergic characteristics. PMID:26540504

  11. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  13. Conditional immortalization of human thyroid epithelial cells: a tool for analysis of oncogene action.

    PubMed Central

    Wynford-Thomas, D; Bond, J A; Wyllie, F S; Burns, J S; Williams, E D; Jones, T; Sheer, D; Lemoine, N R

    1990-01-01

    To overcome the difficulty of assessing oncogene action in human epithelial cell types, such as thyroid, which have limited proliferative potential in culture, we have explored the use of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of simian virus 40 (SV40) early region to create conditionally immortalized epithelial cell lines. Normal primary cultures of human thyroid follicular cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the SV40 early region from mutant tsA58. Expanding epithelial colonies were observed after 2 to 3 months, all of which grew to greater than 200 population doublings without crisis. All showed tight temperature dependence for growth. After switch-up to the restrictive temperature (40.5 degrees C), no further increase in cell number was seen after 1 to 2 days. However, DNA synthesis declined much more slowly; the dissociation from cell division led to marked polyploidy. Viability was maintained for up to 2 weeks. Introduction of an inducible mutant ras gene into ts thyroid cells led, as expected, to morphological transformation at the permissive temperature when ras was induced. Interestingly, this was associated with a marked reduction in net growth rate. At the restrictive temperature, induction of mutant ras caused rapid cell death. These results demonstrate the utility of a ts SV40 mutant to permit the study of oncogene action in an otherwise nonproliferative target cell and reveal important differences in the interaction between ras and SV40 T in these epithelial cells compared with previously studied cell types. Images PMID:1697930

  14. Human Limbal Mesenchymal Cells Support the Growth of Human Corneal Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Martin N.; González, Sheyla; Mei, Hua; Deng, Sophie X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested the viability of human limbal mesenchymal cells (LMCs) to support the expansion of human corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (LSCs). Methods. Human LMCs were isolated from sclerocorneal tissue using collagenase A. Primary limbal epithelial cells (LECs) in the form of single cell suspension or cell clusters were cocultured on a monolayer of either 3T3 cells (control) or LMCs (SC-LMC culture). The LEC clusters also were grown directly on LMCs (CC-LMC culture) and in an optimized 3-dimensional culture method (3D CC-LMC culture). Colony-forming efficiency (CFE) and LEC proliferation were analyzed. The phenotype of the cultured LECs was assessed by their expression level of putative stem cell markers and a differentiation marker by qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Results. The LECs in the SC-LMC culture had a very limited growth and the stem/progenitor phenotype was lost compared to the control. Growth and cell morphology improved using the CC-LMC culture. The 3D CC-LMC culture method was the best to support the growth of the LSC population. Expression of ATP-binding cassette family G2 and ?Np63 at the mRNA level was maintained or increased in CC-LMCs and 3D CC-LMC cultures compared to the control. The percentage of the K14+ and K12+ cells was comparable in these three cultures. There was no significant difference in the percentage of p63? high expressing cells in the control (21%) and 3D CC-LMC culture (17%, P > 0.05). Conclusions. Human LMCs can substitute 3T3 cells in the expansion of LSCs using the 3-dimensional culture system. PMID:25277234

  15. Derivation of Epithelial Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an In Vitro Model of Vocal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Lungova, Vlasta; Leydon, Ciara; Thibeault, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Vocal fold epithelial cells are very difficult to study as the vocal fold epithelial cell lines do not exist and they cannot be removed from the healthy larynx without engendering a significant and unacceptable risk to vocal fold function. Here, we describe the procedure to create an engineered vocal fold tissue construct consisting of the scaffold composed of the collagen 1 gel seeded with human fibroblasts and simple epithelial progenitors seeded on the scaffold and cultivated at air-liquid interface for 19-21 days to derive the stratified squamous epithelium. This model of vocal fold mucosa is very similar in morphology, gene expression, and phenotypic characteristics to native vocal fold epithelial cells and the underlying lamina propria and, therefore, offers a promising approach to studying vocal fold biology and biomechanics in health and disease. PMID:25403465

  16. Alcohol is an oxidative stressor for gastric epithelial cells: detection of superoxide in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol/ethanol has been reported to derived necrosis and apoptosis with an oxidative stress in gastric mucosal cells. However the clear evidence for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by alcohol in gastric cells in vitro is none. In this study, we elucidated ethanol is an oxidative stress inducer on rat gastric epithelial cells by electron paramagnetic resonance measurement in living cells. We also confirmed whether ethanol-induced cellular ROS was derived from mitochondria or not. The results of cellular ROS determination showed that an increment of cellular ROS was shown for 15 min from exposing 1% (v/v) ethanol. Lipid peroxidation in cellular membrane also induced by 1% ethanol and the tendency is same in the results of cellular ROS determination. JC-1 stained showed the decrement of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally the localization of cellular ROS coincided with mitochondria. These results indicated that ethanol is not merely a necrotizing factor for gastric epithelial cells, but also an oxidative stress inducer via injured mitochondria. PMID:24062603

  17. IL-8 promote carcinogenesis of primary epithelial cells from familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Yu, Chen

    2014-12-01

    Accumulated evidences supported IL-8 play an important role during colorectal carcinogenesis. However, few direct-related evidences are available. In this paper, we found that high level of IL-8 was constitutively present both in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) tissue and carcinoma tissue. Using primary epithelial cells from FAP samples, we study IL-8 effect on their growth, migration, and colonies formation. The results showed that IL-8 stimulated cells proliferation, migration, and colonies formation. Furthermore, High level of CEA, CK20, and EGFR was detected after exposure to IL-8 in primary epithelial cells. In conclusion, our findings showed that IL-8 promotes the adenoma-carcinoma transition in primary epithelial cells from FAP. Targeting IL-8 at adenoma stage may prevent or reduce carcinogenesis. PMID:25030408

  18. Wnt-10b promotes differentiation of skin epithelial cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Shiroi, Akira; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2006-03-31

    To evaluate the role of Wnt-10b in epithelial differentiation, we investigated the effects of Wnt-10b on adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cells (MPSEC). Recombinant Wnt-10b protein (rWnt-10b) was prepared using a gene engineering technique and MPSEC were cultured in its presence, which resulted in morphological changes from cuboidal to spindle-shaped and inhibited their proliferation. Further, involvement of the canonical Wnt signal pathway was also observed. MPSEC treated with rWnt-10b showed characteristics of the hair shaft and inner root sheath of the hair follicle, in results of Ayoub Shklar staining and immunocytochemistry. Further, the cells expressed mRNA for differentiated epithelial cells, including keratin 1, keratin 2, loricrin, mHa5, and mHb5, in association with a decreased expression of the basal cell marker keratin 5. These results suggest that Wnt-10b promotes the differentiation of MPSEC.

  19. Effect of carbon nanoparticles on renal epithelial cell structure, barrier function, and protein expression

    PubMed Central

    BLAZER-YOST, BONNIE L.; BANGA, AMIRAJ; AMOS, ADAM; CHERNOFF, ELLEN; LAI, XIANYIN; LI, CHENG; MITRA, SOMENATH; WITZMANN, FRANK A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess effects of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) exposure on renal epithelial cells, fullerenes (C60), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were incubated with a confluent renal epithelial line for 48 h. At low concentrations, CNP-treated cells exhibited significant decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) but no changes in hormone-stimulated ion transport or CNP-induced toxicity or stress responses as measured by lactate dehydrogenase or cytokine release. The changes in TEER, manifested as an inverse relationship with CNP concentration, were mirrored by an inverse correlation between dose and changes in protein expression. Lower, more physiologically relevant, concentrations of CNP have the most profound effects on barrier cell function and protein expression. These results indicate an impact of CNPs on renal epithelial cells at concentrations lower than have been previously studied and suggest caution with regard to increasing CNP levels entering the food chain due to increasing environmental pollution. PMID:21067278

  20. The Crosstalk between Nrf2 and TGF-?1 in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arfmann-Knübel, Sarah; Struck, Birte; Genrich, Geeske; Helm, Ole; Sipos, Bence; Sebens, Susanne; Schäfer, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    Nrf2 and TGF-?1 both affect tumorigenesis in a dual fashion, either by preventing carcinogen induced carcinogenesis and suppressing tumor growth, respectively, or by conferring cytoprotection and invasiveness to tumor cells during malignant transformation. Given the involvement of Nrf2 and TGF-?1 in the adaptation of epithelial cells to persistent inflammatory stress, e.g. of the pancreatic duct epithelium during chronic pancreatitis, a crosstalk between Nrf2 and TGF-?1 can be envisaged. By using premalignant human pancreatic duct cells (HPDE) and the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line Colo357, we could show that Nrf2 and TGF-?1 independently but additively conferred an invasive phenotype to HPDE cells, whereas acting synergistically in Colo357 cells. This was accompanied by differential regulation of EMT markers like vimentin, Slug, L1CAM and E-cadherin. Nrf2 activation suppressed E-cadherin expression through an as yet unidentified ARE related site in the E-cadherin promoter, attenuated TGF-?1 induced Smad2/3-activity and enhanced JNK-signaling. In Colo357 cells, TGF-?1 itself was capable of inducing Nrf2 whereas in HPDE cells TGF-?1 per-se did not affect Nrf2 activity, but enhanced Nrf2 induction by tBHQ. In Colo357, but not in HPDE cells, the effects of TGF-?1 on invasion were sensitive to Nrf2 knock-down. In both cell lines, E-cadherin re-expression inhibited the proinvasive effect of Nrf2. Thus, the increased invasion of both cell lines relates to the Nrf2-dependent downregulation of E-cadherin expression. In line, immunohistochemistry analysis of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias in pancreatic tissues from chronic pancreatitis patients revealed strong Nrf2 activity already in premalignant epithelial duct cells, accompanied by partial loss of E-cadherin expression. Our findings indicate that Nrf2 and TGF-?1 both contribute to malignant transformation through distinct EMT related mechanisms accounting for an invasive phenotype. Provided a crosstalk between both pathways, Nrf2 and TGF-?1 mutually promote their tumorigenic potential, a condition manifesting already at an early stage during inflammation induced carcinogenesis of the pancreas. PMID:26226105

  1. PDZ-mediated interactions retain the epithelial GABA transporter on the basolateral surface of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perego, C; Vanoni, C; Villa, A; Longhi, R; Kaech, S M; Fröhli, E; Hajnal, A; Kim, S K; Pietrini, G

    1999-01-01

    The PDZ target motifs located in the C-terminal end of many receptors and ion channels mediate protein-protein interactions by binding to specific PDZ-containing proteins. These interactions are involved in the localization of surface proteins on specialized membrane domains of neuronal and epithelial cells. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this PDZ protein-dependent polarized localization is still unclear. This study first demonstrated that the epithelial gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (BGT-1) contains a PDZ target motif that mediates the interaction with the PDZ protein LIN-7 in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and then investigated the role of this interaction in the basolateral localization of the transporter. It was found that although the transporters from which the PDZ target motif was deleted were still targeted to the basolateral surface, they were not retained but internalized in an endosomal recycling compartment. Furthermore, an interfering BGT peptide determined the intracellular relocation of the native transporter. These data indicate that interactions with PDZ proteins determine the polarized surface localization of target proteins by means of retention and not targeting mechanisms. PDZ proteins may, therefore, act as a sort of membrane protein sorting machinery which, by recognizing retention signals (the PDZ target sequences), prevents protein internalization. PMID:10228153

  2. Stem Cell Factor Expression after Renal Ischemia Promotes Tubular Epithelial Survival

    PubMed Central

    Stokman, Geurt; Stroo, Ingrid; Claessen, Nike; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Weening, Jan J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia leads to apoptosis of tubular epithelial cells and results in decreased renal function. Tissue repair involves re-epithelialization of the tubular basement membrane. Survival of the tubular epithelium following ischemia is therefore important in the successful regeneration of renal tissue. The cytokine stem cell factor (SCF) has been shown to protect the tubular epithelium against apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In a mouse model for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury, we studied how expression of c-KIT on tubular epithelium and its ligand SCF protect cells against apoptosis. Administration of SCF specific antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased specific staining of SCF following ischemia. Reduced SCF expression resulted in impaired renal function, increased tubular damage and increased tubular epithelial apoptosis, independent of inflammation. In an in vitro hypoxia model, stimulation of tubular epithelial cells with SCF activated survival signaling and decreased apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance Our data indicate an important role for c-KIT and SCF in mediating tubular epithelial cell survival via an autocrine pathway. PMID:21200435

  3. In vitro effect of phototherapy with low-intensity laser on HSV-1 and epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduardo, Fernanda P.; Mehnert, Dolores U.; Monezi, Telma A.; Zezell, Denise M.; Schubert, Mark M.; Eduardo, Carlos P.; Marques, Márcia M.

    2007-02-01

    The effects of phototherapy on herpes lesions have been clinically demonstrated by either preventing the lesion formation or speeding their repair. The aim of this in vitro study was analyze the effect of phototherapy on epithelial cells and HSV-1 in culture. Cultures of HSV-1 and epithelial cells (Vero cell line) were used. The irradiations were done using a GaAlAs laser (660 e 780 nm, 4.0 mm2). One, two and three irradiations with 6 h-intervals were done. The experimental groups were: Control: non-irradiated; 660 nm and 3 J/cm2 (2.8 sec); 660 nm and 5 J/cm2 (3.8 sec); 780 nm and 3 J/cm2 (1.9 sec), and 780 nm and 5 J/cm2 (2.5 sec). The HSV-1 cytopatic effect and the cell viability of irradiated cultures and controls were analyzed in four different conditions: irradiation of non-infected epithelial cells; epithelial cells irradiated prior infection; virus irradiated prior infection; irradiation of HSV infected cells. The mitochondrial activity and cytopathic effects were assessed. The number of irradiations influenced the cell growth positively and proportionally, except for the 660 nm/ 3 J/cm2 group. Any variation in cytopathic effects was observed amongst the experimental groups. The viability of infected cells prior irradiation was significantly higher than that of non-irradiated cultures when 2 irradiations were done. Under the experimental conditions of this study we concluded that phototherapy is capable of enhancing epithelial cell growth and prolonging cell viability of HSV-1 infected cells. Positive benefits of phototherapy could be resultant from prolongation of infected cells viability, corroborating with host defenses.

  4. TRIM72 is required for effective repair of alveolar epithelial cell wounding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Chul; Kellett, Thomas; Wang, Shaohua; Nishi, Miyuki; Nagre, Nagaraja; Zhou, Beiyun; Flodby, Per; Shilo, Konstantin; Ghadiali, Samir N.; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms for lung cell repair are largely unknown. Previous studies identified tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) from striated muscle and linked its function to tissue repair. In this study, we characterized TRIM72 expression in lung tissues and investigated the role of TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo injury of lung cells was introduced by high tidal volume ventilation, and repair-defective cells were labeled with postinjury administration of propidium iodide. Primary alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and membrane wounding and repair were labeled separately. Our results show that absence of TRIM72 increases susceptibility to deformation-induced lung injury whereas TRIM72 overexpression is protective. In vitro cell wounding assay revealed that TRIM72 protects alveolar epithelial cells through promoting repair rather than increasing resistance to injury. The repair function of TRIM72 in lung cells is further linked to caveolin 1. These data suggest an essential role for TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells under plasma membrane stress failure. PMID:25106429

  5. Suppression of ICE and Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Extracellular Matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, Nancy; Sympson, C. J.; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J.

    1994-12-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) plays a major role in development and tissue regeneration. Basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM), but not fibronectin or collagen, was shown to suppress apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells in tissue culture and in vivo. Apoptosis was induced by antibodies to beta 1 integrins or by overexpression of stromelysin-1, which degrades ECM. Expression of interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE) correlated with the loss of ECM, and inhibitors of ICE activity prevented apoptosis. These results suggest that ECM regulates apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells through an integrin-dependent negative regulation of ICE expression.

  6. Characterizing mutagenesis in the hprt gene of rat alveolar epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, K.E.; Deyo, L.C.; Howard, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    A clonal selection assay was developed for mutation in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) gene of rat alveolar epithelial cells. Studies were conducted to establish methods for isolation and long-term culture of rat alveolar epithelial cells. When isolated by pronase digestion purified on a Nycodenz gradient and cultured in media containing 7.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), pituitary extract, EGF, insulin, and IGF-1, rat alveolar epithelial cells could be maintained in culture for several weeks with cell doubling times of 2-4 days. The rat alveolar epithelial cell cultures were exposed in vitro to the mutagens ethylnitrosourea (ENU) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and mutation in the hprt gene was selected for by culture in the presence of the toxic purine analog, 6-thioguanine (6TG). In vitro exposure to ENU or H{sub 2}O produced a dose-dependent increase in hprt mutation frequency in the alveolar epithelial cells. To determine if the assay system could be used to evaluate mutagenesis in alveolar type II cells after in vivo mutagen or carcinogen exposure, cells were isolated from rats treated previously with ENU or {alpha}-quartz. A significant increase in hprt mutation frequency was detected in alveolar epithelial cells obtained from rats exposed to ENU or {alpha}-quartz; the latter observation is the first demonstration that crystalline silica exposure is mutagenic in vivo. In summary, these studies show that rat alveolar epithelial cells isolated by pronase digestion and Nycodenz separation techniques and cultured in a defined media can be used in a clonal selection assay for mutation in the hprt gene. This assay demonstrates that ENU and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in vitro and ENU and {alpha}-quartz in vivo are mutagenic for rat alveolar epithelial cells. This model should be useful for investigating the genotoxic effects of chemical and physical agents on an important lung cell target for neoplastic transformation. 41 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Pathway Regulation of p63, a Director of Epithelial Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Yoh, Kathryn; Prywes, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The p53-related gene p63 is required for epithelial cell establishment and its expression is often altered in tumor cells. Great strides have been made in understanding the pathways and mechanisms that regulate p63 levels, such as the Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and EGFR pathways. We discuss here the multiple signaling pathways that control p63 expression as well as transcription factors and post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate p63 levels. While a unified picture has not emerged, it is clear that the fine-tuning of p63 has evolved to carefully control epithelial cell differentiation and fate. PMID:25972840

  8. Loss of histone deacetylase Hdac1 disrupts metabolic processes in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonneaud, Alexis; Turgeon, Naomie; Boisvert, François-Michel; Boudreau, François; Asselin, Claude

    2015-09-14

    By using acetyl-CoA as a substrate, acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases regulate protein acetylation by adding or removing an acetyl group on lysines. Nuclear-located Hdac1 is a regulator of intestinal homeostasis. We have previously shown that Hdac1 define specific intestinal epithelial cell basal and inflammatory-dependent gene expression patterns and control cell proliferation. We show here that Hdac1 depletion in cellulo leads to increased histone acetylation after metabolic stresses, and to metabolic disturbances resulting in impaired responses to oxidative stresses, AMPK kinase activation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, nuclear Hdac1 may control intestinal epithelial cell metabolism by regulating the supply of acetyl groups. PMID:26297832

  9. Loss of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1? Impacts on Adult Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cell Growth and Cell Lineages Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Carine R.; Brial, François; Roy, Sébastien A. B.; Langlois, Marie-Josée; Verdu, Elena F.; Rivard, Nathalie; Perreault, Nathalie; Boudreau, François

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Although Hnf1? is crucial for pancreas and liver functions, it is believed to play a limited functional role for intestinal epithelial functions. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of abrogating Hnf1? on the maintenance of adult small intestinal epithelial functions. Methodology/Principal Findings An Hnf1? knockout mouse model was used. Assessment of histological abnormalities, crypt epithelial cell proliferation, epithelial barrier, glucose transport and signalling pathways were measured in these animals. Changes in global gene expression were also analyzed. Mice lacking Hnf1? displayed increased crypt proliferation and intestinalomegaly as well as a disturbance of intestinal epithelial cell lineages production during adult life. This phenotype was associated with a decrease of the mucosal barrier function and lumen-to-blood glucose delivery. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway was found to be overly activated in the small intestine of adult Hnf1? mutant mice. The intestinal epithelium of Hnf1? null mice displayed a reduction of the enteroendocrine cell population. An impact was also observed on proper Paneth cell differentiation with abnormalities in the granule exocytosis pathway. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results unravel a functional role for Hnf1? in regulating adult intestinal growth and sustaining the functions of intestinal epithelial cell lineages. PMID:20808783

  10. Redistribution and dysfunction of integrins in cultured renal epithelial cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gailit, J; Colflesh, D; Rabiner, I; Simone, J; Goligorsky, M S

    1993-01-01

    Tubular obstruction by detached renal tubular epithelial cells is a major cause of oliguria in acute renal failure. Viable renal tubular cells can be recovered from urine of patients with acute tubular necrosis, suggesting a possible defect in cell adhesion to the basement membrane. To study this process of epithelial cell desquamation in vitro, we investigated the effect of nonlethal oxidative stress on the integrin adhesion receptors of the primate kidney epithelial cell line BS-C-1. Morphological and functional studies of cell adhesion properties included the following: interference reflection microscopy, intravital confocal microscopy and immunocytochemistry, flow cytometric analysis of integrin receptor abundance, and cell-matrix attachment assay. High levels of the integrin subunits alpha 3, alpha v, and beta 1 were detected on the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, as well as lower levels of alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha 6, and beta 3. Exposure of BS-C-1 cells to nonlethal oxidative stress resulted in the disruption of focal contacts, disappearance of talin from the basal cell surface, and in the redistribution of integrin alpha 3-subunits from predominantly basal location to the apical cell surface. As measured in a quantitative cell attachment assay, oxidative stress decreased BS-C-1 cell adhesion to type IV collagen, laminin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. Defective adhesion was not associated with a loss of alpha 3-, alpha 4-, or alpha v-integrin subunits from the cell surface.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8430825

  11. ?-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of ?-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, ?-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of ?-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where ?-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells. PMID:26020789

  12. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and colpitis infections with group B streptococci or (methicillin resistant) Staphylococcus aureus. Since the latter colonizations are frequent, but seldom inflammatory infections, we in general discourage the use of oral antibiotics in women with AV. In cases with a severe atrophy component (more than 10 % of epithelial cells are of the parabasal type), local estrogens can be used; and in postmenopausal or breast cancer patients with a contraindication for estrogens, even a combination of probiotics with an ultra-low dose of local estriol may be considered. PMID:25896749

  13. Replenishment of the podocyte compartment by parietal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    While progressive podocytopenia is a characteristic feature of chronic glomerular disease, the visceral epithelial niche can be replenished from the parietal epithelium. Two new reports demonstrate this process in genetically engineered mice, using fate mapping, and in human renal biopsies manifesting segmental glomerulosclerosis in diverse settings, using cellular and extracellular matrix markers. PMID:26579676

  14. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP?) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Yuka; Hagiwara, Natsumi; Radisky, Derek C.; Hirai, Yohei

    2014-09-10

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBP?, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells. Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBP? gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBP? gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBP? gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBP? gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination.

  15. Quantification of corneal neovascularization after ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Adriano; Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Alfonso-Bartolozzi, Belén; Sabater, Alfonso L.; García-Guzmán, María; Andreu, Enrique J.; Prosper, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    AIM To assess cultured limbal epithelial stem cell transplantation in patients with limbal stem cell deficiency by analyzing and quantifying corneal neovascularization. METHODS This retrospective, interventional case series included eight eyes with total limbal stem cell deficiency. Ex vivo limbal epithelial stem cells were cultured on human amniotic membrane using an animal-free culture method. The clinical parameters of limbal stem cell deficiency, impression cytology, and quantification of corneal neovascularization were evaluated before and after cultured limbal stem cell transplantation. The area of corneal neovascularization, vessel caliber (VC), and invasive area (IA) were analyzed before and after stem cell transplantation by image analysis software. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), epithelial transparency, and impression cytology were also measured. RESULTS One year after surgery, successful cases showed a reduction (improvement) of all three parameters of corneal neovascularization [neovascular area (NA), VC, IA], while failed cases did not. NA decreased a mean of 32.31% (P=0.035), invasion area 29.37% (P=0.018) and VC 14.29% (P=0.072). BCVA improved in all eyes (mean follow-up, 76±21mo). Epithelial transparency improved significantly from 2.00±0.93 to 0.88±1.25 (P=0.014). Impression cytology showed that three cases failed after limbal epithelial stem cell therapy before 1y of follow-up. CONCLUSION This method of analyzing and monitoring surface vessels is useful for evaluating the epithelial status during follow-up, as successful cases showed a bigger reduction in corneal neovascularization parameters than failed cases. Using this method, successful cases could be differentiated from failed cases. PMID:25540752

  16. Dexmedetomidine Attenuates Bilirubin-Induced Lung Alveolar Epithelial Cell Death In Vitro and In Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jian; Zhao, Hailin; Yi, Bin; Zeng, Jing; Lu, Kaizhi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate bilirubin-induced lung alveolar epithelial cell injury together with the protection afforded by dexmedetomidine. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting: Research laboratory. Subjects: Sprague Dawley rats. Interventions: Alveolar epithelial A549 cell lines were cultured and received bilirubin (from 0 to 160 ?M) to explore the protective pathway of dexmedetomidine on bilirubin-induced alveolar epithelial cell injury assessed by immunochemistry and flow cytometry. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to common bile duct ligation surgery to explore the protective effect of dexmedetomidine on hyperbilirubinemia-induced alveolar epithelial cell injury and respiratory failure in comparison with the Sham (subjected to the surgery procedure but without bile duct ligation) or dexmedetomidine control (only received intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine). Measurements and Main Results: In vitro, dexmedetomidine reversed the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), upregulation of cytochrome C, B cell leukemia 2 associated X protein, and cleaved-caspase 3 and 9 in A549 epithelial cells with bilirubin challenge. Furthermore, dexmedetomidine reversed the arrest of cell cycle and the downregulation of the transforming growth factor?, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase induced by bilirubin. In vivo, pulmonary edema and inflammation were found after common bile duct ligation. Bilirubin and Paco2 were significantly increased, and oxygen (Pao2) was significantly decreased in the blood of common bile duct ligation rats from the postsurgery day 7 to day 21 when compared with those in the sham controls, respectively (p < 0.01). Daily intraperitoneal injection of dexmedetomidine significantly alleviated the lung edema and injury and prevented respiratory failure. Conclusion: Our data both in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that dexmedetomidine protected alveolar epithelial cell from bilirubin-induced injury. Dexmedetomidine may be a good choice of anesthetic/sedative for patients with chronic liver disease during the perioperative period. PMID:26274721

  17. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, ?-Catenin) and the primary cilium (?-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and ?-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and ?-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  18. From Attachment to Damage: Defined Genes of Candida albicans Mediate Adhesion, Invasion and Damage during Interaction with Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wächtler, Betty; Wilson, Duncan; Haedicke, Katja; Dalle, Frederic; Hube, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans frequently causes superficial infections by invading and damaging epithelial cells, but may also cause systemic infections by penetrating through epithelial barriers. C. albicans is an unusual pathogen because it can invade epithelial cells via two distinct mechanisms: induced endocytosis, analogous to facultative intracellular enteropathogenic bacteria, and active penetration, similar to plant pathogenic fungi. Here we investigated the molecular basis of C. albicans epithelial interactions. By systematically assessing the contributions of defined fungal pathways and factors to different stages of epithelial interactions, we provide an expansive portrait of the processes and activities involved in epithelial infection. We strengthen the concept that hyphal formation is critical for epithelial invasion. Importantly, our data support a model whereby initial epithelial invasion per se does not elicit host damage, but that C. albicans relies on a combination of contact-sensing, directed hyphal extension, active penetration and the expression of novel pathogenicity factors for further inter-epithelial invasion, dissemination and ultimate damage of host cells. Finally, we explore the transcriptional landscape of C. albicans during the early stages of epithelial interaction, and, via genetic analysis, identify ICL1 and PGA34 as novel oral epithelial pathogenicity factors. PMID:21407800

  19. Regulation of epithelial and lymphocyte cell adhesion by adenosine deaminase-CD26 interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ginés, Silvia; Mariño, Marta; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Morimoto, Chikao; Callebaut, Christian; Hovanessian, Ara; Casadó, Vicent; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael

    2002-01-01

    The extra-enzymic function of cell-surface adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme mainly localized in the cytosol but also found on the cell surface of monocytes, B cells and T cells, has lately been the subject of numerous studies. Cell-surface ADA is able to transduce co-stimulatory signals in T cells via its interaction with CD26, an integral membrane protein that acts as ADA-binding protein. The aim of the present study was to explore whether ADA-CD26 interaction plays a role in the adhesion of lymphocyte cells to human epithelial cells. To meet this aim, different lymphocyte cell lines (Jurkat and CEM T) expressing endogenous, or overexpressing human, CD26 protein were tested in adhesion assays to monolayers of colon adenocarcinoma human epithelial cells, Caco-2, which express high levels of cell-surface ADA. Interestingly, the adhesion of Jurkat and CEM T cells to a monolayer of Caco-2 cells was greatly dependent on CD26. An increase by 50% in the cell-to-cell adhesion was found in cells containing higher levels of CD26. Incubation with an anti-CD26 antibody raised against the ADA-binding site or with exogenous ADA resulted in a significant reduction (50-70%) of T-cell adhesion to monolayers of epithelial cells. The role of ADA-CD26 interaction in the lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion appears to be mediated by CD26 molecules that are not interacting with endogenous ADA (ADA-free CD26), since SKW6.4 (B cells) that express more cell-surface ADA showed lower adhesion than T cells. Adhesion stimulated by CD26 and ADA is mediated by T cell lymphocyte function-associated antigen. A role for ADA-CD26 interaction in cell-to-cell adhesion was confirmed further in integrin activation assays. FACS analysis revealed a higher expression of activated integrins on T cell lines in the presence of increasing amounts of exogenous ADA. Taken together, these results suggest that the ADA-CD26 interaction on the cell surface has a role in lymphocyte-epithelial cell adhesion. PMID:11772392

  20. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition During Oncogenic Transformation Induced by Hexavalent Chromium Involves Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Mechanisms in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yuxiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuangyin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuanqin; Budhraja, Amit; Hiltron, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhanced binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. PMID:23518002

  1. Activation of respiratory epithelial cells by wood smoke particles persists beyond immediate exposure.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effect of particles on epithelial cells involves, in part, oxidant generation and a cascade of reactions culminating in inflammatory mediator release. Whether there is an immediate short-lived activation or continued persistent response of the cells to the particle...

  2. A new in vitro model using small intestinal epithelial cells to enhance infection of Cryptosporidium parvum

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand and study the infection of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, a more sensitive in vitro assay is required. In vivo, this parasite infects the epithelial cells of the microvilli layer in the small intestine. While cell infection models using colon,...

  3. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND HISTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIAL AND LEYDIG CELLS OF THE TURKEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike mammals, there is little fundamental information about spermatogenesis in birds. This study was undertaken to clarify the morphology, histochemistry, and lectin affinity of the seminiferous epithelial cells and Leydig cells in the pre-pubertal (8- to I5-wk old) and adult (40-to 44-wk old) do...

  5. Evaluation of STAT5A Gene Expression in Aflatoxin B1 Treated Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Forouharmehr, Ali; Harkinezhad, Taher; Qasemi-Panahi, Babak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent mycotoxin which has been produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus as secondary metabolites due to their growth on food stuffs and induces hepatocellular carcinoma in many animal species, including humans. In the present study, the effect of AFB1 on STAT5A gene expression was investigated in bovine mammary epithelial cells using real time RT-PCR. Methods: Bovine mammary epithelial cells were seeded in a 24-well culture plate for three-dimensional (3D) culture in Matrigel matrix. After 21 days of 3D culture and reaching the required number of cells, cells were treated with AFB1 and incubated for 8 h. For real time PCR reaction, total RNA from the cultured and treated cells was extracted and used for complementary DNA synthesis. Results: The expression of STAT5A gene was significantly down regulated by AFB1 in dose- dependent manner and led to the reduction of proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells, which has direct effect in milk protein quantity and quality. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that down regulation of STAT5A gene in AFB1-treated cells maybe due to DNA damage induced by AFB1 in bovine mammary epithelial cells. PMID:24312879

  6. Expression of K6W-ubiquitin inhibits proliferation of human lens epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in controlling the cell cycle. The purpose of this study was to examine if expression of a dominant negative form of ubiquitin can inhibit the proliferation of lens epithelial cells. Dominant negative K6W-ubiquitin was expressed in cultured hu...

  7. NK cells modulate the inflammatory response to corneal epithelial abrasion and thereby support wound healing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural killer cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that have crucial cytotoxic and regulatory roles in adaptive immunity and inflammation. Herein, we consider a role for these cells in corneal wound healing. After a 2-mm central epithelial abrasion of the mouse cornea, a subset of clas...

  8. Gram-Negative Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Activin A Secretion from Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marukawa, Risa; Tsuru, Nami; Sato, Maki; Matsuda, Hiroko; Sadakata, Hisanobu; Minegishi, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Activin A is involved in inflammation. The present study was performed to clarify if lipopolysaccharide, a component of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates activin A secretion from human amniotic epithelial cells and to determine if activin A plays a role in amnionitis. Fetal membranes were obtained during elective cesarean sections performed in full-term pregnancies of patients without systemic disease, signs of premature delivery, or fetal complications. Amniotic epithelial cells were isolated by trypsinization. The activin A concentrations in the culture media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cell proliferation was assessed by 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine incorporation. Amniotic epithelial cells secreted activin A in a cell density-dependent manner, and lipopolysaccharide (10??g/mL) enhanced the secretion at each cell density. Lipopolysaccharide (10–50??g/mL) also stimulated activin A secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the effect of activin A secretion, lipopolysaccharide inhibited cell proliferation in amniotic epithelial cells. The present study suggests that lipopolysaccharide stimulation of activin A secretion may be a mechanism in the pathogenesis of amnionitis. PMID:23956746

  9. FGFR3 has tumor suppressor properties in cells with epithelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to frequent mutations in certain cancers, FGFR3 gene is considered as an oncogene. However, in some normal tissues, FGFR3 can limit cell growth and promote cell differentiation. Thus, FGFR3 action appears paradoxical. Results FGFR3 expression was forced in pancreatic cell lines. The receptor exerted dual effects: it suppressed tumor growth in pancreatic epithelial-like cells and had oncogenic properties in pancreatic mesenchymal-like cells. Distinct exclusive pathways were activated, STATs in epithelial-like cells and MAP Kinases in mesenchymal-like cells. Both FGFR3 splice variants had similar effects and used the same intracellular signaling. In human pancreatic carcinoma tissues, levels of FGFR3 dropped in tumors. Conclusion In tumors from epithelial origin, FGFR3 signal can limit tumor growth, explaining why the 4p16.3 locus bearing FGFR3 is frequently lost and why activating mutations of FGFR3 in benign or low grade tumors of epithelial origin are associated with good prognosis. The new hypothesis that FGFR3 can harbor both tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties is crucial in the context of targeted therapies involving specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). TKIs against FGFR3 might result in adverse effects if used in the wrong cell context. PMID:23902722

  10. Annexin 2 Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Cell Spreading and Wound Closure through Rho-Related Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Babbin, Brian A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Mandell, Kenneth J.; Winfree, L. Matthew; Laur, Oskar; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Nusrat, Asma

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial cell migration is a critical event in gastrointestinal mucosal wound healing and is dependent on actin cytoskeletal reorganization. We observed increased expression of an actin regulatory protein, annexin 2, in migrating intestinal epithelial cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of annexin 2 expression in Caco-2 epithelial cells resulted in significant reductions in cell spreading and wound closure associated with decreased formation of filamentous actin bundles along the base of migrating cells. Because annexin 2 has been shown to influences actin cytoskeletal remodeling through targeting signaling molecules to membrane domains, we examined the membrane association and activation status of Rho GTPases after annexin 2 knockdown. We observed Rho dissociation from membranes and decreased Rho activity following annexin 2 siRNA transfection. Inhibition of cell spreading and wound closure in annexin 2 siRNA-transfected cells was prevented by expression of constitutively active RhoA. Rho colocalized with annexin 2 in lamellipodia and along the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane. In addition, annexin 2 was observed to co-immunoprecipitate with endogenous Rho and constitutively active RhoA. These findings suggest that annexin 2 plays a role in targeting Rho to cellular membranes, thereby modulating Rho-related signaling events regulating cytoskeletal reorganization during epithelial cell migration. PMID:17322380

  11. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells

    Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  12. Generation of folliculogenic human epithelial stem cells from induced pluripotent stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Burrows, Michelle; Liu, Shujing; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Guo, Wei; Kumar, Suresh; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) in the hair follicle bulge are required for hair follicle growth and cycling. The isolation and propagation of human EpSCs for tissue engineering purposes remains a challenge. Here we develop a strategy to differentiate human iPSCs (hiPSCs) into CD200+/ITGA6+ EpSCs that can reconstitute the epithelial components of the hair follicle and interfollicular epidermis. The hiPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells show a similar gene expression signature as EpSCs directly isolated from human hair follicles. Human iPSC-derived CD200+/ITGA6+ cells are capable of generating all hair follicle lineages including the hair shaft, and the inner and outer root sheaths in skin reconstitution assays. The regenerated hair follicles possess a KRT15+ stem cell population and produce hair shafts expressing hair-specific keratins. These results suggest an approach for generating large numbers of human EpSCs for tissue engineering and new treatments for hair loss, wound healing and other degenerative skin disorders.

  13. Lacritin Salvages Human Corneal Epithelial Cells from Lipopolysaccharide Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Vantaku, Venkat Rao; Gupta, Geetika; Rapalli, Krishna Chaitanya; Karnati, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity of the corneal epithelium is conferred by proteinaceous secretions from the epithelium and associated lacrimal and meibomian glands. Lacritin, an eye-specific protein with anti-microbial, cytoprotective and wound-healing properties, predominantly secreted by lacrimal glands, is absent in conditions such as Dry eye and Keratitis. In view of the biological significance of lacritin in human eye, we investigated its role in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced infection. LPS-challenged HCE cells demonstrated apoptosis-mediated cell death and elevated lacritin levels. The LPS-induced cell death is alleviated with exogenous supplementation of recombinant lacritin. This cytoprotective effect of lacritin is mediated through Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This study is the first to highlight the protective role of lacritin and mechanism of its action during bacterial infection of cornea in vitro. PMID:26670139

  14. TAT cell-penetrating peptide modulates inflammatory response and apoptosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunhee; Moodley, Serisha; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-06-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are commonly used as delivery vehicles for the introduction of a variety of macromolecules into cells. Trans-activator of transcription (TAT) is the most commonly used CPP and, as a delivery vehicle, is assumed to be biologically inert. In this study, we pretreated human lung epithelial cells with TAT prior to stimulation with phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Surprisingly, TAT alone inhibited the production of multiple cytokines induced by PKC activation. Furthermore, PKC activation-induced I?B? degradation was partially reduced by TAT. Moreover, TAT treatment alone induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, influenced expression of several B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members and increased caspase 3 cleavage at a high dose. These findings suggest that TAT as a delivery vehicle should be used cautiously, as it may affect the inflammatory response, as well as signals related to apoptosis. PMID:25916485

  15. Regulation of antiapoptotic and cytoprotective pathways in colonic epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Seidelin, Jakob B

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease involving the colon resulting in bloody diarrhea and increased risk of colorectal cancer in certain patient subgroups. Increased apoptosis in the epithelial cell layer causes increased permeability, especially during flares; this leads to translocation of luminal pathogens resulting in a continued inflammatory drive. The present work investigates how epithelial apoptosis is regulated in ulcerative colitis. The main results are that Fas mediated apoptosis is inhibited during flares of ulcerative colitis, probably by an upregulation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) and cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein. cIAP2 is upregulated in regenerative epithelial cells both in ulcerative colitis and in experimental intestinal wounds. Inhibition of cIAP2 decreases wound healing in vitro possibly through inhibition of migration. Altogether, it is shown that epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis responds to the hostile microenvironment by activation of cytoprotective pathways that tend to counteract the cytotoxic effects of inflammation. However, the present studies also show that epithelial cells produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species during stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-? and interferon-? resulting in DNA instability. The combined effect of increased DNA-instability and decreased apoptosis responses could lead to neoplasia. PMID:26513451

  16. Trafficking of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Coffey, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A largely unilamellar epithelial layer lines body cavities and organ ducts such as the digestive tract and kidney tubules. This polarized epithelium is composed of biochemically and functionally separate apical and basolateral surfaces. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of epithelial homeostasis and is perturbed in a number of epithelial disorders. It is underappreciated that in vivo EGFR signaling is most often initiated by cell-surface delivery and processing of one of seven transmembrane ligands, resulting in release of the soluble form that binds EGFR. In polarized epithelial cells, EGFR is restricted largely to the basolateral surface, and apical or basolateral ligand delivery therefore has important biological consequences. In vitro approaches have been used to study the biosynthesis, cell-surface delivery, proteolytic processing, and release of soluble EGFR ligands in polarized epithelial cells. We review these results, discuss their relevance to normal physiology, and demonstrate the pathophysiological consequences of aberrant trafficking. These studies have uncovered a rich diversity of apico-basolateral trafficking mechanisms among the EGFR ligands, provided insights into the pathogenesis of an inherited magnesium-wasting disorder of the kidney (isolated renal hypomagnesemia), and identified a new mode of EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes. PMID:24215440

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 strongly potentiates growth factor-induced proliferation of mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montesano, Roberto Sarkoezi, Rita; Schramek, Herbert

    2008-09-12

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines that elicit pleiotropic effects on biological processes such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis. With respect to cell proliferation, BMPs can exert either mitogenic or anti-mitogenic activities, depending on the target cells and their context. Here, we report that in low-density cultures of immortalized mammary epithelial cells, BMP-4 did not stimulate cell proliferation by itself. However, when added in combination with suboptimal concentrations of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, FGF-7, FGF-10, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), BMP-4 potently enhanced growth factor-induced cell proliferation. These results reveal a hitherto unsuspected interplay between BMP-4 and growth factors in the regulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation. We suggest that the ability of BMP-4 to potentiate the mitogenic activity of multiple growth factors may contribute to mammary gland ductal morphogenesis as well as to breast cancer progression.

  18. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  19. Purification and characterization of mouse fetal liver epithelial cells with high in vivo repopulation capacity.

    PubMed

    Nierhoff, Dirk; Ogawa, Atsushi; Oertel, Michael; Chen, Yuan-Qing; Shafritz, David A

    2005-07-01

    Epithelial cells in embryonic day (ED) 12.5 murine fetal liver were separated from hematopoietic cell populations using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and were characterized by immunocytochemistry using a broad set of antibodies specific for epithelial cells (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], albumin [ALB], pancytokeratin [PanCK], Liv2, E-cadherin, Dlk), hematopoietic/endothelial cells (Ter119, CD45, CD31), and stem/progenitor cells (c-Kit, CD34, Sca-1). AFP(+)/ALB(+) cells represented approximately 2.5% of total cells and were positive for the epithelial-specific surface markers Liv2, E-cadherin, and Dlk, but were clearly separated and distinct from hematopoietic cells (Ter119(+)/CD45(+)). Fetal liver epithelial cells (AFP(+)/E-cadherin(+)) were Sca-1(+) but showed no expression of hematopoietic stem cell markers c-Kit and CD34. These cells were enriched by FACS sorting for E-cadherin to a purity of 95% as defined by co-expression of AFP and PanCK. Purified fetal liver epithelial cells formed clusters in cell culture and differentiated along the hepatocytic lineage in the presence of dexamethasone, expressing glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P) and tyrosine amino transferase. Wild-type ED12.5 murine fetal liver cells were transplanted into adult dipeptidyl peptidase IV knockout mice and differentiated into mature hepatocytes expressing ALB, G6P, and glycogen, indicating normal biochemical function. Transplanted cells became fully incorporated into the hepatic parenchymal cords and showed up to 80% liver repopulation at 2 to 6 months after cell transplantation. In conclusion, we isolated and highly purified a population of epithelial cells from the ED12.5 mouse fetal liver that are clearly separate from hematopoietic cells and differentiate into mature, functional hepatocytes in vivo with the capacity for efficient liver repopulation. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.html). PMID:15895427

  20. Fig. S1. Mammary epithelial cells in vivo are surrounded by type-I collagen Fig. S1. Mammary epithelial cells in vivo are surrounded by type I collagen. The MG from virgin C57BL/6 mouse at

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Celeste M.

    Fig. S1. Mammary epithelial cells in vivo are surrounded by type-I collagen Fig. S1. Mammary epithelial cells in vivo are surrounded by type I collagen. The MG from virgin C57BL/6 mouse at 8 weeks was cryosectioned and stained for type I collagen (upper and lower panels; green), a-smooth muscle actin (upper

  1. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and {beta}-naphthylamine ({beta}-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  2. The Toxicity of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Eye Drops against Human Corneal Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxicity of commercial non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) eye solutions against corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The biologic effects of 1/100-, 1/50-, and 1/10-diluted bromfenac sodium, pranoprofen, diclofenac sodium, and the fluorometholone on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1-, 4-, 12-, and 24-hr of exposure compared to corneal epithelial cell treated with balanced salt solution as control. Cellular metabolic activity, cellular damage, and morphology were assessed. Corneal epithelial cell migration was quantified by the scratch-wound assay. Compared to bromfenac and pranoprofen, the cellular metabolic activity of diclofenac and fluorometholone significantly decreased after 12-hr exposure, which was maintained for 24-hr compared to control. Especially, at 1/10-diluted eye solution for 24-hr exposure, the LDH titers of fluorometholone and diclofenac sodium markedly increased more than those of bromfenac and pranoprofen. In diclofenac sodium, the Na+ concentration was lower and amount of preservatives was higher than other NSAIDs eye solutions tested. However, the K+ and Cl- concentration, pH, and osmolarity were similar for all NSAIDs eye solutions. Bromfenac and pranoprofen significantly promoted cell migration, and restored wound gap after 48-hr exposure, compared with that of diclofenac or fluorometholone. At 1/50-diluted eye solution for 48-hr exposure, the corneal epithelial cellular morphology of diclofenac and fluorometholone induced more damage than that of bromfenac or pranoprofen. Overall, the corneal epithelial cells in bromfenac and pranoprofen NSAID eye solutions are less damaged compared to those in diclofenac, included fluorometholone as steroid eye solution. PMID:26713063

  3. KCa3.1 K+ Channel Expression and Function in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Greer K.; Duffy, S. Mark; Roach, Katy M.; Hirst, Rob A.; Shikotra, Aarti; Gaillard, Erol A.; Bradding, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The KCa3.1 K+ channel has been proposed as a novel target for pulmonary diseases such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. It is expressed in epithelia but its expression and function in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) has not been described. Due to its proposed roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, migration, and epithelial fluid secretion, inhibiting this channel might have either beneficial or adverse effects on HBEC function. The aim of this study was to assess whether primary HBECs express the KCa3.1 channel and its role in HBEC function. Primary HBECs from the airways of healthy and asthmatic subjects, SV-transformed BEAS-2B cells and the neoplastic H292 epithelial cell line were studied. Primary HBECs, BEAS-2B and H292 cells expressed KCa3.1 mRNA and protein, and robust KCa3.1 ion currents. KCa3.1 protein expression was increased in asthmatic compared to healthy airway epithelium in situ, and KCa3.1 currents were larger in asthmatic compared to healthy HBECs cultured in vitro. Selective KCa3.1 blockers (TRAM-34, ICA-17043) had no effect on epithelial cell proliferation, wound closure, ciliary beat frequency, or mucus secretion. However, several features of TGF?1-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were inhibited by KCa3.1 blockade. Treatment with KCa3.1 blockers is likely to be safe with respect to airway epithelial biology, and may potentially inhibit airway remodelling through the inhibition of EMT. PMID:26689552

  4. Everolimus-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition in immortalized human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells: key role of heparanase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Everolimus (EVE) is a drug widely used in several renal transplant protocols. Although characterized by a relatively low nephrotoxicity, it may induce several adverse effects including severe fibro-interstitial pneumonitis. The exact molecular/biological mechanism associated to these pro-fibrotic effects is unknown, but epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) may have a central role. Additionally, heparanase, an enzyme recently associated with the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy, could contribute to activate this machinery in renal cells. Methods Several biomolecular strategies (RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, zymography and migration assay) have been used to assess the capability of EVE (10, 100, 200 and 500 nM) to induce an in vitro heparanase-mediated EMT in wild-type (WT) and Heparanase (HPSE)-silenced immortalized human renal epithelial proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Additionally, microarray technology was used to find additional biological elements involved in EVE-induced EMT. Results Biomolecular experiments demonstrated a significant up-regulation (more than 1.5 fold increase) of several genes encoding for well known EMT markers [(alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), Vimentin (VIM), Fibronectin (FN) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9)], enhancement of MMP9 protein level and increment of cells motility in WT HK2 cells treated with high concentrations of EVE (higher than 100 nM). Similarly, immunofluorescence analysis showed that 100 nM of EVE increased ?-SMA, VIM and FN protein expression in WT HK2 cells. All these effects were absent in both HPSE- and AKT-silenced cell lines. AKT is a protein having a central role in EMT. Additionally, microarray analysis identified other 2 genes significantly up-regulated in 100 nM EVE-treated cells (p?cells may be activated by high doses of this drug. Additionally, our results suggest that clinicians should administer the adequate dosage of EVE in order to increase efficacy and reduce adverse effects. Finally heparanase could be a new potential therapeutic target useful to prevent/minimize drug-related systemic fibrotic adverse effects. PMID:24256696

  5. Telomerase activity in lens epithelial cells of normal and cataractous lenses.

    PubMed

    Colitz, C M; Davidson, M G; McGAHAN, M C

    1999-12-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein responsible for maintaining telomere length, preventing chromosomal degradation and recombination, and repairing DNA strand breaks. These activities are believed to be important in preventing cell senescence. Telomerase activity is normally found in germinal, neoplastic and stem cells, but not any ocular tissue studied to date. The epithelium of the crystalline lens is comprised of a population of cells with diverse mitotic potential including the germinative epithelium which contains cells with the potential for unlimited replicative capacity, equatorial cells which terminally differentiate into lens fibers, and the central epithelium which are considered to be quiescent and nonreplicative under normal circumstances. We speculated that the germinative region of lens epithelial cells might have telomerase activity, and that dysregulation of its activity might be associated with cataractogenesis. We investigated these hypotheses in lens capsule specimens from normal and cataractous dogs and from cultures of canine lens epithelial cells using standard assays for telomerase activity and telomere length. Telomerase activity was found in normal canine lens epithelial cells in the central, germinative and equatorial regions of the anterior lens capsule at equivalent levels. Similar findings were made in feline and murine lens epithelial cells, indicating that the presence of telomerase activity in the lens was not species specific. Lens fiber cells, corneal epithelium and endothelium and nonpigmented ciliary epithelium were telomerase negative. Telomerase activity and telomere lengths were significantly greater in lens epithelia from cataractous lenses when compared with normal lenses. Since telomerase activity is associated with an immortal phenotype, the presence of telomerase activity in the lens epithelial cells may function to prevent conversion to senescence. It was, therefore, difficult to explain why these cells cannot be passaged more than four times in culture. We found that telomerase activity and telomere lengths gradually decreased with increased passages until telomerase activity was no longer present at passage two. Consistent with these findings, there were no senescent cells present on the lens capsule when the lens was initially dissected for culture, but an increasing number of cells were senescent with each passage, correlating well with the loss of telomerase activity. Telomerase activity is likely important in the germinative epithelium to maintain its proliferative potential and prevent cell senescence. Telomerase may function in the quiescent, central lens to maintain telomeres damaged by oxidative stress and ultraviolet light exposure, thereby preventing accelerated loss of these elements which triggers cell senescence. It remains to be determined if the increase in telomerase activity in lens epithelial cells from cataractous lenses is a primary dysregulation that may have a role in the development of the cataract, or is secondary to cataract formation. PMID:10620393

  6. Conditionally reprogrammed normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells display a progenitor-cell-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Francisco R; Ory, Virginie; AlOtaiby, Maram; Rosenfield, Sonia; Furlong, Mary; Cavalli, Luciane R; Johnson, Michael D; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard; Wellstein, Anton; Riegel, Anna T

    2014-01-01

    Mammary epithelial (ME) cells cultured under conventional conditions senesce after several passages. Here, we demonstrate that mouse ME cells isolated from normal mammary glands or from mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Neu-induced mammary tumors, can be cultured indefinitely as conditionally reprogrammed cells (CRCs) on irradiated fibroblasts in the presence of the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632. Cell surface progenitor-associated markers are rapidly induced in normal mouse ME-CRCs relative to ME cells. However, the expression of certain mammary progenitor subpopulations, such as CD49f+ ESA+ CD44+, drops significantly in later passages. Nevertheless, mouse ME-CRCs grown in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix gave rise to mammary acinar structures. ME-CRCs isolated from MMTV-Neu transgenic mouse mammary tumors express high levels of HER2/neu, as well as tumor-initiating cell markers, such as CD44+, CD49f+, and ESA+ (EpCam). These patterns of expression are sustained in later CRC passages. Early and late passage ME-CRCs from MMTV-Neu tumors that were implanted in the mammary fat pads of syngeneic or nude mice developed vascular tumors that metastasized within 6 weeks of transplantation. Importantly, the histopathology of these tumors was indistinguishable from that of the parental tumors that develop in the MMTV-Neu mice. Application of the CRC system to mouse mammary epithelial cells provides an attractive model system to study the genetics and phenotype of normal and transformed mouse epithelium in a defined culture environment and in vivo transplant studies. PMID:24831228

  7. Yap Tunes Airway Epithelial Size and Architecture by Regulating the Identity, Maintenance, and Self-renewal of Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rui; Fallon, Timothy R.; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Pardo-Saganta, Ana; Villoria, Jorge; Mou, Hongmei; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Gonzalez-Celeiro, Meryem; Nunna, Naveen; Hariri, Lida P.; Camargo, Fernando; Ellisen, Leif W.; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Our understanding of how stem cells are regulated to maintain appropriate tissue size and architecture is incomplete. We show that Yap is required for the actual maintenance of an adult mammalian stem cell. Without Yap, adult airway basal stem cells are lost through their unrestrained differentiation, resulting in the simplification of a pseudostratified epithelium into a columnar one. Conversely, Yap overexpression increases stem cell self-renewal and blocks terminal differentiation, resulting in epithelial hyperplasia and stratification. Yap overexpression in differentiated secretory cells causes them to partially reprogram and adopt a stem cell-like identity. In contrast, Yap knockdown prevents the dedifferentiation of secretory cells into stem cells. We then show that Yap functionally interacts with p63, the cardinal transcription factor associated with myriad epithelial basal stem cells. In aggregate, we show that Yap regulates all of the cardinal behaviors of airway epithelial stem cells and in so doing determines epithelial architecture. PMID:25043474

  8. Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Regulates Proliferation of Human Cornea Epithelial Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Martin N.; Ding, Zhenhua; Ng, Madelena Y.; Truong, Thuy T.; Yu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the expression and role of the Wnt signaling pathway in human limbal stem cells (LSCs). Methods. Total RNA was isolated from the human limbus and central cornea. Limbal or cornea-specific transcripts were identified through quantitative real-time PCR. Protein expression of Wnt molecules was confirmed by immunohistochemistry on human ocular tissue. Activation of Wnt signaling using lithium chloride was achieved in vitro and its effects on LSC differentiation and proliferation were evaluated. Results. Expression of Wnt2, Wnt6, Wnt11, Wnt16b, and four Wnt inhibitors were specific to the limbal region, whereas Wnt3, Wnt7a, Wnt7b, and Wnt10a were upregulated in the central cornea. Nuclear localization of ?-catenin was observed in a very small subset of basal epithelial cells only at the limbus. Activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling increased the proliferation and colony-forming efficiency of primary human LSCs. The stem cell phenotype was maintained, as shown by higher expression levels of putative corneal epithelial stem cell markers, ATP-binding cassette family G2 and ?Np63?, and low expression levels of mature cornea epithelial cell marker, cytokeratin 12. Conclusions. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Wnt signaling is present in the ocular surface epithelium and plays an important role in the regulation of LSC proliferation. Modulation of Wnt signaling could be of clinical application to increase the efficiency of ex vivo expansion of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells for transplantation. PMID:21357396

  9. Annexin A2 mediates secretion of collagen VI, pulmonary elasticity and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dassah, MaryAnn; Almeida, Dena; Hahn, Rebecca; Bonaldo, Paolo; Worgall, Stefan; Hajjar, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The annexins are an evolutionarily conserved family of phospholipid-binding proteins of largely unknown function. We observed that the AnxA2?/? lung basement membrane specifically lacks collagen VI (COL6), and postulated that ANXA2 directs bronchial epithelial cell secretion of COL6, an unusually large multimeric protein. COL6 serves to anchor cells to basement membranes and, unlike other collagens, undergoes multimerization prior to secretion. Here, we show that AnxA2?/? mice have reduced exercise tolerance with impaired lung tissue elasticity, which was phenocopied in Col6a1?/? mice. In vitro, AnxA2?/? fibroblasts retained COL6 within intracellular vesicles and adhered poorly to their matrix unless ANXA2 expression was restored. In vivo, AnxA2?/? bronchial epithelial cells underwent apoptosis and disadhesion. Immunoprecipitation and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ANXA2 associates with COL6 and the SNARE proteins SNAP-23 and VAMP2 at secretory vesicle membranes of bronchial epithelial cells, and that absence of ANXA2 leads to retention of COL6 in a late-Golgi, VAMP2-positive compartment. These results define a new role for ANXA2 in the COL6 secretion pathway, and further show that this pathway establishes cell–matrix interactions that underlie normal pulmonary function and epithelial cell survival. PMID:24357721

  10. Alteration of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Tubular Epithelial Cells: From Acute Kidney Injury to Renal Fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Noémie; Hertig, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Renal proximal tubular cells are the most energy-demanding cells in the body. The ATP that they use is mostly produced in their mitochondrial and peroxisomal compartments, by the oxidation of fatty acids. When those cells are placed under a biological stress, such as a transient hypoxia, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is shut down for a period of time that outlasts injury, and carbohydrate oxidation does not take over. Facing those metabolic constraints, surviving tubular epithelial cells exhibit a phenotypic switch that includes cytoskeletal rearrangement and production of extracellular matrix proteins, most probably contributing to acute kidney injury-induced renal fibrogenesis, thence to the development of chronic kidney disease. Here, we review experimental evidence that dysregulation of FAO profoundly affects the fate of tubular epithelial cells, by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and eventually interstitial fibrosis. Restoring physiological production of energy is undoubtedly a possible therapeutic approach to unlock the mesenchymal reprograming of tubular epithelial cells in the kidney. In this respect, the benefit of the use of fibrates is uncertain, but new drugs that could specifically target this metabolic pathway, and, hopefully, attenuate renal fibrosis merit future research. PMID:26301223

  11. Antiadhesive Character of Mucin O-glycans at the Apical Surface of Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Mika; Ricciuto, Jessica; Tisdale, Ann; Gipson, Ilene K.; Mantelli, Flavio; Argüeso, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Prolonged contact of opposite mucosal surfaces, which occurs on the ocular surface, oral cavity, reproductive tract, and gut, requires a specialized apical cell surface that prevents adhesion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mucin O-glycans to the antiadhesive character of human corneal–limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells. Methods Mucin O-glycan biosynthesis in HCLE cells was disrupted by metabolic interference with benzyl-?-GalNAc. The cell surface mucin MUC16 and its carbohydrate epitope H185 were detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. HCLE cell surface features were assessed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Cell–cell adhesion assays were performed under static conditions and in a parallel plate laminar flow chamber. Results Benzyl-?-GalNAc disrupted the biosynthesis of O-glycans without affecting apomucin biosynthesis or cell surface morphology. Static adhesion assays showed that the apical surface of differentiated HCLE cells expressing MUC16 and H185 was more antiadhesive than undifferentiated HCLE cells, which lacked MUC16. Abrogation of mucin O-glycosylation in differentiated cultures with benzyl-?-GalNAc resulted in increased adhesion of applied corneal epithelial cells and corneal fibroblasts. The antiadhesive effect of mucin O-glycans was further demonstrated by fluorescence video microscopy in dynamic flow adhesion assays. Cationized ferritin labeling of the cell surface indicated that anionic repulsion did not contribute to the antiadhesive character of the apical surface. Conclusions These results indicate that epithelial O-glycans contribute to the antiadhesive properties of cell surface–associated mucins in corneal epithelial cells and suggest that alterations in mucin O-glycosylation are involved in the pathology of drying mucosal diseases (e.g., dry eye). PMID:18172093

  12. Cell and Molecular Biology of Ataxia Telangiectasia Heterozygous Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Irradiated in Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Autologous isolates of cell types from obligate heterozygotes with the autosomal disorder ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T)were used to begin a tissue culture model for assessing pathways of radiation-induced cancer formation in this target tissue. This was done by establishing cultures of stromal fibroblasts and long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in standard 2-dimensional tissue culture in order to establish expression of markers detailing early steps of carcinogenesis. The presumptive breast cancer susceptibility of A-T heterozygotes as a sequel to damage caused by ionizing radiation provided reason to study expression of markers in irradiated HMEC. Findings from our study with HMEC have included determination of differences in specific protein expression amongst growth phase (e.g., log vs stationary) and growth progression (e.g., pass 7 vs pass 9), as well as differences in morphologic markers within populations of irradiated HMEC (e.g., development of multinucleated cells).

  13. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Modulates Cell Death in Human Endocervical Epithelial Cells through Export of Exosome-Associated cIAP2.

    PubMed

    Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-09-01

    Several bacterial pathogens persist and survive in the host by modulating host cell death pathways. We previously demonstrated that Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, protects against exogenous induction of apoptosis in human cervical epithelial cells. However, induction of cell death by N. gonorrhoeae has also been reported in other cell types. The mechanisms by which N. gonorrhoeae modulates cell death are not clear, although a role for the inhibitor of apoptosis-2 (cIAP2) has been proposed. In this study, we confirmed that N. gonorrhoeae induces production of cIAP2 in human cervical epithelial cells. High levels of intracellular cIAP2 were detected early after N. gonorrhoeae stimulation, which was followed by a marked decrease at 24 h. At this time point, we observed increased levels of extracellular cIAP2 associated with exosomes and an overall increase in production of exosomes. Inhibition of cIAP2 in N. gonorrhoeae-stimulated epithelial cells resulted in increased cell death and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production. Collectively these results indicate that N. gonorrhoeae stimulation of human endocervical epithelial cells induces the release of cIAP2, an essential regulator of cell death and immune signaling. PMID:26077759

  14. Endocytosis of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Bronchial Epithelial and Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kayo; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Manabu; Aoki, Kaoru; Takanashi, Seiji; Okamoto, Masanori; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelial cells are crucial targets for the safety assessment of inhalation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which resemble asbestos particles in shape. Intrinsic properties of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) are known to cause potentially hazardous effects on intracellular and extracellular pathways. These interactions alter cellular signaling and affect major cell functions, resulting in cell death, lysosome injury, reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis, and cytokine release. Furthermore, CNTs are emerging as a novel class of autophagy inducers. Thus, in this study, we focused on the mechanisms of MWCNT uptake into the human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and human mesothelial cells (HMCs). We verified that MWCNTs are actively internalized into HBECs and HMCs and were accumulated in the lysosomes of the cells after 24-hour treatment. Next, we determined which endocytosis pathways (clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis) were associated with MWCNT internalization by using corresponding endocytosis inhibitors, in two nonphagocytic cell lines derived from bronchial epithelial cells and mesothelioma cells. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors significantly suppressed MWCNT uptake, whereas caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were also found to be involved in MWCNT uptake. Thus, MWCNTs were positively taken up by nonphagocytic cells, and their cytotoxicity was closely related to these three endocytosis pathways. PMID:26090445

  15. Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M.; Menter, David G.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. . E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu

    2007-07-06

    Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.

  16. Roles of epithelial cell-derived periostin in TGF-? activation, collagen production, and collagen gel elasticity in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Sukhvinder S.; Yuan, Shaopeng; Innes, Anh L.; Kerr, Sheena; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Muller, Susan J.; Fahy, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Periostin is considered to be a matricellular protein with expression typically confined to cells of mesenchymal origin. Here, by using in situ hybridization, we show that periostin is specifically up-regulated in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic subjects, and in vitro, we show that periostin protein is basally secreted by airway epithelial cells in response to IL-13 to influence epithelial cell function, epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, and extracellular matrix organization. In primary human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with periostin and epithelial cells overexpressing periostin, we reveal a function for periostin in stimulating the TGF-? signaling pathway in a mechanism involving matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. Furthermore, conditioned medium from the epithelial cells overexpressing periostin caused TGF-?–dependent secretion of type 1 collagen by airway fibroblasts. In addition, mixing recombinant periostin with type 1 collagen in solution caused a dramatic increase in the elastic modulus of the collagen gel, indicating that periostin alters collagen fibrillogenesis or cross-linking and leads to stiffening of the matrix. Epithelial cell-derived periostin in asthma has roles in TGF-? activation and collagen gel elasticity in asthma. PMID:20660732

  17. Long-Term Live Cell Imaging of Cell Migration: Effects of Pathogenic Fungi on Human Epithelial Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Wöllert, Torsten; Langford, George M

    2016-01-01

    Long-term live cell imaging was used in this study to determine the responses of human epithelial cells to pathogenic biofilms formed by Candida albicans. Epithelial cells of the skin represent the front line of defense against invasive pathogens such as C. albicans but under certain circumstances, especially when the host's immune system is compromised, the skin barrier is breached. The mechanisms by which the fungal pathogen penetrates the skin and invade the deeper layers are not fully understood. In this study we used keratinocytes grown in culture as an in vitro model system to determine changes in host cell migration and the actin cytoskeleton in response to virulence factors produced by biofilms of pathogenic C. albicans. It is clear that changes in epithelial cell migration are part of the response to virulence factors secreted by biofilms of C. albicans and the actin cytoskeleton is the downstream effector that mediates cell migration. Our goal is to understand the mechanism by which virulence factors hijack the signaling pathways of the actin cytoskeleton to alter cell migration and thereby invade host tissues. To understand the dynamic changes of the actin cytoskeleton during infection, we used long-term live cell imaging to obtain spatial and temporal information of actin filament dynamics and to identify signal transduction pathways that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Long-term live cell imaging was achieved using a high resolution, multi-mode epifluorescence microscope equipped with specialized light sources, high-speed cameras with high sensitivity detectors, and specific biocompatible fluorescent markers. In addition to the multi-mode epifluorescence microscope, a spinning disk confocal long-term live cell imaging system (Olympus CV1000) equipped with a stage incubator to create a stable in vitro environment for long-term real-time and time-lapse microscopy was used. Detailed descriptions of these two long-term live cell imaging systems are provided. PMID:26498777

  18. Inhibition of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion on host epithelial cells by Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) WALL.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, D; Niranjali, S

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the sequence of events leading to infection. Previous data are available on the effect of Holarrhena antidysenterica on antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial action, but there is little information on the mechanism of action of the various aspects of EPEC-induced diarrhoea, namely adherence and translocation of the effector molecule to intestinal epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica (AHA) on interference in the mechanism of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) adhesion on host epithelial cells (INT 407 and HEp2). To determine the impact of AHA on epithelial cells, cytotoxicity (LDH), adherence, apoptotic and ultrastructural studies were performed. To analyse the effect of AHA on EPEC secreted proteins, especially EspD, INT 407 monolayers were infected with EPEC and AHA-treated EPEC, followed by immunoblotting, probed with anti EspD antisera. The maximum percentage of LDH leakage was reduced in AHA-treated EPEC (400 microg/mL) in both cell lines. Reduced bacterial adherence was observed under light microscopy and altered apoptotic changes were visualized using propidium iodide staining in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy, in both cell lines infected with AHA-treated EPEC and these results were confirmed with transmission electron microscope images. The suppression of type III secretory proteins (TTSPs), EspD ( approximately 40 kDa), was detected in INT 407 cells infected with AHA-treated EPEC. In conclusion, AHA reduces initial bacterial adhesion to intact epithelial cells and it may exert an antiadherence effect against the pathogenesis of EPEC in host epithelial cells. Thus, the investigations provide a rational basis for the treatment of EPEC-mediated diarrhoea with AHA. PMID:19441013

  19. Epigenetic influences of low-dose bisphenol A in primary human breast epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yu-I; Hsu, Pei-Yin; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Liu, Joseph; Deatherage, Daniel E.; Huang Yiwen; Zuo Tao; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Lin, Ching-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii; Huang, Tim H.-M.

    2010-10-15

    Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during early development may increase breast cancer risk later in life. The changes may persist into puberty and adulthood, suggesting an epigenetic process being imposed in differentiated breast epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which early memory of BPA exposure is imprinted in breast progenitor cells and then passed onto their epithelial progeny are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine epigenetic changes in breast epithelial cells treated with low-dose BPA. We also investigated the effect of BPA on the ER{alpha} signaling pathway and global gene expression profiles. Compared to control cells, nuclear internalization of ER{alpha} was observed in epithelial cells preexposed to BPA. We identified 170 genes with similar expression changes in response to BPA. Functional analysis confirms that gene suppression was mediated in part through an ER{alpha}-dependent pathway. As a result of exposure to BPA or other estrogen-like chemicals, the expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) became epigenetically silenced in breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, increased DNA methylation in the LAMP3 CpG island was this repressive mark preferentially occurred in ER{alpha}-positive breast tumors. These results suggest that the in vitro system developed in our laboratory is a valuable tool for exposure studies of BPA and other xenoestrogens in human cells. Individual and geographical differences may contribute to altered patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation in susceptible loci. Combination of our exposure model with epigenetic analysis and other biochemical assays can give insight into the heritable effect of low-dose BPA in human cells.

  20. Cell sheet technology-driven re-epithelialization and neovascularization of skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, M T; Pirraco, R P; Martins, A R; Santos, T C; Reis, R L; Marques, A P

    2014-07-01

    Skin regeneration remains a challenge, requiring a well-orchestrated interplay of cell-cell and cell-matrix signalling. Cell sheet (CS) engineering, which has the major advantage of allowing the retrieval of the intact cell layers along with their naturally organized extracellular matrix (ECM), has been poorly explored for the purpose of creating skin substitutes and skin regeneration. This work proposes the use of CS technology to engineer cellular constructs based on human keratinocytes (hKC), key players in wound re-epithelialization, dermal fibroblasts (hDFb), responsible for ECM remodelling, and dermal microvascular endothelial cells (hDMEC), part of the dermal vascular network and modulators of angiogenesis. Homotypic and heterotypic three-dimensional (3-D) CS-based constructs were developed simultaneously to target wound re-vascularization and re-epithelialization. After implantation of the constructs in murine full-thickness wounds, human cells were engrafted into the host wound bed and were present in the neotissue formed up to 14 days post-implantation. Different outcomes were obtained by varying the composition and organization of the 3-D constructs. Both hKC and hDMEC significantly contributed to re-epithelialization by promoting rapid wound closure and early epithelial coverage. Moreover, a significant increase in the density of vessels at day 7 and the incorporation of hDMEC in the neoformed vasculature confirmed its role over neotissue vacularization. As a whole, the obtained results confirmed that the proposed 3-D CS-based constructs provided the necessary cell machinery, when in a specific microenvironment, guiding both re-vascularization and re-epithelialization. Although dependent on the nature of the constructs, the results obtained sustain the hypothesis that different CS-based constructs lead to improved skin healing. PMID:24650971

  1. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, D.; Lee, S.P.; Hayashi, A. )

    1991-05-01

    We describe the successful isolation and maintenance of primary cultures of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. The surgically removed gallbladder was treated with trypsin/EDTA for 45 minutes and epithelial cells were collected and resuspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated on Vitrogen-coated culture dishes. Each gallbladder yielded approximately 12 to 15 x 10{sup 6} columnar epithelial cells, greater than 95% of which were viable by trypan blue exclusion. In culture, cells maintained their polarity. They were arranged and grew in small and tight clusters that coalesced at confluency. When examined using transmission electron microscopy, prominent and numerous microville were identified on the apical portion of the plasma membrane. Cells were connected by well-formed desmosomes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clusters of polyhedral cells with numerous papillary projections. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated uniform staining of cells to keratin 35BH11 and AE1. Histochemical studies were positive for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and negative for glucose-6-phosphatase and albumin. Cells incorporated ({sup 3}H)uridine into intracellular proteins and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine into tissue and secreted mucous glycoproteins linearly over 2 to 24 hours. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a consistent and reproducible number of cells (10 to 12%) at S-phase. However, the number of cells at S-phase was dramatically reduced to almost negligible as cells reached confluency. This method of culturing primary dog gallbladder epithelial cells is highly reproducible and reliable. These cells preserve their state of differentiation, polarity, histochemical and immunohistochemical profile, morphologic, and metabolic integrity with repeated passaging or after being frozen.

  2. Human oral mucosal epithelial cell sheets imaging with high-resolution phase-diversity homodyne OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senda, Naoko; Osawa, Kentaro

    2015-03-01

    There is a need for development of non-invasive technique to evaluate regenerative tissues such as cell sheets for transplantation. We demonstrated non-invasive imaging inside living cell sheets of human oral mucosal epithelial cells by phase-diversity homodyne optical coherence tomography (OCT). The new method OCT developed in Hitachi enables cell imaging because of high resolution (axial resolution; ~2.6 ?m, lateral resolution; ~1 ?m, in the air). Nuclei inside cell sheets were imaged with sufficient spatial resolution to identify each cell. It suggested that the new method OCT could be useful for non-invasive cell sheet evaluation test.

  3. FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Atsuta, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static (‘rear’) cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth. PMID:26130757

  4. The effect of antibody on the adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to bovine mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Olmsted, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of S. aureus to adhere to epithelial cells in the ductuals and alveoli of the gland is believed to add greatly to its virulence and may be necessary for colonization. Two in vitro methods were developed for the purpose of quantifying adherence. Both methods utilize bovine mammary epithelial primary cells as targets for labeled bacteria. In one assay, the bacterial are labeled with (methyl-{sup 3}H) thymidine, and incubated on the primary epithelial monolayers. Adherence of the bacterial sample is expressed as the percent radioactivity in the adherent fraction of the total radioactivity in both fractions. The second assay involves labeling the bacteria with biotin. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is then performed with strepavidin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Both methods have proven to be reliable, and allow for the testing of many criteria in one assay.

  5. FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Atsuta, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-07-01

    When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (e