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Sample records for valence bond vb

  1. Valence-Bond Theory and Chemical Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Douglas J.; Trinajstic, Nenad

    1990-01-01

    Discussed is the importance of valence bond theory on the quantum-mechanical theory of chemical structure and the nature of the chemical bond. Described briefly are early VB theory, development of VB theory, modern versions, solid-state applications, models, treatment in textbooks, and flaws in criticisms of valence bond theory. (KR)

  2. The Valence Bond Interpretation of Molecular Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    1980-01-01

    Presents ways in which the valence bond (VB) theory describes the bonding and geometry of molecules, following directly from earlier principles laid down by Pauling and others. Two other theories (molecular orbital approach and valence shell electron pair repulsion) are discussed and compared to VB. (CS)

  3. Measurement of the low energy spectral contribution in coincidence with valence band (VB) energy levels of Ag(100) using VB-VB coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladen, R. W.; Joglekar, P. V.; Lim, Z. H.; Shastry, K.; Hulbert, S. L.; Weiss, A. H.

    A set of coincidence measurements were obtained for the study and measurement of the electron contribution arising from the inter-valence band (VB) transitions along with the inelastically scattered VB electron contribution. These Auger-unrelated contributions arise in the Auger spectrum (Ag 4p NVV) obtained using Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). The measured Auger-unrelated contribution can be eliminated from Auger spectrum to obtain the spectrum related to Auger. In our VB-VB coincidence measurement, a photon beam of energy 180eV was used to probe the Ag(100) sample. The coincidence spectrum was obtained using two Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers (CMA's). The scan CMA measured the low energy electron contribution in the energy range 0-70eV in coincidence with VB electrons measured by the fixed CMA. In this talk, we present the data obtained for VB-VB coincidence at the valence band energy of 171eV along with the coincidence measurements in the energy range of 4p core and valence band. NSF DMR 0907679, NSF Award Number: 1213727. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DEAC02-98CH10886.

  4. Measurement of the low energy spectral contribution in coincidence with valence band (VB) energy levels of Ag(100) using VB-VB coincidence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, P. V.; Gladen, R.; Lim, Z. H.; Shastry, K.; Hulbert, S. L.; Weiss, A. H.

    2015-03-01

    A set of coincidence measurements were obtained for the study and measurement of the electron contribution arising from the inter-valence band (VB) transitions along with the inelastically scattered VB electron contribution. These Auger-unrelated contributions arise in the Auger spectrum (Ag 4p NVV) obtained using Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS). The measured Auger-unrelated contribution can be eliminated from Auger spectrum to obtain the spectrum related to Auger. In our VB-VB coincidence measurement, a photon beam of energy 180eV was used to probe the Ag(100) sample. The coincidence spectrum was obtained using two Cylindrical Mirror Analyzers (CMA's). The scan CMA measured the low energy electron contribution in the energy range 0-70eV in coincidence with VB electrons measured by the fixed CMA. In this talk, we present the data obtained for VB-VB coincidence at the valence band energy of 171eV along with the coincidence measurements in the energy range of 4p core and valence band. NSF DMR 0907679, NSF Award Number: 1213727. Use of the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, was supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  5. Chemical Bonding: The Orthogonal Valence-Bond View

    PubMed Central

    Sax, Alexander F.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical bonding is the stabilization of a molecular system by charge- and spin-reorganization processes in chemical reactions. These processes are said to be local, because the number of atoms involved is very small. With multi-configurational self-consistent field (MCSCF) wave functions, these processes can be calculated, but the local information is hidden by the delocalized molecular orbitals (MO) used to construct the wave functions. The transformation of such wave functions into valence bond (VB) wave functions, which are based on localized orbitals, reveals the hidden information; this transformation is called a VB reading of MCSCF wave functions. The two-electron VB wave functions describing the Lewis electron pair that connects two atoms are frequently called covalent or neutral, suggesting that these wave functions describe an electronic situation where two electrons are never located at the same atom; such electronic situations and the wave functions describing them are called ionic. When the distance between two atoms decreases, however, every covalent VB wave function composed of non-orthogonal atomic orbitals changes its character from neutral to ionic. However, this change in the character of conventional VB wave functions is hidden by its mathematical form. Orthogonal VB wave functions composed of orthonormalized orbitals never change their character. When localized fragment orbitals are used instead of atomic orbitals, one can decide which local information is revealed and which remains hidden. In this paper, we analyze four chemical reactions by transforming the MCSCF wave functions into orthogonal VB wave functions; we show how the reactions are influenced by changing the atoms involved or by changing their local symmetry. Using orthogonal instead of non-orthogonal orbitals is not just a technical issue; it also changes the interpretation, revealing the properties of wave functions that remain otherwise undetected. PMID:25906476

  6. On the Relative Merits of Non-Orthogonal and Orthogonal Valence Bond Methods Illustrated on the Hydrogen Molecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Valence bond (VB) is one of the cornerstone theories of quantum chemistry. Even if in practical applications the molecular orbital (MO) approach has obtained more attention, some basic chemical concepts (such as the nature of the chemical bond and the failure of the single determinant-based MO methods in describing the bond cleavage) are normally

  7. On the Relative Merits of Non-Orthogonal and Orthogonal Valence Bond Methods Illustrated on the Hydrogen Molecule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angeli, Celestino; Cimiraglia, Renzo; Malrieu, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Valence bond (VB) is one of the cornerstone theories of quantum chemistry. Even if in practical applications the molecular orbital (MO) approach has obtained more attention, some basic chemical concepts (such as the nature of the chemical bond and the failure of the single determinant-based MO methods in describing the bond cleavage) are normally…

  8. Red-Shifting versus Blue-Shifting Hydrogen Bonds: Perspective from Ab Initio Valence Bond Theory.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin; Zhang, Yang; Weng, Xinzhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong

    2016-05-01

    Both proper, red-shifting and improper, blue-shifting hydrogen bonds have been well-recognized with enormous experimental and computational studies. The current consensus is that there is no difference in nature between these two kinds of hydrogen bonds, where the electrostatic interaction dominates. Since most if not all the computational studies are based on molecular orbital theory, it would be interesting to gain insight into the hydrogen bonds with modern valence bond (VB) theory. In this work, we performed ab initio VBSCF computations on a series of hydrogen-bonding systems, where the sole hydrogen bond donor CF3H interacts with ten hydrogen bond acceptors Y (═NH2CH3, NH3, NH2Cl, OH(-), H2O, CH3OH, (CH3)2O, F(-), HF, or CH3F). This series includes four red-shifting and six blue-shifting hydrogen bonds. Consistent with existing findings in literature, VB-based energy decomposition analyses show that electrostatic interaction plays the dominating role and polarization plays the secondary role in all these hydrogen-bonding systems, and the charge transfer interaction, which denotes the hyperconjugation effect, contributes only slightly to the total interaction energy. As VB theory describes any real chemical bond in terms of pure covalent and ionic structures, our fragment interaction analysis reveals that with the approaching of a hydrogen bond acceptor Y, the covalent state of the F3C-H bond tends to blue-shift, due to the strong repulsion between the hydrogen atom and Y. In contrast, the ionic state F3C(-) H(+) leads to the red-shifting of the C-H vibrational frequency, owing to the attraction between the proton and Y. Thus, the relative weights of the covalent and ionic structures essentially determine the direction of frequency change. Indeed, we find the correlation between the structural weights and vibrational frequency changes. PMID:27074500

  9. Generalized resonating valence bond description of cyclobutadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Voter, A.F.; Goddard, W.A. III

    1986-05-28

    The low-lying electronic states of square and rectangular cyclobutadiene (CBD) are calculated by using the generalized resonating valence bond (GRVB) method and compared with the results from Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction wavefunctions. We find that simple valence bond concepts correctly predict the sequence of excited states (including ground-state singlet) and the distortion to a rectangular geometry for the ground state. Contrary to common expectation, we find that the singlet ground state of square CBD has 22 kcal of resonance energy (relative to a single valence bond structure). Thus, CBD is not antiresonant, though it is much less stable than normal conjugated systems.

  10. A tutorial for understanding chemical reactivity through the valence bond approach.

    PubMed

    Usharani, Dandamudi; Lai, Wenzhen; Li, Chunsen; Chen, Hui; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason

    2014-07-21

    This is a tutorial on the usage of valence bond (VB) diagrams for understanding chemical reactivity in general, and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactivity in particular. The tutorial instructs the reader how to construct the VB diagrams and how to estimate HAT barriers from raw data, starting with the simplest reaction H + H2 and going all the way to HAT in the enzyme cytochrome P450. Other reactions are treated as well, and some unifying principles are outlined. The tutorial projects the unity of reactivity treatments, following Coulson's dictum "give me insight, not numbers", albeit with its modern twist: giving numbers and insight. PMID:24710199

  11. When valence bond wave functions are analyzed through QTAIM: Conceptual incompatibilities in H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro-Costas, David; Mosquera, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen molecule was chosen, for simplicity, to analyze its valence bond (VB) wave function with the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). We find that the usual association of its covalent and ionic contributions to individual Lewis structures does not agree with the localization and delocalization indices between both hydrogens defined within the QTAIM framework. Concretely, we analyzed the dependence of both indices with the internuclear distance and with different ionic/covalent relative weightings. The results indicate that QTAIM localization and delocalization indices should not be estimated from interpretations of the VB wave function in terms of the Lewis model.

  12. A valence bond study of the low-lying states of the NF molecule.

    PubMed

    Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Shaik, Sason; Hiberty, Philippe C

    2008-07-14

    The electronic structures of the three lowest-lying states of NF are investigated by means of modern valence bond (VB) methods such as the VB self-consistent field (VBSCF), breathing orbital VB (BOVB), and VB configuration interaction (VBCI) methods. The wave functions for the three states are expressed in terms of 9-12 VB structures, which can be further condensed into three or four classical Lewis structures, whose weights are quantitatively estimated. Despite the compactness of the wave functions, the BOVB and VBCI methods reproduce the spectroscopic properties and dipole moments of the three states well, in good agreement with previous computational studies and experimental values. By analogy to the isoelectronic O(2) molecule, the ground state (3)Sigma(-) possesses both a sigma bond and 3-electron pi bonds. However, here the polar sigma bond contributes the most to the overall bonding. It is augmented by a fractional (19%) contribution of three-electron pi bonding that arises from pi charge transfer from fluorine to nitrogen. In the singlet (1)Delta and (1)Sigma(+) excited states the pi-bonding component is classically covalent, and it contributes 28% and 37% to the overall bonding picture for the two states, respectively. The resonance energies are calculated and reveal that pi bonding contributes at least 24, 35 and 42 kcal mol(-1) to the total bonding energies of the (3)Sigma(-), (1)Delta and (1)Sigma(+) states, respectively. Some unusual properties of the NF molecule, like the equilibrium distance shortening and bonding energy increasing upon excitation, the counterintuitive values of the dipole moments and the reversal of the dipole moments as the bond is stretched, are interpreted in the light of the simple valence bond picture. The overall polarity of the molecule is very small in the ground state, and is opposite to the relative electronegativity of N vs F in the singlet excited states. The values of the dipole moments in the three states are quantitatively accounted for by the calculated weights of the VB structures. PMID:18509836

  13. Valence-bond states for quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Verstraete, F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-12-01

    We propose a way of universal quantum computation by doing joint measurements on distributed singlets. We show how these joint measurements become local measurements when the singlets are interpreted as the virtual components of a large valence-bond state. This proves the equivalence of the cluster-state-based quantum computational model and the teleportation-based model, and we discuss several features and possible extensions. We show that all stabilizer states have a very simple interpretation in terms of valence-bond solids, which allows to understand their entanglement properties in a transparent way.

  14. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 1. Using Spreadsheet Calculations to Examine the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A three-part project for students in physical chemistry, computational chemistry, or independent study is described in which they explore applications of valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital-configuration interaction (MO-CI) treatments of H[subscript 2]. Using a scientific spreadsheet, students construct potential-energy (PE) curves for several…

  15. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 1. Using Spreadsheet Calculations to Examine the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A three-part project for students in physical chemistry, computational chemistry, or independent study is described in which they explore applications of valence bond (VB) and molecular orbital-configuration interaction (MO-CI) treatments of H[subscript 2]. Using a scientific spreadsheet, students construct potential-energy (PE) curves for several

  16. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-28

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism. PMID:23635123

  17. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. I. Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted excited valence bond wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this series, the n-body reduced density matrix (n-RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals and their applications to ab initio valence bond (VB) methods are presented. As the first paper of this series, Hamiltonian matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions are explicitly provided by means of nonorthogonal orbital based RDM approach. To this end, a more generalized Wick's theorem, called enhanced Wick's theorem, is presented both in arithmetical and in graphical forms, by which the deduction of expressions for the matrix elements between internally contracted VB wave functions is dramatically simplified, and the matrix elements are finally expressed in terms of tensor contractions of electronic integrals and n-RDMs of the reference VB self-consistent field wave function. A string-based algorithm is developed for the purpose of evaluating n-RDMs in an efficient way. Using the techniques presented in this paper, one is able to develop new methods and efficient algorithms for nonorthogonal orbital based many-electron theory much easier than by use of the first quantized formulism.

  18. Physics of Resonating Valence Bond Spin Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildeboer, Julia Saskia

    This thesis will investigate various aspects of the physics of resonating valence bond spin liquids. After giving an introduction to the world that lies beyond Landau's priciple of symmetry breaking, e.g. giving an overview of exotic magnetic phases and how they can be described and (possibly) found, we will study a spin-rotationally invariant model system with a known parent Hamiltonian, and argue its ground state to lie within a highly sought after exotic phase, namely the Z2 quantum spin liquid phase. A newly developed numerical procedure --Pfaffian Monte Carlo-- will be introduced to amass evidence that our model Hamiltonian indeed exhibits a Z2 quantum spin liquid phase. Subsequently, we will prove a useful mathematical property of the resonating valence bond states: these states are shown to be linearly independent. Various lattices are investigated concerning this property, and its applications and usefullness are discussed. Eventually, we present a simplified model system describing the interplay of the well known Heisenberg interaction and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction term acting on a sawtooth chain. The effect of the interplay between the two interaction couplings on the phase diagram is investigated. To do so, we employ modern techniques such as the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) scheme. We find that for weak DM interaction the system exhibits valence bond order. However, a strong enough DM coupling destroys this order.

  19. A Valence-Bond/Hartree Fock method to determine the Hubbard transfer integrals in organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castet, F.; Ducasse, L.; Fritsch, A.

    1998-06-01

    In previous reports [F. Castet, A. Fritsch, L. Ducasse, J. Phys. (Paris) I, 6 (1996) 583; L. Ducasse, A. Fritsch, F. Castet, Synth. Metals 85 (1997) 1627], we presented a new mixed Valence-Bond/Hartree-Fock (VB/HF) method to extract the Extended Hubbard Coulombic parameters in organic conductors. In our approach, calculations (restricted to all valence electrons) are performed on finite size clusters using crystal data and molecular orbitals (MOs) localised on fragments. The optimized MOs depend on the charge of the fragment. The present paper describes the calculation scheme for matrix elements between distinct Valence-Bond configurations involved in charge transfer processes, i.e. the transfer integrals. Calculations were performed for different representative salts with either quasi one-dimensional or two-dimensional character, using different semi-empirical hamiltonians.

  20. The variational subspace valence bond method

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Graham D.

    2015-04-07

    The variational subspace valence bond (VSVB) method based on overlapping orbitals is introduced. VSVB provides variational support against collapse for the optimization of overlapping linear combinations of atomic orbitals (OLCAOs) using modified orbital expansions, without recourse to orthogonalization. OLCAO have the advantage of being naturally localized, chemically intuitive (to individually model bonds and lone pairs, for example), and transferrable between different molecular systems. Such features are exploited to avoid key computational bottlenecks. Since the OLCAO can be doubly occupied, VSVB can access very large problems, and calculations on systems with several hundred atoms are presented.

  1. Orbital Exponent Optimization in Elementary VB Calculations of the Chemical Bond in the Ground State of Simple Molecular Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnasco, Valerio

    2008-01-01

    Orbital exponent optimization in the elementary ab-initio VB calculation of the ground states of H[subscript 2][superscript +], H[subscript 2], He[subscript 2][superscript +], He[subscript 2] gives a fair description of the exchange-overlap component of the interatomic interaction that is important in the bond region. Correct bond lengths and…

  2. Charge-Shift Bonding Emerges as a Distinct Electron-Pair Bonding Family from Both Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Theories.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Danovich, David; Wu, Wei; Braïda, Benoît; Hiberty, Philippe C; Shaik, Sason

    2014-06-10

    The charge-shift bonding (CSB) concept was originally discovered through valence bond (VB) calculations. Later, CSB was found to have signatures in atoms-in-molecules and electron-localization-function and in experimental electron density measurements. However, the CSB concept has never been derived from a molecular orbital (MO)-based theory. We now provide a proof of principle that an MO-based approach enables one to derive the CSB family alongside the distinctly different classical family of covalent bonds. In this bridging energy decomposition analysis, the covalent-ionic resonance energy, RECS, of a bond is extracted by cloning an MO-based purely covalent reference state, which is a constrained two-configuration wave function. The energy gap between this reference state and the variational TCSCF ground state yields numerical values for RECS, which correlate with the values obtained at the VBSCF level. This simple MO-based method, which only takes care of static electron correlation, is already sufficient for distinguishing the classical covalent or polar-covalent bonds from charge-shift bonds. The equivalence of the VB and MO-based methods is further demonstrated when both methods are augmented by dynamic correlation. Thus, it is shown from both MO and VB perspectives that the bonding in the CSB family does not arise from electron correlation. Considering that the existence of the CSB family is associated also with quite a few experimental observations that we already reviewed ( Shaik , S. , Danovich , D. , Wu , W. , and Hiberty , P. C. Nat. Chem. , 2009 , 1 , 443 - 449 ), the new bonding concept has passed by now two stringent tests. This derivation, on the one hand, supports the new concept and on the other, it creates bridges between the two main theories of electronic structure. PMID:26580761

  3. Valence-Bond Concepts in Coordination Chemistry and the Nature of Metal-Metal Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; Herman, Zelek S.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the valence-bond method, applying it to some coordination compounds of metals, especially those involving metal-metal bonds. Suggests that transition metals can form as many as nine covalent bonds, permitting valence-theory to be extended to transition metal compounds in a more effective way than has been possible before. (JN)

  4. A valence bond study of the Bergman cyclization: geometric features, resonance energy, and nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) values

    PubMed

    Galbraith; Schreiner; Harris; Wei; Wittkopp; Shaik

    2000-04-14

    The Bergman cyclization of (Z)-hex-3-ene-1,5-diynes (1, enediynes), which produces pharmacologically important DNA-cleaving biradicals (1,4-benzyne, 2), was studied by using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density-functional theory (DFT) based valence bond (VB) methods (VB-HF and VB-DFT, respectively). We found that only three VB configurations are needed to arrive at results not too far from complete active space [CASSCF(6 x 6)] computations, while the quality of VB-DTF utilizing the same three configurations improves upon CASSCF(6 x 6) analogous to CASPT2. The dominant VB configuration in 1 contributes little to 2, while the most important biradical configuration in 2 plays a negligible role in 1. The avoided crossing of the energy curves of these two configurations along the reaction coordinate leads to the transition state (TS). As a consequence of the shape and position of the crossing section, the changes in geometry and in the electronic wavefunction along the reaction coordinate are non-synchronous; the TS is geometrically approximately 80% product-like and electronically approximately 70% reactant-like. While the pi resonance in the TS is very small, it is large (64.4 kcal mol(-1)) for 2 (cf. benzene=61.5 kcal mol(-1)). As a consequence, substituents operating on the sigma electrons should be much more effective in changing the Bergman reaction cyclization barrier. Furthermore, additional sigma resonance in 2 results in unusually high values for the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS, a direct measure for aromaticity). Similarly, the high NICS value of the TS is due mostly to sigma resonance to which the NICS procedure is relatively sensitive. PMID:10840967

  5. A valence bond model for aqueous Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in the AMOEBA polarizable force field.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jin Yu; Ponder, Jay W

    2013-04-01

    A general molecular mechanics (MM) model for treating aqueous Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions was developed based on valence bond (VB) theory and incorporated into the atomic multipole optimized energetics for biomolecular applications (AMOEBA) polarizable force field. Parameters were obtained by fitting MM energies to that computed by ab initio methods for gas-phase tetra- and hexa-aqua metal complexes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the proposed AMOEBA-VB model were performed for each transition metal ion in aqueous solution, and solvent coordination was evaluated. Results show that the AMOEBA-VB model generates the correct square-planar geometry for gas-phase tetra-aqua Cu(2+) complex and improves the accuracy of MM model energetics for a number of ligation geometries when compared to quantum mechanical (QM) computations. On the other hand, both AMOEBA and AMOEBA-VB generate results for Zn(2+)-water complexes in good agreement with QM calculations. Analyses of the MD trajectories revealed a six-coordination first solvation shell for both Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions in aqueous solution, with ligation geometries falling in the range reported by previous studies. PMID:23212979

  6. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  7. Extended quantum dimer model and novel valence-bond phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Kouki; Totsuka, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    We extend the quantum dimer model (QDM) introduced by Rokhsar and Kivelson so as to construct a concrete example of the model which exhibits the first-order phase transition between different valence-bond solids suggested recently by Batista and Trugman and look for the possibility of other exotic dimer states. We show that our model contains three exotic valence-bond phases (herringbone, checkerboard and dimer smectic) in the ground-state phase diagram and that it realizes the phase transition from the staggered valence-bond solid to the herringbone. The checkerboard phase has four-fold rotational symmetry, while the dimer smectic, in the absence of quantum fluctuations, has massive degeneracy originating from partial ordering only in one of the two spatial directions. A resonance process involving three dimers resolves this massive degeneracy and the dimer smectic becomes ordered (order from disorder).

  8. 1D valence bond solids in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders W.

    2015-09-01

    A Valence bond solid (VBS) is a nonmagnetic, long-range ordered state of a quantum spin system where local spin singlets are formed in some regular pattern. We here study the competition between VBS order and a fully polarized ferromagnetic state as function of an external magnetic field in a one-dimensional extended Heisenberg model—the J-Q2 model— using stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum Monte Carlo simulations with directed loop updates. We discuss the ground state phase diagram.

  9. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. IV. The automatic implementation of the Hessian based VBSCF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xun; Chen, Zhenhua; Wu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the Hessian matrix of valence bond (VB) self-consistent field (VBSCF) energy with respect to orbitals are evaluated by applying the nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices, which was presented in Paper I. To this end, an automatic formula/code generator (AFCG) is developed; with which the matrix elements between internally contracted excited configurations of VB wave function and the corresponding codes are generated automatically. Compared to the tedious manual formula deducing and implementing, AFCG is much more convenient and efficient, and enables us to avoid troublesome debugging. With the help of AFCG, the Hessian-based Newton-Raphson algorithm is implemented for the VBSCF orbital optimization. Test calculations indicate that the Newton-Raphson algorithm converges quadratically and has much better convergence behavior than the gradient-based LBFGS algorithms. Furthermore, a combined approach with LBFGS and Newton-Raphson algorithms is applied to reduce the total CPU time of the calculation.

  10. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo algorithms defined on trees.

    PubMed

    Deschner, Andreas; Sørensen, Erik S

    2014-09-01

    We present a class of algorithms for performing valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo of quantum spin models. Valence-bond quantum Monte Carlo is a projective T=0 Monte Carlo method based on sampling of a set of operator strings that can be viewed as forming a treelike structure. The algorithms presented here utilize the notion of a worm that moves up and down this tree and changes the associated operator string. In quite general terms, we derive a set of equations whose solutions correspond to a whole class of algorithms. As specific examples of this class of algorithms, we focus on two cases. The bouncing worm algorithm, for which updates are always accepted by allowing the worm to bounce up and down the tree, and the driven worm algorithm, where a single parameter controls how far up the tree the worm reaches before turning around. The latter algorithm involves only a single bounce where the worm turns from going up the tree to going down. The presence of the control parameter necessitates the introduction of an acceptance probability for the update. PMID:25314561

  11. Mesoscopic resonating valence bond system on a triple dot.

    PubMed

    Le Hur, Karyn; Recher, Patrik; Dupont, Emilie; Loss, Daniel

    2006-03-17

    We theoretically introduce a mesoscopic pendulum from a triple dot. The pendulum is fastened through a singly occupied dot (spin qubit). Two other strongly capacitively coupled islands form a double-dot charge qubit with one electron in excess oscillating between the two low-energy charge states (1,0) and (0,1). The triple dot is placed between two superconducting leads. Under realistic conditions, the main proximity effect stems from the injection of resonating singlet (valence) bonds on the triple dot. This gives rise to a Josephson current that is charge- and spin-dependent and, as a consequence, exhibits a distinct resonance as a function of the superconducting phase difference. PMID:16605773

  12. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  13. Valence bond supersolid in a bilayer extended Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kwai-Kong

    2015-02-01

    The hardcore extended Bose Hubbard model on a bilayer square lattice with attractive (repulsive) interplane (intraplane) interactions has been investigated numerically. Focusing on the strong interplane hopping parameter regime, triplet valence bonds of dimers are stabilized to form valence bond checkerboard solid at quarter filling. Increasing the particle number we confirm the presence of the exotic valence bond supersolid phase, where the valence bond solid ordering and the boson superfluidity coexist. Rising further the particle number will lead to a checkerboard solid of dimer pair at half filling for strong intraplane repulsion, or a valence bond Mott insulator for weak repulsive interactions. We analyze the rich ground state phase diagrams of this model, which can be experimentally realized in optical lattices of cold atoms.

  14. Order Parameter to Characterize Valence-Bond-Solid States in Quantum Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Todo, Synge

    2003-03-01

    We propose an order parameter to characterize valence-bond-solid (VBS) states in quantum spin chains, given by the ground-state expectation value of a unitary operator appearing in the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis argument. We show that the order parameter changes the sign according to the number of valence bonds (broken valence bonds) at the boundary for periodic (open) systems. This allows us to determine the phase transition point in between different VBS states. We demonstrate this theory in the successive dimerization transitions of the bond-alternating Heisenberg chains and spin ladders using the quantum Monte Carlo method.

  15. Magnetization jumps in 1D valence bond solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders

    2015-03-01

    A valence bond solid (VBS) is a long-range nonmagnetic state with broken lattice symmetries that can appear in certain quantum spin systems with competing interactions. Recent innovations in models and simulation techniques have enabled large scale numerical studies of these states and associated quantum phase transitions from the standard magnetic (Néel, for two or more dimensions) or power-law critical states (in one dimension). These studies have found evidence for the fractionalization of triplons into deconfined or nearly deconfined spinons (spin-1/2 bosons) in the VBS phase and at critical points. We here study the VBS and magnetization as a function of an external magnetic field in an extended Heisenberg model, known as the J-Q model, in one dimension. Using the stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum monte carlo method with directed loop updates, we find discontinuities in the induced magnetization from a partially magnetized to a fully polarized state. We characterize the phases and the first-order quantum phase transition.

  16. The itinerant resonating-valence-bond model for superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.H.

    1987-08-01

    It has been proposed by Anderson that the pairing interaction in high temperature superconductors La/sub 2-x/ Sr/sub x/ Cuo/sub 4/ and Yba/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-x/ is magnetic in origin, and the recent discovery of antiferromagnetic ordering in La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4/ has been regarded as strong evidence in support of this so-called resonating-valence-bond (RVB) model. Close examination of the ordered state of this material reveals that it is an itinerant antiferromagnet. Accordingly, the superconducting properties must also be studied using the itinerant model approach, rather than the local moment model discussed so far in literature. This paper reports an approximate solution of the itinerant RVB model of superconductivity. It is shown that superconductivity can take place in a narrow region of the parameter space, and that the fluctuating local exchange field causes the superconducting state to be gapless. 19 refs.

  17. Topological and entanglement properties of resonating valence bond wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poilblanc, Didier; Schuch, Norbert; Pérez-García, David; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2012-07-01

    We examine in details the connections between topological and entanglement properties of short-range resonating valence bond (RVB) wave functions using projected entangled pair states (PEPS) on kagome and square lattices on (quasi)infinite cylinders with generalized boundary conditions (and perimeters with up to 20 lattice spacings). By making use of disconnected topological sectors in the space of dimer lattice coverings, we explicitly derive (orthogonal) “minimally entangled” PEPS RVB states. For the kagome lattice, using the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet as a reference model, we obtain the finite-size scaling with increasing cylinder perimeter of the vanishing energy separations between these states. In particular, we extract two separate (vanishing) energy scales corresponding (i) to insert a vison line between the two ends of the cylinder and (ii) to pull out and freeze a spin at either end. We also investigate the relations between bulk and boundary properties and show that, for a bipartition of the cylinder, the boundary Hamiltonian defined on the edge can be written as a product of a highly nonlocal projector, which fundamentally depends upon boundary conditions, with an emergent (local) SU(2)-invariant one-dimensional (superfluid) t-J Hamiltonian, which arises due to the symmetry properties of the auxiliary spins at the edge. This multiplicative structure, a consequence of the disconnected topological sectors in the space of dimer lattice coverings, is characteristic of the topological nature of the states. For minimally entangled RVB states, it is shown that the entanglement spectrum, which reflects the properties of the (gapless or gapped) edge modes, is a subset of the spectrum of the local Hamiltonian, e.g., half of it for the kagome RVB state, providing a simple argument on the origin of the topological entanglement entropy S0=-ln2 of the Z2 spin liquid. We propose to use these features to probe topological phases in microscopic Hamiltonians, and some results are compared to existing density matrix renormalization group data.

  18. Comprehensive derivation of bond-valence parameters for ion pairs involving oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Olivier Charles; Hawthorne, Frank Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Published two-body bond-valence parameters for cation–oxygen bonds have been evaluated via the root mean-square deviation (RMSD) from the valence-sum rule for 128 cations, using 180 194 filtered bond lengths from 31 489 coordination polyhedra. Values of the RMSD range from 0.033–2.451 v.u. (1.1–40.9% per unit of charge) with a weighted mean of 0.174 v.u. (7.34% per unit of charge). The set of best published parameters has been determined for 128 ions and used as a benchmark for the determination of new bond-valence parameters in this paper. Two common methods for the derivation of bond-valence parameters have been evaluated: (1) fixing B and solving for R o; (2) the graphical method. On a subset of 90 ions observed in more than one coordination, fixing B at 0.37 Å leads to a mean weighted-RMSD of 0.139 v.u. (6.7% per unit of charge), while graphical derivation gives 0.161 v.u. (8.0% per unit of charge). The advantages and disadvantages of these (and other) methods of derivation have been considered, leading to the conclusion that current methods of derivation of bond-valence parameters are not satisfactory. A new method of derivation is introduced, the GRG (generalized reduced gradient) method, which leads to a mean weighted-RMSD of 0.128 v.u. (6.1% per unit of charge) over the same sample of 90 multiple-coordination ions. The evaluation of 19 two-parameter equations and 7 three-parameter equations to model the bond-valence–bond-length relation indicates that: (1) many equations can adequately describe the relation; (2) a plateau has been reached in the fit for two-parameter equations; (3) the equation of Brown & Altermatt (1985 ▸) is sufficiently good that use of any of the other equations tested is not warranted. Improved bond-valence parameters have been derived for 135 ions for the equation of Brown & Altermatt (1985 ▸) in terms of both the cation and anion bond-valence sums using the GRG method and our complete data set. PMID:26428406

  19. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Molecules from Generalized Valence Bond Theory.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Thom H; Xu, Lu T; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Lindquist, Beth A

    2016-03-24

    In this article we describe the unique insights into the electronic structure of molecules provided by generalized valence bond (GVB) theory. We consider selected prototypical hydrocarbons as well as a number of hypervalent molecules and a set of first- and second-row valence isoelectronic species. The GVB wave function is obtained by variationally optimizing the orbitals and spin coupling in the valence bond wave function. The GVB wave function is a generalization of the Hartree-Fock (HF) wave function, lifting the double occupancy restriction on a subset of the HF orbitals as well as the associated orthogonality and spin coupling constraints. The GVB wave function includes a major fraction (if not all) of the nondynamical correlation energy of a molecule. Because of this, GVB theory properly describes bond formation and can answer one of the most compelling questions in chemistry: How are atoms changed by molecular formation? We show that GVB theory provides a unified description of the nature of the bonding in all of the above molecular species as well as contributing new insights into the well-known, but poorly understood, first-row anomaly. PMID:26909685

  20. Topology of the resonating valence-bond state - Solitons and high-T(c) superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, Steven A.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Sethna, James P.

    1987-06-01

    The topological order in the resonating valence-bond state is studied. The elementary excitations have reversed charge-statistics relations: there are neutral spin-1/2 fermions and charge + or - e spinless bosons, analogous to the solitons in polyacetylene. The charged excitations are very light, and form a degenerate Bose gas even at high temperatures. This model is discussed in the context of the recently discovered oxide superconductors.

  1. Quantum computational capability of a 2D valence bond solid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Akimasa

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Our model is the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet. > Universal quantum computation is processed by measurements of quantum correlations. > An intrinsic complexity of strongly-correlated quantum systems could be a resource. - Abstract: Quantum phases of naturally-occurring systems exhibit distinctive collective phenomena as manifestation of their many-body correlations, in contrast to our persistent technological challenge to engineer at will such strong correlations artificially. Here we show theoretically that quantum correlations exhibited in the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet, modeled by Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb, and Tasaki (AKLT) as a precursor of spin liquids and topological orders, are sufficiently complex yet structured enough to simulate universal quantum computation when every single spin can be measured individually. This unveils that an intrinsic complexity of naturally-occurring 2D quantum systems-which has been a long-standing challenge for traditional computers-could be tamed as a computationally valuable resource, even if we are limited not to create newly entanglement during computation. Our constructive protocol leverages a novel way to herald the correlations suitable for deterministic quantum computation through a random sampling, and may be extensible to other ground states of various 2D valence bond phases beyond the AKLT state.

  2. Resonating-Valence-Bond Physics Is Not Always Governed by the Shortest Tunneling Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralko, Arnaud; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that the low-energy sector of quantum spin liquids and other magnetically disordered systems is governed by short-ranged resonating-valence bonds. Here we show that the standard minimal truncation to the nearest-neighbor valence-bond basis fails completely even for systems where it should work the most, according to received wisdom. This paradigm shift is demonstrated for the quantum spin-1 /2 square kagome, where strong geometric frustration, similar to the kagome, prevents magnetic ordering down to zero temperature. The shortest tunneling events bear the strongest longer-range singlet fluctuations, leading to amplitudes that do not drop exponentially with the length of the loop L , and to an unexpected loop-six valence-bond crystal, which is otherwise very high in energy at the minimal truncation level. The low-energy effective description gives in addition a clear example of correlated loop processes that depend not only on the type of the loop but also on its lattice embedding, a direct manifestation of the long-range nature of the virtual singlets.

  3. Resonating-Valence-Bond Physics Is Not Always Governed by the Shortest Tunneling Loops.

    PubMed

    Ralko, Arnaud; Rousochatzakis, Ioannis

    2015-10-16

    It is well known that the low-energy sector of quantum spin liquids and other magnetically disordered systems is governed by short-ranged resonating-valence bonds. Here we show that the standard minimal truncation to the nearest-neighbor valence-bond basis fails completely even for systems where it should work the most, according to received wisdom. This paradigm shift is demonstrated for the quantum spin-1/2 square kagome, where strong geometric frustration, similar to the kagome, prevents magnetic ordering down to zero temperature. The shortest tunneling events bear the strongest longer-range singlet fluctuations, leading to amplitudes that do not drop exponentially with the length of the loop L, and to an unexpected loop-six valence-bond crystal, which is otherwise very high in energy at the minimal truncation level. The low-energy effective description gives in addition a clear example of correlated loop processes that depend not only on the type of the loop but also on its lattice embedding, a direct manifestation of the long-range nature of the virtual singlets. PMID:26550898

  4. The Pairwise Correlated Generalized Valence Bond Model of Electronic Structure I; The Estimation of Pair Energies from Orbital Overlaps

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    A new method for the accurate a priori calculation of atomic and molecular energies is proposed. The new method agrees with experiment to within less than 1 kcal/mole in all cases examined thus far, and is applicable to excited states and to transition states for chemical reactions. Since the new method corrects the results of generalized valence bond calculations for the effects of electron pair correlations, we call the new method the pairwise correlated generalized valence bond method. PMID:16592172

  5. Strongly correlated valence electrons and core-level chemical bonding of Lithium at terapascal pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Anguang; Zhang, Fan

    2015-03-01

    As the simplest pure metal, lithium exhibits some novel properties on electrical conductivity and crystal structures under high pressure. All-electron density functional theory simulations, recently developed by using the linear combination of localized Slater atomic orbitals, revealed that the bandwidth of its valence bands remains almost unchanged within about 3.5 eV even up to a terapascal pressure range. This indicates that the development from delocalized to strongly correlated electronic systems takes place under compression, resulting in metal-semiconductor and superconductivity transitions together with a sequence of new high-pressure crystal phases, discovered experimentally. In contrast to the valence bands, the core-level bands become broadening up to about 10 eV at terapascal pressures. It means the transformation from chemical non-bonding to bonding for core electrons. Thus, dense lithium under compression can be characterized as core-level chemical bonding and a completely new class of strongly correlated materials with narrow bands filled in s-electron shells only.

  6. The Breathing Orbital Valence Bond Method in Diffusion Monte Carlo: C-H Bond Dissociation ofAcetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Domin, D.; Braida, Benoit; Lester Jr., William A.

    2008-05-30

    This study explores the use of breathing orbital valence bond (BOVB) trial wave functions for diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC). The approach is applied to the computation of the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bond dissociation energy (BDE) of acetylene. DMC with BOVB trial wave functions yields a C-H BDE of 132.4 {+-} 0.9 kcal/mol, which is in excellent accord with the recommended experimental value of 132.8 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol. These values are to be compared with DMC results obtained with single determinant trial wave functions, using Hartree-Fock orbitals (137.5 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol) and local spin density (LDA) Kohn-Sham orbitals (135.6 {+-} 0.5 kcal/mol).

  7. Resonant valence bond states in zinc vacancies induce the ferromagnetism of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shih-Jye

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model was proposed to investigate the mechanism of ferromagnetism in ZnO as well as to simulate the experimental result that the ferromagnetism can be enhanced by UV irradiation as UV photon energy is equivalent to the band gap. In the model, the spin moments arise from the trapped electrons in oxygen vacancy states and coexist with the itinerant electrons which reside in zinc vacancy states and fall into resonant valence bond states. Charge exchange between the conduction band of ZnO and both vacancy states makes electrons on both vacancy states delocalized and results in a decrease of the ferromagnetism as well.

  8. Quantum Melting of Valence-Bond Crystal Insulators and Novel Supersolid Phase at Commensurate Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralko, Arnaud; Trousselet, Fabien; Poilblanc, Didier

    2010-03-01

    Bosonic and fermionic Hubbard models on the checkerboard lattice are studied numerically for infinite on-site repulsion. At particle density n=1/4 and strong nearest-neighbor repulsion, insulating Valence-Bond crystals (VBC) of resonating particle pairs are stabilized. Their melting into superfluid or metallic phases under increasing hopping is investigated at T=0K. We identify a novel and unconventional commensurate VBC supersolid region, precursor to the melting of the bosonic crystal. Hardcore bosons (spins) are compared to fermions (electrons), as well as positive to negative (frustrating) hoppings.

  9. Quantum melting of valence-bond crystal insulators and novel supersolid phase at commensurate density.

    PubMed

    Ralko, Arnaud; Trousselet, Fabien; Poilblanc, Didier

    2010-03-26

    Bosonic and fermionic Hubbard models on the checkerboard lattice are studied numerically for infinite on-site repulsion. At particle density n=1/4 and strong nearest-neighbor repulsion, insulating Valence-Bond crystals (VBC) of resonating particle pairs are stabilized. Their melting into superfluid or metallic phases under increasing hopping is investigated at T=0 K. We identify a novel and unconventional commensurate VBC supersolid region, precursor to the melting of the bosonic crystal. Hardcore bosons (spins) are compared to fermions (electrons), as well as positive to negative (frustrating) hoppings. PMID:20366561

  10. Competing valence bond and symmetry-breaking Mott states of spin-3/2 fermions on a honeycomb lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakab, D.; Szirmai, E.; Lewenstein, M.; Szirmai, G.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of strongly interacting four component spin-3/2 ultracold fermionic atoms in the Mott insulator limit with one particle per site in an optical lattice with honeycomb symmetry. In this limit, atomic tunneling is virtual, and only the atomic spins can exchange. We find a competition between symmetry-breaking and liquidlike disordered phases. Particularly interesting are valence bond states with bond centered magnetizations, situated between the ferromagnetic and conventional valence bond phases. In the framework of a mean-field theory, we calculate the phase diagram and identify an experimentally relevant parameter region where a homogeneous SU(4) symmetric Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki-like valence bond state is present.

  11. Complementary method to locate atomic coordinates by combined searching method of structure-sensitive indexes based on bond valence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhen; Liu, Xiao-Lang; He, Li-Zhu; Xia, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Quan-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Bond valence method illustrates the relation between valence and length of a particular bond type. This theory has been used to predict structure information, but the effect is very limited. In this paper, two indexes, i.e., global instability index (GII) and bond strain index (BSI), are adopted as a judgment of a search-match program for prediction. The results show that with GII and BSI combined as judgment, the predicted atom positions are very close to real ones. The mechanism and validity of this searching program are also discussed. The GII & BSI distribution contour map reveals that the predicted function is a reflection of exponential feature of bond valence formula. This combined searching method may be integrated with other structure-determination method, and may be helpful in refining and testifying light atom positions. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272027).

  12. Empirical valence bond models for reactive potential energy surfaces: A parallel multilevel genetic program approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Michael A.; Coker, David F.

    2011-07-01

    We describe a new method for constructing empirical valence bond potential energy surfaces using a parallel multilevel genetic program (PMLGP). Genetic programs can be used to perform an efficient search through function space and parameter space to find the best functions and sets of parameters that fit energies obtained by ab initio electronic structure calculations. Building on the traditional genetic program approach, the PMLGP utilizes a hierarchy of genetic programming on two different levels. The lower level genetic programs are used to optimize coevolving populations in parallel while the higher level genetic program (HLGP) is used to optimize the genetic operator probabilities of the lower level genetic programs. The HLGP allows the algorithm to dynamically learn the mutation or combination of mutations that most effectively increase the fitness of the populations, causing a significant increase in the algorithm's accuracy and efficiency. The algorithm's accuracy and efficiency is tested against a standard parallel genetic program with a variety of one-dimensional test cases. Subsequently, the PMLGP is utilized to obtain an accurate empirical valence bond model for proton transfer in 3-hydroxy-gamma-pyrone in gas phase and protic solvent.

  13. Emergent SO(5) Symmetry at the Néel to Valence-Bond-Solid Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahum, Adam; Serna, P.; Chalker, J. T.; Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We show numerically that the "deconfined" quantum critical point between the Néel antiferromagnet and the columnar valence-bond solid, for a square lattice of spin 1 /2 , has an emergent SO(5) symmetry. This symmetry allows the Néel vector and the valence-bond solid order parameter to be rotated into each other. It is a remarkable (2 +1 )-dimensional analogue of the SO (4 )=[SU (2 )×SU (2 )]/Z2 symmetry that appears in the scaling limit for the spin-1 /2 Heisenberg chain. The emergent SO(5) symmetry is strong evidence that the phase transition in the (2 +1 )-dimensional system is truly continuous, despite the violations of finite-size scaling observed previously in this problem. It also implies surprising relations between correlation functions at the transition. The symmetry enhancement is expected to apply generally to the critical two-component Abelian Higgs model (noncompact CP 1 model). The result indicates that in three dimensions there is an SO(5)-symmetric conformal field theory that has no relevant singlet operators, so is radically different from conventional Wilson-Fisher-type conformal field theories.

  14. Emergent SO(5) Symmetry at the Nel to Valence-Bond-Solid Transition.

    PubMed

    Nahum, Adam; Serna, P; Chalker, J T; Ortuo, M; Somoza, A M

    2015-12-31

    We show numerically that the "deconfined" quantum critical point between the Nel antiferromagnet and the columnar valence-bond solid, for a square lattice of spin 1/2, has an emergent SO(5) symmetry. This symmetry allows the Nel vector and the valence-bond solid order parameter to be rotated into each other. It is a remarkable (2+1)-dimensional analogue of the SO(4)=[SU(2)SU(2)]/Z_{2} symmetry that appears in the scaling limit for the spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain. The emergent SO(5) symmetry is strong evidence that the phase transition in the (2+1)-dimensional system is truly continuous, despite the violations of finite-size scaling observed previously in this problem. It also implies surprising relations between correlation functions at the transition. The symmetry enhancement is expected to apply generally to the critical two-component Abelian Higgs model (noncompact CP^{1} model). The result indicates that in three dimensions there is an SO(5)-symmetric conformal field theory that has no relevant singlet operators, so is radically different from conventional Wilson-Fisher-type conformal field theories. PMID:26765019

  15. Simplex valence-bond crystal in the spin-1 kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Tao; Weichselbaum, Andreas; von Delft, Jan; Su, Gang

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the ground state properties of a spin-1 kagome antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model using tensor-network (TN) methods. We find a ground state with trimerization (simplex) valence-bond order, and obtain the energy per site e0 = - 1 . 4099 (D = 16) by accurate calculations directly in the thermodynamic limit. The symmetry between the two kinds of triangles is spontaneously broken, with a relative energy difference of δ ~ 20%. The spin-spin, dimer-dimer, and chirality-chirality correlation functions are found to decay exponentially with a rather short correlation length, showing that the ground state is gapped. We thus identify the ground state be a simplex valence-bond crystal (SVBC). We also discuss the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice, and determine its ground state phase diagram, find a quantum phase transition between the SVBC and a ferro-quadrupolar nematic state. Moreover, we implement non-abelian symmetries, here spin SU(2), in the TN algorithm, which improves the efficiency greatly and provides insight into the tensor structures. This work was supported in part by the MOST of China (Grant No. 2012CB932900 and No. 2013CB933401), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07010100). WL was also supported by the DFG through SFB-TR12.

  16. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. II. An efficient algorithm for matrix elements and analytical energy gradients in VBSCF method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-28

    In this paper, by applying the reduced density matrix (RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals developed in the first paper of this series, efficient algorithms for matrix elements between VB structures and energy gradients in valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) method were presented. Both algorithms scale only as nm(4) for integral transformation and d(2)n(β)(2) for VB matrix elements and 3-RDM evaluation, while the computational costs of other procedures are negligible, where n, m, d, and n(β )are the numbers of variable occupied active orbitals, basis functions, determinants, and active β electrons, respectively. Using tensor properties of the energy gradients with respect to the orbital coefficients presented in the first paper of this series, a partial orthogonal auxiliary orbital set was introduced to reduce the computational cost of VBSCF calculation in which orbitals are flexibly defined. Test calculations on the Diels-Alder reaction of butadiene and ethylene have shown that the novel algorithm is very efficient for VBSCF calculations. PMID:23635124

  17. Nonorthogonal orbital based N-body reduced density matrices and their applications to valence bond theory. II. An efficient algorithm for matrix elements and analytical energy gradients in VBSCF method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, by applying the reduced density matrix (RDM) approach for nonorthogonal orbitals developed in the first paper of this series, efficient algorithms for matrix elements between VB structures and energy gradients in valence bond self-consistent field (VBSCF) method were presented. Both algorithms scale only as nm4 for integral transformation and d^2 n_β ^2 for VB matrix elements and 3-RDM evaluation, while the computational costs of other procedures are negligible, where n, m, d, and nβ are the numbers of variable occupied active orbitals, basis functions, determinants, and active β electrons, respectively. Using tensor properties of the energy gradients with respect to the orbital coefficients presented in the first paper of this series, a partial orthogonal auxiliary orbital set was introduced to reduce the computational cost of VBSCF calculation in which orbitals are flexibly defined. Test calculations on the Diels-Alder reaction of butadiene and ethylene have shown that the novel algorithm is very efficient for VBSCF calculations.

  18. Valence-bond non-equilibrium solvation model for a twisting monomethine cyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Sean; McKenzie, Ross H.; Olsen, Seth

    2015-02-01

    We propose and analyze a two-state valence-bond model of non-equilibrium solvation effects on the excited-state twisting reaction of monomethine cyanines. Suppression of this reaction is thought responsible for environment-dependent fluorescence yield enhancement in these dyes. Fluorescence is quenched because twisting is accompanied via the formation of dark twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) states. For monomethine cyanines, where the ground state is a superposition of structures with different bond and charge localizations, there are two possible twisting pathways with different charge localizations in the excited state. For parameters corresponding to symmetric monomethines, the model predicts two low-energy twisting channels on the excited-state surface, which leads to a manifold of TICT states. For typical monomethines, twisting on the excited state surface will occur with a small barrier or no barrier. Changes in the solvation configuration can differentially stabilize TICT states in channels corresponding to different bonds, and that the position of a conical intersection between adiabatic states moves in response to solvation to stabilize either one channel or the other. There is a conical intersection seam that grows along the bottom of the excited-state potential with increasing solvent polarity. For monomethine cyanines with modest-sized terminal groups in moderately polar solution, the bottom of the excited-state potential surface is completely spanned by a conical intersection seam.

  19. Resonating Valence Bonds and Mean-Field d-Wave Superconductivity in Graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Black-Schaffer, Annica M.

    2010-04-27

    We investigate the possibility of inducing superconductivity in a graphite layer by electronic correlation effects. We use a phenomenological microscopic Hamiltonian which includes nearest neighbor hopping and an interaction term which explicitly favors nearest neighbor spin-singlets through the well-known resonance valence bond (RVB) character of planar organic molecules. Treating this Hamiltonian in mean-field theory, allowing for bond-dependent variation of the RVB order parameter, we show that both s- and d-wave superconducting states are possible. The d-wave solution belongs to a two-dimensional representation and breaks time reversal symmetry. At zero doping there exists a quantum critical point at the dimensionless coupling J/t = 1.91 and the s- and d-wave solutions are degenerate for low temperatures. At finite doping the d-wave solution has a significantly higher T{sub c} than the s-wave solution. By using density functional theory we show that the doping induced from sulfur absorption on a graphite layer is enough to cause an electronically driven d-wave superconductivity at graphite-sulfur interfaces. We also discuss applying our results to the case of the intercalated graphites as well as the validity of a mean-field approach.

  20. Block correlated second order perturbation theory with a generalized valence bond reference function

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua

    2013-11-07

    The block correlated second-order perturbation theory with a generalized valence bond (GVB) reference (GVB-BCPT2) is proposed. In this approach, each geminal in the GVB reference is considered as a “multi-orbital” block (a subset of spin orbitals), and each occupied or virtual spin orbital is also taken as a single block. The zeroth-order Hamiltonian is set to be the summation of the individual Hamiltonians of all blocks (with explicit two-electron operators within each geminal) so that the GVB reference function and all excited configuration functions are its eigenfunctions. The GVB-BCPT2 energy can be directly obtained without iteration, just like the second order Møller–Plesset perturbation method (MP2), both of which are size consistent. We have applied this GVB-BCPT2 method to investigate the equilibrium distances and spectroscopic constants of 7 diatomic molecules, conformational energy differences of 8 small molecules, and bond-breaking potential energy profiles in 3 systems. GVB-BCPT2 is demonstrated to have noticeably better performance than MP2 for systems with significant multi-reference character, and provide reasonably accurate results for some systems with large active spaces, which are beyond the capability of all CASSCF-based methods.

  1. Effective field theory for one-dimensional valence-bond-solid phases and their symmetry protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Yohei

    2016-03-01

    We investigate valence-bond-solid (VBS) phases in one-dimensional spin systems by an effective field theory developed by Schulz [Phys. Rev. B 34, 6372 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.34.6372]. While the distinction among the VBS phases is often understood in terms of different entanglement structures protected by certain symmetries, we adopt a different but more fundamental point of view, that is, different VBS phases are separated by a gap closing under certain symmetries. In this way, the effective field theory reproduces the known three symmetries: time reversal, bond-centered inversion, and dihedral group of π spin rotations. It also predicts that there exists another symmetry: site-centered inversion combined with a spin rotation by π . We demonstrate that the last symmetry gives distinct trivial phases, which cannot be characterized by their entanglement structure, in terms of a simple perturbative analysis in a spin chain. We also discuss several applications of the effective field theory to the phase transitions among VBS phases in microscopic models and an extension of the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to non-translational-invariant systems.

  2. Is it True That the Normal Valence-Length Correlation Is Irrelevant for Metal-Metal Bonds?

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Dixit, Mudit; Kosa, Monica; Major, Dan Thomas; Levi, Elena; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-04-01

    The most intriguing feature of metal-metal bonds in inorganic compounds is an apparent lack of correlation between the bond order and the bond length. In this study, we combine a variety of literature data obtained by quantum chemistry and our results based on the empirical bond valence model (BVM), to confirm for the first time the existence of a normal exponential correlation between the effective bond order (EBO) and the length of the metal-metal bonds. The difference between the EBO and the formal bond order is attributed to steric conflict between the (TM)n cluster (TM=transition metal) and its environment. This conflict, affected mainly by structural type, should cause high lattice strains, but electron redistribution around TM atoms, evident from the BVM calculations, results in a full or partial strain relaxation. PMID:26929001

  3. Néel and valence-bond crystal phases of frustrated two-dimensional Heisenberg models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukouri, S.

    2008-02-01

    I use an improved version of the two-step density-matrix renormalization group method to study ground-state properties of the two-dimensional (2D) Heisenberg model on the checkerboard lattice. In this version, the Hamiltonian is projected on a tensor product of two-leg ladders instead of chains. This allows investigations of 2D isotropic models. I show that this method can describe both the magnetically disordered and ordered phases. The ground-state phases of the checkerboard model as J2 increases are (i) Néel with Q=(π,π) , (ii) a valence-bond crystal (VBC) of plaquettes, (iii) Néel with Q=(π/2,π) , and (iv) a VBC of crossed dimers. In agreement with previous results, I find that at the isotropic point J2=J1 , the ground state is made of weakly interacting plaquettes with a large gap Δ≈0.67J1 to triplet excitations. The same approach is also applied to the J1-J2 model. There is no evidence of a columnar dimer phase in the highly frustrated regime.

  4. Resonating valence bond trial wave functions with both static and dynamically determined Marshall sign structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Beach, K. S. D.

    2013-03-01

    We construct energy-optimized resonating valence bond wave functions as a means to sketch out the zero-temperature phase diagram of the square-lattice quantum Heisenberg model with competing nearest- (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions. Our emphasis is not on achieving an accurate representation of the magnetically disordered intermediate phase (centered on a relative coupling g=J2/J1˜(1)/(2) and whose exact nature is still controversial) but on exploring whether and how the Marshall sign structure breaks down in the vicinity of the phase boundaries. Numerical evaluation of two- and four-spin correlation functions is carried out stochastically using a worm algorithm that has been modified to operate in either of two modes: one in which the sublattice labeling is fixed beforehand and another in which the worm manipulates the current labeling so as to sample various sign conventions. Our results suggest that the disordered phase evolves continuously out of the (π,π) Néel phase and largely inherits its Marshall sign structure; on the other hand, the transition from the magnetically ordered (π,0) phase is strongly first order and involves an abrupt change in the sign structure and spatial symmetry as the result of a level crossing.

  5. Emergent quantum criticality from fractionalizing one-dimensional SO(5) symmetric valence-bond solid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Wen-Jia; Cai, Kang; Wan, Xin; Zhang, Guang-Ming

    2015-12-01

    A common feature of topological phases of matter is the fractionalization of the quantum number in their low-energy excitations. Such information is encoded in their ground state wave functions, but emerges in the bipartite entanglement spectra. The symmetric extensive bipartition is an effective novel method to create deconfined fractionalized edge particles in the reduced subsystem, which lead to quantum critical behavior associated with the transition from the topological phase to its adjacent trivial phase. Here we report the interesting results revealed by applying this method to the one-dimensional SO(5) symmetric valence-bond solid state being a spin-2 symmetry protected topological phase. From the finite-size entanglement spectrum, we find the lowest level to be an SO(5) singlet with a logarithmic entanglement entropy. Surprisingly, the first excited level is also an SO(5) singlet and the spectral gap scales with the subsystem size as LA-ν with ν ≃1.978 . In the thermodynamic limit, a novel quantum criticality emerges with SO(5) spinons and their four-body singlet bound states as elementary excitations, hence ruling out the possibility of being described by a conformal field theory. Moreover, the entanglement Hamiltonian can be determined as an SO(5) symmetric nearest neighbor spin-3/2 quadruple-quadruple interaction with a negative coupling. Our work thus demonstrates the power of this new method in the study of quantum criticality encoded in the topological ground states.

  6. Property of the Valence-Bond Ordering in Molecular Superconductor with a Quasi-Triangular Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Masafumi; Nakao, Akiko; Fukaya, Atsuko; Kato, Reizo; Yakushi, Kyuya

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated the property of the non-magnetic insulating state of a pressure-induced molecular superconductor with a quasi-triangular lattice consisting of tight dimer units applying vibrational and reflectance spectroscopy to monoclinic-phase of C2H5(CH3)3P[Pd(dimt)2]2 (dmit = 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate). From the analyses of the spectra, it is founded that two asymmetric dimers form a weakly bounded tetramer and the 2D layer is a slightly anisotropic. Theses results indicate that the cooperation between nearest Coulomb repulsions and valence bond order, which is operative for the anisotropic system of triclinic-phase of C2H5(CH3)3P[Pd(dimt)2]2, inhibits spin frustration in the monoclinic-phase. Our result also suggests that a half-filled picture does not always hold for the molecular superconductors consisting of tight dimer units.

  7. Valence bond and enzyme catalysis: a time to break down and a time to build up.

    PubMed

    Sharir-Ivry, Avital; Varatharaj, Rajapandian; Shurki, Avital

    2015-05-01

    Understanding enzyme catalysis and developing ability to control of it are two great challenges in biochemistry. A few successful examples of computational-based enzyme design have proved the fantastic potential of computational approaches in this field, however, relatively modest rate enhancements have been reported and the further development of complementary methods is still required. Herein we propose a conceptually simple scheme to identify the specific role that each residue plays in catalysis. The scheme is based on a breakdown of the total catalytic effect into contributions of individual protein residues, which are further decomposed into chemically interpretable components by using valence bond theory. The scheme is shown to shed light on the origin of catalysis in wild-type haloalkane dehalogenase (wt-DhlA) and its mutants. Furthermore, the understanding gained through our scheme is shown to have great potential in facilitating the selection of non-optimal sites for catalysis and suggesting effective mutations to enhance the enzymatic rate. PMID:25808731

  8. Electronic Structure and Bonding in Co-Based Single and Mixed Valence Oxides: A Quantum Chemical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay; Major, Dan Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The mixed valence cobalt oxide, Co3O4, is a potential candidate as a photovoltaic (PV) material, which also exhibits intriguing chemical and catalytic properties. Here, we present a comparative study of the electronic, magnetic, and chemical bonding properties of mixed valence Co3O4 (i.e., Co(2+/3+)) with the related single valence CoO (i.e., Co(2+)) and Co2O3 (i.e., Co(3+)) oxides using density functional theory (DFT). We have employed a range of theoretical methods, including pure DFT, DFT+U, and a range-separated exchange-correlation functional (HSE06). We compare the electronic structure and band gap of the oxide materials, with available photoemission spectroscopy and optical band gaps. Our calculations suggest that the bonding between Co(3+) and O(2-) ions in Co2O3 and Co3O4 and Co(2+) and O(2-) ions in CoO and Co3O4 are rather different. We find that Co2O3 and Co3O4 are weakly correlated materials, whereas CoO is a strongly correlated material. Furthermore, our computed one-electron energy level diagrams reveal that strong Co-O antibonding states are present at the top of the valence band for all the cobalt oxides, hinting at a defect tolerant capacity in these materials. These results, which give a detailed picture of the chemical bonding in related single and mixed valence cobalt oxides, may serve as a guide to enhance the PV or photoelectrochemical activity of Co3O4, by reducing its internal defect states or changing its electronic structure by doping or alloying with suitable elements. PMID:27010797

  9. A Definitive Analysis of the Rydberg and Valence Anti-bonding Character of States in the O K-edge of H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Bagus, Paul S.; Woll, Christof; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2006-09-01

    A new method is introduced that provides a definitive analysis of the nature and the extent of the valence anti-bonding and Rydberg character of excited orbitals involved in excitations from core levels to unoccupied bound states. These excitations are observed in X-ray absorption and related spectroscopies. The new method depends on defining pure valence anti-bonding orbitals using, literally, a linear combination of atomic orbitals. Application to the O K-edge excited states of H2O is presented. This analysis is important since Rydberg and valence anti-bonding orbitals will behave differently when a molecule is placed in a condensed environment.

  10. Multi-state empirical valence bond MD modeling of hydroxyl ion transfer in aqueous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ufimtsev, I. S.; Kalinichev, A. G.; Martinez, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, R.

    2006-12-01

    Physical and chemical properties of mineral-water interfaces control many important geochemical and environmental processes, such as mineral weathering and soil development, surface ion adsorption and ion exchange, the mobility of contaminants in surface and groundwater systems, and removal and sequestration of atmospheric CO2. The interaction of water with minerals can substantially affect the properties of both phases, including the structure and dynamics of the interfacial water films and the reactivity and functionality of the substrate surface. These mineral-water interactions are principally controlled by the substrate structure, composition and surface charge distribution, which widely vary among minerals. However, the surfaces of most oxides are well-known to be hydroxylated in contact with liquid water or with atmospheric water vapor at normal relative humidities. Thus, the mineral surface chemistry of common oxides, hydroxides and silicates of the Earth's near-surface environment is strongly affected by the pH dependent reactions of protonation/deprotonation. Local electron density variations due to structural substitutions or defects can also provide negatively or positively charged surface sites that can significantly influence the structure and dynamics of the interfacial hydrogen bonding network and catalyze the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the surface. With the ultimate goal of developing quantitatively accurate molecular models of reactive mineral surfaces, we present here first results for the simplest system that exhibits water-hydroxide proton transfer: a single OH^- ion in liquid water. We have modeled proton transfer in this system with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the multi-state empirical valence bond approach (MS-EVB), in which the classical Newtonian equations of motion are integrated using a specifically developed MS-EVB force field. The empirical parameters of the EVB Hamiltonian matrix elements are fitted to reproduce the potential energy surface of the H3O2^- molecule as well as the geometries and energies of small (H2O)_nOH^- clusters calculated by ab- initio methods at the RHF 6-31G**/MP2 level with a conductor-like screening model (COSMO). The COSMO model mimics the presence of surrounding solvent and thereby correctly represents the electronic structure of the hydrated species, which is qualitatively different from that of the gas phase anion. This technique was used to study the structure and dynamics of the solvated OH^- ion, the structure and dynamics of the solvent water, and H-exchange among these species. Analysis of OH^- diffusion shows that the Grotthuss shuttling mechanism plays a crucial role and approximately doubles the diffusion rate in comparison with the system where this shuttling was artificially quenched.

  11. A valence-bond approach to the electronic localization in 3/4 filled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, A.; Ducasse, L.

    1991-06-01

    The Diagrammatic Valence Bond (DVB) method has been used to investigate the electronic properties of one-dimensionnal (1 D) clusters, for which exact solutions were obtained within the framework of an (extended) Hubbard hamiltonian. The correlation parameters, U, V and V2 are tentatively calculated by means of SCF semi-empirical methods and compared to the data issued from experiment. From the crystal structures and the conductivity data, the M{2}X salts (M : organic molecule, X^- anion) may be classified in two groups : on one hand, the compounds with a dimerized structure which are semi-conductor at 300 K and, on another hand, the systems with a regular or quasi-regular 1 D stacking which are metallic at 300 K and which exhibit a change in the electronic localization around 100-200 K. For the first class, the DVB calculations lead to a strong bond order wave picture for the localized ground state. The effect of the next nearest neighbor V2 is small although it may affect long distance charge correlations and the magnetic behavior. The magnetic susceptibility χ calculations on a 8 sites ring lead to a good agreement with 300 K experimental data and the temperature dependence of χ is best reproduced with V2 close to V/2. For the second class, it is shown that, the electronic dimerization might be modified by the anion potential, as indicated by model ab initio calculations. The behavior of the resistivity as a function of temperature is qualitatively described by a change in the intra and interdimer transfer integrals. The DVB results on 12 sites rings indicate that this difference leads to an enhanced localization when the correlations are turned on compared to the high temperature regular system. Nous avons utilisé la méthode Diagrammatic Valence Bond (DVB) pour analyser les propriétés électroniques de clusters monodimensionnels (1 D), dont les solutions exactes ont été obtenues au moyen d'un hamiltonien du type Hubbard (étendu). Un essai de calcul par des méthodes SCF semi-empiriques des paramètres de corrélation intrasite U, intersites V (premier voisin) et V2 (second voisin) a été mené et les valeurs obtenues ont été comparées aux données tirées de l'expérience. Une classification possible des sels M{2}X (M : molécule organique, X^- anion), découle des structures cristallographiques et des mesures de conductivité : les composés d'un premier groupe ont une structure dimérisée et un comportement semi-conducteur à 300 K tandis que ceux d'un deuxième groupe s'empilent de manière régulière ou quasi-régulière, sont métalliques à 300 K et leur localisation électronique est modifiée entre 100-200 K. Dans le premier cas, les calculs DVB conduisent à une description de l'état fondamental localisé en termes d'une forte onde de densité de liaison. L'effet du terme entre second voisins V2 demeure faible bien qu'il puisse modifier les corrélations de charge à longue distance ainsi que le comportement magnétique. Les susceptibilités magnétiques χ calculées sur un cycle de 8 sites sont en bon accord avec l'expérience à 300 K et c'est pour V2 voisin de V/2 que la dépendance de χ avec la température est reproduite de façon la plus satisfaisante. Dans le second cas, des calculs ab initio modèles tendent à montrer que la dimérisation électronique pourrait être modifiée par le potentiel des anions. Une modification des intégrales de transfert intra- et inter-dimères rend compte qualitativement de la variation de la résistivité en fonction de la température. Les résultats DVB sur des anneaux de 12 sites montrent que cette différence entraîne une nette augmentation de la localisation lorsque les corrélations sont prises en compte, en comparaison du cas régulier observé à haute température.

  12. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Bonding in O3 and SO2.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, Tyler Y; Lindquist, Beth A; Dunning, Thom H

    2015-07-16

    There are many well-known differences in the physical and chemical properties of ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). O3 has longer and weaker bonds than O2, whereas SO2 has shorter and stronger bonds than SO. The O-O2 bond is dramatically weaker than the O-SO bond, and the singlet-triplet gap in SO2 is more than double that in O3. In addition, O3 is a very reactive species, while SO2 is far less so. These disparities have been attributed to variations in the amount of diradical character in the two molecules. In this work, we use generalized valence bond (GVB) theory to characterize the electronic structure of ozone and sulfur dioxide, showing O3 does indeed possess significant diradical character, whereas SO2 is effectively a closed shell molecule. The GVB results provide critical insights into the genesis of the observed difference in these two isoelectronic species. SO2 possesses a recoupled pair bond dyad in the a"(π) system, resulting in SO double bonds. The π system of O3, on the other hand, has a lone pair on the central oxygen atom plus a pair of electrons in orbitals on the terminal oxygen atoms that give rise to a relatively weak π interaction. PMID:26068052

  13. Ab initio calculations of the π-electron structures of aniline by the valence-bond method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takekiyo, Shozaburo

    Ab initio valence bond calculations of the π-electron energy levels, π-electron densities and bond orders for aniline have been carried out on the basis of the complete set of non-polar and polar structures. The atomic orbitals have been assumed to be Slater orbitals. The multiple exchange integrals have been taken into account completely by the orthogonalization of the π-atomic orbitals. From the difference of the distribution of the eight π-electrons to the nitrogen atom and the benzene ring, the resonance structures have been divided into two sets: C6H5(6)NH2(2) set and C6H5(7)NH2(1) set. The influences of the substituent on the benzene ring in each set have been compared with benzene and with the benzene negative ion. The interactions between the two sets have been calculated and the effects of these on the molecular properties are discussed.

  14. Correlation of molecular valence- and K-shell photoionization resonances with bond lengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehy, J. A.; Gil, T. J.; Winstead, C. L.; Farren, R. E.; Langhoff, P. W.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the interatomic distance and the positions of valence-shell and K-shell sigma(asterisk) photoionization resonances is investigated theoretically for the molecules C2, F2, N2, O2, CO, NO, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, HCN, H2CO, N20, CO2, and C2N2. The results of molecular-orbital computations are presented in three-dimensional diagrams, which are shown to be similar to the wave functions of a particle in a cylindrical well, confirming the validity of free-electron molecular-orbital (FEMO) approximations for modeling the potential along the symmetry axis. FEMO orbital energies and resonance positions are found to be in good agreement with previous theoretical and experimental results. Also included is a Feshbach-Fano analysis of the relevance of virtual-valence orbitals to the appearance of single-channel resonances in molecular photoionization cross sections.

  15. Internal-strain effect on the valence band of strained silicon and its correlation with the bond angles

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Takeshi Yanagisawa, Susumu; Kadekawa, Yukihiro

    2014-02-14

    By means of the first-principles density-functional theory, we investigate the effect of relative atom displacement in the crystal unit cell, namely, internal strain on the valence-band dispersion of strained silicon, and find close correlation of this effect with variation in the specific bond angles due to internal strain. We consider the [111] ([110]) band dispersion for (111) ((110)) biaxial tensility and [111] ([110]) uniaxial compression, because remarkably small values of hole effective mass m* can be obtained in this dispersion. Under the practical condition of no normal stress, biaxial tensility (uniaxial compression) involves additional normal compression (tensility) and internal strain. With an increase in the internal-strain parameter, the energy separation between the highest and second-highest valence bands becomes strikingly larger, and the highest band with conspicuously small m* extends remarkably down to a lower energy region, until it intersects or becomes admixed with the second band. This is closely correlated with the change in the specific bond angles, and this change can reasonably explain the above enlargement of the band separation.

  16. On the Nature of Bonding in Parallel Spins in Monovalent Metal Clusters.

    PubMed

    Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason

    2016-05-27

    As we approach the Lewis model centennial, it may be timely to discuss novel bonding motifs. Accordingly, this review discusses no-pair ferromagnetic (NPFM) bonds that hold together monovalent metallic atoms using exclusively parallel spins. Thus, without any traditional electron-pair bonds, the bonding energy per atom in these clusters can reach 20 kcal mol(-1). This review describes the origins of NPFM bonding using a valence bond (VB) analysis, which shows that this bonding motif arises from bound triplet electron pairs that are delocalized over all the close neighbors of a given atom in the cluster. The VB model accounts for the tendency of NPFM clusters to assume polyhedral shapes with rather high symmetry and for the very steep rise of the bonding energy per atom. The advent of NPFM clusters offers new horizons in chemistry of highly magnetic species sensitive to magnetic and electric fields. PMID:27070320

  17. On the possibility of the observation of valence electron density for individual bonds in proteins in conventional difference maps.

    PubMed

    Afonine, Pavel V; Lunin, Vladimir Y; Muzet, Nicolas; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2004-02-01

    In the last decade, high-resolution data have become available for macromolecular objects. Furthermore, ultrahigh-resolution diffraction data (resolution close to 0.6 A) have been collected for several protein crystals. This allows the study of fine details of the electron-density distribution such as the deformation density, i.e. the deviation of the experimentally determined electron density from the density composed of 'free' non-bonded atoms. This paper discusses the resolution and atomic temperature factors necessary to make the valence electron density visible at individual bonds in conventional difference maps for macromolecules. The study of theoretical maps calculated by quantum-chemistry methods allows estimation of these conditions; these results are confirmed by analysis of experimental maps for Leu-enkephalin and antifreeze protein RD1. A resolution limit close to 0.6 A was found to be highly important for refinement even when the maps were calculated at lower resolution. The refinement of the same models at near to 0.9 A resolution results in artificially increased values of the atomic displacement parameters and does not permit bond electron density to be visible in difference maps. To some extent, overestimation of the atomic displacement parameters may be restricted if dummy bond electrons are used in the refinement. PMID:14747702

  18. The Quadruple Bonding in C2 Reproduces the Properties of the Molecule.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Sason; Danovich, David; Braida, Benoit; Hiberty, Philippe C

    2016-03-14

    Ever since Lewis depicted the triple bond for acetylene, triple bonding has been considered as the highest limit of multiple bonding for main elements. Here we show that C2 is bonded by a quadruple bond that can be distinctly characterized by valence-bond (VB) calculations. We demonstrate that the quadruply-bonded structure determines the key observables of the molecule, and accounts by itself for about 90 % of the molecule's bond dissociation energy, and for its bond lengths and its force constant. The quadruply-bonded structure is made of two strong π bonds, one strong σ bond and a weaker fourth σ-type bond, the bond strength of which is estimated as 17-21 kcal mol(-1) . Alternative VB structures with double bonds; either two π bonds or one π bond and one σ bond lie at 129.5 and 106.1 kcal mol(-1) , respectively, above the quadruply-bonded structure, and they collapse to the latter structure given freedom to improve their double bonding by dative σ bonding. The usefulness of the quadruply-bonded model is underscored by "predicting" the properties of the (3) Σ+u state. C2 's very high reactivity is rooted in its fourth weak bond. Thus, carbon and first-row main elements are open to quadruple bonding! PMID:26880488

  19. Spectral Correspondence to the Evolution of Chemical Bond and Valence Band in Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chang Q.; Zhang, Sam; Hing, Peter; Wei, Jun; Xie, Hong; Wee, Andrew T. S.

    Spectroscopy covering energies around Fermi level of a metal is of particular interest as it does give direct information of bond forming and its consequence on the energy states (DOS). However, the origin of some outstanding spectral features from metal surface with chemisorbed oxygen has not yet been well established. It is shown in this letter that a bond-to-band model for oxidation enables the nature of a sum of spectral features to be consistently defined. All the spectral changes in the STS, XPS, UPS, photoemission spectroscopy (PES) and the thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) are classified by four DOS features around Fermi level and three bonding processes. Such a definition leads not only to new knowledge of the nature of O-metal interaction but also to a direct understanding of the bond-and-band forming dynamics.

  20. Valence-Bond Order (VBO): A New Approach to Modeling Reactive Potential Energy Surfaces for Complex Systems, Materials, and Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meiyu; Iron, Mark A; Staszewski, Przemysław; Schultz, Nathan E; Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-03-10

    The extension of molecular mechanics to reactive systems, metals, and covalently bonded clusters with variable coordination numbers requires new functional forms beyond those popular for organic chemistry and biomolecules. Here we present a new scheme for reactive molecular mechanics, which is denoted as the valence-bond order model, for approximating reactive potential energy surfaces in large molecules, clusters, nanoparticles, solids, and other condensed-phase materials, especially those containing metals. The model is motivated by a moment approximation to tight binding molecular orbital theory, and we test how well one can approximate potential energy surfaces with a very simple functional form involving only interatomic distances with no explicit dependence on bond angles or dihedral angles. For large systems the computational requirements scale linearly with system size, and no diagonalizations or iterations are required; thus the method is well suited to large-scale simulations. The method is illustrated here by developing a force field for particles and solids composed of aluminum and hydrogen. The parameters were optimized against both interaction energies and relative interaction energies. The method performs well for pure aluminum clusters, nanoparticles, and bulk lattices and reasonably well for pure hydrogen clusters; the mean unsigned error per atom for the aluminum-hydrogen clusters is 0.1 eV/atom. PMID:26610225

  1. On the transferability of electron density in binary vanadium borides VB, V3B4 and VB2.

    PubMed

    Terlan, Bürgehan; Akselrud, Lev; Baranov, Alexey I; Borrmann, Horst; Grin, Yuri

    2015-12-01

    Binary vanadium borides are suitable model systems for a systematic analysis of the transferability concept in intermetallic compounds due to chemical intergrowth in their crystal structures. In order to underline this structural relationship, topological properties of the electron density in VB, V3B4 and VB2 reconstructed from high-resolution single-crystal X-ray diffraction data as well as derived from quantum chemical calculations, are analysed in terms of Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules [Bader (1990). Atoms in Molecules: A Quantum Theory, 1st ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press]. The compounds VB, V3B4 and VB2 are characterized by a charge transfer from the metal to boron together with two predominant atomic interactions, the shared covalent B-B interactions and the polar covalent B-M interactions. The resembling features of the crystal structures are well reflected by the respective B-B interatomic distances as well as by ρ(r) values at the B-B bond critical points. The latter decrease with an increase in the corresponding interatomic distances. The B-B bonds show transferable electron density properties at bond critical points depending on the respective bond distances. PMID:26634735

  2. Efficient automatic screening for Li ion conductive inorganic oxides with bond valence pathway models and percolation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Masanobu; Kimura, Mayumi; Jalem, Randy; Kasuga, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fast ion conductive solid oxide electrolytes are urgently needed because of the development of batteries, fuel cells, and sensors. Ab initio density functional theory can predict ionic conductivities with high accuracy, although it often requires large computational resources and time. In this paper, we use empirical bond valence relations [Adams et al., Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 1746 (2011)] and a percolation algorithm for fast, efficient, fully automated evaluation of migration energies for Li ion conduction in 14 olivine-type LiMXO4 compounds. The results showed a high correlation coefficient with the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) approach, indicating that our method could be attractive for identifying fast ion conductors in databases of numerous candidates.

  3. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-01

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species. PMID:27070292

  4. Geometry of trigonal boron coordination sphere in boronic acids derivatives - a bond-valence vector model approach.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Karolina; Madura, Izabela D; Zachara, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    The systematic analysis of the geometry of three-coordinate boron in boronic acid derivatives with a common [CBO2] skeleton is presented. The study is based on the bond-valence vector (BVV) model [Zachara (2007). Inorg. Chem. 46, 9760-9767], a simple tool for the identification and quantitative estimation of both steric and electronic factors causing deformations of the coordination sphere. The empirical bond-valence (BV) parameters in the exponential equation [Brown & Altermatt (1985). Acta Cryst. B41, 244-247] rij and b, for B-O and B-C bonds were determined using data deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database. The values obtained amount to rBO = 1.364 Å, bBO = 0.37 Å, rBC = 1.569 Å, bBC = 0.28 Å, and they were further used in the calculation of BVV lengths. The values of the resultant BVV were less than 0.10 v.u. for 95% of the set comprising 897 [CBO2] fragments. Analysis of the distribution of BVV components allowed for the description of subtle in- and out-of plane deviations from the `ideal' (sp(2)) geometry of boron coordination sphere. The distortions specific for distinct groups of compounds such as boronic acids, cyclic and acyclic esters, benzoxaboroles and hemiesters were revealed. In cyclic esters the direction of strains was found to be controlled by the ring size effect. It was shown that the syn or anti location of substituents on O atoms is decisive for the deformations direction for both acids and acyclic esters. The greatest strains were observed in the case of benzoxaboroles which showed the highest deviation from the zero value of the resultant BVV. The out-of-plane distortions, described by the vz component of the resultant BVV, were ascertained to be useful in the identification of weak secondary interactions on the fourth coordination site of the boron centre. PMID:27048726

  5. On The Nature of the Halogen Bond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changwei; Danovich, David; Mo, Yirong; Shaik, Sason

    2014-09-01

    The wide-ranging applications of the halogen bond (X-bond), notably in self-assembling materials and medicinal chemistry, have placed this weak intermolecular interaction in a center of great deal of attention. There is a need to elucidate the physical nature of the halogen bond for better understanding of its similarity and differences vis-à-vis other weak intermolecular interactions, for example, hydrogen bond, as well as for developing improved force-fields to simulate nano- and biomaterials involving X-bonds. This understanding is the focus of the present study that combines the insights of a bottom-up approach based on ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and the block-localized wave function (BLW) theory that uses monomers to reconstruct the wave function of a complex. To this end and with an aim of unification, we studied the nature of X-bonds in 55 complexes using the combination of VB and BLW theories. Our conclusion is clear-cut; most of the X-bonds are held by charge transfer interactions (i.e., intermolecular hyperconjugation) as envisioned more than 60 years ago by Mulliken. This is consistent with the experimental and computational findings that X-bonds are more directional than H-bonds. Furthermore, the good linear correlation between charge transfer energies and total interaction energies partially accounts for the success of simple force fields in the simulation of large systems involving X-bonds. PMID:26588518

  6. Valence-bond solid as the quantum ground state in honeycomb layered urusovite CuAl (As O4)O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. N.; Volkova, O. S.; Zvereva, E. A.; Koshelev, A. V.; Urusov, V. S.; Chareev, D. A.; Petkov, V. I.; Sukhanov, M. V.; Rahaman, B.; Saha-Dasgupta, T.

    2015-04-01

    The synthetic mineral urusovite CuAl (As O4)O was prepared through the wet chemistry route and characterized over a wide temperature range in terms of studies of magnetization, specific heat, and X-band electron spin resonance. The basic structural units of the compound are distorted square pyramids Cu O5 assembled into corrugated honeycomb layers separated by As O4 and Al O4 tetrahedrons. Both thermodynamic and resonant measurements indicate that CuAl (As O4)O is a spin gap system with a gap of ˜350 K . The electronic structure calculations performed within the framework of density functional theory suggest a weakly interacting dimer model with antiferromagnetic signs for both intradimer and interdimer superexchange interactions. This establishes the valence bond solid as the quantum ground state of the title compound. The pronounced discrepancy between experimental data and calculations within the weakly interacting dimer model at elevated temperatures is ascribed in part to the steep increase of the intradimer exchange interaction parameter driven by the thermal expansion effects.

  7. Magnetic to valence-bond-solid transition in an S=1/2 XY model with ring-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvik, Anders

    2005-03-01

    Within the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson framework, phase transitions between two ordered phases with different symmetries are generically of first order, or there is a region of coexistence of the two phases. However, It has recently been argued [1] that there is a generic class of continuous order-order quantum phase transitions, where the critical point is characterized by deconfined spinon degrees of freedom. Evidence of such a transition, between a magnetic (or superfluid in a bosonic representation) and a valence-bond-solid (VBS) phase had previously been observed in large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations [2] of a 2D XY model which in addition to the standard nearest-neighbor exchange J contains a four-particle exchange of strength K. The VBS phase in this model is not favored by the J and K interactions individually (the K-only model has an Ising-like antigerromagnetic ground state), but emerges out of competition between the two terms. Here I will discuss recent efforts [3] to characterize the magnetic-VBS transition in more detail (extracting the critical exponents) and comparing the behavior with predictions of the deconfined quantum-criticality scenario. 2mm [1] T. Senthil, A. Vishwanath, L. Balents, S. Sachdev, and M. P. A. Fisher, Science 303, 1490 (2004).[2] A. W. Sandvik, S. Daul, R. R. P. Singh, and D. J. Scalapino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 247201 (2002).[3] A. W. Sandvik, R. G. Melko, and D. J. Scalapino (work in progress).

  8. Valence-bond-solid phases and quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional spin models with four-site interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvik, A. W.; Melko, R. G.; Scalapino, D. J.

    2006-02-01

    We discuss zero-temperature phase transititions from an antiferromagnetic ground state into a valence-bond-solid (VBS) in two different square-lattice quantum spin models. In one limit these models reduce to the standard S = 1/2 XY and Heisenberg models, respectively, which have long-range antiferromagnetic order at T = 0. Introducing particular types of four-spin interactions, amenable to quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation without negative-sign problems, drives phase transitions into VBS states with broken Z4 symmetry. It has recently been argued that continuous quantum phase transitions of this nature represent a new class of deconfined quantum-critical points [Senthil et al., Science 303, 1490 (2004)], which are not captured within the standard Ginzburg-Landau framework of phase transitions. Here we discuss a QMC study aimed at accurately characterizing the transition in the XY model. We find some evidence that the transition is actually weakly first-order, but other scenarios, such as a continuous transition violating hyperscaling, also cannot be completely ruled out. For the Heisenberg model with four-spin interactions we have confirmed that a VBS state exists. Preliminary finite-size scaling results show consistency with a continuous transition into the Nel state, with dynamic exponent z = 1. This model is thus a candidate for deconfined quantum criticality.

  9. Charge Order Instability in Doped Resonating Valence Bond State and Magnetic Orbits from Reconstructed Fermi Surface in Underdoped Cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Mei, Jia-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Recent experiments reveal incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) and quantum oscillations (QO) in the pseudogap phase of underdoped cuprates. In this work, we take a phenomenological synthesis of the resonating valence bond (RVB) state and the CDW order. Starting from the Yang-Rice-Zhang (YRZ) ansatz for the Green's function of the RVB state, we show that the CDW instability at wavevectors connecting the tips of the Fermi arcs can induce Fermi surface reconstruction. We find three primary magnetic orbits in the QO spectrum, the CDW-induced electron-like ? and hole-like ? orbits and the ? orbit enclosing the initial nodal YRZ hole pockets due to magnetic breakdown. Their combinations naturally explain the multi-component QO pattern observed in experiments. The ? orbit encloses an area satisfying the generalized Luttinger theorem. The cyclotron mass of the ? orbit increases monotonically with doping in agreement with the optical Hall angle measurements , while that of the ? orbit is enhanced as the CDW order vanishes on approaching two critical dopings. However, we find that the enhancement of mHα is overestimated in QO experiments due to the ignorance of the impact of the CDW order suppression with increasing temperature. Work supported by the NBRPC Grant No. 2010CB923003, by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research.

  10. Reactive force field simulation of proton diffusion in BaZrO3 using an empirical valence bond approach.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Paolo; Gale, Julian D; Bussi, Giovanni

    2011-08-24

    A new reactive force field to describe proton diffusion within the solid oxide fuel cell material BaZrO(3) has been derived. Using a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, the parameters of an interatomic potential model to describe hydroxyl groups within both pure and yttrium-doped BaZrO(3) have been determined. Reactivity is then incorporated through the use of the empirical valence bond model. Molecular dynamics simulations (EVB-MD) have been performed to explore the diffusion of hydrogen using a stochastic thermostat and barostat whose equations are extended to the isostress-isothermal ensemble. In the low concentration limit, the presence of yttrium is found not to significantly influence the diffusivity of hydrogen, despite the proton having a longer residence time at oxygen adjacent to the dopant. This lack of influence is due to the fact that trapping occurs infrequently, even when the proton diffuses through octahedra adjacent to the dopant. The activation energy for diffusion is found to be 0.42 eV, in good agreement with experimental values, though the prefactor is slightly underestimated. PMID:21813946

  11. Low-energy physical properties of high- Tc superconducting Cu oxides: A comparison between the resonating valence bond and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai-Yu; Shih, C. T.; Chou, C. P.; Huang, S. M.; Lee, T. K.; Xiang, T.; Zhang, F. C.

    2006-06-01

    In a recent review by Anderson and co-workers, it was pointed out that an early resonating valence bond (RVB) theory is able to explain a number of unusual properties of high-temperature superconducting (SC) Cu oxides. Here we extend previous calculations to study more systematically the low-energy physical properties of the plain vanilla d -wave RVB state, and to compare the results with the available experiments. We use a renormalized mean-field theory combined with variational Monte Carlo and power Lanczos methods to study the RVB state of an extended t-J model in a square lattice with parameters suitable for the hole-doped Cu oxides. The physical observable quantities we study include the specific heat, the linear residual thermal conductivity, the in-plane magnetic penetration depth, the quasiparticle energy at the antinode (π,0) , the superconducting energy gap, the quasiparticle spectra, and the Drude weights. The traits of nodes (including kF , the Fermi velocity vF , and the velocity along Fermi surface v2 ), and the SC order parameter are studied. Comparisons of the theory and the experiments in cuprates show an overall qualitative agreement, especially on their doping dependences.

  12. Chemical bonding and charge redistribution - Valence band and core level correlations for the Ni/Si, Pd/Si, and Pt/Si systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, P. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Madhukar, A.

    1982-01-01

    Via a systematic study of the correlation between the core and valence level X-ray photoemission spectra, the nature of the chemical bonding and charge redistribution for bulk transition metal silicides has been examined. Particular emphasis is placed on Pt2Si and PtSi. It is observed that the strength of the metal (d)-silicon (p) interaction increases in the order Ni2Si, Pd2Si, Pt2Si. It is also observed that both the metal and silicon core lines shift to higher binding energy as the silicides are formed. The notion of charge redistribution for metallic bonds is invoked to explain these data.

  13. The nature of chemical bonds from PNOF5 calculations.

    PubMed

    Matxain, Jon M; Piris, Mario; Uranga, Jon; Lopez, Xabier; Merino, Gabriel; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2012-06-18

    Natural orbital functional theory (NOFT) is used for the first time in the analysis of different types of chemical bonds. Concretely, the Piris natural orbital functional PNOF5 is used. It provides a localization scheme that yields an orbital picture which agrees very well with the empirical valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) and Bent's rule, as well as with other theoretical pictures provided by valence bond (VB) or linear combination of atomic orbitals-molecular orbital (LCAO-MO) methods. In this context, PNOF5 provides a novel tool for chemical bond analysis. In this work, PNOF5 is applied to selected molecules that have ionic, polar covalent, covalent, multiple (σ and π), 3c-2e, and 3c-4e bonds. PMID:22615195

  14. Metal-Metal Bonding in Trinuclear, Mixed-Valence [Ti3X12](4-) (X = F, Cl, Br, I) Face-Shared Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hewage, Jinasena W; Cavigliasso, Germán; Stranger, Robert

    2015-11-16

    Metal-metal bonding in structurally characterized In4Ti3Br12, comprising linear, mixed-valence d(1)d(2)d(1) face-shared [Ti3Br12](4-) units with a Ti-Ti separation of 3.087 Å and strong antiferromagnetic coupling (Θ = -1216 K), has been investigated using density functional theory. The antiferromagnetic configuration, in which the single d electron on each terminal Ti(III) (d(1)) metal center is aligned antiparallel to the two electrons occupying the central Ti(II) (d(2)) metal site, is shown to best agree with the reported structural and magnetic data and is consistent with an S = 0 ground state in which two of the four metal-based electrons are involved in a two-electron, three-center σ bond between the Ti atoms (formal Ti-Ti bond order of ∼0.5). However, the unpaired spin densities on the Ti sites indicate that while the metal-metal σ interaction is strong, the electrons are not fully paired off and consequently dominate the ground state antiferromagnetic coupling. The same overall partially delocalized bonding regime is predicted for the other three halide [Ti3X12](4-) (X = F, Cl, I) systems with the metal-metal bonding becoming weaker as the halide group is descended. The possibility of bond-stretch isomerism was also examined where one isomer has a symmetric structure with identical Ti-Ti bonds while the other is unsymmetric with one short and one long Ti-Ti bond. Although calculations indicate that the latter form is more stable, the barrier to interconversion between equivalent unsymmetric forms, where the short Ti-Ti bond is on one side of the trinuclear unit or the other, is relatively small such that at room temperature only the averaged (symmetric) structure is likely to be observed. PMID:26523831

  15. Generalized valence bond description of the ground states (X(1)Σg(+)) of homonuclear pnictogen diatomic molecules: N2, P2, and As2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lu T; Dunning, Thom H

    2015-06-01

    The ground state, X1Σg+, of N2 is a textbook example of a molecule with a triple bond consisting of one σ and two π bonds. This assignment, which is usually rationalized using molecular orbital (MO) theory, implicitly assumes that the spins of the three pairs of electrons involved in the bonds are singlet-coupled (perfect pairing). However, for a six-electron singlet state, there are five distinct ways to couple the electron spins. The generalized valence bond (GVB) wave function lifts this restriction, including all of the five spin functions for the six electrons involved in the bond. For N2, we find that the perfect pairing spin function is indeed dominant at Re but that it becomes progressively less so from N2 to P2 and As2. Although the perfect pairing spin function is still the most important spin function in P2, the importance of a quasi-atomic spin function, which singlet couples the spins of the electrons in the σ orbitals while high spin coupling those of the electrons in the π orbitals on each center, has significantly increased relative to N2 and, in As2, the perfect pairing and quasi-atomic spin couplings are on essentially the same footing. This change in the spin coupling of the electrons in the bonding orbitals down the periodic table may contribute to the rather dramatic decrease in the strengths of the Pn2 bonds from N2 to As2 as well as in the increase in their chemical reactivity and should be taken into account in more detailed analyses of the bond energies in these species. We also compare the spin coupling in N2 with that in C2, where the quasi-atomic spin coupling dominants around Re. PMID:26575549

  16. Electronic structure and chemical bonding of {alpha}- and {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermediate valence compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Matar, Samir F.; Poettgen, Rainer; Chevalier, Bernard

    2012-02-15

    The dimorphism of the intermediate valence ternary cerium silicide CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} ({alpha}) and CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} ({beta}) modifications is addressed in the framework of the density functional theory. The geometry optimization is in good agreement with the experiment and the subsequent establishment of the energy-volume equation of state (EOS) indicates a stabilization of the {beta}-type relative to the {alpha}-type concomitant with the trend of the cerium valence, changing to tetravalent in {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. This is equally shown from the site projected DOS and from the large increase of the electronic contribution to the specific heat. The chemical bonding indicates the strongest bonding interactions within the Ir-Si substructure in both varieties. Stabilization of {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} with almost tetravalent cerium is in good agreement with Th{sup IV}Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2} which exclusively crystallizes in the CaBe{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} type. The EOS behavior of different RIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} (R=Th, Ce, La) is comparatively discussed. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of {alpha}- and {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. Relevant interatomic distances (A), the three-dimensional [Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] networks and the crystallographically independent iridium and silicon sites are indicated. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy stabilization of (HT) {beta}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} versus (LT) {alpha}-CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} from DFT methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant with the change of Ce valence to tetravalent (HT)-enhanced specific heat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Equations of states for La, Ce and Th members with CeIr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} resembling tetravalent-Th. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical bonding shows changes on the {l_brace}Ir{sub 2}Si{sub 2}{r_brace} intralayer and Ce{sup IV}-Ir bonds.

  17. Qgui: A high-throughput interface for automated setup and analysis of free energy calculations and empirical valence bond simulations in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Andberg, Tor Arne Heim; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2015-07-01

    Structural information and activity data has increased rapidly for many protein targets during the last decades. In this paper, we present a high-throughput interface (Qgui) for automated free energy and empirical valence bond (EVB) calculations that use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for conformational sampling. Applications to ligand binding using both the linear interaction energy (LIE) method and the free energy perturbation (FEP) technique are given using the estrogen receptor (ERα) as a model system. Examples of free energy profiles obtained using the EVB method for the rate-limiting step of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by trypsin are also shown. In addition, we present calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots to obtain the thermodynamic activation enthalpy and entropy with Qgui from running a large number of EVB simulations. PMID:26080356

  18. Atomic Structure and Valence: Level II, Unit 10, Lesson 1; Chemical Bonding: Lesson 2; The Table of Elements: Lesson 3; Electrolysis: Lesson 4. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Atomic Structure and Valence, Chemical Bonding, The Table of Elements, and Electrolysis. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  19. Valence State Driven Site Preference in the Quaternary Compound Ca5MgAgGe5: An Electron-Deficient Phase with Optimized Bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Ponou, Simeon; Lidin, Sven; Zhang, Yuemei; Miller, Gordon J.

    2014-04-18

    The quaternary phase Ca5Mg0.95Ag1.05(1)Ge5 (3) was synthesized by high-temperature solid-state techniques, and its crystal structure was determined by single-crystal diffraction methods in the orthorhombic space group Pnma – Wyckoff sequence c12 with a = 23.1481(4) Å, b = 4.4736(1) Å, c = 11.0128(2) Å, V = 1140.43(4) Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure can be described as linear intergrowths of slabs cut from the CaGe (CrB-type) and the CaMGe (TiNiSi-type; M = Mg, Ag) structures. Hence, 3 is a hettotype of the hitherto missing n = 3 member of the structure series with the general formula R2+nT2X2+n, previously described with n = 1, 2, and 4. The member with n = 3 was predicted in the space group Cmcm – Wyckoff sequence f5c2. The experimental space group Pnma (in the nonstandard setting Pmcn) corresponds to a klassengleiche symmetry reduction of index two of the predicted space group Cmcm. This transition originates from the switching of one Ge and one Ag position in the TiNiSi-related slab, a process that triggers an uncoupling of each of the five 8f sites in Cmcm into two 4c sites in Pnma. The Mg/Ag site preference was investigated using VASP calculations and revealed a remarkable example of an intermetallic compound for which the electrostatic valency principle is a critical structure-directing force. The compound is deficient by one valence electron according to the Zintl concept, but LMTO electronic structure calculations indicate electronic stabilization and overall bonding optimization in the polyanionic network. Other stability factors beyond the Zintl concept that may account for the electronic stabilization are discussed.

  20. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. PMID:26387639

  1. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-01-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li(+) migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. ?-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of ?-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations. PMID:26387639

  2. The Haldane State in CsNiCl 3 Detected by Magnetization Measurements —Observation of Quantum-Classical Crossover and the Valence Bond Solid State—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Takayuki; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Mekata, Mamoru; Kamishima, Kenji; Koui, Katsuhiko; Goto, Tsuneaki; Furusawa, Masahiro; Hori, Hidenobu

    1997-02-01

    We have confirmed from susceptibility and magnetization measurements that the Haldane state really exists in 1D phase of CsNiCl3 which undergoes 3D ordering at T N=4.8 K. The observed susceptibility at low fields follows the predicted curve for the S=1 quantum chain with energy gap (Δ/k B˜10 K) down to near T N. A more definite evidence for the Haldane state is given by studying the effect of the nonmagnetic impurities. We have revealed a real existence of S=1/2 edge states characteristic of the Haldane state and further revealed a crossover from the quantum to classical regimes as a function of both temperature and field. The result is consistent with the model that at low temperatures (TValence-Bond-Solid while at high temperatures (T>|J|/k B) and high fields (H>H G) the system is not in the Haldane state any more.

  3. High-throughput design and optimization of fast lithium ion conductors by the combination of bond-valence method and density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ruijuan; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2015-09-01

    Looking for solid state electrolytes with fast lithium ion conduction is an important prerequisite for developing all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries. By combining the simulation techniques in different levels of accuracy, e.g. the bond-valence (BV) method and the density functional theory (DFT), a high-throughput design and optimization scheme is proposed for searching fast lithium ion conductors as candidate solid state electrolytes for lithium rechargeable batteries. The screening from more than 1000 compounds is performed through BV-based method, and the ability to predict reliable tendency of the Li+ migration energy barriers is confirmed by comparing with the results from DFT calculations. β-Li3PS4 is taken as a model system to demonstrate the application of this combination method in optimizing properties of solid electrolytes. By employing the high-throughput DFT simulations to more than 200 structures of the doping derivatives of β-Li3PS4, the effects of doping on the ionic conductivities in this material are predicted by the BV calculations. The O-doping scheme is proposed as a promising way to improve the kinetic properties of this materials, and the validity of the optimization is proved by the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulations.

  4. First-order superfluid to valence-bond solid phase transitions in easy-plane SU (N ) magnets for small N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Emidio, Jonathan; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    2016-02-01

    We consider the easy-plane limit of bipartite SU (N ) Heisenberg Hamiltonians, which have a fundamental representation on one sublattice and the conjugate to fundamental on the other sublattice. For N =2 the easy plane limit of the SU(2) Heisenberg model is the well-known quantum X Y model of a lattice superfluid. We introduce a logical method to generalize the quantum X Y model to arbitrary N , which keeps the Hamiltonian sign-free. We show that these quantum Hamiltonians have a world-line representation as the statistical mechanics of certain tightly packed loop models of N colors in which neighboring loops are disallowed from having the same color. In this loop representation we design an efficient Monte Carlo cluster algorithm for our model. We present extensive numerical results for these models on the two dimensional square lattice, where we find the nearest neighbor model has superfluid order for N ≤5 and valence-bond order for N >5 . By introducing SU (N ) easy-plane symmetric four-spin couplings we are able to tune across the superfluid-VBS phase boundary for all N ≤5 . We present clear evidence that this quantum phase transition is first order for N =2 and N =5 , suggesting that easy-plane deconfined criticality runs away generically to a first-order transition for small N .

  5. Infrared and electronic spectroscopy of a model system for the nucleophilic substitution intermediate in the gas phase: the C-N valence bond formation in the benzene-ammonia cluster cation.

    PubMed

    Mizuse, Kenta; Fujii, Asuka; Mikami, Naohiko

    2006-05-25

    Infrared and electronic spectroscopy was applied to the benzene-ammonia cluster cation in the gas phase, and the observed spectra revealed the formation of a new C-N valence bond between the benzene and ammonia moieties, which has been predicted by the quantum chemical calculations (Tachikawa, H. Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys. 2002, 4, 6018). This cluster cation is regarded as a model for the cyclohexadienyl type intermediate in nucleophilic substitution reactions. PMID:16706391

  6. Unprecedented structural variations in trinuclear mixed valence Co(II/III) complexes: theoretical studies, pnicogen bonding interactions and catecholase-like activities.

    PubMed

    Hazari, Alokesh; Kanta Das, Lakshmi; Kadam, Ramakant M; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2015-02-28

    Three new mixed valence trinuclear Co(II/III) compounds cis-[Co3L2(MeOH)2(N3)2(μ1,1-N3)2] (1), trans-[Co3L2(H2O)2(N3)2(μ1,1-N3)2]·(H2O)2 (2) and [Co3L(R)2(N3)3(μ1,3-N3)] (3) have been synthesized by reacting a di-Schiff base ligand (H2L) or its reduced form [H2LR] (where H2L= N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine and H2LR= N,N'-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,3-propanediamine) with cobalt perchlorate hexahydrate and sodium azide. All three products have been characterized by IR, UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopies, ESI-MS, elemental, powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Complex 2 is an angular trinuclear species in which two terminal octahedral Co(III)N2O4 centers coordinate to the central octahedral cobalt(II) ion through μ2-phenoxido oxygen and μ1,1-azido nitrogen atoms along with two mutually cis-oxygen atoms of methanol molecules. On the other hand, in linear trinuclear complex , in addition to the μ2-phenoxido and μ1,1-azido bridges with terminal octahedral Co(III) centres, the central Co(II) is bonded with two mutually trans-oxygen atoms of water molecules. Thus the cis-trans configuration of the central Co(II) is solvent dependent. In complex 3, the two terminal octahedral Co(III)N2O4 centers coordinate to the central penta-coordinated Co(II) ion through double phenoxido bridges along with the nitrogen atom of a terminal azido ligand. In addition, the two terminal Co(III) are connected through a μ1,3-azido bridge that participates in pnicogen bonding interactions (intermolecular N-N interaction) as an acceptor. Both the cis and trans isomeric forms of 1 and 2 have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) calculations and it is found that the cis configuration is energetically more favorable than the trans one. However, the trans configuration of 2 is stabilized by the hydrogen bonding network involving a water dimer. The pnicogen bonding interactions have been demonstrated using MEP surfaces and CSD search which support the counter intuitive electron acceptor ability of the μ1,3-azido ligand. Complexes 1-3 exhibit catecholase-like activities in the aerial oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to the corresponding o-quinone. Kinetic data analyses of this oxidation reaction in acetonitrile reveal that the catecholase-like activity follows the order: 1 (kcat = 142 h(-1)) > 3 (kcat = 99 h(-1)) > 2 (kcat = 85 h(-1)). Mechanistic investigations of the catalytic behaviors by X-band EPR spectroscopy and estimation of hydrogen peroxide formation indicate that the oxidation reaction proceeds through the reduction of Co(III) to Co(II). PMID:25611163

  7. Fabrication of VB2/Air Cells for Electrochemical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode. PMID:23962835

  8. Fabrication of VB2/air cells for electrochemical testing.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jessica; Lopez, Ruben; Lau, Jason; Li, Xuguang; Waje, Mahesh; Mullings, Matthew; Rhodes, Christopher; Licht, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A technique to investigate the properties and performance of new multi-electron metal/air battery systems is proposed and presented. A method for synthesizing nanoscopic VB2 is presented as well as step-by-step procedure for applying a zirconium oxide coating to the VB2 particles for stabilization upon discharge. The process for disassembling existing zinc/air cells is shown, in addition construction of the new working electrode to replace the conventional zinc/air cell anode with a the nanoscopic VB2 anode. Finally, discharge of the completed VB2/air battery is reported. We show that using the zinc/air cell as a test bed is useful to provide a consistent configuration to study the performance of the high-energy high capacity nanoscopic VB2 anode. PMID:23962835

  9. Effect of the valence electron concentration on the bulk modulus and chemical bonding in Ta{sub 2}AC and Zr{sub 2}AC (A=Al, Si, and P)

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Jochen M.; Music, Denis; Sun Zhimei

    2005-03-15

    We have studied the effect of the valence electron concentration, on the bulk modulus and the chemical bonding in Ta{sub 2}AC and Zr{sub 2}AC (A=Al, Si, and P) by means of ab initio calculations. Our equilibrium volume and the hexagonal ratio (c/a) agree well (within 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively) with previously published experimental data for Ta{sub 2}AlC. The bulk moduli of both Ta{sub 2}AC and Zr{sub 2}AC increase as Al is substituted with Si and P by 13.1% and 20.1%, respectively. This can be understood since the substitution is associated with an increased valence electron concentration, resulting in band filling and an extensive increase in cohesion.

  10. Analysis of Bonding Patterns in the Valence Isoelectronic series O3, S3, SO2 and OS2 in Terms of Oriented Quasi-Atomic Molecular Orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Elbert, Stephen T; Xantheas, Sotiris S; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2010-08-26

    A novel analysis of the chemical bonding pattern in the valence isoelectronic series of triatomic molecules O3, S3, SO2 and OS2 is reported. The analysis is based on examining the bond order matrix elements between the Oriented Localized Molecular Orbitals (OLMOs) that are localized on the three individual left (L), center (C) and right (R) atoms. The analysis indicates that there is a (L-C) and (C-R) π-bonding interaction and a (L-R) π-antibonding interaction. This finding supports the previously proposed "partial biradical" interpretation of these triatomic systems, which had recently been challenged.

  11. DERIVATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF VALENCE MOLECULAR CONNECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical basis for valence molecular connectivity was studied. The sigma sup upsilon and sigma values are cardinal numbers describing the electronic structure of atoms in their valence states. The value (sigma sup upsilon) + (sigma) describes the volume of a bonding atom whil...

  12. Nature of the Xe(VI) -N Bonds in F6 XeNCCH3 and F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 and the Stereochemical Activity of Their Xenon Valence Electron Lone Pairs.

    PubMed

    Haner, Jamie; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2016-03-24

    The recently reported syntheses and X-ray crystal structures of the highly endothermic compounds F6 XeNCCH3 and F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 ⋅CH3 CN provide the first, albeit weakly covalent, Xe(VI) -N bonds. The XeF6 unit of F6 XeNCCH3 possesses distorted octahedral (C3v ) symmetry similar to gas-phase XeF6 , whereas the XeF6 unit of F6 Xe(NCCH3 )2 ⋅CH3 CN possesses C2v symmetry. Herein, the natural bond orbital (NBO), atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and molecular electrostatic potential surface (MEPS) analyses show that the Xe valence electron lone pairs (VELPs) of both compounds are stereochemically active. The Xe VELPS are diffuse and ineffectively screen their Xe cores so that the Xe VELP positions correspond to the most electrophilic regions of the MEPS, which enables the opposing N VELP of CH3 CN to coordinate to this region. These bonds are predominantly electrostatic in nature and are interpreted as σ-hole interactions. PMID:26918266

  13. A valence-bond diatomics-in-molecules model for the formation of Na + and Na 2+ ions from the interaction of excited sodium atoms with a tungsten surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Philip J.

    1985-04-01

    Potential energy surfaces for Na( 2S, 2P) interacting with a partially covered tungsten surface are computed within the framework of the method of diatomics-in-molecules (DIM). Only two sodium atoms are considered explicitly but the effect of all of the adsorbed sodium is taken into account through its influence on the fragment matrix elements in the DIM formulation. Na 2+ wavefunctions are approximated by valence-bond calculations for the 2? g+ and 2? u+ manifolds. The three lowest potential energy surfaces of the polyatomic system suggest plausible pathways for the production of Na + and Na 2+ ions from the interaction of Na( 2P) atoms with the metal surface as observed by Auschwitz and Lacmann.

  14. Different symmetry of the magnetization-direction dependence between the impurity band and valence band in GaMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneta, Iriya; Kanaki, Toshiki; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2015-03-01

    In semiconductors with heavily doped with nonmagnetic shallow acceptors, an impurity band (IB) is formed around the valence band (VB) top and merged with VB. As a result, the parabolic VB top is strongly deformed in a non-parabolic dispersion. In GaMnAs, however, the VB top keeps the parabolic dispersion though there is energy overlap between VB and IB, which is completely different from the conventional nonmagnetic semiconductors. Here, we measure tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance on GaMnAs tunnel devices in a spectroscopic way, analyze the magnetization-direction and energy dependence of the density of states (DOS), and investigate the different symmetry between VB and IB to clarify the mysterious overlap between the two bands. We find that the magnetization-direction dependence of VB DOS is mainly four-fold symmetry along [100] which is the same as the crystal symmetry, while that of IB DOS is mainly two-fold symmetry along [110] unlike the crystal symmetry. These results reveal the unique band structures of Mn-doped III-V ferromagnetic semiconductors. This work was partly supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research including Specially Promoted Research, I.M. thanks the JSPS research Fellowship Program for Young Scientists.

  15. The valence band structure of Ag{sub x}Rh{sub 1–x} alloy nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yayama, Tomoe; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Koyama, Michihisa; and others

    2014-10-13

    The valence band (VB) structures of face-centered-cubic Ag-Rh alloy nanoparticles (NPs), which are known to have excellent hydrogen-storage properties, were investigated using bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The observed VB spectra profiles of the Ag-Rh alloy NPs do not resemble simple linear combinations of the VB spectra of Ag and Rh NPs. The observed VB hybridization was qualitatively reproduced via a first-principles calculation. The electronic structure of the Ag{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 0.5} alloy NPs near the Fermi edge was strikingly similar to that of Pd NPs, whose superior hydrogen-storage properties are well known.

  16. Levels of Valence

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  17. How resonance assists hydrogen bonding interactions: an energy decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Beck, John Frederick; Mo, Yirong

    2007-01-15

    Block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which is a variant of the ab initio valence bond (VB) theory, was employed to explore the nature of resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds (RAHBs) and to investigate the mechanism of synergistic interplay between pi delocalization and hydrogen-bonding interactions. We examined the dimers of formic acid, formamide, 4-pyrimidinone, 2-pyridinone, 2-hydroxpyridine, and 2-hydroxycyclopenta-2,4-dien-1-one. In addition, we studied the interactions in beta-diketone enols with a simplified model, namely the hydrogen bonds of 3-hydroxypropenal with both ethenol and formaldehyde. The intermolecular interaction energies, either with or without the involvement of pi resonance, were decomposed into the Hitler-London energy (DeltaEHL), polarization energy (DeltaEpol), charge transfer energy (DeltaECT), and electron correlation energy (DeltaEcor) terms. This allows for the examination of the character of hydrogen bonds and the impact of pi conjugation on hydrogen bonding interactions. Although it has been proposed that resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds are accompanied with an increasing of covalency character, our analyses showed that the enhanced interactions mostly originate from the classical dipole-dipole (i.e., electrostatic) attraction, as resonance redistributes the electron density and increases the dipole moments in monomers. The covalency of hydrogen bonds, however, changes very little. This disputes the belief that RAHB is primarily covalent in nature. Accordingly, we recommend the term "resonance-assisted binding (RAB)" instead of "resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RHAB)" to highlight the electrostatic, which is a long-range effect, rather than the electron transfer nature of the enhanced stabilization in RAHBs. PMID:17143867

  18. Coulombic Models in Chemical Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Compares the coulumbic point charge model for hydrogen chloride with the valence bond model. It is not possible to assign either a nonpolar or ionic canonical form of the valence bond model, while the covalent-ionic bond distribution does conform to the point charge model. (JM)

  19. Valence band ordering restored by the p-d exchange interaction in GaMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneta, Iriya; Terada, Hiroshi; Ohya, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    In ferromagnetic GaMnAs, it is predicted that the Mn impurity level or impurity band (IB) is formed in the band gap by the strong p- d exchange interaction with the hybridization, which is consistent with the recent result of x-ray photoemission unveiling the disordered IB. Although the hybridization might be expected to result in the disordered or merged valence band (VB), it was found that VB is almost unchanged by Mn doping in GaAs. In order to understand the bandstructure and ferromagnetism of GaMnAs induced by the strong exchange interaction, we measured the VB ordering by using the resonant tunneling spectroscopy in the GaMnAs quantum-well (QW) double-barrier hetrerostructures with the Mn content x varied from 0.4% to 2.3%. In x < 1 % (paramagnetic), the d2 I / dV2 oscillations weaken as x increases, which shows that VB merges with the paramagnetic IB and becomes disordered. However, the oscillations are restored at the onset of the ferromagnetism (x > 1 %) and become stronger as x increases. Our results show that the strong exchange interaction does not fluctuate VB but forms the disordered IB. This work was partly supported by Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research including Specially Promoted Research, Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, and FIRST Program of JSPS. I.M. thanks JSPS Young Scientists Fellowship.

  20. Electronic structure and bonding in four-coordinate organometallic complexes of aluminum. Valence photoelectron spectra of BHT-H, Me sub 3 Al(PMe sub 3 ), and Me sub 2 (BHT)Al(PMe sub 3 )

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberger, D.L.; Hogan, R.H. ); Healy, M.D.; Barron, A.R. )

    1990-04-25

    The He I valence photoelectron spectra of the Lewis acid-base adducts Me{sub 3}Al(PMe{sub 3}) and Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}) (BHT{minus}H = 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) have been obtained to characterize the electronic structure and bonding in four-coordinate organometallic complexes of aluminum. To aid in the assignment of the spectrum of Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}), the spectrum of the free alcohol, BHT-H, was also obtained. The first and second ionizations of the free BHT-H alcohol show vibrational progressions associated with the symmetric C-C phenyl ring stretching modes, consistent with the b{sub 1} and a{sub 2} {pi} ionizations, respectively, of monosubstituted phenyl rings. In the photoelectron spectrum of BHT coordinated to aluminum in Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}), the corresponding phenoxide a{sub 2} ionization retains the vibrational structure, but the individual vibrational components are lost in the ionization that corresponds most closely with the b{sub 1}. The loss of vibrational fine structure associated with ionization from the phenyl {pi} b{sub 1} orbital in the coordinated phenoxide shows that the phenoxide is involved in a {pi} interaction with the Me{sub 2}Al(PMe{sub 3}) portion of the molecule.

  1. Climatology of Vb cyclones, physical mechanisms and their impact on extreme precipitation over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, M.; Gómez-Navarro, J. J.; Raible, C. C.

    2015-09-01

    Cyclones, which develop over the western Mediterranean and move northeastward are a major source of extreme weather and known to be responsible for heavy precipitation over the northern side of the Alpine range and Central Europe. As the relevant processes triggering these so-called Vb events and their impact on extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood, this study focuses on gaining insight into the dynamics of past events. For this, a cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) to identify prominent Vb situations. Precipitation in the ERA-Interim and the E-OBS data sets is used to evaluate case-to-case precipitation amounts and to assess consistency between the two data sets. Both data sets exhibit high variability in precipitation amounts among different Vb events. While only 23 % of all Vb events are associated with extreme precipitation, around 15 % of all extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the northern Alpine region and Central Europe are induced by Vb events, although Vb cyclones are rare events (2.3 per year). To obtain a better understanding of the variability within Vb events, the analysis of the 10 heaviest and lowest precipitation Vb events reveals noticeable differences in the state of the atmosphere. These differences are most pronounced in the geopotential height and potential vorticity field, indicating a much stronger cyclone for heavy precipitation events. The related differences in wind direction are responsible for the moisture transport around the Alps and the orographical lifting along the northern slopes of the Alps. These effects are the main reasons for a disastrous outcome of Vb events, and consequently are absent in the Vb events associated with low precipitation. Hence, our results point out that heavy precipitation related to Vb events is mainly related to large-scale dynamics rather than to thermodynamic processes.

  2. An ab initio study of core-valence correlation. [in atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Walch, S. P.; Liu, B.

    1983-01-01

    Especially in the cases of the first two columns of the periodic table, the inclusion of core-valence correlation in ab initio CI calculations yields a contraction of the atomic valence shell and improves both calculated atomic ionization potentials and atomic energy separations. For the alkali dimers Na2, K2, and Rb2, the presently calculated bond lengths are in excellent agreement with experiments when core-valence is included. In addition, the valence dissociation energies are accurate.

  3. Vb-type cyclones and their role in extreme precipitation events in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messmer, Martina; José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather situations are of major relevance for society, since they lead to great economical and personal damage. In Central Europe, one important source of extreme precipitation accompanied by large flooding events is the so-called Vb-event, classified by W. J. Van Bebber in 1891. Vb-events are defined as cyclones developing over the western Mediterranean that move north eastward. They can uptake large amounts of moisture, which is then transported towards the Alps and Central Europe, inducing heavy precipitation and flooding events. Despite their importance the relevant processes triggering Vb-events and their impact in extreme precipitation are not yet fully understood. The overall goal of this study research is to understand the dynamics of the past events and to provide a reliable climatology, which would provide a first guess for future behaviour of these potentially disastrous situations. A cyclone detection and tracking tool is applied to ERA Interim reanalysis (1979-2013) in order to identify the most prominent Vb-situations. Vb-events are detected and tracked in the geopotential height at 850 hPa. Subsequently, the cyclones are automatically filtered with criteria based on the origin and end of the track, which allows us discarding those paths that should not be considered as Vb-events. Precipitation in the ERA Interim and E-OBS database is used to evaluate the precipitation amounts corresponding to each case and to assess the consistency between datasets. ERA Interim and E-OBS data consistently indicate that there is great variability in precipitation amounts within different Vb-events. While it is expected that Vb-events are associated with extreme precipitation, this is only true for about one quarter of all cases. Nevertheless around 15% of extreme precipitation days (99 percentile) over the Alpine region are triggered by Vb-events. In order to obtain a better understanding of the large variability in Vb-events, the ten heaviest and lowest precipitation Vb-events are studied in more detail. Results reveal noticeable differences in the state of the atmosphere that lead to heavy precipitation. These differences are most pronounced in the geopotential height and potential vorticity field. The associated differences in wind direction in different elevations are responsible for the moisture transport around the Alps and the orographical lifting along the Alps. These effects are the main reasons for the disastrous outcome of Vb-events and consequently are missing in the driest Vb-events. The results indicate that heavy precipitation is mainly related to large-scale dynamics rather than to thermodynamic processes, as could be expected.

  4. Valence, Covalence, Hypervalence, Oxidation State, and Coordination Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Derek W.

    2005-01-01

    Valence as a numerical measure of an atom's combining power, expressed by the number of bonds it forms in a molecular formulation of the compound in question, was unable to cope with coordination compounds. The covalence of an atom is the nearest model equivalent, but is subject to ambiguity since it often depends on which bonding model is being…

  5. Direct determination of the band offset in atomic layer deposited ZnO/hydrogenated amorphous silicon heterojunctions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy valence band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, L. Rler, R.; Pettenkofer, C.

    2014-05-28

    The chemical composition and band alignment at the heterointerface between atomic layer deposition-grown zinc oxide (ZnO) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is investigated using monochromatized X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A new approach for obtaining the valence band offset ?E{sub V} is developed, which consists in fitting the valence band (VB) spectrum obtained for a-Si:H with a thin ZnO overlayer as the sum of experimentally obtained VB spectra of a bulk a-Si:H film and a thick ZnO film. This approach allows obtaining ?E{sub V}?=?2.71??0.15?eV with a minimum of assumptions, and also yields information on the change in band bending of both substrate and ZnO film. The band offset results are compared to values obtained using the usual approach of comparing valence band edge-to-core level energy differences, ?E{sub B,CL} ???E{sub B,VB}. Furthermore, a theoretical value for the VB offset is calculated from the concept of charge neutrality level line-up, using literature data for the charge neutrality levels and the experimentally determined ZnO/a-Si:H interface dipole. The thus obtained value of ?E{sub V}{sup CNL}?=?2.65??0.3?eV agrees well with the experimental ?E{sub V}.

  6. The Realization of Drilling Fault Diagnosis Based on Hybrid Programming with Matlab and VB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiangping; Hu, Yingcai

    This paper presents a method using hybrid programming with Matlab and VB based on ActiveX to design the system of drilling accident prediction and diagnosis. So that the powerful calculating function and graphical display function of Matlab and visual development interface of VB are combined fully. The main interface of the diagnosis system is compiled in VB,and the analysis and fault diagnosis are implemented by neural network tool boxes in Matlab.The system has favorable interactive interface,and the fault example validation shows that the diagnosis result is feasible and can meet the demands of drilling accident prediction and diagnosis.

  7. VB-111: a novel anti-vascular therapeutic for glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Gruslova, Aleksandra; Cavazos, David A; Miller, Jessica R; Breitbart, Eyal; Cohen, Yael C; Bangio, Livnat; Yakov, Niva; Soundararajan, Anu; Floyd, John R; Brenner, Andrew J

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most highly vascularized of solid tumors, contributing to the infiltrative nature of the disease, and conferring poor outcome. Due to the critical dependency of GBM on growth of new endothelial vasculature, we evaluated the preclinical activity of a novel adenoviral gene therapy that targets the endothelium within newly formed blood vessels for apoptosis. VB-111, currently in phase II clinical trials, consists of a non-replicating Adenovirus 5 (El deleted) carrying a proapoptotic human Fas-chimera (transgene) under the control of a modified murine promoter (PPE-1-3×) which specifically targets endothelial cells within the tumor vasculature. Here we report that a single intravenous dose of 2.5 × 10(11) or 1 × 10(11) VPs was sufficient to extend survival in nude rats bearing U87MG-luc2 or nude mice bearing U251-luc, respectively. Bioluminescence imaging of nude rats showed that VB-111 effectively inhibited tumor growth within four weeks of treatment. This was confirmed in a select group of animals by MRI. In our mouse model we observed that 3 of 10 nude mice treated with VB-111 completely lost U251 luciferase signal and were considered long term survivors. To assess the antiangiogenic effects of VB-111, we evaluated the tumor-associated microvaculature by CD31, a common marker of neovascularization, and found a significant decrease in the microvessel density by IHC. We further assessed the neovasculature by confocal microscopy and found that VB-111 inhibits vascular density in two separate mouse models bearing U251-RFP xenografts. Collectively, this study supports the clinical development of VB-111 as a treatment for GBM. PMID:26108658

  8. Implementation of RS-485 Communication between PLC and PC of Distributed Control System Based on VB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian Zhang, Chuan; Da Huang, Zhi; Qing Zhou, Gui; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on achieving RS-485 communication between programmable logical controller (PLC) and PC based on visual basic 6.0 (VB6.0) on an experimental automatic production line. Mitsubishi FX2N PLCs and a PC are chosen as slave stations and main station, respectively. Monitoring software is developed using VB6.0 for data input/output, flow control and online parameters setting. As a result, all functions are fulfilled with robust performance. It is concluded from results that one PC can monitor several PLCs using RS-485 communication.

  9. Valence photoelectron spectroscopy of Gd silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Braicovich, L. ); Puppin, E.; Lindau, I. ); Iandelli, A.; Olcese, G.L.; Palenzona, A. )

    1990-02-15

    Gd{sub 3}Si{sub 5}, GdSi, and Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 3} were investigated with photoemission spectroscopy in the photon-energy range 40.8--149 eV by exploiting the energy dependence of the photoemission cross sections and the valence resonance at the crossing of the Gd 4{ital d}-4{ital f} threshold. The modification of the spectra versus photon energy, along with their stoichiometry dependence, show the relevance of covalent mixed Gd 5{ital d}--Si 3{ital sp} states in the formation of the chemical bond. In the region close to the Fermi level an increase of the {ital d} contribution is observed. These points are discussed in connection with the existing models of the silicide bond.

  10. Valence and diffuse-bound anions of noble-gas complexes with uracil.

    PubMed

    Streit, Lívia; Dolgounitcheva, O; Zakrzewski, V G; Ortiz, J V

    2012-11-21

    Valence-bound (VB) and diffuse-bound (DB) anions of noble-gas (Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes with uracil have been studied with ab initio methods. MP2 optimizations revealed minima corresponding to anions of both kinds in each case. Coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, CCSD(T), and electron propagator single-point calculations were performed in order to assess vertical and adiabatic electron detachment energies of these complexes. Ab initio electron propagator calculations employed the outer valence Green's function and partial third-order approximations, and the algebraic diagrammatic construction in third order. Basis set effects have been systematically examined. DB anions of all three complexes were adiabatically bound, with calculated adiabatic electron attachment energies below 0.06 eV. Corresponding vertical electron detachment energies were below 0.1 eV. As to VB anions, only the Xe complex had a positive adiabatic electron detachment energy, of 0.01 eV, with a corresponding vertical electron detachment energy of 0.6 eV. These computational findings are consistent with the interpretation of results previously obtained experimentally by Hendricks et al. PMID:23181309

  11. Valence and diffuse-bound anions of noble-gas complexes with uracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Lívia; Dolgounitcheva, O.; Zakrzewski, V. G.; Ortiz, J. V.

    2012-11-01

    Valence-bound (VB) and diffuse-bound (DB) anions of noble-gas (Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes with uracil have been studied with ab initio methods. MP2 optimizations revealed minima corresponding to anions of both kinds in each case. Coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples, CCSD(T), and electron propagator single-point calculations were performed in order to assess vertical and adiabatic electron detachment energies of these complexes. Ab initio electron propagator calculations employed the outer valence Green's function and partial third-order approximations, and the algebraic diagrammatic construction in third order. Basis set effects have been systematically examined. DB anions of all three complexes were adiabatically bound, with calculated adiabatic electron attachment energies below 0.06 eV. Corresponding vertical electron detachment energies were below 0.1 eV. As to VB anions, only the Xe complex had a positive adiabatic electron detachment energy, of 0.01 eV, with a corresponding vertical electron detachment energy of 0.6 eV. These computational findings are consistent with the interpretation of results previously obtained experimentally by Hendricks et al.

  12. Stoichiometry, Coordination, and Interatomic Distances in Simple Valence Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Staffan

    1993-07-01

    A simple valence or haplotype crystal is defined as a valence crystal of binary composition A xB y, with one coordination number, CN( A), for all cations and one, CN( B), for all anions. Valence crystals have electroneutral formulas with respect to formal atomic valences ( V A, V B) and each cation is surrounded entirely by anions and vice versa. Known haplotype structures include a majority of textbook examples of binary inorganic structures. Two simple rules apply to haplotypes: x V A = y V B and x CN( A) = y CN( B). These two rules strongly limit the number of possible combinations of atomic valence, composition, and coordination. A clear connection is shown to exist in known haplotypes between the coordination number of the majority atom and the dimensionality of strong bonding, which in turn has a great influence on crystal properties. In haplotypes with three-dimensional bonding, an observed relationship between composition and interatomic distances is shown to be a consequence of the rather regular coordination figures present in this group of structures.

  13. Real-Time Evolution of the Valence Electronic Structure in a Dissociating Molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Wernet, Ph.; Godehusen, K.; Gaudin, J.; Schwarzkopf, O.; Eberhardt, W.; Odelius, M.

    2009-07-03

    Time-resolved valence band photoelectron spectroscopy with a temporal resolution of 135 fs is used to map the entire occupied valence electronic structure of photoexcited gas-phase Br{sub 2} molecules during dissociation. The observed shifting and mixing of valence energy levels defines a transition period where the system appears to be intermediate between atoms and molecules. The surprisingly short bond breaking or dissociation time is determined by monitoring in real time how the photoelectron multiplet structure of the free atom arises from the valence states of the photoexcited molecule.

  14. Multiple valence superatoms.

    PubMed

    Reveles, J U; Khanna, S N; Roach, P J; Castleman, A W

    2006-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al(13) cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al(14) cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al(13)(-) is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al(7)(-), that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  15. Multiple valence superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Roach, P. J.; Castleman, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al13 cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al14 cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al13− is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al7−, that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  16. Reactive Force Fields via Explicit Valency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Seyit

    Computational simulations are invaluable in elucidating the dynamics of biological macromolecules. Unfortunately, reactions present a fundamental challenge. Calculations based on quantum mechanics can predict bond formation and rupture; however they suffer from severe length- and time-limitations. At the other extreme, classical approaches provide orders of magnitude faster simulations; however they regard chemical bonds as immutable entities. A few exceptions exist, but these are not always trivial to adopt for routine use. We bridge this gap by providing a novel, pseudo-classical approach, based on explicit valency. We unpack molecules into valence electron pairs and atomic cores. Particles bear ionic charges and interact via pairwise-only potentials. The potentials are informed of quantum effects in the short-range and obey dissociation limits in the long-range. They are trained against a small set of isolated species, including geometries and thermodynamics of small hydrides and of dimers formed by them. The resulting force field captures the essentials of reactivity, polarizability and flexibility in a simple, seamless setting. We call this model LEWIS, after the chemical theory that inspired the use of valence pairs. Following the introduction in Chapter 1, we initially focus on the properties of water. Chapter 2 considers gas phase clusters. To transition to the liquid phase, Chapter 3 describes a novel pairwise long-range compensation that performs comparably to infinite lattice summations. The approach is suited to ionic solutions in general. In Chapters 4 and 5, LEWIS is shown to correctly predict the dipolar and quadrupolar response in bulk liquid, and can accommodate proton transfers in both acid and base. Efficiency permits the study of proton defects at dilutions not accessible to experiment or quantum mechanics. Chapter 6 discusses explicit valency approaches in other hydrides, forming the basis of a reactive organic force field. Examples of simple proton transfer and more complex reactions are discussed. Chapter 7 provides a framework for variable electron spread. This addition resolves some of the inherent limitations of the former model which implicitly assumed that electron spread was not affected by the environment. A brief summary is provided in Chapter 8.

  17. A Multidimensional Measure of Work Valences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora; Weigold, Ingrid K.

    2012-01-01

    Work valence is derived from expectancy-valence theory and the literature on children's vocational development and is presumed to be a general appraisal of work that emerges during the childhood period. Work valence serves to promote and inhibit the motivation and tasks associated with vocational development. A measure of work valence, composed of…

  18. A Multidimensional Measure of Work Valences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Lee, Bora; Weigold, Ingrid K.

    2012-01-01

    Work valence is derived from expectancy-valence theory and the literature on children's vocational development and is presumed to be a general appraisal of work that emerges during the childhood period. Work valence serves to promote and inhibit the motivation and tasks associated with vocational development. A measure of work valence, composed of

  19. Valence-band orbital character of CdO: A synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, J. J.; Lee, Tien-Lin; Muoz-Sanjos, V.; Ziga-Prez, J.; Payne, D. J.; Egdell, R. G.; McConville, C. F.

    2014-04-01

    N-type CdO is a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) which has promise in a number of areas including solar cell applications. In order to realize this potential a detailed knowledge of the electronic structure of the material is essential. In particular, standard density functional theory (DFT) methods struggle to accurately predict fundamental material properties such as the band gap. This is largely due to the underestimation of the Cd 4d binding energy, which results in a strong hybridization with the valence-band (VB) states. In order to test theoretical approaches, comparisons to experiment need to be made. Here, synchrotron-radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES) measurements are presented, and comparison with three theoretical approaches are made. In particular the position of the Cd 4d state is measured with hard x-ray PES, and the orbital character of the VB is probed by photon energy dependent measurements. It is found that LDA + U using a theoretical U value of 2.34 eV is very successful in predicting the position of the Cd 4d state. The VB photon energy dependence reveals the O 2p photoionization cross section is underestimated at higher photon energies, and that an orbital contribution from Cd 5p is underestimated by all the DFT approaches.

  20. Isolation and characterization of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3.

    PubMed

    Bramhachari, P V; Kishor, P B Kavi; Ramadevi, R; Kumar, Ranadheer; Rao, B Rama; Dubey, Santosh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Marine bacterial strains were isolated from coastal regions of Goa and screened for the strains that produce the highest amount of mucous exopolysaccharide (EPS). Our screening resulted in the identification of the strain Vibrio furnissii VB0S3 (hereafter called VB0S3), as it produced the highest EPS in batch cultures during the late logarithmic growth phase. The isolate was identified as VB0S3 based on morphological and biochemical properties. Growth and EPS production were studied in mineral salts medium supplemented with NaCl (1.5%) and glucose (0.2%). The exopolymer was recovered from the culture supernatant by using three volumes of cold ethanol precipitation and dialysis procedure. Chemical analyses of EPS revealed that it is primarily composed of neutral sugars, uronic acids, and proteins. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amide groups, which correspond to a typical heteropolymeric polysaccharide, and the EPS also possessed good emulsification activity. The gas chromatographic analysis of an alditol-acetate derivatized sample of EPS revealed that it was mainly composed of galactose and glucose. Minor components found were mannose, rhamnose, fucose, ribose, arabinose, and xylose. EPS was readily isolated from culture supernatants, which suggests that the EPS was a slime-like exopolysaccharide. This is the first report of exopolysaccharide characterization that describes the isolation and characterization of an EPS expressed by Vibrio furnissii strain VB0S3. The results of the study contribute significantly and go a long way towards an understanding of the correlation between growth and EPS production, chemical composition, and industrial applications of the exopolysaccharide in environmental biotechnology and bioremediation. PMID:18051352

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Terrestrial Cyanobacterium Scytonema millei VB511283, Isolated from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Diya; Chandrababunaidu, Mathu Malar; Singh, Deeksha; Sanghi, Neha; Ghorai, Arpita; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Madduluri, Madhavi

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Scytonema millei VB511283, a cyanobacterium isolated from biofilms on the exterior of stone monuments in Santiniketan, eastern India. The draft genome is 11,627,246 bp long (11.63 Mb), with 118 scaffolds. About 9,011 protein-coding genes, 117 tRNAs, and 12 rRNAs are predicted from this assembly. PMID:25744984

  2. Valence quark spin distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan Isgur

    1998-09-01

    The hyperfine interactions of the constituent quark model provide a natural explanation for many nucleon properties, including the {Delta} - N splitting, the charge radius of the neutron, and the observation that the proton's quark distribution function ratio d(x)/u(x) {r_arrow} 0 as x {r_arrow} 1. The hyperfine-perturbed quark model also makes predictions for the nucleon spin-dependent distribution functions. Precision measurements of the resulting asymmetries A{sub 1}{sup p}(x) and A{sub 1}{sup n}(x) in the valence region can test this model and thereby the hypothesis that the valence quark spin distributions are ''normal''.

  3. The influence of spectral nudging in simulating individual Vb-events with COSMO-CLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumann, Manuela; Anders, Ivonne; Hofstätter, Michael; Chimani, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies certain European cyclones have been investigated in terms of related extreme precipitation events in Austria. Those systems passing the Mediterranean are of special interest as the atmospheric moisture content is increased. It has been shown in recent investigations that state-of-the-art RCMs can approximately reproduce observed heavy precipitation characteristics. This provides a basic confidence in the models ability to capture future changes of such events under increased greenhouse gas conditions as well. In this contribution we focus on high spatial and temporal scales and assess the currently achievable accuracy in the simulation of Vb-events. The state-of-the-art regional climate model CCLM is applied in a hindcast-mode to the case of individual Vb-events in August 2002 and Mai/June 2013. Besides the conventional forcing of the regional climate model at its lateral boundaries a spectral nudging technique is applied. This means that inside the model area the regional model is forced to accept the analysis for large scales whereas it has no effect on the small scales. The simulations for the Vb-events mentioned above covering the European domain have been varied systematically by changing nudging factor, number of nudged waves, nudged variables, and other parameters. The resulting precipitation amounts have been compared to E-OBS gridded European precipitation data set and a recent high spatially resolved precipitation data set for Austria (GPARD-6). Varying the spectral nudging setup in the short-term Vb-cases helps us on one hand learn something about 3D-processes during Vb-events e.g. vorticity and formation but on the other hand identify the model deficiencies. The results show, that increasing the number of nudged waves from 1 to 7 as well as the choice of the variables used in the nudging process have a large influence on the development of the low pressure system and the related precipitation patterns. On the contrary, the nudging factor or the definition of the uppermost pressure level for the nudging are of low impact on the results.

  4. The influence of spectral nudging in simulating Vb-events with COSMO-CLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paumann, Manuela; Anders, Ivonne; Hofstätter, Michael; Chimani, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    In previous studies certain European cyclones have been investigated in terms of related extreme precipitation events in Austria. Those systems passing the Mediterranean are of special interest as the atmospheric moisture content is increased. It has been shown in recent investigations that state-of-the-art RCMs can approximately reproduce observed heavy precipitation characteristics. This provides a basic confidence in the models ability to capture future changes of such events under increased greenhouse gas conditions as well. In this contribution we focus on high spatial and temporal scales and assess the currently achievable accuracy in the simulation of Vb-events. The state-of-the-art regional climate model CCLM is applied in a hindcast-mode to the case of individual Vb-events in August 2002 and Mai/June 2013. Besides the conventional forcing of the regional climate model at its lateral boundaries a spectral nudging technique is applied. This means that inside the model area the regional model is forced to accept the analysis for large scales whereas it has no effect on the small scales. The simulations for the Vb-events mentioned above covering the European domain have been varied systematically by changing nudging factor, number of nudged waves, nudged variables, and other parameters. The resulting precipitation amounts have been compared to E-OBS gridded European precipitation data set and a recent high spatially resolved precipitation data set for Austria (GPARD-6). Varying the spectral nudging setup in the short-term Vb-cases helps us on one hand learn something about 3D-processes during Vb-events e.g. vorticity and formation but on the other hand identify the model deficiencies. The results show, that increasing the number of nudged waves from 1 to 7 as well as the choice of the variables used in the nudging process have a large influence on the development of the low pressure system and the related precipitation patterns. On the contrary, the nudging factor or the definition of the uppermost pressure level for the nudging are of low impact on the results.

  5. Single-crystal growth of mercury indium telluride (MIT) by vertical Bridgman method (VB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghang; Jie, Wanqi

    2006-04-01

    The photoelectronic single crystals of mercury indium telluride (MIT) have been successfully grown by vertical Bridgman method (VB) at the optimized growth conditions. The energy band gap of MIT was authenticated to be 0.73 eV. The crystal was determined through the X-ray diffraction to be defect zinc-blende structure with the space group F4¯3m. The infrared transmittance of the crystal in the region from 400 to 4000 cm -1 was determined by FT-IR to be 50-55%, which decreases gradually with the increase of wavenumber due to the lattice absorption and free carriers absorption.

  6. Sodium-sulfur battery development. Phase VB final report, October 1, 1981--February 28, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the technical progress made under Contract No. DE-AM04-79CH10012 between the U.S. Department of Energy, Ford Aerospace & Communications Corporations and Ford Motor Company, for the period 1 October 1981 through 28 February 1985, which is designated as Phase VB of the Sodium-Sulfur Battery Development Program. During this period, Ford Aerospace held prime technical responsibility and Ford Motor Company carried out supporting research. Ceramatec, Inc., was a major subcontractor to Ford Aerospace for electrolyte development and production.

  7. Aesthetic valence of visual illusions

    PubMed Central

    Stevanov, Jasmina; Marković, Slobodan; Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Visual illusions constitute an interesting perceptual phenomenon, but they also have an aesthetic and affective dimension. We hypothesized that the illusive nature itself causes the increased aesthetic and affective valence of illusions compared with their non-illusory counterparts. We created pairs of stimuli. One qualified as a standard visual illusion whereas the other one did not, although they were matched in as many perceptual dimensions as possible. The phenomenal quality of being an illusion had significant effects on “Aesthetic Experience” (fascinating, irresistible, exceptional, etc), “Evaluation” (pleasant, cheerful, clear, bright, etc), “Arousal” (interesting, imaginative, complex, diverse, etc), and “Regularity” (balanced, coherent, clear, realistic, etc). A subsequent multiple regression analysis suggested that Arousal was a better predictor of Aesthetic Experience than Evaluation. The findings of this study demonstrate that illusion is a phenomenal quality of the percept which has measurable aesthetic and affective valence. PMID:23145272

  8. THE VALENCE OF CORPUSCULAR PROTEINS.

    PubMed

    Gorin, M H; Mover, L S

    1942-07-20

    BY THE USE OF TWO EXTREME MODELS: a hydrated sphere and an unhydrated rod the valence (net charge) of corpuscular proteins can be successfully calculated from electric mobility data by the Debye-Hückel theory (modified to include the effect of the ions in the ion atmosphere) in conjunction with the electrophoretic theory of Henry. As pointed out by Abramson, this permits a comparison with values for the valence from titration data. Electrometric titration measurements of serum albumin B (Kekwick) have been determined at several ionic strengths. These results, together with the available data in the literature for serum albumin B, egg albumin, and beta-lactoglobulin have been used to compare values for the valence calculated from measurements of titration, electrophoresis, and membrane potentials. The results indicate that the usual interpretation of titration curves is open to serious question. By extrapolation of the titration data to zero ionic strength and protein concentration, there results an "intrinsic" net charge curve describing the binding of H(+) (OH(-)) ion alone. This curve agrees closely, in each case, with values of the valence calculated from mobility data (which in turn are in close accord with those estimated from membrane potential measurements). The experimental titration curves in the presence of appreciable quantities of ions and protein deviate widely from the ideal curve. It is suggested that, under these conditions, binding of undissociated acid (base) leads to erroneous values for the net charge. This binding would not affect the electrophoretic mobility. Values of the net charge obtained by the two extreme models from electrophoretic data are in agreement within 15 to 20 per cent. The agreement between the cylindrical model and the titration data is somewhat better in each case than with the sphere; i.e., this comparison enables a choice to be made between asymmetry and hydration in the interpretation of results from sedimentation and diffusion measurements on proteins. It is concluded that the proteins discussed here are somewhat asymmetric and also hydrated. PMID:19873314

  9. Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of the bond triangle for categorizing compounds of the main-group elements may be extended by the use of weighted average electronegativities to allow distinction between compounds of the same elements with different stoichiometries. In such cases a higher valency for the central atom leads to greater covalent character and the

  10. Electronegativity and the Bond Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Terry L.; Garner, Leah D.

    2005-01-01

    The usefulness of the bond triangle for categorizing compounds of the main-group elements may be extended by the use of weighted average electronegativities to allow distinction between compounds of the same elements with different stoichiometries. In such cases a higher valency for the central atom leads to greater covalent character and the…

  11. ALLOYING-DRIVEN PHASE STABILITY IN GROUP-VB TRANSITION METALS UNDER COMPRESSION

    SciTech Connect

    Landa, A; Soderlind, P

    2011-04-11

    The change in phase stability of Group-VB (V, Nb, and Ta) transition metals due to pressure and alloying is explored by means of first-principles electronic-structure calculations. It is shown that under compression stabilization or destabilization of the ground-state body-centered cubic (bcc) phase of the metal is mainly dictated by the band-structure energy that correlates well with the position of the Kohn anomaly in the transverse acoustic phonon mode. The predicted position of the Kohn anomaly in V, Nb, and Ta is found to be in a good agreement with data from the inelastic x-ray or neutron scattering measurements. In the case of alloying the change in phase stability is defined by the interplay between the band-structure and Madelung energies. We show that band-structure effects determine phase stability when a particular Group-VB metal is alloyed with its nearest neighbors within the same d-transition series: the neighbor with less and more d electrons destabilize and stabilize the bcc phase, respectively. When V is alloyed with neighbors of a higher (4d- or 5d-) transition series, both electrostatic Madelung and band-structure energies stabilize the body-centered-cubic phase. The opposite effect (destabilization) happens when Nb or Ta is alloyed with neighbors of the 3d-transition series.

  12. ?-Amyloid peptide is internalized into chick retinal neurons and alters the distribution of myosin Vb.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Leandro T; Matos, Priscila A; Provance, David William; de Mello, Fernando G; Andrade, Leonardo R; Sorenson, Martha M; Salerno, Vernica P

    2012-03-01

    The most common neurodegenerative disorder afflicting the aging human population is Alzheimer's disease (AD). A major hallmark of AD is dementia from a loss of neuronal function, attributed to the presence and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) peptide into senile plaques. Preceding senile plaque formation, abnormalities in axons can be observed as changes in morphologies and intracellular trafficking. Recently, it has been recognized that A? also accumulates within neurons and this intraneuronal A? accumulation has been reported to be critical in the disruption of synapses and cognitive function. Here, we report on the internalization of a fluorescently labeled A? peptide into cultured chick retinal neurons. The pattern of A? distribution during the time course of incubation is reminiscent of the endocytic pathway. Furthermore, the distribution of the internalized A? peptide converges with that of myosin Vb and both relocalize from the axon to cell body. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that AD proceeds as a result of an imbalance between A? production and A? clearance, suggesting a role for myosin Vb in this process. PMID:22241730

  13. Myosin Vb and Rab11a regulate phosphorylation of ezrin in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Dhekne, Herschel S; Hsiao, Nai-Hua; Roelofs, Pieter; Kumari, Meena; Slim, Christiaan L; Rings, Edmond H H M; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C D

    2014-03-01

    Microvilli at the apical surface of enterocytes allow the efficient absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Ezrin activation by its phosphorylation at T567 is important for microvilli development, but how such ezrin phosphorylation is controlled is not well understood. We demonstrate that a subset of kinases that phosphorylate ezrin closely co-distributes with apical recycling endosome marker Rab11a in the subapical domain. Expression of dominant-negative Rab11a mutant or depletion of the Rab11a-binding motor protein myosin Vb prevents the subapical enrichment of Rab11a and these kinases and inhibits ezrin phosphorylation and microvilli development, without affecting the polarized distribution of ezrin itself. We observe a similar loss of the subapical enrichment of Rab11a and the kinases and reduced phosphorylation of ezrin in microvillus inclusion disease, which is associated with MYO5B mutations, intestinal microvilli atrophy and malabsorption. Thus, part of the machinery for ezrin activation depends on recycling endosomes controlled by myosin Vb and Rab11a which, we propose, might act as subapical signaling platforms that enterocytes use to regulate development of microvilli and maintain human intestinal function. PMID:24413175

  14. X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electrons during a pericyclic reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredtmann, Timm; Ivanov, Misha; Dixit, Gopal

    2014-11-01

    Time-resolved imaging of chemically active valence electron densities is a long-sought goal, as these electrons dictate the course of chemical reactions. However, X-ray scattering is always dominated by the core and inert valence electrons, making time-resolved X-ray imaging of chemically active valence electron densities extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate an effective and robust method, which emphasizes the information encoded in weakly scattered photons, to image chemically active valence electron densities. The degenerate Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, a pericyclic reaction, is used as an example to visually illustrate our approach. Our work also provides experimental access to the long-standing problem of synchronous versus asynchronous bond formation and breaking during pericyclic reactions.

  15. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2008-12-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  16. Terrestrial chemical spill information system through remote sensing, GIS, and V.B. 6.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Jeba S., Angel; Srinikethan, G.; Natesan, Usha

    2009-01-01

    India has made remarkable progress in creating a modern and diversified industrial base, since its independence. Most of the refineries, petrochemical and fertilizer industries are located in the coastal zone and catered by 12 major ports along the 7500 km length of Indian coastline. Since, transportation of crude oil and POL products from ports to refineries are mostly by pipelines, rail/ road, besides some quantity by barge/ ships along the coast, there will be chances of oil spill/leakage. Managing these events before and during their occurrence is imperative to the protection of people and natural resources. The present study was carried out with a view to develop Terrestrial Chemical Spill Information System [TCSIS], using Remote Sensing [RS], GIS and VB 6.0., for the Mangalore coastal zone industrial area of Dakshina Kannada district, Karnataka state, along West Coast of India. The study area lies between 74°45'00'' to 74°52'30''E longitude and 12°52'30'' to 13°00'00''N latitude. The database of TCSIS consists of both conventional data and RS data, and analysed using ERDAS Imagine 9.0 and ArcGIS 8.3 software. Different thematic maps prepared include LU/LC map, drainage map, road and pipeline network map, slope map, Digital Elevation Model, relative risk maps and pipeline route for the transportation of hazardous chemicals from port to refinery. The TCSIS module developed using RS, GIS and V.B.6.0, characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, natural resources, and incorporates these into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk and aids in planning, preventing and responding to a terrestrial chemical spill.

  17. Cluster molecular orbital description of the electronic structures of mixed-valence iron oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    A molecular orbital description, based on spin-unrestricted X??-scattered wave calculations, is given for the electronic structures of mixed valence iron oxides and silicates. The cluster calculations show that electron hopping and optical intervalence charge-transger result from weak FeFe bonding across shared edges of FeO6 coordination polyhedra. In agreement with Zener's double exchange model, FeFe bonding is found to stabilize ferromagnetic coupling between Fe2+ and Fe3+ cations. ?? 1986.

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio sp. Strain Vb278, an Antagonistic Bacterium Isolated from the Marine Sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Ana C. S.; Franco, Telma; Califano, Gianmaria; Dowd, Scot E.; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Vibrio sp. Vb278, a biofilm-producing strain isolated from the marine sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus, showing in vitro antibacterial activity. The annotated genome displays a range of symbiotic factors and the potential for the biosynthesis of several biologically active natural products. PMID:26021918

  19. 30 CFR 57.22314 - Flow-control devices (V-A and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flow-control devices (V-A and V-B mines). 57.22314 Section 57.22314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22314 Flow-control...

  20. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. I. Recoupled pair bonds in carbon and sulfur monofluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, Thom H. Xu, Lu T.; Takeshita, Tyler Y.

    2015-01-21

    The number of singly occupied orbitals in the ground-state atomic configuration of an element defines its nominal valence. For carbon and sulfur, with two singly occupied orbitals in their {sup 3}P ground states, the nominal valence is two. However, in both cases, it is possible to form more bonds than indicated by the nominal valence—up to four bonds for carbon and six bonds for sulfur. In carbon, the electrons in the 2s lone pair can participate in bonding, and in sulfur the electrons in both the 3p and 3s lone pairs can participate. Carbon 2s and sulfur 3p recoupled pair bonds are the basis for the tetravalence of carbon and sulfur, and 3s recoupled pair bonds enable sulfur to be hexavalent. In this paper, we report generalized valence bond as well as more accurate calculations on the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, which are archetypal examples of molecules that possess recoupled pair bonds. These calculations provide insights into the fundamental nature of recoupled pair bonds and illustrate the key differences between recoupled pair bonds formed with the 2s lone pair of carbon, as a representative of the early p-block elements, and recoupled pair bonds formed with the 3p lone pair of sulfur, as a representative of the late p-block elements.

  1. The Chemical Bond in C2.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Markus; Frenking, Gernot

    2016-03-14

    Quantum chemical calculations using the complete active space of the valence orbitals have been carried out for Hn CCHn (n=0-3) and N2 . The quadratic force constants and the stretching potentials of Hn CCHn have been calculated at the CASSCF/cc-pVTZ level. The bond dissociation energies of the C-C bonds of C2 and HC≡CH were computed using explicitly correlated CASPT2-F12/cc-pVTZ-F12 wave functions. The bond dissociation energies and the force constants suggest that C2 has a weaker C-C bond than acetylene. The analysis of the CASSCF wavefunctions in conjunction with the effective bond orders of the multiple bonds shows that there are four bonding components in C2 , while there are only three in acetylene and in N2 . The bonding components in C2 consist of two weakly bonding σ bonds and two electron-sharing π bonds. The bonding situation in C2 can be described with the σ bonds in Be2 that are enforced by two π bonds. There is no single Lewis structure that adequately depicts the bonding situation in C2 . The assignment of quadruple bonding in C2 is misleading, because the bond is weaker than the triple bond in HC≡CH. PMID:26756311

  2. Adsorption mechanism and valency of catechol-functionalized hyperbranched polyglycerols

    PubMed Central

    Krysiak, Stefanie; Wei, Qiang; Rischka, Klaus; Hartwig, Andreas; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nature often serves as a model system for developing new adhesives. In aqueous environments, mussel-inspired adhesives are promising candidates. Understanding the mechanism of the extraordinarily strong adhesive bonds of the catechol group will likely aid in the development of adhesives. With this aim, we study the adhesion of catechol-based adhesives to metal oxides on the molecular level using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The comparison of single catechols (dopamine) with multiple catechols on hyperbranched polyglycerols (hPG) at various pH and dwell times allowed us to further increase our understanding. In particular, we were able to elucidate how to achieve strong bonds of different valency. It was concluded that hyperbranched polyglycerols with added catechol end groups are promising candidates for durable surface coatings. PMID:26150898

  3. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  4. Electronic structure factors of Si-H bond activation by transition metals. Valence photoelectron spectra of (. eta. sup 5 -C sub 5 H sub 4 CH sub 3 )Mn(CO)(PMe sub 3 )HSiCl sub 3 and (. eta. sup 5 -C sub 5 H sub 4 CH sub 3 )Mn(CO)(PMe sub 3 )HSiHPh sub 2 (Me = CH sub 3 , Ph = C sub 6 H sub 5 )

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberger, D.L.; Rai-Chaudhuri, A. )

    1990-03-07

    The valence photoelectron spectra of ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3})Mn(CO)(L)HSiCl{sub 3} and ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3})Mn(CO)(L)HSiHPh{sub 2}, where L is CO or P(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}, are compared to determine the effect of ligand substitution at the metal center on Si-H bond activation. Metal centers that are more electron rich may promote more complete oxidative addition of the Si-H bond to the metal. The shifts in the metal and ligand ionization energies and the relative intensities of ionizations in the He I and He II photoelectron experiments show that the metal in ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3})Mn(CO)(PMe{sub 3})HSiCl{sub 3} is best represented by a formal oxidation state of III (d{sub 4} electron count). This indicates nearly complete oxidative addition of the Si-H bond to the metal center and results in independent Mn-H and Mn-Si bonds. In contrast, the splitting and intensity pattern of the metal-based ionizations of ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3})Mn(CO)(PMe{sub 3})HSiHPh{sub 2} reflect the formal d{sup 6} electron count of a metal corresponding to oxidation state I. The extent of electron charge density shift from the metal to the ligand is also small, as evidenced by the negligible shifts of these ionizations from those of the related ({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3})Mn(CO){sub 2}(PMe{sub 3}) complex. These observations indicate that the electronic structure of the Si-H interaction with the metal in this complex is in the initial stages of Si-H bond addition to the metal, before oxidative addition has become prevalent. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Induction of apoptosis by VB1 in breast cancer cells: the role of reactive oxygen species and Bcl-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Hua; Zhou, Ying-Jun; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Shun-Zhi; Sun, Ji; Cao, Jian-Guo

    2014-02-01

    We have previously reported that the EVn-50 mixture of vitexins (lignan compounds) containing the purified vitexin (neolignan) compound, 6-hydroxy-4(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl‑7-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-2-naphthaldehyde, termed VB1, exhibits potent anticancer activity through the induction of apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, including MDA-MB‑231 cells. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which VB1 induces apoptosis in MDA-MB‑231 cells have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, to our knowledge, we provide for the first time mechanistic evidence that VB1-induced apoptosis in the human breast cancer line, MDA-MB-231, is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of caspases and the modulation of the expression of myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein 1 (Mcl‑1), B cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) proteins. The silencing of Mcl-1 by RNA interference enhanced VB1-induced apoptosis. In addition, VB1 did not induce ROS generation or apoptosis in the immortalized non‑cancerous breast cell line, MCF-10A. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism underlying VB1-induced apoptosis, and highlight VB1 as a promising candidate for the therapy of human breast cancer. PMID:24276280

  6. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor.

    PubMed

    Ramshaw, B J; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D; Betts, Jon B; Mitchell, J N; Tobash, P H; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Migliori, Albert

    2015-03-17

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5--the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)--and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability--therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  7. Avoided valence transition in a plutonium superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Ramshaw, B. J.; Shekhter, Arkady; McDonald, Ross D.; Betts, Jon B.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Mielke, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Migliori, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The d and f electrons in correlated metals are often neither fully localized around their host nuclei nor fully itinerant. This localized/itinerant duality underlies the correlated electronic states of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors and the heavy-fermion intermetallics and is nowhere more apparent than in the 5f valence electrons of plutonium. Here, we report the full set of symmetry-resolved elastic moduli of PuCoGa5—the highest Tc superconductor of the heavy fermions (Tc = 18.5 K)—and find that the bulk modulus softens anomalously over a wide range in temperature above Tc. The elastic symmetry channel in which this softening occurs is characteristic of a valence instability—therefore, we identify the elastic softening with fluctuations of the plutonium 5f mixed-valence state. These valence fluctuations disappear when the superconducting gap opens at Tc, suggesting that electrons near the Fermi surface play an essential role in the mixed-valence physics of this system and that PuCoGa5 avoids a valence transition by entering the superconducting state. The lack of magnetism in PuCoGa5 has made it difficult to reconcile with most other heavy-fermion superconductors, where superconductivity is generally believed to be mediated by magnetic fluctuations. Our observations suggest that valence fluctuations play a critical role in the unusually high Tc of PuCoGa5. PMID:25737548

  8. Bond orbital modelling of heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Hilmi

    2016-03-01

    We propose a non-orthogonal sp3 hybrid bond orbital model to determine the electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures. The model considers the non-orthogonality of sp3 hybrid states of nearest neighboring adjacent atoms using the intra-atomic Coulomb interactions corrected Hartree-Fock atomic energies and metallic contribution to calculate the valence band width energies of group IV elemental and group III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors without any adjustable parameter.

  9. In vitro thrombolytic activity of purified streptokinase extracted from Streptococcus equinus VIT_VB2 isolated from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Babu, Vaishnavi; Subathra Devi, C

    2015-01-01

    Streptokinase (SK) is an extracellular enzyme secreted by various strains of β-hemolytic Streptococci. The main focus of the current study is to evaluate the in vitro thrombolytic activity of purified SK extracted from Streptococcus equinus VIT_VB2 (Accession no. JX406835) isolated from milk sample. The growth rate of S. equinus VIT_VB2 strain was studied with pH and biomass content which has positive significant effect on enzyme yield. A temperature of 10 °C and pH of 6 was found to be optimum for maximum SK activity. The specific activity of the purified SK produced by VIT_VB2 strain was found to be 6,585 IU mg(-1). The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined as 47 kDa by SDS-PAGE. In vitro thrombolytic activity of purified SK was determined using synthetic chromogenic substrate S-2251, the activity of the purified enzyme was found to be 6,330 ± 2.2 IU. The purity of SK was compared with standard SK by HPLC. This is the first report which reveals the SK activity of S. equinus isolated from milk sample. PMID:24897956

  10. Action versus valence in decision making.

    PubMed

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The selection of actions, and the vigor with which they are executed, are influenced by the affective valence of predicted outcomes. This interaction between action and valence significantly influences appropriate and inappropriate choices and is implicated in the expression of psychiatric and neurological abnormalities, including impulsivity and addiction. We review a series of recent human behavioral, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies whose key design feature is an orthogonal manipulation of action and valence. These studies find that the interaction between the two is subject to the critical influence of dopamine. They also challenge existing views that neural representations in the striatum focus on valence, showing instead a dominance of the anticipation of action. PMID:24581556

  11. Action versus valence in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The selection of actions, and the vigor with which they are executed, are influenced by the affective valence of predicted outcomes. This interaction between action and valence significantly influences appropriate and inappropriate choices and is implicated in the expression of psychiatric and neurological abnormalities, including impulsivity and addiction. We review a series of recent human behavioral, neuroimaging, and pharmacological studies whose key design feature is an orthogonal manipulation of action and valence. These studies find that the interaction between the two is subject to the critical influence of dopamine. They also challenge existing views that neural representations in the striatum focus on valence, showing instead a dominance of the anticipation of action. PMID:24581556

  12. Valence resonance states of N2/-/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, M.; Neumann, D.

    1973-01-01

    Resonant scattering observed in the transmission of electrons between 9 and 11 eV in collision with N2 has been attributed to the attachment of the scattered electron to an excited valence state. Resonance valence excited states of N2(-) are calculated that could support this hypothesis. Although calculated and observed resonance energies are in close agreement, the calculations do not reflect the observed complex angular behavior of the scattered electron.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22231 - Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22231 Actions at 0.25 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 0.25 percent in...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22238 - Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22238 Actions at 2.0 percent methane (I-B, II-B, V-B, and VI mines). If methane reaches 2.0 percent in the...

  1. Development of a GMP Phase III purification process for VB4-845, an immunotoxin expressed in E. coli using high cell density fermentation.

    PubMed

    Premsukh, Arjune; Lavoie, Joelle M; Cizeau, Jeannick; Entwistle, Joycelyn; MacDonald, Glen C

    2011-07-01

    VB4-845 is a recombinant immunotoxin comprised of an anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) scFv fused to a truncated form of the bacterial toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A. VB4-845, purified from TB fed-batch fermentation, showed clinical efficacy when administered locally to treat non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). Here, we describe the implementation of an Escherichia coli high cell density (HCD) cultivation and purification process for VB4-845. HCD cultivation was a prerequisite for achieving higher yields necessary for Phase III clinical trials and commercialization. Using this process, the VB4-845 titer in the supernatant was increased by 30-fold over the original TB fed-batch cultivation. To obtain clinical grade material, a process involving a five-step column purification procedure was implemented and led to an overall recovery of ∼ 40%. VB4-845 purity of >97% was achieved after the first three columns following the removal of low-molecular weight product-related impurities and aggregates. Endotoxins were effectively separated from VB4-845 on the Q-columns and by washing the Ni-column with a detergent buffer while host cell proteins were removed using ceramic hydroxyapatite. Comparability studies demonstrated that the purified product from the Phase III process was identical to the Phase II reference standard produced using TB fed-batch fermentation. PMID:21421055

  2. Assessment of Quantum Mechanical Models Based on Resolved Orbital Momentum Distributions of n-Butane in the Outer Valence Shell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng

    2003-11-27

    Fully resolved outer valence orbital momentum distributions (MDs) of n-butane (C4H10) in the ground electronic state (X1Ag) are studied quantum mechanically using RHF/TZVP, density functional theory (DFT) DFT-BP/TZVP, and B3LYP/TZVP methods. The orbital MDs are simulated to reflect the recent experimental conditions with the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) and are compared favorably with the available experimental orbital cross sections. However, the majority of the outer valence molecular orbitals (MOs) of n-butane has been only partially resolved experimentally, forming into three clustered MOs of 7ag + 2bg + 6ag, 2au + 6bu and 1bg + 5bu + 5ag. Deconvolution of the clustered MOs is a challenge experimentally but rather straightforward theoretically, as the inversion is a multiple channel process. The outer valence MOs are crucial to understanding the chemical bonding mechanism and the unresolved outer valence orbitals cause significant bonding information loss. This work provides an orbital based assessment to the quality of the RHF/TZVP, DFT-BP/TZVP, and B3LYP/TZVP models using orbital MD information, by decomposing the clustered outer valence MOs of n-butane, which also reveals the bonding mechanism of the species. PMID:26313528

  3. Subliminal Affect Valence Words Change Conscious Mood Potency but Not Valence: Is This Evidence for Unconscious Valence Affect?

    PubMed Central

    Shevrin, Howard; Panksepp, Jaak; Brakel, Linda A. W.; Snodgrass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Whether or not affect can be unconscious remains controversial. Research claiming to demonstrate unconscious affect fails to establish clearly unconscious stimulus conditions. The few investigations that have established unconscious conditions fail to rule out conscious affect changes. We report two studies in which unconscious stimulus conditions were met and conscious mood changes measured. The subliminal stimuli were positive and negative affect words presented at the objective detection threshold; conscious mood changes were measured with standard manikin valence, potency, and arousal scales. We found and replicated that unconscious emotional stimuli produced conscious mood changes on the potency scale but not on the valence scale. Were positive and negative affects aroused unconsciously, but reflected consciously in potency changes? Or were the valence words unconscious cognitive causes of conscious mood changes being activated without unconscious affect? A thought experiment is offered as a way to resolve this dilemma. PMID:24961258

  4. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian -Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.

    2015-07-10

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.

  5. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium.

    PubMed

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L; Lumsden, Mark D; Lawrence, John M; Thompson, Joe D; Lander, Gerard H; Mitchell, Jeremy N; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D

    2015-07-01

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. Our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium's magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials. PMID:26601219

  6. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Ramos, Mike; Trouw, Frans; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Haule, Kristjan; Kotliar, Gabriel; Bauer, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. Our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed by valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials. PMID:26601219

  7. The role of valence-band excitation in laser ablation of KCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Richard F., Jr.; Tang, Kai; Bunton, Patrick H.; Wang, Ling-Jun

    1991-01-01

    We present recent measurements of excited-atom and ion emission from KCl surfaces illuminated by vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation (h-nu = 8-28 eV) and ultraviolet laser light (h-nu = 4 eV). At low intensities characteristic of the synchrotron experiments, excited atoms are desorbed by simple valence-band excitation process involving the metallization of the KCl surface. At the higher intensities typical of laser desorption and ablation, we observe a strong decrease in K emission as a function of the number of laser shots, but an essentially constant yield of Cl. K(+) and Cl(-) emission at high intensities show similar behavior. The energetics of these desorption phenomena can be treated in a bond-orbital model which shows that creation of a single valence hole is sufficient to excite an ion to an anti-bonding state.

  8. Molybdenum Valence in Basaltic Silicate Melts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danielson, L. R.; Righter, K.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S.; Pando, K.

    2010-01-01

    The moderately siderophile element molybdenum has been used as an indicator in planetary differentiation processes, and is particularly relevant to core formation [for example, 1-6]. However, models that apply experimental data to an equilibrium differentiation scenario infer the oxidation state of molybdenum from solubility data or from multivariable coefficients from metal-silicate partitioning data [1,3,7]. Partitioning behavior of molybdenum, a multivalent element with a transition near the J02 of interest for core formation (IW-2) will be sensitive to changes in JO2 of the system and silicate melt structure. In a silicate melt, Mo can occur in either 4+ or 6+ valence state, and Mo6+ can be either octahedrally or tetrahedrally coordinated. Here we present first XANES measurements of Mo valence in basaltic run products at a range of P, T, and JO2 and further quantify the valence transition of Mo.

  9. Strong Constraints to the Putative Planet Candidate around VB 10 Using Doppler Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Thompson, Ian B.; Osip, David J.; Debes, John H.

    2010-03-01

    We present new radial velocity (RV) measurements of the ultra-cool dwarf VB 10, which was recently announced to host a giant planet detected with astrometry. The new observations were obtained using optical spectrographs (MIKE/Magellan and ESPaDOnS/CFHT) and cover 65% of the reported period of 270 days. The nominal precision of the new Doppler measurements is about 150 m s-1 while their standard deviation is 250 m s-1. However, there are indications that such a larger variation is due to uncontrolled systematic errors. We apply least-squares periodograms to identify the most significant signals and evaluate their false alarm probabilities (FAPs). We show that this method is the proper generalization to astrometric data because (1) it mitigates the coupling of the orbital parameters with the parallax and proper motion, and (2) it permits a direct generalization to include nonlinear Keplerian parameters in a combined fit to astrometry and RV data. Our analysis of the astrometry alone uncovers the reported 270 day period and an even stronger signal at ~50 days. We estimate the uncertainties in the parameters using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. Although the new data alone cannot rule out the presence of a candidate, when combined with published RV measurements, the FAPs of the best solutions grow to unacceptable levels strongly suggesting that the observed astrometric wobble is not due to an unseen companion. The new measurements put an upper limit of m sin i ~ 2.5 m jup for a companion with a period shorter than one year and moderate eccentricities. Based on observations collected with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. CFHT is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  10. ON THE DETECTABILITY OF A PREDICTED MESOLENSING EVENT ASSOCIATED WITH THE HIGH PROPER MOTION STAR VB 10

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; DiStefano, Rosanne E-mail: rd@cfa.harvard.edu

    2012-04-10

    Extrapolation of the astrometric motion of the nearby low-mass star VB 10 indicates that sometime in late 2011 December or during the first 2-3 months of 2012, the star will make a close approach to a background point source. Based on astrometric uncertainties, we estimate a 1 in 2 chance that the distance of closest approach {rho}{sub min} will be less than 100 mas, a 1 in 5 chance that {rho}{sub min} < 50 mas, and a 1 in 10 chance that {rho}{sub min} < 20 mas. The last would result in a microlensing event with a 6% magnification in the light from the background source and an astrometric shift of 3.3 mas. The lensing signal will however be significantly diluted by the light from VB 10, which is 1.5 mag brighter than the background source in B band, 5 mag brighter in I band, and 10 mag brighter in K band, making the event undetectable in all but the bluer optical bands. However, we show that if VB 10 happens to harbor a {approx}1 M{sub J} planet on a moderately wide ( Almost-Equal-To 0.18 AU-0.84 AU) orbit, there is a chance (1% to more than 10%, depending on the distance of closest approach and orbital period and inclination) that a passage of the planet closer to the background source will result in a secondary event of higher magnification. The detection of secondary events could be made possible with a several-times-per-night multi-site monitoring campaign.

  11. Stellar Activity at the End of the Main Sequence: GHRS Observations of the M8 Ve Star VB 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Brown, Alexander; Giampapa, Mark S.; Ambruster, Carol

    1995-01-01

    We present Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph observations of the M8 Ve star VB 10 (equal to G1 752B), located very near the end of the stellar main sequence, and its dM3.5 binary companion G1 752A. These coeval stars provide a test bed for studying whether the outer atmospheres of stars respond to changes in internal structure as stars become fully convective near mass 0.3 solar mass (about spectral type M5), where the nature of the stellar magnetic dynamo presumably changes, and near the transition from red to brown dwarfs near mass 0.08 solar mass (about spectral type M9), when hydrogen burning ceases at the end of the main sequence. We obtain upper limits for the quiescent emission of VB 10 but observe a transition region spectrum during a large flare, which indicates that some type of magnetic dynamo must be present. Two indirect lines of evidence-scaling from the observed X-ray emission and scaling from a time-resolved flare on AD Leo suggest that the fraction of the stellar bolometric luminosity that heats the transition region of VB 10 outside of obvious flares is comparable to, or larger than, that for G1 752A. This suggests an increase in the magnetic heating rates, as measured by L(sub line)/L(sub bol) ratios, across the radiative/convective core boundary and as stars approach the red/brown dwarf boundary. These results provide new constraints for dynamo models and models of coronal and transition-region heating in late-type stars.

  12. Towards wireless emotional valence detection from EEG.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay; Grundlehner, Bernard; Penders, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent affective computers can have many medical and non-medical applications. However today's affective computers are limited in scope by their transferability to other application environments or that they monitor only one aspect of physiological emotion expression. Here, the use of a wireless EEG system, which can be implemented in a body area network, is used to investigate the potential of monitoring emotional valence in EEG, for application in real-life situations. The results show 82% accuracy for automatic classification of positive, negative and neutral valence based on film clip viewing, using features containing information on both the frequency content of the EEG and how this changes over time. PMID:22254773

  13. Measurement of valence-band offset at native oxide/BaSi2 interfaces by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabe, Ryota; Du, Weijie; Ito, Keita; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Toko, Kaoru; Ueda, Shigenori; Kimura, Akio; Suemasu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Undoped n-type BaSi2 films were grown on Si(111) by molecular beam epitaxy, and the valence band (VB) offset at the interface between the BaSi2 and its native oxide was measured by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) at room temperature. HAXPES enabled us to investigate the electronic states of the buried BaSi2 layer non-destructively thanks to its large analysis depth. We performed the depth-analysis by varying the take-off angle (TOA) of photoelectrons as 15°, 30°, and 90° with respect to the sample surface and succeeded to obtain the VB spectra of the BaSi2 and the native oxide separately. The VB maximum was located at -1.0 eV from the Fermi energy for the BaSi2 and -4.9 eV for the native oxide. We found that the band bending did not occur near the native oxide/BaSi2 interface. This result was clarified by the fact that the core-level emission peaks did not shift regardless of TOA (i.e., analysis depth). Thus, the barrier height of the native oxide for the minority-carriers in the undoped n-BaSi2 (holes) was determined to be 3.9 eV. No band bending in the BaSi2 close to the interface also suggests that the large minority-carrier lifetime in undoped n-BaSi2 films capped with native oxide is attributed not to the band bending in the BaSi2, which pushes away photogenerated minority carriers from the defective surface region, but to the decrease of defective states by the native oxide.

  14. Bond Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  15. Sticker Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Laura Corbin

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a science activity on the bonding of chemical compounds. Assigns students the role of either a cation or anion and asks them to write the ions they may bond with. Assesses students' understanding of charge, bonding, and other concepts. (YDS)

  16. Pauling bond strength, bond length and electron density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2014-01-18

    A power law regression equation, = 1.46(<ρ(rc)>/r)-0.19, connecting the average experimental bond lengths, , with the average accumulation of the electron density at the bond critical point, <ρ(rc)>, between bonded metal M and oxygen atoms, determined at ambient conditions for oxide crystals, where r is the row number of the M atom, is similar to the regression equation R(M-O) = 1.39(ρ(rc)/r)-0.21 determined for three perovskite crystals for pressures as high as 80 GPa. The two equations are also comparable with those, = 1.43(/r)-0.21, determined for a large number of oxide crystals at ambient conditions and = 1.39(/r)-0.22, determined for geometry optimized hydroxyacid molecules, that connect the bond lengths to the average Pauling electrostatic bond strength, , for the M-O bonded interactions. On the basis of the correspondence between the two sets of equations connecting ρ(rc) and the Pauling bond strength s with bond length, it appears that Pauling’s simple definition of bond strength closely mimics the accumulation of the electron density between bonded pairs of atoms. The similarity of the expressions for the crystals and molecules is compelling evidence that the M-O bonded interactions for the crystals and molecules 2 containing the same bonded interactions are comparable. Similar expressions, connecting bond lengths and bond strength, have also been found to hold for fluoride, nitride and sulfide molecules and crystals. The Brown-Shannon bond valence, σ, power law expression σ = [R1/(R(M-O)]N that has found wide use in crystal chemistry, is shown to be connected to a more universal expression determined for oxides and the perovskites, <ρ(rc)> = r[(1.41)/]4.76, demonstrating that the bond valence for a bonded interaction is likewise closely connected to the accumulation of the electron density between the bonded atoms. Unlike the Brown-Shannon expression, it is universal in that it holds for the M-O bonded interactions for a relatively wide range of M atoms of the periodic table. The power law equation determined for the oxide crystals at ambient conditions is similar to the power law expression <ρ(rc)> = r[1.46/]5.26 determined for the perovskites at pressures as high as 80 GPa, indicating that the intrinsic connection between R(M-O) and ρ(rc) that holds at ambient conditions also holds, to a first approximation, at high pressures.

  17. A corpuscular picture of electrons in chemical bond.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji

    2016-03-28

    We introduce a theory of chemical bond with a corpuscular picture of electrons. It employs a minimal set of localized electron wave packets with "floating and breathing" degrees of freedom and the spin-coupling of non-orthogonal valence-bond theory. Its accuracy for describing potential energy curves of chemical bonds in ground and excited states of spin singlet and triplet is examined. PMID:27036429

  18. A corpuscular picture of electrons in chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Koji

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a theory of chemical bond with a corpuscular picture of electrons. It employs a minimal set of localized electron wave packets with "floating and breathing" degrees of freedom and the spin-coupling of non-orthogonal valence-bond theory. Its accuracy for describing potential energy curves of chemical bonds in ground and excited states of spin singlet and triplet is examined.

  19. Band structure calculations in isoelectronic VB compounds: B dbnd Ni, Pd and Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduani, C.; Kuhnen, C. A.

    2010-08-01

    In the isoelectronic compounds VNi, VPd and VPt the chemical bonding is ruled by the σ-type interactions of the V d-orbitals. It is observed that there is a tendency to form degenerate bands at the X and M points in the irreducible part of the Brillouin zone. An estimation of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ yields 0.48 for VNi, 0.42 for VPd and 0.76 for VPt. From Ni to Pt the unsystematic behavior experimentally observed for the unit cell volume arises from a competition mechanism between strengthening of interactions of bonding states and increasing atomic volumes.

  20. Affective Priming with Associatively Acquired Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado, Luis; Pierna, Manuel; Saugar, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the effect of affectively congruent or incongruent primes on evaluation responses to positive or negative valenced targets (the "affective priming" effect). Experiment 1 replicated the basic affective priming effect with Spanish nouns: reaction time for evaluative responses (pleasant/unpleasant) were slower on…

  1. Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework). PMID:23146157

  2. The nature of the fourth bond in the ground state of C2: the quadruple bond conundrum.

    PubMed

    Danovich, David; Hiberty, Philippe C; Wu, Wei; Rzepa, Henry S; Shaik, Sason

    2014-05-19

    Does, or doesn't C2 break the glass ceiling of triple bonding? This work provides an overview on the bonding conundrum in C2 and on the recent discussions regarding our proposal that it possesses a quadruple bond. As such, we focus herein on the main point of contention, the 4th bond of C2, and discuss the main views. We present new data and an overview of the nature of the 4th bond--its proposed antiferromagnetically coupled nature, its strength, and a derivation of its bond energy from experimentally based thermochemical data. We address the bond-order conundrum of C2 arising from generalized VB (GVB) calculations by comparing it to HC≡CH, and showing that the two molecules behave very similarly, and C2 is in no way an exception. We analyse the root cause of the deviation of C2 from the Badger Rule, and demonstrate that the reason for the smaller force constant (FC) of C2 relative to HC≡CH has nothing to do with the bond energies, or with the number of bonds in the two molecules. The FC is determined primarily by the bond length, which is set by the balance between the bond length preferences of the σ- versus π-bonds in the two molecules. This interplay in the case of C2 clearly shows the fingerprints of the 4th bond. Our discussion resolves the points of contention and shows that the arguments used to dismiss the quadruple bond nature of C2 are not well founded. PMID:24782210

  3. Pion valence-quark parton distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lei; Thomas, Anthony W.

    2015-10-01

    Within the Dyson-Schwinger equation formulation of QCD, a rainbow ladder truncation is used to calculate the pion valence-quark distribution function (PDF). The gap equation is renormalized at a typical hadronic scale, of order 0.5 GeV, which is also set as the default initial scale for the pion PDF. We implement a corrected leading-order expression for the PDF which ensures that the valence-quarks carry all of the pion's light-front momentum at the initial scale. The scaling behavior of the pion PDF at a typical partonic scale of order 5.2 GeV is found to be (1 - x) ν, with ν ≃ 1.6, as x approaches one.

  4. Pairing effects in intermediate valence systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valadares, E. C.; Troper, A.; de Menezes, O. L. T.

    1985-02-01

    We have calculated the temperature dependence of the energy gap and the critical temperature for intermediate valence systems described by a f-d band model. We consider an attractive interaction between f- and d-conduction electrons mediated by phonon exchange with formation of a hybrid d-f pair. We find that the superconducting state can be stabilized when the ratio between the f- and d-bandwidths is greater than a critical value.

  5. Human Amygdala Represents the Complete Spectrum of Subjective Valence

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jingwen; Zelano, Christina; Gottfried, Jay A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the amygdala is a major locus for hedonic processing, how it encodes valence information is poorly understood. Given the hedonic potency of odor stimuli and the amygdala's anatomical proximity to the peripheral olfactory system, we combined high-resolution fMRI with pattern-based multivariate techniques to examine how valence information is encoded in the amygdala. Ten human subjects underwent fMRI scanning while smelling 9 odorants that systematically varied in perceived valence. Representational similarity analyses showed that amygdala codes the entire dimension of valence, ranging from pleasantness to unpleasantness. This unidimensional representation significantly correlated with self-reported valence ratings but not with intensity ratings. Furthermore, within-trial valence representations evolved over time, prioritizing earlier differentiation of unpleasant stimuli. Together, these findings underscore the idea that both spatial and temporal features uniquely encode pleasant and unpleasant odor valence in the amygdala. The availability of a unidimensional valence code in the amygdala, distributed in both space and time, would create greater flexibility in determining the pleasantness or unpleasantness of stimuli, providing a mechanism by which expectation, context, attention, and learning could influence affective boundaries for guiding behavior. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our findings elucidate the mechanisms of affective processing in the amygdala by demonstrating that this brain region represents the entire valence dimension from pleasant to unpleasant. An important implication of this unidimensional valence code is that pleasant and unpleasant valence cannot coexist in the amygdale because overlap of fMRI ensemble patterns for these two valence extremes obscures their unique content. This functional architecture, whereby subjective valence maps onto a pattern continuum between pleasant and unpleasant poles, offers a robust mechanism by which context, expectation, and experience could alter the set-point for valence-based behavior. Finally, identification of spatial and temporal differentiation of valence in amygdala may shed new insights into individual differences in emotional responding, with potential relevance for affective disorders. PMID:26558785

  6. Stark spectroscopy of mixed-valence systems.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Lisa N; Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Treynor, Thomas P; Boxer, Steven G

    2008-01-13

    Many mixed-valence systems involve two or more states with different electric dipole moments whose magnitudes depend upon the charge transfer distance and the degree of delocalization; these systems can be interconverted by excitation of an intervalence charge transfer transition. Stark spectroscopy involves the interaction between the change in dipole moment of a transition and an electric field, so the Stark spectra of mixed-valence systems are expected to provide quantitative information on the degree of delocalization. In limiting cases, a classical Stark analysis can be used, but in intermediate cases the analysis is much more complex because the field affects not only the band position but also the intrinsic bandshape. Such non-classical Stark effects lead to widely different bandshapes. Several examples of both classes are discussed. Because electric fields are applied to immobilized samples, complications arise from inhomogeneous broadening, along with other effects that limit our ability to extract unique parameters in some cases. In the case of the radical cation of the special pair in photosynthetic reaction centres, where the mixed-valence system is in a very complex but structurally well-defined environment, a detailed analysis can be performed. PMID:17827128

  7. Institutional Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, M. June

    Institutional bonding was examined at a public, urban commuter college with exceptionally high attrition and visibly low morale. Changes in bonding and attrition were measured 6 years after a 2-year effort to develop school identity and student feelings of membership. It was found that a simple index of campus morale is provided by level of

  8. Functional Consequences of Amino Acid Substitutions to GerVB, a Component of the Bacillus megaterium Spore Germinant Receptor▿

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Graham; Lazarevska, Milena; Lowe, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The extreme metabolic dormancy and resistance properties of spores formed by members of the Bacillus and Clostridium genera are lost upon exposure to a variety of small-molecule germinants. Germinants are known to interact in an as yet undefined manner with cognate receptor complexes that reside in the inner membrane that surrounds the spore protoplast. The receptor itself is a complex of at least three proteins, and in this study we identify amino acid residues, predicted to lie in loop regions of GerVB on the exterior aspect of the membrane, that influence the Bacillus megaterium spore germination response. Three consecutive residues adjacent to putative transmembrane domain 10 (TM10) were demonstrated to mediate to various degrees the proline germinative response while also influencing germination in response to leucine, glucose, and inorganic salts, suggesting that this region may be part of a ligand binding pocket. Alternatively, substitutions in this region may affect the conformation of associated functionally important TM regions. Leucine- and KBr-mediated germination was also influenced by substitutions in other outer loop regions. These observations, when considered with accompanying kinetic analyses that demonstrate cooperativity between germinants, suggest that binding sites for the respective germinants are in close spatial proximity in the receptor but do not overlap. Additionally, proline recognition was conferred to a chimeric receptor when TM regions associated with the putative binding loop were present, indicating that residues in TM9 and/or TM10 of GerVB are also of functional importance in the proline-induced germinative response. PMID:18203825

  9. Final report from VFL Technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils. LEFPC Appendices, Volume 3, Appendix V-B

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This report consists of appendix V-B which contains the final verification run data package. Validation of analytical data is presented for Ecotek LSI. Analytical results are included of both soil and creek bed samples for the following contaminants: metals; metals (TCLP); uranium; gross alpha/beta; and polychlorinated biphenyls.

  10. The valence-fluctuating ground state of plutonium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Janoschek, Marc; Das, Pinaki; Chakrabarti, Bismayan; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Lawrence, John M.; Thompson, Joe D.; Lander, Gerard H.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; et al

    2015-07-10

    A central issue in material science is to obtain understanding of the electronic correlations that control complex materials. Such electronic correlations frequently arise because of the competition of localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom. Although the respective limits of well-localized or entirely itinerant ground states are well understood, the intermediate regime that controls the functional properties of complex materials continues to challenge theoretical understanding. We have used neutron spectroscopy to investigate plutonium, which is a prototypical material at the brink between bonding and nonbonding configurations. In addition, our study reveals that the ground state of plutonium is governed bymore » valence fluctuations, that is, a quantum mechanical superposition of localized and itinerant electronic configurations as recently predicted by dynamical mean field theory. Our results not only resolve the long-standing controversy between experiment and theory on plutonium’s magnetism but also suggest an improved understanding of the effects of such electronic dichotomy in complex materials.« less

  11. The role of electron correlation in the cobalt valence tautomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labute, Montiago; Kulkarni, R.; Cox, D. L.

    2001-03-01

    Molecules consisting of a single transition metal atom ligated to o-quinone derived complexes have been observed by several groups to undergo a valence crossover, which may be induced themally, by photoexcitation, or by applying pressure[1]. The tautomer crossover is from high-spin to low-spin via metal atom to o-quinone ligand electron-transfer accompanied by a bond length change which is 0.15Åin the Co(3,5-DTBSQ)_2(N-N) molecule. Current semi-classical thermodynamic descriptions yield unphysically large entropy changes through the crossover. To investigate a possible role for quantum mechanical electron correlation effects, we model the molecule as a finite size Anderson "impurity" system using a variational ansatz for the many body wave-function. Model parameters are derived through atomic physics and a mean-field fit to Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. We will relate our model to magnetic susceptibility data, and optical and x-ray absorption spectra. [1] Adams, D.M.; Hendrickson, D.N. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 11515-11528

  12. Hydrogen atom abstraction from C-H, P-H, Si-H, and Sn-H bonds by the triplet excited state of the tetrakis(. mu. -pyrophosphito)diplatinum(II) tetraanion. Spectroscopic observation of the mixed-valence hydride complexes Pt/sub 2/(. mu. -P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/H/sup 4 -/

    SciTech Connect

    Roundhill, D.M.; Atherton, S.J.; Shen, Z.

    1987-09-30

    Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/ at pH 4 with added t-BuOH gives Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/H/sup 4 -/ via reaction with an electron and a proton. Pulsed-laser photolysis (Nd-YAG at 355 nm) of aqueous solutions of Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/ with added isopropyl alcohol, phosphorus acid, or hypophosphorous acid also gives Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/ by hydrogen atom abstraction. The mixed-valence hydride is similarly formed in methanolic solutions of (PPN)/sub 4/(Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/) from added triethylsilane or tributyltin hydride. The intermediacy of the Me/sub 2/COH radical is evidenced by the formation of both pinacol and acetone in the photochemically catalyzed dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol with Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/ in aqueous solution. The other radical, Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/H/sup 4 -/, disproportionates to Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/H/sub 2//sup 4 -/ and Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/. The Bu/sub 3/Sn radical has been detected by transient difference laser spectroscopy in solutions containing Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4/H/sub 2//sup 4 -/ and Bu/sub 3/SnH. The quenching rates for hydrogen atoms donors with the /sup 3/A/sub 2u/ state of Pt/sub 2/(..mu..-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/H/sub 2/)/sub 4//sup 4 -/*, as measured by the Stern-Volmer equation, are given and compared.

  13. Effect of position of methyl substituent in piperidinedithiocarbamate on the ZnS4N chromophore: Synthesis, spectral, valence-bond parameters and single crystal X-ray structural studies on bis(2-methylpiperidinecarbodithioato-S,S‧)-(pyridine)zinc(II) and bis(4-methylpiperidinecarbodithioato-S,S‧)(pyridine)zinc(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, N.; Thirumaran, S.; Ciattini, Samuele

    2009-11-01

    Two Zn(II)monomethyl substituted piperidinedithiocarbamates with ZnS 4N chromophores have been synthesized ([Zn(2-mpipdtc) 2(py)] ( 1) and [Zn(4-mpipdtc) 2(py)] ( 2) (where 2-mpipdtc = 2-methylpiperidinedithiocarbamate, 4-mpipdtc = 4-methylpiperidinedithiocarbamate and py = pyridine)) from [Zn(2-mpipdtc) 2] and [Zn(4-mpipdtc) 2], respectively. Their structures and properties have been characterized by IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The structures of both the complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. IR spectra of the complexes 1 and 2 show the thioureide νC-N band at 1431 and 1445 cm -1, respectively. In the case of complex 1, the thioureide νC-N values are shifted to lower wave number compared to 2. This may be due to the steric effect of the ortho-methyl group in the 2-mpipdtc resulting in a decrease in the double bond character of the C-N bond. The methyl protons are more deshielded in 1 (1.28 ppm) than that found in 2 (0.98 ppm), due to deshielding decrease with increase in distance from the metal centre. The 13C NMR peaks of the group N 13CS 2 are found in both cases, at around 202 ppm, which indicates the bidentate character of the ligands. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 1 and 2 showed that the zinc atom is pentacoordinated with four sulfur atoms from the dithiocarbamate and one nitrogen atom from the pyridine. Both the complexes adopt a geometry which is intermediate between the tetragonal pyramid (C 4v) and trigonal bipyramid (D 3h). From the τ values, the coordination geometry of 1 and 2 is described as being 38.9% and 36.1% along the pathway of distortion from tetragonal pyramid toward trigonal bipyramid.

  14. Distinguishing Bonds.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond. PMID:26910496

  15. Experimental study of the valence band of Bi2Se3

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heremans, Joseph; Gao, Yibin; He, Bin; Androulakis, Yiannis; Parker, David S

    2014-01-01

    The valence band of Bi2Se3 is investigated with Shubnikov - de Haas measurements, galvanomagnetic and thermoelectric transport. At low hole concentration, the hole Fermi surface is closed and box-like, but at higher concentrations it develops tube-like extensions that are open. The experimentally determined density-of-states effective mass is lighter than density-functional theory calculations predict; while we cannot give a definitive explanation for this, we suspect that the theory may lack sufficient precision to compute room-temperature transport properties, such as the Seebeck coefficient, in solids in which there are Van der Waals interlayer bonds.

  16. Relationship Between Infrared Intensity Theories: Electro-Optical Parameters And Bond Polar Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galabov, Boris; Dudev, T.

    1989-12-01

    Mathematical and physical aspects are analysed of the relationship between two theoretical formulations of infrared intensities employing parameters associated with chemical bonds: the valence optical theory and bond polar parameters method. Parallel applications of the two theories in analysing experimental IR intensity data for methylchloride are presented.

  17. Yankee bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, P. )

    1993-10-01

    Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

  18. Bonds Boom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cathryn

    1989-01-01

    The combined effect of the "Serrano" decision and Proposition 13 left California school districts with aging, overcrowded facilities. Chico schools won a $18.5 million general obligation bond election for facilities construction. With $11 billion needed for new school construction, California will need to tap local sources. A sidebar outlines…

  19. Valence Effects in Reasoning About Evaluative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    Reasoning about evaluative traits was investigated among a group of 7- and 8-year-olds (N = 34), a group of 11- to 13-year olds (N = 25), and a group of adults (N = 23) to determine whether their inferences would be sensitive to the valence of social and academic traits. Four aspects of trait-relevant beliefs were examined: (1) malleability, (2) stability over time, (3) origin in terms of nature versus nurture, and (4) an inference criterion that concerns how readily traits are inferred. Although there was evidence of an age-related decrease in the tendency to emphasize positive information, participants of all ages responded that positive traits are less malleable and more stable over time than negative traits, that the positive influences of biological and environmental factors are likely to override the negative influences, and that competence can be more readily inferred from positive outcomes than from negative outcomes. PMID:20953297

  20. Radiation thermal processes in Cr13Mo2NbVB steel - the material of the fuel assembly shell in reactor BN-350 under mechanical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, A. S.; Dikov, A. S.; Poltavtseva, V. P.; Kislitsin, S. B.; Kuimova, M. V.; Chernyavskii, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Regularities of changes of structural-phase state and mechanical properties of steel 13Mo2NbVB - the material of the fuel assembly shell in reactor BN-350 after various mechanical tests at 350C are experimentally studied. The formation of microprecipitations FeMo, enriched or depleted with molybdenum was found in the short-time mechanical tests, which is the cause of thermal hardening of irradiated Cr13Mo2NbVB steel and its destruction by the ductile-brittle mechanism. On the basis of long-time creep tests it was shown that the material of the spent fuel assembly shell has sufficient resource for long-time storage in the temperature and force conditions simulating long-time storage of spent nuclear fuel.

  1. Site Specific Phosphorylation of Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunits I, IVi1 and Vb in Rabbit Hearts Subjected to Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ji-Kang; Prabu, Subbuswamy K.; Sepuri, Naresh B.; Raza, Haider; Anandatheerthavarada, Hindupur K.; Galati, Domenico; Spear, Joseph; Avadhani, Narayan G.

    2007-01-01

    We have mapped the sites of ischemia/reperfusion induced phosphorylation of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) subunits in rabbit hearts by using a combination of Blue Native gel/Tricine gel electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS/MS approaches. We used precursor ion scanning combined with neutral loss scanning and found that mature CcO subunit I was phosphorylated at tandem Ser115/Ser116 positions, subunit IVi1 at Thr52 and subunit Vb at Ser40. These sites are highly conserved in mammalian species. Molecular modeling suggests that phosphorylation sites of subunit I face the inter membrane space while those of subunits IVi1 and Vb face the matrix side. PMID:17349628

  2. Towards an understanding of the bonding in polyoxometalates through bond order and bond energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Adam J; Cavigliasso, Germán

    2003-01-01

    The molecular and electronic structures of transition metal complexes, [MOCl5]n- (n = 2 for M = V,Nb,Ta and n = 1 for Mo,W) and mixed-metal polyoxometalates, [M'M5O19]3-V,Nb,Ta, M = Mo,W) containing a single terminal oxo group on each metal, and of complexes of the uranyl ion [UO2]2+, [UO2(H2O)5]2+ and [UO2Cl4]2-, have been calculated using density functional methods. The calculated structures of the complexes are in good agreement with available experimental parameters. For the mixed-metal hexametalates, for which no crystallographic data is available, the calculations predict a small tetragonal compression of the clusters with only minor structural changes compared to the parent molybdate and tungstate. The metal oxygen bonding in these anions has been probed using Mayer-Mulliken, bond energy and atoms in molecule analyses (AIM). These methods provide a consistent description of the bonding in polyoxometalates. The terminal bonds between transition metal or uranium and oxygen atoms have large sigma and pi components with the pi contributions exceeding the sigma bonding. The transition metals utilize their d orbitals almost exclusively to bond to oxygen whilst uranium uses both its 5f and 6d orbitals. Oxygen atom charges increase and covalency indexes decrease with coordination number, with a marked separation of these terms according to the oxygen atom type. The total valency and AIM energies of the oxygen atoms are predicted to be almost constant for all types of oxygen site. The constancy of the bonding power of the oxygen atoms appears to be an important factor in determining the gross structures and details of the bonding in polyoxometalates. The Mayer Mulliken approach provides direct characterization of the bonding power of atoms and the extent of the interaction between pairs of atoms that is consistent with the results of the considerably more computationally demanding bond energy and AIM approaches. PMID:14527219

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN METAL-CERAMIC BOND STRENGTH AND COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR THERMAL EXPANSION DIFFERENCE

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Stella Crosara; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Rollo, João Manuel Domingos de Almeida; Leal, Mônica Barbosa; Bezzon, Osvaldo Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metal-ceramic bond strength (MCBS) of 6 metal-ceramic pairs (2 Ni-Cr alloys and 1 Pd-Ag alloy with 2 dental ceramics) and correlate the MCBS values with the differences between the coefficients of linear thermal expansion (CTEs) of the metals and ceramics. Verabond (VB) Ni-Cr-Be alloy, Verabond II (VB2), Ni-Cr alloy, Pors-on 4 (P), Pd-Ag alloy, and IPS (I) and Duceram (D) ceramics were used for the MCBS test and dilatometric test. Forty-eight ceramic rings were built around metallic rods (3.0 mm in diameter and 70.0 mm in length) made from the evaluated alloys. The rods were subsequently embedded in gypsum cast in order to perform a tensile load test, which enabled calculating the CMBS. Five specimens (2.0 mm in diameter and 12.0 mm in length) of each material were made for the dilatometric test. The chromel-alumel thermocouple required for the test was welded into the metal test specimens and inserted into the ceramics. ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed significant differences (p=0.01) for the MCBS test results (MPa), with PI showing higher MCBS (67.72) than the other pairs, which did not present any significant differences. The CTE (10-6 °C-1) differences were: VBI (0.54), VBD (1.33), VB2I (-0.14), VB2D (0.63), PI (1.84) and PD (2.62). Pearson's correlation test (r=0.17) was performed to evaluate of correlation between MCBS and CTE differences. Within the limitations of this study and based on the obtained results, there was no correlation between MCBS and CTE differences for the evaluated metal-ceramic pairs. PMID:19274398

  4. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or VT... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A,...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or VT... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A,...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and ventilation tubing shall be approved by MSHA in accordance with 30 CFR part 7, or shall bear a BC or VT... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A,...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  9. Experimental and theoretical electron momentum spectroscopic study of the valence electronic structure of tetrahydrofuran under pseudorotation.

    PubMed

    Ning, C G; Huang, Y R; Zhang, S F; Deng, J K; Liu, K; Luo, Z H; Wang, F

    2008-11-01

    The most populated structure of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been investigated in our previous study using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). Because of the relatively low impact energy (600 eV) and low energy resolution (DeltaE = 1.20 eV) in the previous experiment, only the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of THF was investigated. The present study reports the most recent high-resolution EMS of THF in the valence space for the first time. The binding energy spectra of THF are measured at 1200 and 2400 eV plus the binding energies, respectively, for a series of azimuthal angles. The experimentally obtained binding energy spectra and orbital momentum distributions (MDs) are employed to study the orbital responses of the pseudorotation motion of THF. The outer valence Greens function (OVGF), the OVGF/6-311++G** model, and density function theory (DFT)-based SAOP/et-pVQZ model are employed to simulate the binding energy spectra. The orbital momentum distributions (MDs) are produced using the DFT-based B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ model, incorporating thermodynamic population analysis. Good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. Orbital MDs of valence orbitals exhibit only slight differences with respect to the impact energies at 1200 and 2400 eV, indicating validation of the plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA). The present study has further discovered that the orbital MDs of the HOMO in the low-momentum region (p < 0.70 a.u) change significantly with the pseudorotation angle, phi, giving a v-shaped cross section, whereas the innermost valence orbital of THF does not vary with pseudorotation, revealing a very different bonding mechanism from the HOMO. The present study explores an innovative approach to study pseudorotation of sugar puckering, which sheds a light to study other biological systems with low energy barriers among ring-puckering conformations. PMID:18842033

  10. Teaching Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Neo, Choo Tong

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" looks at the way that the shapes of simple molecules can be explained in terms of the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom. This theory is formally known as valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. The article explains the preferred shape of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3),…

  11. On the Relationship between Value Orientation, Valences, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Stefan; Schmid, Sebastian; Hofer, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Value orientations are believed to influence learning in school. We assume that this influence is mediated by the valences attached to specific school subjects. In a questionnaire study (704 students from 36 classes) achievement and well-being value orientations were measured. Students also rated valence scales for the school subjects German and…

  12. Teaching Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher; Neo, Choo Tong

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" looks at the way that the shapes of simple molecules can be explained in terms of the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom. This theory is formally known as valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. The article explains the preferred shape of chlorine trifluoride (ClF3),

  13. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Van Volkinburg, Heather; Balsam, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional arousal and valence on estimating time intervals. A reproduction task was used in which images from the International Affective Picture System served as the stimuli to be timed. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of positive and negative valence at a moderate arousal level and Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with the addition of a high arousal condition. Overestimation increased as a function of arousal during encoding of times regardless of valence. For images presented during reproduction, overestimation occurred at the moderate arousal level for positive and negative valence but underestimation occurred in the negative valence high arousal condition. The overestimation of time intervals produced by emotional arousal during encoding and during reproduction suggests that emotional stimuli affect temporal information processing in a qualitatively different way during different phases of temporal information processing.

  14. Charge Fluctuations and the Valence Transition in Yb under Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ylvisaker, E R; Kunes, J; McMahan, A K; Pickett, W E

    2009-04-21

    We present a dynamical mean field theory study of the valence transition (f{sup 14} {yields} f{sup 13}) in elemental, metallic Yb under pressure. Our calculations reproduce the observed valence transition as reflected in the volume dependence of the 4f occupation. The transition is accelerated by heating, and suggests quasiparticle or Kondo-like structure in the spectra of the trivalent end state, consistent with the early lanthanides. Results for the local charge fluctuations and susceptibility, however, show novel signatures uniquely associated with the valence transition itself, indicating that Yb is a fluctuating valence material in contrast to the intermediate valence behavior seen in the early trivalent lanthanides Ce, Pr, and Nd.

  15. Architectural Representation of Valence in the Limbic System.

    PubMed

    Namburi, Praneeth; Al-Hasani, Ream; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; Bruchas, Michael R; Tye, Kay M

    2016-06-01

    In order to thrive, animals must be able to recognize aversive and appetitive stimuli within the environment and subsequently initiate appropriate behavioral responses. This assignment of positive or negative valence to a stimulus is a key feature of emotional processing, the neural substrates of which have been a topic of study for several decades. Until recently, the result of this work has been the identification of specific brain regions, such as the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as important to valence encoding. The advent of modern tools in neuroscience has allowed further dissection of these regions to identify specific populations of neurons signaling the valence of environmental stimuli. In this review, we focus upon recent work examining the mechanisms of valence encoding, and provide a model for the systematic investigation of valence within anatomically-, genetically-, and functionally defined populations of neurons. PMID:26647973

  16. In-silico bonding schemes to encode chemical bonds involving sharing of electrons in molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Punnaivanam, Sankar; Sathiadhas, Jerome Pastal Raj; Panneerselvam, Vinoth

    2016-05-01

    Encoding of covalent and coordinate covalent bonds in molecular structures using ground state valence electronic configuration is achieved. The bonding due to electron sharing in the molecular structures is described with five fundamental bonding categories viz. uPair-uPair, lPair-uPair, uPair-lPair, vPair-lPair, and lPair-lPair. The involvement of lone pair electrons and the vacant electron orbitals in chemical bonding are explained with bonding schemes namely "target vacant promotion", "source vacant promotion", "target pairing promotion", "source pairing promotion", "source cation promotion", "source pairing double bond", "target vacant occupation", and "double pairing promotion" schemes. The bonding schemes are verified with a chemical structure editor. The bonding in the structures like ylides, PCl5, SF6, IF7, N-Oxides, BF4(-), AlCl4(-) etc. are explained and encoded unambiguously. The encoding of bonding in the structures of various organic compounds, transition metals compounds, coordination complexes and metal carbonyls is accomplished. PMID:27041446

  17. Fast and accurate predictions of covalent bonds in chemical space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, K. Y. Samuel; Fias, Stijn; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2016-05-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of perturbation theory based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated σ bonding to hydrogen, as well as σ and π bonding between main-group elements, occurring in small sets of iso-valence-electronic molecules with elements drawn from second to fourth rows in the p-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order Taylor expansions of covalent bonding potentials can achieve high accuracy if (i) the alchemical interpolation is vertical (fixed geometry), (ii) it involves elements from the third and fourth rows of the periodic table, and (iii) an optimal reference geometry is used. This leads to near linear changes in the bonding potential, resulting in analytical predictions with chemical accuracy (˜1 kcal/mol). Second order estimates deteriorate the prediction. If initial and final molecules differ not only in composition but also in geometry, all estimates become substantially worse, with second order being slightly more accurate than first order. The independent particle approximation based second order perturbation theory performs poorly when compared to the coupled perturbed or finite difference approach. Taylor series expansions up to fourth order of the potential energy curve of highly symmetric systems indicate a finite radius of convergence, as illustrated for the alchemical stretching of H 2+ . Results are presented for (i) covalent bonds to hydrogen in 12 molecules with 8 valence electrons (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF, SiH4, PH3, H2S, HCl, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr); (ii) main-group single bonds in 9 molecules with 14 valence electrons (CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3Br, SiH3F, SiH3Cl, SiH3Br, GeH3F, GeH3Cl, GeH3Br); (iii) main-group double bonds in 9 molecules with 12 valence electrons (CH2O, CH2S, CH2Se, SiH2O, SiH2S, SiH2Se, GeH2O, GeH2S, GeH2Se); (iv) main-group triple bonds in 9 molecules with 10 valence electrons (HCN, HCP, HCAs, HSiN, HSiP, HSiAs, HGeN, HGeP, HGeAs); and (v) H 2+ single bond with 1 electron.

  18. Fast and accurate predictions of covalent bonds in chemical space.

    PubMed

    Chang, K Y Samuel; Fias, Stijn; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2016-05-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of perturbation theory based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated σ bonding to hydrogen, as well as σ and π bonding between main-group elements, occurring in small sets of iso-valence-electronic molecules with elements drawn from second to fourth rows in the p-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order Taylor expansions of covalent bonding potentials can achieve high accuracy if (i) the alchemical interpolation is vertical (fixed geometry), (ii) it involves elements from the third and fourth rows of the periodic table, and (iii) an optimal reference geometry is used. This leads to near linear changes in the bonding potential, resulting in analytical predictions with chemical accuracy (∼1 kcal/mol). Second order estimates deteriorate the prediction. If initial and final molecules differ not only in composition but also in geometry, all estimates become substantially worse, with second order being slightly more accurate than first order. The independent particle approximation based second order perturbation theory performs poorly when compared to the coupled perturbed or finite difference approach. Taylor series expansions up to fourth order of the potential energy curve of highly symmetric systems indicate a finite radius of convergence, as illustrated for the alchemical stretching of H2 (+). Results are presented for (i) covalent bonds to hydrogen in 12 molecules with 8 valence electrons (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF, SiH4, PH3, H2S, HCl, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr); (ii) main-group single bonds in 9 molecules with 14 valence electrons (CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3Br, SiH3F, SiH3Cl, SiH3Br, GeH3F, GeH3Cl, GeH3Br); (iii) main-group double bonds in 9 molecules with 12 valence electrons (CH2O, CH2S, CH2Se, SiH2O, SiH2S, SiH2Se, GeH2O, GeH2S, GeH2Se); (iv) main-group triple bonds in 9 molecules with 10 valence electrons (HCN, HCP, HCAs, HSiN, HSiP, HSiAs, HGeN, HGeP, HGeAs); and (v) H2 (+) single bond with 1 electron. PMID:27155628

  19. Diffusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  20. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines...

  3. Inelastic neutron scattering in valence fluctuation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jon M Lawrence

    2011-02-15

    The valence fluctuation compounds are rare earth intermetallics where hybridization of the nearly-localized 4f electrons with the conduction electrons leads to incorporation of the 4f's into the itinerant states. This hybridization slows down the conduction electrons and hence gives them a heavy effective mass, justifying application of the term 'heavy Fermion' (HF) to these materials. During the project period, we grew large single crystals of several such compounds and measured their properties using both standard thermodynamic probes and state-of-the-art inelastic neutron scattering. We obtained three main results. For the intermediate valence compounds CePd{sub 3} and YbAl{sub 3}, we showed that the scattering of neutrons by the fluctuations of the 4f magnetic moment does not have the momentum dependence expected for the itinerant heavy mass state; rather, the scattering is more typical of a localized spin fluctuation. We believe that incoherent scattering localizes the excitation. For the heavy Fermion compound Ce(Ni{sub 0.935}Pd{sub 0.065}){sub 2}Ge{sub 2}, which sits at a T = 0 critical point for transformation into an antiferromagnetic (AF) phase, we showed that the scattering from the AF fluctuations does not exhibit any of the divergences that are expected at a phase transition. We speculate that alloy disorder profoundly suppresses the growth of the fluctuating AF regions, leading to short range clusters rather than regions of infinite size. Finally, we explored the applicability of key concepts used to describe the behavior of rare earth heavy Fermions to uranium based HF compounds where the 5f electrons are itinerant as opposed to localized. We found that scaling laws relating the spin fluctuation energy measured in neutron scattering to the low temperature specific heat and susceptibility are valid for the uranium compounds, once corrections are made for AF fluctuations; however, the degeneracy of the high temperature moment is smaller than expected for rare-earth-like Hund's rule behavior, essentially because the orbital moment is suppressed for itinerant 5f electrons. We also found that the standard local-moment-based theory of the temperature dependence of the specific heat, susceptibility and neutron scattering fails badly for URu{sub 2}Zn{sub 20} and UCo{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}, even though the theory is phenomenally successful for the closely related rare earth compound YbFe{sub 2}Zn{sub 20}. Both these results highlight the distinction between the itineracy of the 5f's and the localization of the 4f's. It is our hope that these results are sufficiently significant as to stimulate deeper investigation of these compounds.

  4. An inducible mouse model for microvillus inclusion disease reveals a role for myosin Vb in apical and basolateral trafficking.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Kerstin; Vogel, Georg F; Teunissen, Hans; van Ommen, Domenique D; Begthel, Harry; El Bouazzaoui, Layla; van Vugt, Anke H M; Beekman, Jeffrey M; Klumperman, Judith; Müller, Thomas; Janecke, Andreas; Gerner, Patrick; Huber, Lukas A; Hess, Michael W; Clevers, Hans; van Es, Johan H; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Middendorp, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare intestinal enteropathy with an onset within a few days to months after birth, resulting in persistent watery diarrhea. Mutations in the myosin Vb gene (MYO5B) have been identified in the majority of MVID patients. However, the exact pathophysiology of MVID still remains unclear. To address the specific role of MYO5B in the intestine, we generated an intestine-specific conditional Myo5b-deficient (Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2) mouse model. We analyzed intestinal tissues and cultured organoids of Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 mice by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 mice developed severe diarrhea within 4 d after tamoxifen induction. Periodic Acid Schiff and alkaline phosphatase staining revealed subapical accumulation of intracellular vesicles in villus enterocytes. Analysis by electron microscopy confirmed an almost complete absence of apical microvilli, the appearance of microvillus inclusions, and enlarged intercellular spaces in induced Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 intestines. In addition, we determined that MYO5B is involved not only in apical but also basolateral trafficking of proteins. The analysis of the intestine during the early onset of the disease revealed that subapical accumulation of secretory granules precedes occurrence of microvillus inclusions, indicating involvement of MYO5B in early differentiation of epithelial cells. By comparing our data with a novel MVID patient, we conclude that our mouse model completely recapitulates the intestinal phenotype of human MVID. This includes severe diarrhea, loss of microvilli, occurrence of microvillus inclusions, and subapical secretory granules. Thus, loss of MYO5B disturbs both apical and basolateral trafficking of proteins and causes MVID in mice. PMID:26392529

  5. An inducible mouse model for microvillus inclusion disease reveals a role for myosin Vb in apical and basolateral trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Schneeberger, Kerstin; Vogel, Georg F.; Teunissen, Hans; van Ommen, Domenique D.; Begthel, Harry; El Bouazzaoui, Layla; van Vugt, Anke H. M.; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Klumperman, Judith; Müller, Thomas; Janecke, Andreas; Gerner, Patrick; Huber, Lukas A.; Hess, Michael W.; Clevers, Hans; van Es, Johan H.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.; Middendorp, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is a rare intestinal enteropathy with an onset within a few days to months after birth, resulting in persistent watery diarrhea. Mutations in the myosin Vb gene (MYO5B) have been identified in the majority of MVID patients. However, the exact pathophysiology of MVID still remains unclear. To address the specific role of MYO5B in the intestine, we generated an intestine-specific conditional Myo5b-deficient (Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2) mouse model. We analyzed intestinal tissues and cultured organoids of Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 mice by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. Our data showed that Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 mice developed severe diarrhea within 4 d after tamoxifen induction. Periodic Acid Schiff and alkaline phosphatase staining revealed subapical accumulation of intracellular vesicles in villus enterocytes. Analysis by electron microscopy confirmed an almost complete absence of apical microvilli, the appearance of microvillus inclusions, and enlarged intercellular spaces in induced Myo5bfl/fl;Vil-CreERT2 intestines. In addition, we determined that MYO5B is involved not only in apical but also basolateral trafficking of proteins. The analysis of the intestine during the early onset of the disease revealed that subapical accumulation of secretory granules precedes occurrence of microvillus inclusions, indicating involvement of MYO5B in early differentiation of epithelial cells. By comparing our data with a novel MVID patient, we conclude that our mouse model completely recapitulates the intestinal phenotype of human MVID. This includes severe diarrhea, loss of microvilli, occurrence of microvillus inclusions, and subapical secretory granules. Thus, loss of MYO5B disturbs both apical and basolateral trafficking of proteins and causes MVID in mice. PMID:26392529

  6. Evaluative Conditioning Induces Changes in Sound Valence

    PubMed Central

    Bolders, Anna C.; Band, Guido P. H.; Stallen, Pieter Jan

    2012-01-01

    Through evaluative conditioning (EC) a stimulus can acquire an affective value by pairing it with another affective stimulus. While many sounds we encounter daily have acquired an affective value over life, EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain. To get a more complete understanding of affective processing in auditory domain we examined EC of sound. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US). Congruency effects on an affective priming task for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether extinction occurs, i.e., whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results provide clear evidence for EC effects in the auditory domain. We will argue that both associative as well as propositional processes are likely to underlie these effects. PMID:22514545

  7. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  8. Valence-electron spectral change and charge transfer mechanism of CaSi 2 during CaSi 2H 2O reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, S.; Nakayama, H.; Nishino, T.; Iida, S.

    1997-04-01

    The changes in the valence electron states of CaSi 2 during the chemical reaction with H 2O have been investigated by Auger valence electron spectroscopy (AVES). The drastic changes in the valence electron spectra of 3s and 3p states, which are caused by the oxidization of the Si atoms in CaSi 2, were observed in Si[2s, 2p, V] spectra for CaSi 2 after the reaction. In particular, the Si[2s, 2p, V] spectra of CaSi 2 samples reacted with H 2O at 60 or 80°C for 3 h were almost similar to that of SiO 2. The peak shift of Ca[2p, 3p, 3p] Auger transition toward the lower energy side has been observed, suggesting the formation of bonds between Ca 3p and O orbitals. New peaks due to CaO or CaOH bonds also appeared in the valence electron region of Ca[2p, 3p, V] Auger transition. The charge transfer and the chemical-bond formation can be well demonstrated by AVES during the CaSi 2H 2O reaction.

  9. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  10. Valence band anticrossing in GaBixAs1-x

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, K.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, W.; Yu, K. M.; Bertulis, K.; Krotkus, A.

    2007-07-11

    The optical properties of GaBixAs1-x (0.04< x< 0.08) grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been studied by photomodulated reflectance spectroscopy. The alloys exhibit a strong reduction in the bandgap as well as an increase in the spin-orbit splitting energy with increasing Bi concentration. These observations are explained by a valence band anticrossing model, which shows that a restructuring of the valence band occurs as the result of an anticrossing interaction between the extended states of the GaAs valence band and the resonant T2 states of the Bi atoms.

  11. Photon energy dependent valence band response of metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jänkälä, K; Tchaplyguine, M; Mikkelä, M-H; Björneholm, O; Huttula, M

    2011-10-28

    We show that the valence band response to photon impact in metallic nanoparticles is highly energy dependent. This is seen as drastic variations of cross sections in valence photoionization of free and initially charge-neutral nanosized metal clusters. The effect is demonstrated in a combined experimental and theoretical study of Rb clusters. The experimental findings are interpreted theoretically using a jellium model and superatom description. The variations are attributed to the changing overlap with the photon energy between the wave functions of diffuse delocalized valence electrons and continuum electrons producing a series of minima in the cross section. PMID:22107629

  12. Study of Iron Dimers Reveals Angular Dependence of Valence-to-Core X-ray Emission Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transition-metal Kβ X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) is a developing technique that probes the occupied molecular orbitals of a metal complex. As an element-specific probe of metal centers, Kβ XES is finding increasing applications in catalytic and, in particular, bioinorganic systems. For the continued development of XES as a probe of these complex systems, however, the full range of factors which contribute to XES spectral modulations must be explored. In this report, an investigation of a series of oxo-bridged iron dimers reveals that the intensity of valence-to-core features is sensitive to the Fe–O–Fe bond angle. The intensity of these features has a well-known dependence on metal–ligand bond distance, but a dependence upon bond angle has not previously been documented. Herein, we explore the angular dependence of valence-to-core XES features both experimentally and computationally. Taken together, these results show that, as the Fe–O–Fe angle decreases, the intensity of the Kβ″ feature increases and that this effect is modulated by increasing amounts of Fe np mixing into the O 2s orbital at smaller bond angles. The relevance of these findings to the identification of oxygenated intermediates in bioinorganic systems is highlighted, with special emphasis given to the case of soluble methane monooxygenase. PMID:25211540

  13. Bonded Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Another spinoff to the food processing industry involves a dry lubricant developed by General Magnaplate Corp. of Linden, N.J. Used in such spacecraft as Apollo, Skylab and Viking, the lubricant is a coating bonded to metal surfaces providing permanent lubrication and corrosion resistance. The coating lengthens equipment life and permits machinery to be operated at greater speed, thus increasing productivity and reducing costs. Bonded lubricants are used in scores of commercia1 applications. They have proved particularly valuable to food processing firms because, while increasing production efficiency, they also help meet the stringent USDA sanitation codes for food-handling equipment. For example, a cookie manufacturer plagued production interruptions because sticky batter was clogging the cookie molds had the brass molds coated to solve the problem. Similarly, a pasta producer faced USDA action on a sanitation violation because dough was clinging to an automatic ravioli-forming machine; use of the anti-stick coating on the steel forming plates solved the dual problem of sanitation deficiency and production line downtime.

  14. Basics of Fidelity Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Steven P.

    Fidelity bonds are important for an agency to hold to protect itself against any financial loss that can result from dishonest acts by its employees. Three types of fidelity bonds are available to an agency: (1) public official bonds; (2) dishonesty bonds; and (3) faithful performance bonds. Public official bonds are required by state law to be…

  15. A Valence Isomer Trapping Procedure for Introductory Organic Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, David W.; Johnson, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Described is an experiment which illustrates valence isomerization, the trapping of a reactive intermediate and retrosynthetic analysis applied to the Diels-Alder reaction. Included is a background discussion, experimental procedures, and a discussion of the analysis. (CW)

  16. Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants' beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

  17. Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants’ beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

  18. Inelastic collisions of positrons with one-valence-electron targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Mohamed Assad

    1990-01-01

    The total elastic and positronium formation cross sections of the inelastic collisions between positrons and various one-valence-electron atoms, (namely hydrogen, lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium), and one-valence-electron ions, (namely hydrogen-like, lithium-like and alkaline-earth positive ions) are determined using an elaborate modified coupled-static approximation. Special attention is devoted to the behavior of the Ps cross sections at the energy regions lying above the Ps formation thresholds.

  19. Studies of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes by an extended bond order potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Jianwei; Cagin, Tahir; Goddard, William A., III

    1999-09-01

    We present a novel approach to combine bond order potentials with long-range nonbond interactions. This extended bond order potential consistently takes into account bond terms and nonbond terms. It not only captures the advantages of the bond order potentials (i.e. simulating bond forming and breaking), but also systematically includes the nonbond contributions to energy and forces in studying the structure and dynamics of covalently bonded systems such as graphite, diamond, nanotubes, fullerenes and hydrocarbons, in their crystal and melt forms. Using this modified bond order potential, we studied the structure and thermal properties (including thermal conductivity) of C60 crystal, and the elastic properties and plastic deformation processes of the single-walled and double-walled nanotubes. This extended bond order potential enables us to simulate large deformations of a nanotube under tensile and compressive loads. The basic formulation in this paper is transferable to other bond order potentials and traditional valence force fields.

  20. Does fluorine participate in halogen bonding?

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Kiamars; Lesani, Mina

    2015-03-16

    When R is sufficiently electron withdrawing, the fluorine in the R-F molecules could interact with electron donors (e.g., ammonia) and form a noncovalent bond (F⋅⋅⋅N). Although these interactions are usually categorized as halogen bonding, our studies show that there are fundamental differences between these interactions and halogen bonds. Although the anisotropic distribution of electronic charge around a halogen is responsible for halogen bond formations, the electronic charge around the fluorine in these molecules is spherical. According to source function analysis, F is the sink of electron density at the F⋅⋅⋅N BCP, whereas other halogens are the source. In contrast to halogen bonds, the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions cannot be regarded as lump-hole interactions; there is no hole in the valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) of fluorine. Although the quadruple moment of Cl and Br is mainly responsible for the existence of σ-holes, it is negligibly small in the fluorine. Here, the atomic dipole moment of F plays a stabilizing role in the formation of F⋅⋅⋅N bonds. Interacting quantum atoms (IQA) analysis indicates that the interaction between halogen and nitrogen in the halogen bonds is attractive, whereas it is repulsive in the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions. Virial-based atomic energies show that the fluorine, in contrast to Cl and Br, stabilize upon complex formation. According to these differences, it seems that the F⋅⋅⋅N interactions should be referred to as "fluorine bond" instead of halogen bond. PMID:25652256

  1. Emotional Valence and the Free-Energy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Joffily, Mateus; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The free-energy principle has recently been proposed as a unified Bayesian account of perception, learning and action. Despite the inextricable link between emotion and cognition, emotion has not yet been formulated under this framework. A core concept that permeates many perspectives on emotion is valence, which broadly refers to the positive and negative character of emotion or some of its aspects. In the present paper, we propose a definition of emotional valence in terms of the negative rate of change of free-energy over time. If the second time-derivative of free-energy is taken into account, the dynamics of basic forms of emotion such as happiness, unhappiness, hope, fear, disappointment and relief can be explained. In this formulation, an important function of emotional valence turns out to regulate the learning rate of the causes of sensory inputs. When sensations increasingly violate the agent's expectations, valence is negative and increases the learning rate. Conversely, when sensations increasingly fulfil the agent's expectations, valence is positive and decreases the learning rate. This dynamic interaction between emotional valence and learning rate highlights the crucial role played by emotions in biological agents' adaptation to unexpected changes in their world. PMID:23785269

  2. A New Conformation With an Extraordinarily Long, 3.04 Å Two-Electron, Six-Center Bond Observed for the π-[TCNE]2 (2-) Dimer in [NMe4 ]2 [TCNE]2 (TCNE=Tetracyanoethylene).

    PubMed

    Graham, Adora G; Mota, Fernando; Shurdha, Endrit; Rheingold, Arnold L; Novoa, Juan J; Miller, Joel S

    2015-09-14

    [NMe4 ]2 [TCNE]2 (TCNE=tetracyanoethenide) formed from the reaction of TCNE and (NMe4 )CN in MeCN has νCN IR absorptions at 2195, 2191, 2172, and 2156 cm(-1) and a νCC absorption at 1383 cm(-1) that are characteristic of reduced TCNE. The TCNEs have an average central CC distance of 1.423 Å that is also characteristic of reduced TCNE. The reduced TCNE forms a previously unknown non-eclipsed, centrosymmetric π-[TCNE]2 (2-) dimer with nominal C2 symmetry, 12 sub van der Waals interatomic contacts <3.3 Å, a central intradimer separation of 3.039(3) Å, and comparable intradimer C⋅⋅⋅N distances of 3.050(3) and 2.984(3) Å. The two pairs of central C⋅⋅⋅C atoms form a ∢C-C⋅⋅⋅C-C of 112.6° that is substantially greater than the 0° observed for the eclipsed D2h π-[TCNE]2 (2-) dimer possessing a two-electron, four-center (2e(-) /4c) bond with two C⋅⋅⋅C components from a molecular orbital (MO) analysis. A MO study combining CAS(2,2)/MRMP2/cc-pVTZ and atoms-in-molecules (AIM) calculations indicates that the non-eclipsed, C2 π-[TCNE]2 (2-) dimer exhibits a new type of a long, intradimer bond involving one strong C⋅⋅⋅C and two weak C⋅⋅⋅N components, that is, a 2e(-) /6c bond. The C2 π-[TCNE]2 (2-) conformer has a singlet, diamagnetic ground state with a thermally populated triplet excited state with J/kB =1000 K (700 cm(-1) ; 86.8 meV; 2.00 kcal mol(-1) ; H=-2 JSa ⋅Sb ); at the CAS(2,2)/MBMP2 level the triplet is computed to be 9.0 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy than the closed-shell singlet ground state. The results from CAS(2,2)/NEVPT2/cc-pVTZ calculations indicate that the C2 and D2h conformers have two different local metastable minima with the C2 conformer being 1.3 kcal mol(-1) less stable. The different natures of the C2 and D2h conformers are also noted from the results of valence bond (VB) qualitative diagram that shows a 10e(-) /6c bond with one C⋅⋅⋅C and two C⋅⋅⋅N bonding components for the C2 conformer as compared to the 6e(-) /4c bond for the D2h conformer with two C⋅⋅⋅C bonding components. PMID:26223479

  3. Character Disposition and Behavior Type: Influences of Valence on Preschool Children's Social Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elaine F.; Tobias, Marvin; Pauley, Danielle; Thomson, Nicole Renick; Johnson, Shawana Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The authors studied the influences of valence information on preschool children's (n = 47) moral (good or bad), liking (liked or disliked by a friend), and consequence-of-behavior (reward or punishment) judgments. The authors presented 8 scenarios describing the behavior valence, positive valence (help, share), negative valence (verbal insult,…

  4. Sequential and Prosodic Design of English and Greek Non-Valenced News Receipts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimaki, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Results arising from a prosodic and interactional study of the organization of everyday talk in English suggest that news receipts can be grouped into two categories: valenced (e.g., "oh good") and non-valenced (e.g., "oh really"). In-depth investigation of both valenced and non-valenced news receipts shows that differences in their prosodic…

  5. The electronic structure and optical properties of organic mixed valence anion radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Liberko, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The electronic structure of planar and helical organic mixed valence anion radicals was studied. Cyanoimine derivatives of planar diquinones were synthesized and studied by electrochemical methods. Their anion radicals were generated electrochemically and found to be stable in air. These species had electronic absorptions in the near infrared region. The Visible and near infrared spectra as well as IR vibrational data are consistent with delocalized anion radicals. The molecular orbital energy level coefficients obtained from PPP semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations on neutral quinones, imides and cyanoimine derivatives of quinones, were used to correlate experimental data of their anion radicals. The calculation correlated the long wavelength absorptions of the anion radicals confirming that the absorptions arise from electronic transitions in delocalized species. The calculation was also valuable for assigning ESR hyperfine splittings. Including minor geometric perturbations in the calculation provides a method of predicting localization in mixed valence ion radicals. Helicene diquinones were studied by cyclic voltammetry. Their anion radicals, generated electrochemically, were studied by visible, near infrared, and ESR spectroscopies. The anion radicals were found to have electronic absorptions in the near infrared region tailing into the infrared. PPP calculations were consistent with the experimental data only if transannular interaction between the ends of the helix was included. The calculations and experimental observations are consistent with an electronic structure in which the anion radical is not only delocalized around the helix but also between the ends of the helix bonding them together in a Mobius fashion.

  6. Entrapping a Group-VB Transition Metal, Vanadium, within an Endohedral Metallofullerene: V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)-C80 (x = 1, 2).

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Wang, Song; Lu, Xing; Tan, Yuanzhi; Huang, Jing; Liu, Fupin; Li, Qunxiang; Xie, Suyuan; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-01-13

    So far the entrapped metals for the isolated endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are primarily limited to rare earth metals, whereas except group-IVB metals, whether it is possible to entrap other d-block transition metals remains unclear. Herein we report the successful entrapment of the group-VB transition metal vanadium(V) into fullerene cage, affording the heretofore unknown V-containing EMFs. Two novel V-containing EMFs--V(x)Sc(3-x)N@C80 (x = 1, 2)--were isolated, and their molecular structures were unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography to be I(h)(7)-C80 cage entrapping the planar VSc2N/V2ScN clusters. V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further characterized by UV-vis-NIR and ESR spectroscopies and electrochemistry, revealing that the electronic and magnetic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) are tunable upon varying the number of entrapped V atoms (i.e., x value). The molecular structures and electronic properties of V(x)Sc(3-x)N@I(h)(7)-C80 (x = 1, 2) were further compared with those of the reported analogous EMFs based on lanthanide metals and the adjacent group-IVB transition metal Ti, revealing the peculiarity of the group-VB transition metal V-based EMFs. PMID:26645852

  7. Nitrogen valence electronic structure in the strong chemisorption limit: Molecular adsorption on Cr(110) and O/Cr(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinn, Neal D.

    1990-05-01

    Nitrogen adsorption and dissociation on clean and oxygen-dosed Cr(110) surfaces have been studied with angle-integrated synchrotron-radiation ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and work-function measurements. At 90 K, nitrogen adsorbs molecularly via a mobile precursor state and exhibits UPS valence-orbital peaks at binding energies of 12.7 (weak), 8.4, and 7.1 eV with respect to the Fermi level; these positions and separations suggest an unusual N2(ads) valence electronic structure similar to that of ``π-bonded'' N2 on Fe(111). Thermal dissociation of N2(ads) commences at 100 K but remains incomplete until ~265 K. Chemisorbed N2 increases the work function Φ by 0.1+/-0.1 eV, whereas annealing the adlayer to 300 K subsequently reduces Φ by 0.7 eV due to dissociation. At 300 K, only dissociative chemisorption is observed but with a reduced sticking probability and a lower saturation coverage compared with thermally dissociating a molecular adlayer. A surface-sensitive Cr valence-band feature is identified which (i) shifts to increasing binding energy with N2 adsorption, but (ii) exhibits different coverage-dependent behavior for isoelectronic N2(ads) and CO(ads). Low coverages of chemisorbed oxygen do not inhibit N2 adsorption but co-adsorption effects are observed when a N2(ads) saturated surface is exposed to large oxygen doses. Consideration of these results in comparison with other nitrogen chemisorption studies shows that the bonding of nitrogen to Cr(110) is not well described by the usual σ-donation and π-backbonding concepts. A bonding geometry with both nitrogen atoms coordinated to chromium atoms is proposed in spite of the absence of surface hollow sites usually invoked to account for such a species.

  8. On the bond distance in methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen-Jenkins, Philippa; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Siegbahn, Per; Almloef, Jan; Taylor, Peter R.

    1987-01-01

    The equilibrium bond distance in methane was optimized using coupled-pair functional and contracted CI wave functions, and a Gaussian basis that includes g-type functions on carbon and d-type functions on hydrogen. The resulting bond distance, when corrected for core-valence correlation effects, agrees with the experimental value of 2.052 a(0) to within the experimental uncertainty of 0.002 a(0). The main source of error in the best previous studies, which showed discrepancies with experiment of 0.007 a(0) is shown to be basis set incompleteness. In particular, it is important that the basis set be close to saturation, at least for the lower angular quantum numbers.

  9. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, Christina M.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources. PMID:24493837

  10. The relation between valence and arousal in subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Russell, James A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-07-01

    Affect is basic to many if not all psychological phenomena. This article examines 2 of the most fundamental properties of affective experience--valence and arousal--asking how they are related to each other on a moment to moment basis. Over the past century, 6 distinct types of relations have been suggested or implicitly presupposed in the literature. We critically review the available evidence for each proposal and argue that the evidence does not provide a conclusive answer. Next, we use statistical modeling to verify the different proposals in 8 data sets (with Ns ranging from 80 to 1,417) where participants reported their affective experiences in response to experimental stimuli in laboratory settings or as momentary or remembered in natural settings. We formulate 3 key conclusions about the relation between valence and arousal: (a) on average, there is a weak but consistent V-shaped relation of arousal as a function of valence, but (b) there is large variation at the individual level, so that (c) valence and arousal can in principle show a variety of relations depending on person or circumstances. This casts doubt on the existence of a static, lawful relation between valence and arousal. The meaningfulness of the observed individual differences is supported by their personality and cultural correlates. The malleability and individual differences found in the structure of affect must be taken into account when studying affect and its role in other psychological phenomena. PMID:23231533

  11. Space-Valence Priming with Subliminal and Supraliminal Words

    PubMed Central

    Ansorge, Ulrich; Khalid, Shah; König, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To date it is unclear whether (1) awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic processes influence affective semantics and whether (2) awareness-independent affective semantics influence non-evaluative semantic processing. In the current study, we investigated these questions with the help of subliminal (masked) primes and visible targets in a space-valence across-category congruence effect. In line with (1), we found that subliminal space prime words influenced valence classification of supraliminal target words (Experiment 1): classifications were faster with a congruent prime (e.g., the prime “up” before the target “happy”) than with an incongruent prime (e.g., the prime “up” before the target “sad”). In contrast to (2), no influence of subliminal valence primes on the classification of supraliminal space targets into up- and down-words was found (Experiment 2). Control conditions showed that standard masked response priming effects were found with both subliminal prime types, and that an across-category congruence effect was also found with supraliminal valence primes and spatial target words. The final Experiment 3 confirmed that the across-category congruence effect indeed reflected priming of target categorization of a relevant meaning category. Together, the data jointly confirmed prediction (1) that awareness-independent non-evaluative semantic priming influences valence judgments. PMID:23439863

  12. Theory of Valence Transition in BiNiO_{3}.

    PubMed

    Naka, Makoto; Seo, Hitoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by the colossal negative thermal expansion recently found in BiNiO_{3}, the valence transition accompanied by the charge transfer between the Bi and Ni sites is theoretically studied. We introduce an effective model for Bi-6s and Ni-3d orbitals taking into account the valence skipping of Bi cations, and investigate the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams within the mean-field approximation. We find that the valence transition is caused by commensurate locking of the electron filling in each orbital associated with charge and magnetic orderings, and the critical temperature and the nature of the transitions are strongly affected by the relative energy between the Bi and Ni levels and the effective electron-electron interaction in the Bi sites. The obtained phase diagram well explains the temperature- and pressure-driven valence transitions in BiNiO_{3} and the systematic variation of valence states for a series of Bi and Pb perovskite oxides. PMID:26894723

  13. Theory of Valence Transition in BiNiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naka, Makoto; Seo, Hitoshi; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by the colossal negative thermal expansion recently found in BiNiO3 , the valence transition accompanied by the charge transfer between the Bi and Ni sites is theoretically studied. We introduce an effective model for Bi -6 s and Ni -3 d orbitals taking into account the valence skipping of Bi cations, and investigate the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams within the mean-field approximation. We find that the valence transition is caused by commensurate locking of the electron filling in each orbital associated with charge and magnetic orderings, and the critical temperature and the nature of the transitions are strongly affected by the relative energy between the Bi and Ni levels and the effective electron-electron interaction in the Bi sites. The obtained phase diagram well explains the temperature- and pressure-driven valence transitions in BiNiO3 and the systematic variation of valence states for a series of Bi and Pb perovskite oxides.

  14. Highly Selective Dissociation of a Peptide Bond Following Excitation of Core Electrons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Shiue; Tsai, Cheng-Cheng; Lin, Huei-Ru; Hsieh, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Jien-Lian; Hu, Wei-Ping; Ni, Chi-Kung; Liu, Chen-Lin

    2015-06-18

    The controlled breaking of a specific chemical bond with photons in complex molecules remains a major challenge in chemistry. In principle, using the K-edge absorption of a particular atomic element, one might excite selectively a specific atomic entity in a molecule. We report here highly selective dissociation of the peptide bonds in N-methylformamide and N-methylacetamide on tuning the X-ray wavelength to the K-edge absorption of the atoms connected to (or near) the peptide bond. The high selectivity (56-71%) of this cleavage arises from the large energy shift of X-ray absorption, a large overlap of the 1s orbital and the valence π* orbital that is highly localized on a peptide bond with antibonding character, and the relatively low bond energy of the peptide bonds. These characteristics indicate that the high selectivity on bond dissociation following core excitation could be a general feature for molecules containing peptide bonds. PMID:25988354

  15. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and

  16. Chemical Bonds II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  17. The effect of object-valence relations on automatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tal; Bar-Anan, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effect of co-occurrence of a target object with affective stimuli on automatic evaluation of the target when the relation between the target and the affective stimuli suggests that they have opposite valence. Participants learned about targets that ended an unpleasant noise or a pleasant music. The valence of such targets is opposite to the valence of the affective stimuli that co-occur with them. Participants reported preference for targets that ended noise over targets that ended music, but automatic evaluation measures revealed the opposite preference. This suggests that automatic evaluation is sensitive to co-occurrence between stimuli more than to the relation between the stimuli, and that relational information has a stronger influence on deliberate evaluation than on automatic evaluation. These conclusions support the associative-propositional evaluation model (Gawronski & Bodenhausen, 2006), and add evidence regarding the sensitivity of the evaluative-conditioning effect to relational information. PMID:23072334

  18. Direct double photoionization of the valence shell of Be

    SciTech Connect

    Citrini, F.; Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Kazansky, A.K.

    2003-04-01

    The hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves is used to study the direct double photoionization (DPI) of the valence shell of the lightest alkaline earth-metal Be. The absolute fully integrated, singly, doubly, and triply differential cross sections obtained are compared with the single set of measurements available and with recent calculations based on the convergent close coupling and time-dependent close coupling methods. The level of agreement between all these data is very encouraging. A comparison is also made between the DPI of He and the direct DPI of the valence shell of Be. It confirms that the electron-electron correlations are stronger in the valence 2s shell of Be than in the 1s shell of He, thus contributing to a desirable clarification.

  19. Valence Electronic Structure of Aqueous Solutions: Insights from Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Bradforth, Stephen E

    2016-05-27

    The valence orbital electron binding energies of water and of embedded solutes are crucial quantities for understanding chemical reactions taking place in aqueous solution, including oxidation/reduction, transition-metal coordination, and radiation chemistry. Their experimental determination based on liquid-photoelectron spectroscopy using soft X-rays is described, and we provide an overview of valence photoelectron spectroscopy studies reported to date. We discuss principal experimental aspects and several theoretical approaches to compute the measured binding energies of the least tightly bound molecular orbitals. Solutes studied are presented chronologically, from simple electrolytes, via transition-metal ion solutions and several organic and inorganic molecules, to biologically relevant molecules, including aqueous nucleotides and their components. In addition to the lowest vertical ionization energies, the measured valence photoelectron spectra also provide information on adiabatic ionization energies and reorganization energies for the oxidation (ionization) half-reaction. For solutes with low solubility, resonantly enhanced ionization provides a promising alternative pathway. PMID:27023757

  20. Puzzles in bonding and spectroscopy: the case of dicarbon.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Roderick M

    2016-01-01

    The unstable molecule C₂ has been of interest since its identification as the source of the "Swan band" features observable in the spectra offlames, carbon arcs, white dwarf stars, and comets, and it continues to serve as a focal point for experimental and theoretical discovery. Recent spectroscopic work has identified a quintet state of the molecule for the first time, while new insights into the bond order of C₂ in its ground state have been provided by sophisticated computational methods based on valence bond theory. This article gives a review of spectroscopic and computational work on C₂ including both historical background and the most recent discoveries. PMID:27120813

  1. From mixed valence to the Kondo lattice regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    Many heavy fermion materials are known to cross over from the Kondo lattice regime to the mixed valence regime or vice versa as a function of pressure or doping. We study this crossover theoretically by employing the periodic Anderson model within the framework of the dynamical mean field theory. Changes occurring in the dynamics and transport across this crossover are highlighted. As the valence is decreased (increased) relative to the Kondo lattice regime, the Kondo resonance broadens significantly, while the lower (upper) Hubbard band moves closer to the Fermi level. The resistivity develops a two peak structure in the mixed valence regime: a low temperature coherence peak and a high temperature ‘Hubbard band’ peak. These two peaks merge, yielding a broad shallow maximum upon decreasing the valence further. The optical conductivity likewise exhibits an unusual absorption feature (shoulder) in the deep mid-infrared region, which grows in intensity with decreasing valence. The involvement of the Hubbard bands in dc transport and of the effective f-level in the optical conductivity are shown to be responsible for the anomalous transport properties. A two-band hybridization-gap model, which neglects incoherent effects due to many-body scattering, commonly employed to understand the optical response in these materials is shown to be inadequate, especially in the mixed valence regime. Comparison of theory with experiment carried out for (a) dc resistivities of CeRhIn5, Ce2Ni3Si5, CeFeGe3 and YbIr2Si2, (b) pressure dependent resistivity of YbInAu2 and CeCu6, and (c) optical conductivity measurements in YbIr2Si2 yields excellent agreement.

  2. Valence structure effects in the stopping of swift ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, P.; Sharma, A.; Schinner, A.; Fettouhi, A.

    2005-04-01

    The valence structure of a material may affect the stopping of swift charged particles primarily via Z2 structure, atom-molecule differences, gas-solid differences and metal-insulator differences. These material effects have a common physical origin and can therefore be considered from a unified point of view. Theoretical arguments focus on the effect of binding and orbital motion of the target electrons as well as projectile screening and Barkas-Andersen effect. Generally, valence effects depend on the atomic number, charge state and velocity of the projectile. Reference is made to recent calculations on the basis of binary stopping theory as well as experimental findings.

  3. Valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) evolution: a tool to investigate the transformations within a VSCC throughout a chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Gómez, Rosa María; Rocha-Rinza, Tomas; Sánchez-Obregón, María Azucena; Guevara-Vela, José Manuel

    2011-11-17

    Theoretical studies about reaction mechanisms are usually limited to the determination of the energetic paths that connect reactants, transition states, and products. Recently, our group proposed the structural evolution, which has provided insights about the molecular structure changes occurring along a reaction path. Structural evolution may be defined as the development of a chemical reaction system across the partitioning of the nuclear configuration space into a finite number of structural regions defined on account of the topology of a scalar field, e.g., the electron density. In this paper, we present a tool to investigate within the framework of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules the evolvement of the Valence Shell Charge Concentration, the VSCC evolution, which is the description of the changes of electron density concentrations and depletions around the bonding area of an atom. The VSCC evolution provides supplementary information to the structural evolution because it allows the analysis of valence shells within a structural region, i.e., a subset of R(Q) with the same connectivity among the atoms forming a molecule. This new approach constitutes also a complement to the Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model because it gives an account of the adjustments of electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom across a chemical reaction. The insertion reaction in the hydroformylation reaction of ethylene, the reduction of cyclohexanone with lithium aluminum hydride, the oxidation of methanol with chlorochromate, and the bimolecular nucleophilic substitution of CH(3)F with F(-) are used as representatives examples of the application of the VSCC evolution. Overall, this paper shows how the VSCC evolution through an analysis of the modifications of local charge concentrations and depletions in individual steps of a chemical reaction gives new insights about these processes. PMID:21923082

  4. Real-time observation of valence electron motion.

    SciTech Connect

    Goulielmakis, E.; Loh, Z.-H.; Wirth, A.; Santra, R.; Rohringer, N.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Zherebtsov, S.; Pfeifer, T.; Azzeer, A. M.; Kling, M. F.; Leone, S. R.; Krausz, F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Max-Planck-Insti. fur Quantenoptik; Univ. of California at Berkeley; LBNL; Univ. of Chicago; LLNL; Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ.; King Saud Univ.

    2010-08-05

    The superposition of quantum states drives motion on the atomic and subatomic scales, with the energy spacing of the states dictating the speed of the motion. In the case of electrons residing in the outer (valence) shells of atoms and molecules which are separated by electronvolt energies, this means that valence electron motion occurs on a subfemtosecond to few-femtosecond timescale (1 fs = 10{sup -15} s). In the absence of complete measurements, the motion can be characterized in terms of a complex quantity, the density matrix. Here we report an attosecond pump-probe measurement of the density matrix of valence electrons in atomic krypton ions. We generate the ions with a controlled few-cycle laser field and then probe them through the spectrally resolved absorption of an attosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulse, which allows us to observe in real time the subfemtosecond motion of valence electrons over a multifemtosecond time span. We are able to completely characterize the quantum mechanical electron motion and determine its degree of coherence in the specimen of the ensemble. Although the present study uses a simple, prototypical open system, attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy should be applicable to molecules and solid-state materials to reveal the elementary electron motions that control physical, chemical and biological properties and processes.

  5. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon

  6. Social Learning Modulates the Lateralization of Emotional Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G.; Lavidor, Michal; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Although neuropsychological studies of lateralization of emotion have emphasized valence (positive vs. negative) or type (basic vs. complex) dimensions, the interaction between the two dimensions has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that recognition of basic emotions is processed preferentially by…

  7. Recognizing the Emotional Valence of Names: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional…

  8. Recognizing the Emotional Valence of Names: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional

  9. Racah materials: role of atomic multiplets in intermediate valence systems

    PubMed Central

    Shick, A. B.; Havela, L.; Lichtenstein, A. I.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2015-01-01

    We address the long-standing mystery of the nonmagnetic insulating state of the intermediate valence compound SmB6. Within a combination of the local density approximation (LDA) and an exact diagonalization (ED) of an effective discrete Anderson impurity model, the intermediate valence ground state with the f-shell occupation 〈n4f〉 = 5.6 is found for the Sm atom in SmB6. This ground state is a singlet, and the first excited triplet state ~3 meV higher in the energy. SmB6 is a narrow band insulator already in LDA, with the direct band gap of ~10 meV. The electron correlations increase the band gap which now becomes indirect. Thus, the many-body effects are relevant to form the indirect band gap, crucial for the idea of “topological Kondo insulator" in SmB6. Also, an actinide analog PuB6 is considered, and the intermediate valence singlet ground state is found for the Pu atom. We propose that [Sm, Pu]B6 belong to a new class of the intermediate valence materials with the multi-orbital “Kondo-like" singlet ground-state. Crucial role of complex spin-orbital f  n–f  n+1 multiplet structure differently hybridized with ligand states in such Racah materials is discussed. PMID:26490021

  10. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  11. Vection Modulates Emotional Valence of Autobiographical Episodic Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seno, Takeharu; Kawabe, Takahiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether illusory self-motion perception ("vection") induced by viewing upward and downward grating motion stimuli can alter the emotional valence of recollected autobiographical episodic memories. We found that participants recollected positive episodes more often while perceiving upward vection. However, when we tested a small moving…

  12. Inner valence-shell vacancy production and molecular fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Tavares, A. C.; Luna, H.; Wolff, W.

    2015-09-01

    Fragmentation of complex molecules is studied linking the fragment-ions to the primary vacancies produced in their molecular orbitals. It is observed that a model based in such association describes well rather complex molecules. Deviations from this model are clear indications that inner valence-shells and double ionization plays a key role in the production of some fragments.

  13. Paradigms and Plastic Facts in the History of Valence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavaleta, David

    1988-01-01

    Traces the development of bonding theory and notes the influence of preconceived theory upon this development. Considers ideas of alchemy, Newton, Dalton, Lewis, and quantum mechanics. Suggests a move away from conservative descriptive approaches of bonding theory. (ML)

  14. a New Approach to the Mixed Valence Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Piers

    The mixed valence compounds are a class of rare earth compounds & alloys containing Ce, Sm, Eu, Tm or Yb ions in which the 4f electrons are able to tunnel from well inside their rare earth hosts into the surrounding electron sea, giving rise to valence fluctuations between two atomic configurations of the rare earth ions f ('n) (DBLARR) f ('n-1) + e('-). In these compounds of f electrons play an important role in conduction, leading to many novel features in the equilibrium and transport properties. The electrons in the mixed valence compounds are highly correlated and the modelling of their behaviour constitutes a strong coupling problem. This dissertation studies the mixed valence problem using the infinite U Anderson model to describe the hybridisation of the f electrons with band electrons. Section 1 reviews the physical aspects of the mixed valence problem. Section 2 presents a new exact reformulation of the Anderson model in which the singlet state of the rare earth ion is presented by a "slave boson" field and the spinning state by a spin j fermion. In this more convenient representation all operators obey standard commutation algebras and standard quantum field theory tools can be applied to the impurity and lattice problems. Section 3 examines the limit of large spin degeneracy N in the slave boson theory and shows this limit to be classical. 1/N plays the role of Planck's constant. The "classical" phase diagram is derived and the effects of quantum fluctuations at finite N studied. Section 4 applies scaling arguments to the Kondo lattice model and shows that large degeneracy enhances local spin fluctuations, leading to the stabilisation of a non magnetic ground state with narrow band excitations.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding for the testis-specific fox (Vulpes vulpes) sperm polypeptide Vb of the cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Yann; Farré, Guillaume; Rouet, Nelly; Kele, Zoltan; Janáky, Tamás; Boué, Franck

    2005-01-01

    Identification of fox (Vulpes vulpes) sperm antigens was carried out to assess their interest as a potential target for a contraceptive vaccine. We report here the cloning and sequencing of fSP8, a fox sperm protein of 14.7 kd. fSP8 was isoantigenic in foxes, as it was recognized by sera of both male and female foxes immunized with fox sperm proteins. No glycosylation was detected, on fSP8, as shown both by deglycosylation assay and lectin labeling. To determine the fSP8 sequence, the NH2-terminal sequence was first obtained, and a piece of cDNA was amplified from testicular RNA by Rapid Amplification of cDNA extremities polymerase chain reaction. This piece was used to screen a cDNA library from fox testis by Southern blot. A sequence of 879 base pairs was obtained, which includes a major open reading frame coding for 128 amino acids. Mass spectrometric analyses have confirmed the position of the open reading frame. Analysis of the predicted amino acids sequence revealed no apparent transmembrane regions. Comparison of the protein sequence with the Prosite database demonstrated a homology with the Zinc binding site of the subunit Vb of the cytochrome c oxidase. On the C-terminal extremity, fSP8 presents a high homology to the Vb polypeptide of the cytochrome c oxidase from bovine, mouse, and human; however the 34 amino acids on the NH2-extremity were specific to fSP8. Moreover, it was demonstrated that this sequence was testis-specific. This could contribute to the antigenicity of this protein. fSP8 is one of the first fox sperm antigens to be cloned and sequenced. PMID:15866998

  16. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, Mariana; Goclon, Jakub; Rodziewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-18

    We used static DFT calculations to analyze, in detail, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds formed in low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol (PEG) with two to five repeat subunits. Both red-shifted O-H⋅⋅⋅O and blue-shifting C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, which control the structural flexibility of PEG, were detected. To estimate the strength of these hydrogen bonds, the quantum theory of atoms in molecules was used. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations were used to mimic the structural rearrangements and hydrogen-bond breaking/formation in the PEG molecule at 300 K. The time evolution of the H⋅⋅⋅O bond length and valence angles of the formed hydrogen bonds were fully analyzed. The characteristic hydrogen-bonding patterns of low-molecular-weight PEG were described with an estimation of their lifetime. The theoretical results obtained, in particular the presence of weak C-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds, could serve as an explanation of the PEG structural stability in the experimental investigation. PMID:26864943

  17. Ultrafast Charge Transfer of a Valence Double Hole in Glycine Driven Exclusively by Nuclear Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2015-10-01

    We explore theoretically the ultrafast transfer of a double electron hole between the functional groups of glycine after K -shell ionization and subsequent Auger decay. Although a large energy gap of about 15 eV initially exists between the two electronic states involved and coherent electronic dynamics play no role in the hole transfer, we find that the double hole is transferred within 3 to 4 fs between both functional ends of the glycine molecule driven solely by specific nuclear displacements and non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. The nuclear displacements along specific vibrational modes are of the order of 15% of a typical chemical bond between carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms and about 30% for bonds involving hydrogen atoms. The time required for the hole transfer corresponds to less than half a vibrational period of the involved nuclear modes. This finding challenges the common wisdom that nuclear dynamics of the molecular skeleton are unimportant for charge transfer processes at the few-femtosecond time scale and shows that they can even play a prominent role. It also indicates that in x-ray imaging experiments, in which ionization is unavoidable, valence electron redistribution caused by nuclear dynamics might be much faster than previously anticipated. Thus, non-Born-Oppenheimer effects may affect the apparent electron densities extracted from such measurements.

  18. Vibrational effects on valence electron momentum distributions of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Noboru; Yamazaki, Masakazu; Takahashi, Masahiko

    2014-12-28

    We report an electron momentum spectroscopy study of vibrational effects on the electron momentum distributions for the outer valence orbitals of difluoromethane (CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}). The symmetric noncoplanar (e,2e) experiment has been performed at an incident electron energy of 1.2 keV. Furthermore, a theoretical calculation of the electron momentum distributions of the CH{sub 2}F{sub 2} molecule has been carried out with vibrational effects being involved. It is shown from comparisons between experiment and theory that it is essential to take into account influences of the CH{sub 2} asymmetric stretching and CH{sub 2} rocking vibrational modes for a proper understanding of the electron momentum distribution of the 2b{sub 1} orbital having the CH-bonding character. The results of CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}and additional theoretical calculations for (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}O and H{sub 2}CO molecules strongly suggest that vibrational effects on electron momentum distributions tend to be appreciable for non-total symmetry molecular orbitals delocalized over some equivalent CH-bond sites.

  19. Ultrafast Charge Transfer of a Valence Double Hole in Glycine Driven Exclusively by Nuclear Motion.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Vendrell, Oriol; Santra, Robin

    2015-10-01

    We explore theoretically the ultrafast transfer of a double electron hole between the functional groups of glycine after K-shell ionization and subsequent Auger decay. Although a large energy gap of about 15 eV initially exists between the two electronic states involved and coherent electronic dynamics play no role in the hole transfer, we find that the double hole is transferred within 3 to 4 fs between both functional ends of the glycine molecule driven solely by specific nuclear displacements and non-Born-Oppenheimer effects. The nuclear displacements along specific vibrational modes are of the order of 15% of a typical chemical bond between carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms and about 30% for bonds involving hydrogen atoms. The time required for the hole transfer corresponds to less than half a vibrational period of the involved nuclear modes. This finding challenges the common wisdom that nuclear dynamics of the molecular skeleton are unimportant for charge transfer processes at the few-femtosecond time scale and shows that they can even play a prominent role. It also indicates that in x-ray imaging experiments, in which ionization is unavoidable, valence electron redistribution caused by nuclear dynamics might be much faster than previously anticipated. Thus, non-Born-Oppenheimer effects may affect the apparent electron densities extracted from such measurements. PMID:26551809

  20. Charge-displacement analysis via natural orbitals for chemical valence: Charge transfer effects in coordination chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistoni, Giovanni; Rampino, Sergio; Tarantelli, Francesco; Belpassi, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    We recently devised a simple scheme for analyzing on quantitative grounds the Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson donation and back-donation in symmetric coordination complexes. Our approach is based on a symmetry decomposition of the so called Charge-Displacement (CD) function quantifying the charge flow, upon formation of a metal (M)-substrate (S) bond, along the M-S interaction axis and provides clear-cut measures of donation and back-donation charges in correlation with experimental observables [G. Bistoni et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52, 11599 (2013)]. The symmetry constraints exclude of course from the analysis most systems of interest in coordination chemistry. In this paper, we show how to entirely overcome this limitation by taking advantage of the properties of the natural orbitals for chemical valence [M. Mitoraj and A. Michalak, J. Mol. Model. 13, 347 (2007)]. A general scheme for disentangling donation and back-donation in the CD function of both symmetric and non-symmetric systems is presented and illustrated through applications to M-ethyne (M = Au, Ni and W) coordination bonds, including an explicative study on substrate activation in a model reaction mechanism.

  1. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  2. Snake venom disintegrins: novel dimeric disintegrins and structural diversification by disulphide bond engineering.

    PubMed Central

    Calvete, Juan J; Moreno-Murciano, M Paz; Theakston, R David G; Kisiel, Dariusz G; Marcinkiewicz, Cezary

    2003-01-01

    We report the isolation and amino acid sequences of six novel dimeric disintegrins from the venoms of Vipera lebetina obtusa (VLO), V. berus (VB), V. ammodytes (VA), Echis ocellatus (EO) and Echis multisquamatus (EMS). Disintegrins VLO4, VB7, VA6 and EO4 displayed the RGD motif and inhibited the adhesion of K562 cells, expressing the integrin alpha5beta1 to immobilized fibronectin. A second group of dimeric disintegrins (VLO5 and EO5) had MLD and VGD motifs in their subunits and blocked the adhesion of the alpha4beta1 integrin to vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 with high selectivity. On the other hand, disintegrin EMS11 inhibited both alpha5beta1 and alpha4beta1 integrins with almost the same degree of specificity. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the dimeric disintegrins with those of other disintegrins by multiple-sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, in conjunction with current biochemical and genetic data, supports the view that the different disintegrin subfamilies evolved from a common ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-like) scaffold and that structural diversification occurred through disulphide bond engineering. PMID:12667142

  3. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can

  4. Valence-Specific Laterality Effects in Vocal Emotion: Interactions with Stimulus Type, Blocking and Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepman, Astrid; Rodway, Paul; Geddes, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Valence-specific laterality effects have been frequently obtained in facial emotion perception but not in vocal emotion perception. We report a dichotic listening study further examining whether valence-specific laterality effects generalise to vocal emotions. Based on previous literature, we tested whether valence-specific laterality effects were…

  5. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents…

  6. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  7. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  8. X-ray Emission Spectroscopy to Study Ligand Valence Orbitals in Mn Coordination Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V; Messinger, Johannes; Merz, Kathrin; Weyhermuller, Thomas; Bergmann, Uwe; Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2009-03-02

    We discuss a spectroscopic method to determine the character of chemical bonding and for the identification of metal ligands in coordination and bioinorganic chemistry. It is based on the analysis of satellite lines in X-ray emission spectra that arise from transitions between valence orbitals and the metal ion 1s level (valence-to-core XES). The spectra, in connection with calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), provide information that is complementary to other spectroscopic techniques, in particular X-ray absorption (XANES and EXAFS). The spectral shape is sensitive to protonation of ligands and allows ligands, which differ only slightly in atomic number (e.g., C, N, O...), to be distinguished. A theoretical discussion of the main spectral features is presented in terms of molecular orbitals for a series of Mn model systems: [Mn(H2O)6]2+, [Mn(H2O)5OH]+, [Mn(H2O)5NH2]+, and [Mn(H2O)5NH3]2+. An application of the method, with comparison between theory and experiment, is presented for the solvated Mn2+ ion in water and three Mn coordination complexes, namely [LMn(acac)N3]BPh4, [LMn(B2O3Ph2)(ClO4)], and [LMn(acac)N]BPh4, where L represents 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, acac stands for the 2,4-pentanedionate anion, and B2O3Ph2 represents the 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-dibora-2-oxapropane-1,3-diolato dianion.

  9. Conduction and Valence Band Offsets in WSe2 -Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyounghwan; Larentis, Stefano; Fallahazad, Babak; Lee, Kayoung; Xue, Jiamin; Dillen, David; Corbet, Chris; Tutuc, Emanuel

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the electron transport in graphene-WSe2 heterostructures realized using a layer-by-layer transfer. Lateral electron transport shows ambipolar behavior characteristic of graphene, with a marked saturation at high positive (negative) gate bias, associated with the population of the conduction (valence) band in WSe2. The graphene carrier density dependence on gate bias was extracted from magneto-transport measurements. Using WSe2 as a top dielectric in dual-gate graphene field-effect transistors, we determine the WSe2 dielectric constant along the c-axis. By combining the graphene density dependence on gate bias in back-gated graphene-WSe2 heterostructures with the WSe2 dielectric constant, we determine the offset between the graphene charge neutrality point and the WSe2 conduction and valence bands. This work was supported by NRI, NSF and Intel.

  10. Valence-band states of ion-bombarded polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Terrasi, A. ); Foti, G. ); Hwu, Y. ); Margaritondo, G. )

    1991-08-01

    Ion-bombarded polystyrene with a 0.5-keV Ar{sup +} beam has been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy performed with synchrotron radiation. After a dose of 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} the evolution of the valence band of the bombarded sample towards an amorphous carbonlike configuration is reported. From the analysis of valence-band spectra we estimated the out-diffusion of hydrogen and showed that its electronic states remain well identified and stable until the hydrogen presence is about 35% with respect to the pristine sample. Finally, comparison with mass spectroscopy measurements on deuterated polystyrene has been performed to determine hydrogen evolution during the ion irradiation.

  11. Attosecond photoionization dynamics with stimulated core-valence transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jhih-An; Rohringer, Nina; Dahlström, Jan Marcus

    2016-03-01

    We investigate ionization of neon atoms by an isolated attosecond pump pulse in the presence of two coherent extreme ultraviolet or x-ray probe fields. The probe fields are tuned to a core-valence transition in the residual ion and induce spectral shearing of the photoelectron distributions. We show that the photoelectron-ion coincidence signal contains an interference pattern that depends on the temporal structure of the attosecond pump pulse and the stimulated core-valence transition. Many-body perturbation theory is used to compute "atomic response times" for the processes and we find strikingly different behavior for stimulation to the outer-core hole (2 p ↔2 s ) and stimulation to the inner-core hole (2 p ↔1 s ). The response time of the inner-core transition is found to be comparable to that of state-of-the-art laser-based characterization techniques for attosecond pulses.

  12. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    PubMed Central

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  13. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  14. Bonding silicones with epoxies

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that silicones, both room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) and millable rubber (press cured) can be successfully bonded to other materials using plasma treatment and epoxy adhesives. The plasma treatment using dry air atmosphere increases the surface energy of the silicone and thus provides a lower water contact angle. This phenomenon allows the epoxy adhesive to wet the silicone surface and ultimately bond. Bond strengths are sufficiently high to result in failures in the silicone materials rather than the adhesive bond.

  15. Maternal-Infant Bonding

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, Miriam R.

    1978-01-01

    Maternal-infant bonding is a vital process which begins in early infancy and continues over the next few years. The bonding process has tremendous implications for both mother and child and is affected by many factors. Bonding problems occur and the family practitioner can identify these potential problems before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the postpartum period, and arrange assistance so the bonding process can unfold normally. PMID:21301556

  16. Effects of valence-valence, core-valence, and core-core correlations on the fine-structure energy levels in Al-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hao Lianghuan; Jiang Gang; Hou Haijun

    2010-02-15

    This paper reports on multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for both allowed and intercombination transitions and fine structure referring to the levels of a term in highly charged aluminum like ions. Results for fine-structure energy levels, the term splitting, the wavelengths, transition rates, and thereby the branching ratios and lifetimes for the Al-like 3s{sup 2}3p-3s3p{sup 2} transitions in the ions Fe XIV-Au LXVII are reported and compared with other theories and experiments, using the codes GRASP2K. Our calculated fine-structure energy levels are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and the experimentally compiled energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology wherever available. The calculated values including core-valence correlation are found to be similar and to compare very well with other theoretical and experimental values for medium-Z ions. For higher Z the inclusion of the valence correlation gives results in excellent agreement with those from many-body perturbation theory. We believe that our extensive calculated values can guide experimentalists in identifying the fine-structure levels in their future work. From our radiative decay rates we have also calculated radiative lifetimes of some fine-structure levels. In this calculation we also predict new data for several fine-structure levels where no other theoretical and/or experimental results are available.

  17. A paramagnetic bonding mechanism for diatomics in strong magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kai K; Tellgren, E I; Hoffmann, M R; Helgaker, T

    2012-07-20

    Elementary chemistry distinguishes two kinds of strong bonds between atoms in molecules: the covalent bond, where bonding arises from valence electron pairs shared between neighboring atoms, and the ionic bond, where transfer of electrons from one atom to another leads to Coulombic attraction between the resulting ions. We present a third, distinct bonding mechanism: perpendicular paramagnetic bonding, generated by the stabilization of antibonding orbitals in their perpendicular orientation relative to an external magnetic field. In strong fields such as those present in the atmospheres of white dwarfs (on the order of 10(5) teslas) and other stellar objects, our calculations suggest that this mechanism underlies the strong bonding of H(2) in the (3)Σ(u)(+)(1σ(g)1σ(u)*) triplet state and of He(2) in the (1)Σ(g)(+)(1σ(g)(2)1σ(u)(*2)) singlet state, as well as their preferred perpendicular orientation in the external field. PMID:22822146

  18. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  19. Predicting the Valence of a Scene from Observers' Eye Movements.

    PubMed

    R-Tavakoli, Hamed; Atyabi, Adham; Rantanen, Antti; Laukka, Seppo J; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Heikkilä, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia analysis benefits from understanding the emotional content of a scene in a variety of tasks such as video genre classification and content-based image retrieval. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying human bio-signals, particularly eye movements, to recognize the emotional gist of a scene such as its valence. In order to determine the emotional category of images using eye movements, the existing methods often learn a classifier using several features that are extracted from eye movements. Although it has been shown that eye movement is potentially useful for recognition of scene valence, the contribution of each feature is not well-studied. To address the issue, we study the contribution of features extracted from eye movements in the classification of images into pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant categories. We assess ten features and their fusion. The features are histogram of saccade orientation, histogram of saccade slope, histogram of saccade length, histogram of saccade duration, histogram of saccade velocity, histogram of fixation duration, fixation histogram, top-ten salient coordinates, and saliency map. We utilize machine learning approach to analyze the performance of features by learning a support vector machine and exploiting various feature fusion schemes. The experiments reveal that 'saliency map', 'fixation histogram', 'histogram of fixation duration', and 'histogram of saccade slope' are the most contributing features. The selected features signify the influence of fixation information and angular behavior of eye movements in the recognition of the valence of images. PMID:26407322

  20. Predicting the Valence of a Scene from Observers’ Eye Movements

    PubMed Central

    R.-Tavakoli, Hamed; Atyabi, Adham; Rantanen, Antti; Laukka, Seppo J.; Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Heikkilä, Janne

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia analysis benefits from understanding the emotional content of a scene in a variety of tasks such as video genre classification and content-based image retrieval. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying human bio-signals, particularly eye movements, to recognize the emotional gist of a scene such as its valence. In order to determine the emotional category of images using eye movements, the existing methods often learn a classifier using several features that are extracted from eye movements. Although it has been shown that eye movement is potentially useful for recognition of scene valence, the contribution of each feature is not well-studied. To address the issue, we study the contribution of features extracted from eye movements in the classification of images into pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant categories. We assess ten features and their fusion. The features are histogram of saccade orientation, histogram of saccade slope, histogram of saccade length, histogram of saccade duration, histogram of saccade velocity, histogram of fixation duration, fixation histogram, top-ten salient coordinates, and saliency map. We utilize machine learning approach to analyze the performance of features by learning a support vector machine and exploiting various feature fusion schemes. The experiments reveal that ‘saliency map’, ‘fixation histogram’, ‘histogram of fixation duration’, and ‘histogram of saccade slope’ are the most contributing features. The selected features signify the influence of fixation information and angular behavior of eye movements in the recognition of the valence of images. PMID:26407322

  1. Chromium valences in ureilite olivine and implications for ureilite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Sutton, S. R.; Wirick, S.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ureilites are a group of ultramafic achondrites commonly thought to be residues of partial melting on a carbon-rich asteroid. They show a large variation in FeO content (olivine Fo values ranging from ∼74 to 95) that cannot be due to igneous fractionation and suggests instead variation in oxidation state. The presence of chromite in only a few of the most ferroan (Fo 75-76) samples appears to support such a model. MicroXANES analyses were used in this study to determine the valence states of Cr (previously unknown) in olivine cores of 11 main group ureilites. The goal of this work was to use a method that is independent of Fo to determine the oxidation conditions under which ureilites formed, in order to evaluate whether the ureilite FeO-variation is correlated with oxidation state, and whether it is nebular or planetary in origin. Two of the analyzed samples, LEW 88774 (Fo 74.2) and NWA 766 (Fo 76.7) contain primary chromite; two others, LAP 03587 (Fo 74.4) and CMS 04048 (Fo 76.2) contain sub-micrometer-sized exsolutions of chromite + Ca-rich pyroxene in olivine; and one, EET 96328 (Fo 85.2) contains an unusual chromite grain of uncertain origin. No chromite has been observed in the remaining six samples (Fo 77.4-92.3). Chromium in olivine in all eleven samples was found to be dominated by the divalent species, with valences ranging from 2.10 ± 0.02 (1σ) to 2.46 ± 0.04. The non-chromite-bearing ureilites have the most reduced Cr, with a weighted mean valence of 2.12 ± 0.01, i.e., Cr2+/Cr3+ = 7.33. All low-Fo chromite-bearing ureilites have more oxidized Cr, with valences ranging from 2.22 ± 0.03 to 2.46 ± 0.04. EET 96328, whose chromite grain we interpret as a late-crystallizing phase, yielded a reduced Cr valence of 2.15 ± 0.07, similar to the non-chromite-bearing samples. Based on the measured Cr valences, magmatic (1200-1300 °C) oxygen fugacities (fO2) of the non-chromite-bearing samples were estimated to be in the range IW-1.9 to IW-2.8 (assuming basaltic melt composition), consistent with fO2 values obtained by assuming olivine-silica-iron metal (OSI) equilibrium. For the primary chromite-bearing-ureilites, the corresponding fO2 were estimated (again, assuming basaltic melt composition) to be ∼IW to IW+1.0, i.e., several orders of magnitude more oxidizing than the conditions estimated for the chromite-free ureilites. In terms of Fo and Cr valence properties, ureilites appear to form two groups rather than a single “Cr-valence (or fO2) vs. Fo” trend. The chromite-bearing ureilites show little variation in Fo (∼74-76) but significant variation in Cr valence, while the non-chromite-bearing ureilites show significant variation in Fo (∼77-95) and little variation in Cr valence. These groups are unrelated to petrologic type (i.e., olivine-pigeonite, olivine-orthopyroxene, or augite-bearing). The chromite-bearing ureilites also have lower contents of Cr in olivine than most non-chromite-bearing ureilites, consistent with predictions based on Cr olivine/melt partitioning in spinel saturated vs. non-spinel-saturated systems. Under the assumption that at magmatic temperatures graphite-gas equilibria controlled fO2 at all depths on the ureilite parent body, we conclude: (1) that ureilite precursor materials having the Fo and Cr valence properties now observed in ureilites are unlikely to have been preserved during planetary processing; and (2) that the Fo and Cr valence properties now observed in ureilites are consistent with having been established by high-temperature carbon redox control over a range of depths on a plausible-sized ureilite parent body. The apparent limit on ureilite Fo values around 74-76 suggests that the precursor material(s) had bulk mg# ⩾ that of LL chondrites.

  2. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Tobin, J. G.; Allen, P.; Medling, S.; Booth, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Cooley, J. C.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; Nordlund, D.

    2015-12-15

    In this study, recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f3 and f4 configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δ phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f6 compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.

  3. Measurement of valence band structure in arbitrary dielectric films

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Choi, Eun H.

    2012-10-15

    A new way of measuring the band structure of various dielectric materials using the secondary electron emission from Auger neutralization of ions is introduced. The first example of this measurement scheme is the magnesium oxide (MgO) films with respect to the application of the films in the display industries. The density of state in the valence bands of MgO film and MgO film with a functional layer (FL) deposited over a dielectric surface reveals that the density peak of film with a FL is considerably less than that of film, thereby indicating a better performance of MgO film with functional layer in display devices. The second example of the measurement is the boron-zinc oxide (BZO) films with respect to the application of the films to the development of solar cells. The measurement of density of state in BZO film suggests that a high concentration of boron impurity in BZO films may enhance the transition of electrons and holes through the band gap from the valence to the conduction band in zinc oxide crystals; thereby improving the conductivity of the film. Secondary electron emission by the Auger neutralization of ions is highly instrumental for the determination of the density of states in the valence band of dielectric materials.

  4. On the valence fluctuation in the early actinide metals

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Soderlind, P.; Landa, A.; Tobin, J. G.; Allen, P.; Medling, S.; Booth, C. H.; Bauer, E. D.; Cooley, J. C.; Sokaras, D.; Weng, T. -C.; et al

    2015-12-15

    In this study, recent X-ray measurements suggest a degree of valence fluctuation in plutonium and uranium intermetallics. We are applying a novel scheme, in conjunction with density functional theory, to predict 5f configuration fractions of states with valence fluctuations for the early actinide metals. For this purpose we perform constrained integer f-occupation calculations for the α phases of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium metals. For plutonium we also investigate the δ phase. The model predicts uranium and neptunium to be dominated by the f3 and f4 configurations, respectively, with only minor contributions from other configurations. For plutonium (both α and δmore » phase) the scenario is dramatically different. Here, the calculations predict a relatively even distribution between three valence configurations. The δ phase has a greater configuration fraction of f6 compared to that of the α phase. The theory is consistent with the interpretations of modern X-ray experiments and we present resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy results for α-uranium.« less

  5. Basic features of the pion valence-quark distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Lei; Mezrag, Cédric; Moutarde, Hervé; Roberts, Craig D.; Rodríguez-Quintero, Jose; Tandy, Peter C.

    2014-10-01

    The impulse-approximation expression used hitherto to define the pion's valence-quark distribution function is flawed because it omits contributions from the gluons which bind quarks into the pion. A corrected leading-order expression produces the model-independent result that quarks dressed via the rainbow-ladder truncation, or any practical analogue, carry all the pion's light-front momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale. Corrections to the leading contribution may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea-quarks. Working with available empirical information, we use an algebraic model to express the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment that allows us to highlight the basic features of the pion's measurable valence-quark distribution, qπ (x); namely, at a characteristic hadronic scale, qπ (x) ∼(1 - x) 2 for x ≳ 0.85; and the valence-quarks carry approximately two-thirds of the pion's light-front momentum.

  6. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide.

    PubMed

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-29

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications. PMID:27168317

  7. Singular Valence Fluctuations at a Kondo Destroyed Quantum Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, Jedediah; Kirchner, Stefan; Ingersent, Kevin; Si, Qimiao

    2012-02-01

    Recent experiments on the heavy fermion superconductor beta-YbAlB4 have indicated that this compound satisfies quantum critical scaling [1]. Motivated by the observation of mixed valency in this material [2], we study the Kondo destruction physics in the mixed-valence regime [3] of a particle-hole asymmetric Anderson impurity model with a pseudogapped density of states. In the vicinity of the quantum critical point we determine the finite temperature spin and charge susceptibilities by utilizing a continuous time quantum Monte Carlo method [4] and the numerical renormalization group. We show that this mixed-valence quantum critical point displays a Kondo breakdown effect. Furthermore, we find that both dynamic spin and charge susceptibilities obey frequency over temperature scaling, and that the static charge susceptibility diverges with a universal exponent. Possible implications of our results for beta-YbAlB4 are discussed. [1] Matsumoto et al, Science 331, 316 (2011). [2] Okawaet al, Physical Review Letters 104, 247201 (2010). [3] J. H. Pixley, S. Kirchner, Kevin Ingersent and Q. Si, arXiv:1108.5227v1 (2011). [4] M. Glossop, S. Kirchner, J. H. Pixley and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 076404 (2011).

  8. Valency configuration of transition metal impurities in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Leon; Schulthess, Thomas C; Svane, Axel; Temmerman, Walter M; Szotek, Zdzislawa; Janotti, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We use the self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation to investigate the ground state valency configuration of transition metal (TM=Mn, Co) impurities in n- and p-type ZnO. We find that in pure Zn{sub 1-x}TM{sub x}O, the localized TM{sup 2+} configuration is energetically favored over the itinerant d-electron configuration of the local spin density (LSD) picture. Our calculations indicate furthermore that the (+/0) donor level is situated in the ZnO gap. Consequently, for n-type conditions, with the Fermi energy {epsilon}F close to the conduction band minimum, TM remains in the 2+ charge state, while for p-type conditions, with {epsilon}F close to the valence band maximum, the 3+ charge state is energetically preferred. In the latter scenario, modeled here by co-doping with N, the additional delocalized d-electron charge transfers into the entire states at the top of the valence band, and hole carriers will only exist, if the N concentration exceeds the TM impurity concentration.

  9. Bonding aluminum beam leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkett, F. S.

    1978-01-01

    Report makes it relatively easy for hybrid-circuit manufacturers to convert integrated circuit chips with aluminum bead leads. Report covers: techniques for handling tiny chips; proper geometries for ultrasonic bonding tips; best combinations of pressure, pulse time, and ultrasonic energy for bonding; and best thickness for metal films to which beam leads are bonded.

  10. Two-electron bond-orbital model, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C.; Moriarty, J. A.; Sher, A.

    1976-01-01

    The two-electron bond-orbital model of tetrahedrally-coordinated solids is generalized and its application extended. All intrabond matrix elements entering the formalism are explicitly retained, including the direct overlap S between the anion and cation sp3 hybrid wavefunctions. Complete analytic results are obtained for the six two-electron eigenvalues and eigenstates of the anion-cation bond in terms of S, one-electron parameters V2 and V3, and two-electron correlation parameters V4, V5 and V6. Refined formulas for the dielectric constant and the nuclear exchange and pseudodipolar coefficients, as well as new expressions for the valence electron density, polarity of the bond and the cohesive energy, are then derived. The theory gives a good account of the experimentally observed trends in all properties considered and approximate quantitative agreement is achieved for the pseudodipolar coefficient.

  11. Bonding Effects on the Slip Differences in the B 1 Monocarbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leon, Nicholas; Yu, Xiao-xiang; Yu, Hang; Weinberger, Christopher R.; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2015-04-01

    Differences in plasticity are usually attributed to significant changes in crystalline symmetry or the strength of the interatomic bonds. In the B 1 monocarbides, differences in slip planes exist at low temperatures despite having the same structure and very similar bonding characteristics. Our experimental results demonstrate concretely that HfC slips on {110 } planes while TaC slips on {111 } planes. Density functional theory calculations rationalize this difference through the formation of an intrinsic stacking fault on the {111 } planes, formation of Shockley partials, and enhanced metallic bonding because of the valence filling of electrons between these transitional metal carbides.

  12. Bonding effects on the slip differences in the B1 monocarbides.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Nicholas; Yu, Xiao-Xiang; Yu, Hang; Weinberger, Christopher R; Thompson, Gregory B

    2015-04-24

    Differences in plasticity are usually attributed to significant changes in crystalline symmetry or the strength of the interatomic bonds. In the B1 monocarbides, differences in slip planes exist at low temperatures despite having the same structure and very similar bonding characteristics. Our experimental results demonstrate concretely that HfC slips on {110} planes while TaC slips on {111} planes. Density functional theory calculations rationalize this difference through the formation of an intrinsic stacking fault on the {111} planes, formation of Shockley partials, and enhanced metallic bonding because of the valence filling of electrons between these transitional metal carbides. PMID:25955056

  13. Character disposition and behavior type: influences of valence on preschool children's social judgments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Elaine F; Tobias, Marvin; Pauley, Danielle; Thomson, Nicole Renick; Johnson, Shawana Lewis

    2009-12-01

    The authors studied the influences of valence information on preschool children's (n = 47) moral (good or bad), liking (liked or disliked by a friend), and consequence-of-behavior (reward or punishment) judgments. The authors presented 8 scenarios describing the behavior valence, positive valence (help, share), negative valence (verbal insult, physical aggression), and disposition valence (nice or mean) of characters in social interaction with a friend. Overall, character disposition and behavior valence significantly influenced children's judgments. Moral, liking, and consequence-of-behavior judgments varied significantly by character disposition for both positive behavior scenarios. In contrast, there were fewer significant findings as a function of character disposition for negative behavior scenarios, suggesting that the negative behavior cue somewhat diminished the effect of character disposition on children's judgments. The authors discuss preschool students' coordination of information about valence of behavior and character disposition and the students' reluctance to judge that misbehavior warrants punitive consequence. PMID:20034187

  14. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOEpatents

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  15. Prospective bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.

    1981-07-01

    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  16. Ferromagnetic dinuclear mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) complexes: building blocks for the higher nuclearity complexes. structure, magnetic properties, and density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Hnninen, Mikko M; Vlivaara, Juha; Mota, Antonio J; Colacio, Enrique; Lloret, Francesc; Sillanp, Reijo

    2013-02-18

    A series of six mixed-valence Mn(II)/Mn(III) dinuclear complexes were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The reactivity of the complexes was surveyed, and structures of three additional trinuclear mixed-valence Mn(III)/Mn(II)/Mn(III) species were resolved. The magnetic properties of the complexes were studied in detail both experimentally and theoretically. All dinuclear complexes show ferromagnetic intramolecular interactions, which were justified on the basis of the electronic structures of the Mn(II) and Mn(III) ions. The large Mn(II)-O-Mn(III) bond angle and small distortion of the Mn(II) cation from the ideal square pyramidal geometry were shown to enhance the ferromagnetic interactions since these geometrical conditions seem to favor the orthogonal arrangement of the magnetic orbitals. PMID:23363337

  17. Simple Bond Cleavage

    SciTech Connect

    Gary S. Groenewold

    2005-08-01

    Simple bond cleavage is a class of fragmentation reactions in which a single bond is broken, without formation of new bonds between previously unconnected atoms. Because no bond making is involved, simple bond cleavages are endothermic, and activation energies are generally higher than for rearrangement eliminations. The rate of simple bond cleavage reactions is a strong function of the internal energy of the molecular ion, which reflects a loose transition state that resembles reaction products, and has a high density of accessible states. For this reason, simple bond cleavages tend to dominate fragmentation reactions for highly energized molecular ions. Simple bond cleavages have negligible reverse activation energy, and hence they are used as valuable probes of ion thermochemistry, since the energy dependence of the reactions can be related to the bond energy. In organic mass spectrometry, simple bond cleavages of odd electron ions can be either homolytic or heterolytic, depending on whether the fragmentation is driven by the radical site or the charge site. Simple bond cleavages of even electron ions tend to be heterolytic, producing even electron product ions and neutrals.

  18. Creating σ-holes through the formation of beryllium bonds.

    PubMed

    Brea, Oriana; Mó, Otilia; Yáñez, Manuel; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2015-09-01

    Through the use of ab initio theoretical models based on MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ-optimized geometries and CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ and CCSD(T)/aug-c-pVDZ total energies, it has been shown that the significant electron density rearrangements that follow the formation of a beryllium bond may lead to the appearance of a σ-hole in systems that previously do not exhibit this feature, such as CH3 OF, NO2 F, NO3 F, and other fluorine-containing systems. The creation of the σ-hole is another manifestation of the bond activation-reinforcement (BAR) rule. The appearance of a σ-hole on the F atoms of CH3 OF is due to the enhancement of the electronegativity of the O atom that participates in the beryllium bond. This atom recovers part of the charge transferred to Be by polarizing the valence density of the F into the bonding region. An analysis of the electron density shows that indeed this bond becomes reinforced, but the F atom becomes more electron deficient with the appearance of the σ-hole. Importantly, similar effects are also observed even when the atom participating in the beryllium bond is not directly attached to the F atom, as in NO2 F, NO3 F, or NCF. Hence, whereas the isolated CH3 OF, NO2 F, and NO3 F are unable to yield F⋅⋅⋅Base halogen bonds, their complexes with BeX2 derivatives are able to yield such bonds. Significant cooperative effects between the new halogen bond and the beryllium bond reinforce the strength of both noncovalent interactions. PMID:26212472

  19. Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Small Water Clusters with Density Functional Theory Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wendlandt, Johanna; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-12-15

    The unique characteristics of hydrogen bonding have left our understanding of liquid water far from complete in terms of its structure and properties. In order to better describe the hydrogen bond in water, we seek to understand the electronic states which show sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. We investigate the structure of unoccupied valence states by performing X-ray Absorption calculations on water clusters using Density Functional Theory. For each water cluster, studying how valence electronic structure is perturbed by changes in the local hydrogen bonding environment facilitates our description of the hydrogen bond. Also in this framework, we move toward a depiction of local structures in liquid water by comparison to experimental X-ray absorption spectra. We find consistent localization along internal bonds in the electronic structures of pre- and post-edge states for single-donor species. In addition, we propose a molecular orbital bonding-antibonding picture to explain this directional localization from dimer calculations, and show that the pre- and post-edge spectral regions have a resulting relationship.

  20. The site occupation and valence of Mn ions in the crystal lattice of Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} and its deep red emission for high color-rendering white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Xue, Shaochan; Chen, Xiuling; Bahader, Ali; Deng, Xiaorong; Zhao, Erlong; Jiang, Yang; Chen, Shifu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Wenhua

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were identified using XANES and EPR. • Red luminescence was attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. • The Mn{sup 3+} incorporated in the center of AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron was non-luminescent. • The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of cations. • A white LED device with CRI up to Ra 93.23 was packaged by using the red phosphor. - Abstract: The synthesis and component of red phosphor, Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}: Mn, were optimized for application in white light-emitting diodes. The microstructure and morphology were investigated by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were discriminated using the electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy techniques. The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of Sr{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}. As a result, the strong covalence of Al{sup 3+} in the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron other than in the AlO{sub 6} octahedron is disclosed. The deep red emission is attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. The mechanism of energy transfer is mainly through dipole–dipole interaction, revealed by the analyses of critical distance and concentration quench. A high color rendering white LED prototype with color-rendering index up to Ra 93.23 packaged by using the red phosphor demonstrates its applicability.

  1. Weak bond screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  2. Generally Contracted Valence-Core/Valence Basis Sets for Use with Relativistic Effective Core Potentials and Spin-Orbit Coupling Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Ermler, Walter V.; Tilson, Jeffrey L.

    2012-12-15

    A procedure for structuring generally contracted valence-core/valence basis sets of Gaussian-type functions for use with relativistic effective core potentials (gcv-c/v-RECP basis sets) is presented. Large valence basis sets are enhanced using a compact basis set derived for outer core electrons in the presence of small-core RECPs. When core electrons are represented by relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs), and appropriate levels of theory, these basis sets are shown to provide accurate representations of atomic and molecular valence and outer-core electrons. Core/valence polarization and correlation effects can be calculated using these basis sets through standard methods for treating electron correlation. Calculations of energies and spectra for Ru, Os, Ir, In and Cs are reported. Spectroscopic constants for RuO2+, OsO2+, Cs2 and InH are calculated and compared with experiment.

  3. Prediction of initial emission rates of 2-butoxyethanol from consumer products using equilibrium headspace concentrations: an application of the vapor pressure and boundary layer (VB) model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Li, Henrik; Korchinski, Mark; Fellin, Phil

    2005-11-01

    The initial emission rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products is important for assessing potential human exposure to VOCs in products. The vapor pressure and boundary layer (VB) model developed in the past was used to predict the emission rates of VOCs in the fast decaying phase from petroleum-based wet materials. This study has extended the model to largely water-based products. Study results have shown a good agreement (ratio = 1.01, r2 = 0.89) between model-predicted initial emission rates (ER0) of 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) based on its equilibrium headspace concentration and experimentally measured ER0 in a small dynamic environmental chamber for 20 consumer products. These water-based products included wood surface treating stains, general cleaning agents, and degreasers with 2-BE concentrations over a wide range. The results also demonstrated a dependency between the headspace concentrations of the target analytes and the water content in the liquid. But dependency on water content had no effect on the use of headspace concentration to predict the ER0. The ER0 of 2-BE in the products ranged from 100 to 3000 mg m(-2) h(-1). In the majority of cases, the 2-BE concentration range in individual products indicated in the Material Safety Data Sheet agreed with the measured data. PMID:16294857

  4. Nucleon and pion distribution functions in the valence region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Roy J.; Roberts, Craig D.

    2010-10-01

    An experimental and theoretical perspective is provided on the behavior of unpolarized distribution functions for the nucleon and pion on the valence-quark domain, namely, Bjorken x?0.4 . This domain is a key to much of hadron physics; e.g., a hadron is defined by its flavor content and that is a valence-quark property. Furthermore, its accurate parametrization is crucial to the provision of reliable input for large collider experiments. The focus is on experimental extractions of distribution functions via electron and muon inelastic scattering, and from Drell-Yan interactions; and on theoretical treatments that emphasize an explanation of the distribution functions, providing an overview of major contemporary approaches and issues. Valence-quark physics is a compelling subject, which probes at the heart of our understanding of the standard model. There are numerous outstanding and unresolved challenges, which experiment and theory must confront. In connection with experiment, an explanation that an upgraded Jefferson Laboratory facility is well suited to provide new data on the nucleon is provided, while a future electron-ion collider could provide essential new data for the mesons. There is also great potential in using Drell-Yan interactions, at FNAL, CERN, J-PARC, and GSI, to push into the large- x domain for both mesons and nucleons. Furthermore, it is argued that explanation, in contrast to modeling and parametrization, requires a widespread acceptance of the need to adapt theory: to the lessons learnt already from the methods of nonperturbative quantum-field theory and a fuller exploitation of those methods.

  5. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as (1 -x )2 when Bjorken-x →1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U (3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion's light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  6. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event. PMID:22888956

  16. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Bashir, A.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.

    2011-06-16

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  17. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trang; Bashir, Adnan; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2011-06-15

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  18. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  19. Control of valence and conduction band energies in layered transition metal phosphates via surface functionalization.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Levi C; Kolb, Brian; Kolpak, Alexie M

    2016-05-18

    Layered transition metal phosphates and phosphites (TMPs) are a class of materials composed of layers of 2D sheets bound together via van der Waals interactions and/or hydrogen bonds. Explored primarily for use in proton transfer, their unique chemical tunability also makes TMPs of interest for forming large-scale hybrid materials. Further, unlike many layered materials, TMPs can readily be solution exfoliated to form single 2D sheets or bilayers, making them exciting candidates for a variety of applications. However, the electronic properties of TMPs have largely been unstudied to date. In this work, we use first-principles computations to investigate the atomic and electronic structure of TMPs with a variety of stoichiometries. We demonstrate that there exists a strong linear relationship between the band gap and the ionic radius of the transition metal cation in these materials, and show that this relationship, which opens opportunities for engineering new compositions with a wide range of band gaps, arises from constraints imposed by the phosphorus-oxygen bond geometry. In addition, we find that the energies of the valence and conduction band edges can be systematically tuned over a range of ∼3 eV via modification of the functional group extending from the phosphorus. Based on the Hammett constant of this functional group, we identify a simple, predictive relationship for the ionization potential and electron affinity of layered TMPs. Our results thus provide guidelines for systematic design of TMP-derived functional materials, which may enable new approaches for optimizing charge transfer in electronics, photovoltaics, electrocatalysts, and other applications. PMID:27157509

  20. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOEpatents

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  1. Chemical bonding technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plueddemann, E.

    1986-01-01

    Primers employed in bonding together the various material interfaces in a photovoltaic module are being developed. The approach develops interfacial adhesion by generating actual chemical bonds between the various materials bonded together. The current status of the program is described along with the progress toward developing two general purpose primers for ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), one for glass and metals, and another for plastic films.

  2. Charge Transfer Pathways in Three Isomers of Naphthalene-Bridged Organic Mixed Valence Compounds.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Hauke C; Spulber, Mariana; Neuburger, Markus; Palivan, Cornelia G; Meuwly, Markus; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-01-15

    Naphthalene was substituted at different positions with two identical triarylamine moieties to result in species which are mixed-valence compounds in their one-electron oxidized forms. They were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption, EPR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and DFT calculations. When the two redox-active triarylamine moieties are connected to the 2- and 6-positions of the naphthalene bridge, their electronic communication is significantly stronger than when they are linked to the 1- and 5-positions, and this can be understood on the basis of a simple through-bond charge transfer pathway model. However, this model fails to explain why electronic communication between triarylamine moieties in the 1,5- and 1,8-isomers is similarly strong, indicating that through-space charge transfer pathways play an important role in the latter. In particular, charge transfer in the 1,8-isomer is likely to occur between the triarylamino C atoms in α-position to the naphthalene linker because the respective atoms are only about 3 Å apart from each other, and because they carry significant spin density in the one-electron oxidized forms of triarylamines. This particular through-space charge transfer pathway might be generally important in molecular structures based on the 1,8-disubstituted naphthalene pillaring motif. PMID:26711318

  3. Charge density waves and local states in quasi-one-dimensional mixed valence inorganic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradson, S. D.; Stroud, M. A.; Zietlow, M. H.; Swanson, B. I.; Baeriswyl, D.; Bishop, A. R.

    1988-02-01

    The ground state structures and local states associated with chemical defects in quasi-one-dimensional halogen ( X) bridged transition metal ( M) mixed valence solids of MX and MMX type have been studied. An adiabatic Hartree-Fock theoretical framework is presented and representative members are classified. The MX materials provide a class whose strong electron-phonon coupling usually favors a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state. However, the coupling strength can be chemically tuned (e.g., by extension to MMX systems) or altered by pressure, driving the ground state structures towards, e.g., a bond-order-wave (BOW) phase. Electron-phonon driven self-trapped states are expected in both the CDW or BOW regimes. Resonance Raman spectra of the MMX solid K 4[Pt 2(P 2O 5H 2) 4Cl]·H 2O show, in addition to the homogeneous ground state modes, sharp new features with excitation profiles shifted to the red of the intervalence-charge-transfer (IVCT) band. We attribute these new bands to a local polaron state formed by oxidation of the Pt 2Cl chain by a chemical defect. The observed spectral characteristics of this local state are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. The computation of C-C and N-N bond dissociation energies for singly, doubly, and triply bonded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies (D sub e) of C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, N2, N2H2, and N2H4 are studied at various levels of correlation treatment. The convergence of D sub e with respect to the one particle basis is studied at the single reference modified coupled-pair functional (MCPF) level. At all levels of correlation treatment, the errors in the bond dissociation energies increase with the degree of multiple bond character. The multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) D sub e values, corrected for an estimate of higher excitations, are in excellent agreement with those determined using the size extensive averaged coupled pair functional (ACPF) method. It was found that the full valence complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF)/MRCI calculations are reproduced very well by MRCI calculations based on a CASSCF calculation that includes in the active space only those electrons involved in the C-C or N-N bonds. To achieve chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mole) for the D sub e values of the doubly bonded species C2H4 and N2H2 requires one particle basis sets including up through h angular momentum functions (l = 5) and a multireference treatment of electron correlation: still higher levels of calculation are required to achieve chemical accuracy for the triply bonded species C2H2 and N2.

  5. A local view of bonding and diffusion at metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, P.J.

    1996-09-01

    First-principles density functional calculations and corresponding experimental results underline the importance of basic chemical concepts, such as coordination, valence saturation and promotion-hybridization energetics, in understanding bonding and diffusion of atoms at and on metal surfaces. Several examples are reviewed, including outer-layer relaxations of clean hcp(0001) surfaces, liquid-metal-embrittlement energetics, separation energies of metal-adatom dimers, concerted substitutional self-diffusion on fcc(001) surfaces, and adsorption and diffusion barrier sites for adatoms near steps.

  6. Aggression proneness: Transdiagnostic processes involving negative valence and cognitive systems.

    PubMed

    Verona, Edelyn; Bresin, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in persons with various mental health problems and has been studied from the perspectives of neuroscience and psychophysiology. The present research reviews some of the extant experimental literature to help clarify the interplay between domains of functioning implicated in aggression proneness. We then convey a process-oriented model that elucidates how the interplay of the Negative Valence and Cognitive System domains of NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) helps explain aggression proneness, particularly reactive aggression. Finally, we report on a study involving event-related potential (ERP) indices of emotional and inhibitory control processing during an emotional-linguistic go/no-go task among 67 individuals with histories of violence and criminal offending (30% female, 44% African-American) who reported on their aggressive tendencies using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Results provide evidence that tendencies toward angry and aggressive behavior relate to reduced inhibitory control processing (no-go P3) specifically during relevant threat-word blocks, suggesting deterioration of cognitive control by acute or sustained threat sensitivity. These findings highlight the value of ERP methodologies for clarifying the interplay of Negative Valence and Cognitive System processes in aggression proneness. PMID:25816797

  7. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers.

  8. Coupled-cluster based basis sets for valence correlation calculations.

    PubMed

    Claudino, Daniel; Gargano, Ricardo; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2016-03-14

    Novel basis sets are generated that target the description of valence correlation in atoms H through Ar. The new contraction coefficients are obtained according to the Atomic Natural Orbital (ANO) procedure from CCSD(T) (coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples correction) density matrices starting from the primitive functions of Dunning et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 90, 1007 (1989); ibid. 98, 1358 (1993); ibid. 100, 2975 (1993)] (correlation consistent polarized valence X-tuple zeta, cc-pVXZ). The exponents of the primitive Gaussian functions are subject to uniform scaling in order to ensure satisfaction of the virial theorem for the corresponding atoms. These new sets, named ANO-VT-XZ (Atomic Natural Orbital Virial Theorem X-tuple Zeta), have the same number of contracted functions as their cc-pVXZ counterparts in each subshell. The performance of these basis sets is assessed by the evaluation of the contraction errors in four distinct computations: correlation energies in atoms, probing the density in different regions of space via 〈r(n)〉 (-3 ≤ n ≤ 3) in atoms, correlation energies in diatomic molecules, and the quality of fitting potential energy curves as measured by spectroscopic constants. All energy calculations with ANO-VT-QZ have contraction errors within "chemical accuracy" of 1 kcal/mol, which is not true for cc-pVQZ, suggesting some improvement compared to the correlation consistent series of Dunning and co-workers. PMID:26979680

  9. Intracranial markers of emotional valence processing and judgments in music.

    PubMed

    Omigie, Diana; Dellacherie, Delphine; Hasboun, Dominique; Clément, Sylvain; Baulac, Michel; Adam, Claude; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in the processing of valenced stimuli is well established. However, less is known about the extent to which activity in these regions reflects a stimulus' physical properties, the individual subjective experience it evokes, or both. We recorded cortical electrical activity from five epileptic patients implanted with depth electrodes for presurgical evaluation while they rated "consonant" and "dissonant" musical chords using a "pleasantness" scale. We compared the pattern of responses in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex when trials were sorted by pleasantness judgments relative to when they were sorted by the acoustic properties known to influence emotional reactions to musical chords. This revealed earlier differential activity in the amygdala in the physical properties-based, relative to in the judgment-based, analyses. Thus, our results demonstrate that the amygdala has, first and foremost, a high initial sensitivity to the physical properties of valenced stimuli. The finding that differentiations in the amygdala based on pleasantness ratings had a longer latency suggests that in this structure, mediation of emotional judgment follows accumulation of sensory information. This is in contrast to the orbitofrontal cortex where sensitivity to sensory information did not precede differentiation based on affective judgments. PMID:25496511

  10. An ecological valence theory of human color preference

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-01-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of visual experience, but little is known about why people in general like some colors more than others. Previous research suggested explanations based on biological adaptations [Hurlbert AC, Ling YL (2007) Curr Biol 17:623–625] and color-emotions [Ou L-C, Luo MR, Woodcock A, Wright A (2004) Color Res Appl 29:381–389]. In this article we articulate an ecological valence theory in which color preferences arise from people’s average affective responses to color-associated objects. An empirical test provides strong support for this theory: People like colors strongly associated with objects they like (e.g., blues with clear skies and clean water) and dislike colors strongly associated with objects they dislike (e.g., browns with feces and rotten food). Relative to alternative theories, the ecological valence theory both fits the data better (even with fewer free parameters) and provides a more plausible, comprehensive causal explanation of color preferences. PMID:20421475

  11. Tunable topological valence in nematic shells on spherocylindrical colloidal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, E. J. L.; de Oliveira, I. N.; Lyra, M. L.; Mirantsev, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    We perform molecular dynamics simulations of the orientational ordering on nematic shells delimited by spherocylindrical nanoscopic colloidal particles. We show that under conditions of degenerate planar anchoring, the equilibrium director field structure in these shells exhibits pairs of +1 /2 topological defects at the poles of spherical cups in the absence of an external electric field. In addition, a certain number of pairs of ±1 /2 defects occurs on the spherical cups far from the poles, thus resulting in a total of eight valence spots. A strong field applied along the main spherocylindrical axis removes the ±1 /2 defect pairs while it coalesces the polar ones into a single +1 topological defect. A strong transverse field destroys all defects on the spherical cups but generates four +1 /2 defects in the cylindrical part. Therefore, an external field can be used to control the number of valence centers in spherocylindrical nematic shells, thus unveiling their capability of acting as multivalent building blocks for nanophotonic devices.

  12. Mixed valence of iron in minerals with cation clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amthauer, Georg; Rossman, George R.

    1984-06-01

    The valence and distribution of iron in vivianite, lazulite, babingtonite, rockbridgeite, acmite, aegirine-augite, hedenbergite, and ilvaite were studied with optical and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Optically activated intervalence charge transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in neighboring sites through common edges or faces is observed in all these minerals irrespective of the polymerization of the iron-oxygen polyhedra ranging from finite clusters to infinite structural units. However, a distinct decrease occurs in the energy of the corresponding optical absorption band with increasing number of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions involved in the charge transfer process. Thermally activated electron delocalization between Fe2+ and Fe3+ occurs only if Fe2+ and Fe3+ occupy crystallographically equivalent or geometrically very similar neighboring sites which share common edges to form extended structural units such as the ribbon in ilvaite. If the Fe-O polyhedra form finite clusters of two, three, or four polyhedra (e.g., in vivianite, lazulite, and babingtonite, respectively) no thermally-activated mixed-valence states of iron are observed. In aegirine, extended regions of the M1 chain are statistically occupied by Fe2+ and Fe3+ giving rise to thermally-activated electron delocalization in addition to the intervalence band in the optical absorption spectrum. The intensity of the optical intervalence absorption has been measured in a number of systems: ɛ values range from 60 to 210.

  13. A time-based account of the perception of odor objects and valences.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Bowman, Nicholas E; Khatibi, Katherine; Gottfried, Jay A

    2012-10-01

    Is human odor perception guided by memory or emotion? Object-centered accounts predict that recognition of unique odor qualities precedes valence decoding. Valence-centered accounts predict the opposite: that stimulus-driven valence responses precede and guide identification. In a speeded response time study, participants smelled paired odors, presented sequentially, and indicated whether the second odor in each pair belonged to the same category as the first (object evaluation task) or whether the second odor was more pleasant than the first (valence evaluation task). Object evaluation was faster and more accurate than valence evaluation. In a complementary experiment, participants performed an identification task, in which they indicated whether an odor matched the previously presented word label. Responses were quicker for odors preceded by semantically matching, rather than nonmatching, word labels, but results showed no evidence of interference from valence on nonmatching trials. These results are in accordance with object-centered accounts of odor perception. PMID:22961773

  14. Planning Successful Bond Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of School Support.

    This document contains specific recommendations for conducting bond campaigns. It outlines the three major considerations of any bond campaign: (1) committee organization and appointment; (2) time lines; and (3) getting out the vote. The publication focuses on the need for total community involvement and outlines some of the components for…

  15. The Sibling Bond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Stephen P.; Kahn, Michael D.

    The relationships among brothers and sisters are infinitely varied, but whatever their characteristics, these bonds last throughout life. This book examines the sibling relationship as a distinctive emotional, passionate, painful, and solacing power. Chapter 1, "Unraveling the Sibling Bond," addresses research on siblings and development of the…

  16. Interfacial bonding stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boerio, J.

    1984-01-01

    Interfacial bonding stability by in situ ellipsometry was investigated. It is found that: (1) gamma MPS is an effective primer for bonding ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) to aluminum; (2) ellipsometry is an effective in situ technique for monitoring the stability of polymer/metal interfaces; (3) the aluminized back surface of silicon wafers contain significant amounts of silicon and may have glass like properties.

  17. Chemical Bonds I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical bonding is discussed from a bond energy, rather than a wave mechanics, viewpoint. This approach is considered to be more suitable for the average student. (The second part of the article will appear in a later issue of the journal.) (AL)

  18. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  19. Integrated neural representations of odor intensity and affective valence in human amygdala.

    PubMed

    Winston, Joel S; Gottfried, Jay A; Kilner, James M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2005-09-28

    Arousal and valence are proposed to represent fundamental dimensions of emotion. The neural substrates for processing these aspects of stimuli are studied widely, with recent studies of chemosensory processing suggesting the amygdala processes intensity (a surrogate for arousal) rather than valence. However, these investigations have assumed that a valence effect in the amygdala is linear such that testing valence extremes is sufficient to infer responses across valence space. In this study, we tested an alternative hypothesis, namely that valence responses in the amygdala are nonlinear. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured amygdala responses to high- and low-concentration variants of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant odors. Our results demonstrate that the amygdala exhibits an intensity-by-valence interaction in olfactory processing. In other words, the effect of intensity on amygdala activity is not the same at all levels of valence. Specifically, the amygdala responds differentially to high (vs low)-intensity odor for pleasant and unpleasant smells but not for neutral smells. This implies that the amygdala codes neither intensity nor valence per se, but a combination that we suggest reflects the overall emotional value of a stimulus. PMID:16192380

  20. Structural evolution and valence electron-state change during ultra thin silicon-oxide growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Abe, S.; Nakayama, H.; Nishino, T.; Iida, S.

    2000-06-01

    We have studied valence electron-state changes of Si during initial oxidation of Si(111) clean surface, HF-treated Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces by Auger valence electron spectroscopy (AVES). The results showed that the valence electron-state changes during initial oxidation were sensitively reflected in Si[2s,2p,V] (V=3s,3p) AVES spectra and that they depended on both initial surface treatment and surface orientation. The local valence electron-states, local density of states in other words, showed the characteristic-structure evolution depending on the initial surface treatment and surface orientation.

  1. Tetrel Bonding Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bauzá, Antonio; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Frontera, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Tetrel (Tr) bonding is first placed into perspective as a σ-hole bonding interaction with atoms of the Tr family. An sp(3) R4 Tr unit has four σ-holes with which a Lewis base can form a complex. We then highlight some inspiring crystal structures where Tr bonding is obvious, followed by an account of our own work. We have shown that Tr bonding is ubiquitous in the solid state and we have highlighted that Tr bonding with carbon is possible when C is placed in the appropriate chemical context. We hope that this account serves as an initial guide and source of inspiration for others wishing to exploit this vastly underexplored interaction. PMID:26814022

  2. Ultrasonically bonded value assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salvinski, R. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A valve apparatus capable of maintaining a fluid-tight seal over a relatively long period of time by releasably bonding a valve member to its seat is described. The valve member is bonded or welded to the seat and then released by the application of the same energy to the bond joint. The valve member is held in place during the bonding by a clamping device. An appropriate force device can activate the opening and closing of the valve member. Various combinations of material for the valve member and valve seat can be utilized to provide an adequate sealing bond. Aluminum oxide, stainless steel, inconel, tungsten carbide as hard materials and copper, aluminum, titanium, silver, and gold as soft materials are suggested.

  3. Shape Bonding method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  4. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  5. A vibrational study of the nature of hydroxyl groups chemical bonding in two aluminium hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Jodin-Caumon, Marie-Camille; Humbert, Bernard; Phambu, Nsoki; Gaboriaud, Fabien

    2009-06-01

    Lengths, strengths and valences of OH bonds in the two aluminium hydroxides gibbsite and bayerite were determined on the basis of vibrational spectral data. The uncoupled OD stretching modes in the range 2400-2800cm(-1) were recorded by means of infrared diffuse reflectance, thereby avoiding effects of surface, vibrational coupling or particle shape. The assignment of the corresponding Raman spectra resulted in the determination of harmonic wavenumbers, force constants and anharmonicity coefficients of bulk OH groups in the two minerals. OH bond lengths deduced from these data varied from 0.964A to 0.975A in gibbsite and 0.962A to 0.973A in bayerite. These lengths appear to correspond to weak H-bonds contrary to previously recognized data from X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction studies. Finally, bond valences were calculated on the basis of these new bond lengths and discussed as a function of crystallographic structures and the nature of hydrogen bonding in these two structures. PMID:19167269

  6. Metal–Metal Bonding in Uranium–Group 10 Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heterobimetallic complexes containing short uranium–group 10 metal bonds have been prepared from monometallic IUIV(OArP-κ2O,P)3 (2) {[ArPO]− = 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl-6-(diphenylphosphino)phenolate}. The U–M bond in IUIV(μ-OArP-1κ1O,2κ1P)3M0, M = Ni (3–Ni), Pd (3–Pd), and Pt (3–Pt), has been investigated by experimental and DFT computational methods. Comparisons of 3–Ni with two further U–Ni complexes XUIV(μ-OArP-1κ1O,2κ1P)3Ni0, X = Me3SiO (4) and F (5), was also possible via iodide substitution. All complexes were characterized by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The U–M bonds are significantly shorter than any other crystallographically characterized d–f-block bimetallic, even though the ligand flexes to allow a variable U–M separation. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and computed structures for 3–Ni and 3–Pd. Natural population analysis and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) compositions indicate that U employs both 5f and 6d orbitals in covalent bonding to a significant extent. Quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules analysis reveals U–M bond critical point properties typical of metallic bonding and a larger delocalization index (bond order) for the less polar U–Ni bond than U–Pd. Electrochemical studies agree with the computational analyses and the X-ray structural data for the U–X adducts 3–Ni, 4, and 5. The data show a trend in uranium–metal bond strength that decreases from 3–Ni down to 3–Pt and suggest that exchanging the iodide for a fluoride strengthens the metal–metal bond. Despite short U–TM (transition metal) distances, four other computational approaches also suggest low U–TM bond orders, reflecting highly transition metal localized valence NLMOs. These are more so for 3–Pd than 3–Ni, consistent with slightly larger U–TM bond orders in the latter. Computational studies of the model systems (PH3)3MU(OH)3I (M = Ni, Pd) reveal longer and weaker unsupported U–TM bonds vs 3. PMID:26942560

  7. Metal-Metal Bonding in Uranium-Group 10 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Hlina, Johann A; Pankhurst, James R; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Arnold, Polly L

    2016-03-16

    Heterobimetallic complexes containing short uranium-group 10 metal bonds have been prepared from monometallic IU(IV)(OAr(P)-κ(2)O,P)3 (2) {[Ar(P)O](-) = 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl-6-(diphenylphosphino)phenolate}. The U-M bond in IU(IV)(μ-OAr(P)-1κ(1)O,2κ(1)P)3M(0), M = Ni (3-Ni), Pd (3-Pd), and Pt (3-Pt), has been investigated by experimental and DFT computational methods. Comparisons of 3-Ni with two further U-Ni complexes XU(IV)(μ-OAr(P)-1κ(1)O,2κ(1)P)3Ni(0), X = Me3SiO (4) and F (5), was also possible via iodide substitution. All complexes were characterized by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The U-M bonds are significantly shorter than any other crystallographically characterized d-f-block bimetallic, even though the ligand flexes to allow a variable U-M separation. Excellent agreement is found between the experimental and computed structures for 3-Ni and 3-Pd. Natural population analysis and natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) compositions indicate that U employs both 5f and 6d orbitals in covalent bonding to a significant extent. Quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules analysis reveals U-M bond critical point properties typical of metallic bonding and a larger delocalization index (bond order) for the less polar U-Ni bond than U-Pd. Electrochemical studies agree with the computational analyses and the X-ray structural data for the U-X adducts 3-Ni, 4, and 5. The data show a trend in uranium-metal bond strength that decreases from 3-Ni down to 3-Pt and suggest that exchanging the iodide for a fluoride strengthens the metal-metal bond. Despite short U-TM (transition metal) distances, four other computational approaches also suggest low U-TM bond orders, reflecting highly transition metal localized valence NLMOs. These are more so for 3-Pd than 3-Ni, consistent with slightly larger U-TM bond orders in the latter. Computational studies of the model systems (PH3)3MU(OH)3I (M = Ni, Pd) reveal longer and weaker unsupported U-TM bonds vs 3. PMID:26942560

  8. Metal to metal multiple bonds in ordered assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis and properties of metal–metal (MM) quadruply bonded compounds of molybdenum and tungsten in liquid crystalline phases are described. Covalently linked MM quadruply bonded complexes, dimers of dimers, are shown to give rise to mixed valence complexes upon oxidation and the degree of electron delocalization is shown to be correlated with the M2δ bridge π interactions. Class III behavior or complete delocalization is observed to M2 to M2 distances of up to 14 Å. When the M2 unit is attached to oligothiophenes via a carboxylate tether, the photophysical properties of the thienyl units are greatly modified due to M2δ–thienyl π conjugation and spin–orbit coupling. This leads to long-lived emissive states and electroluminescence in solid-state devices. PMID:17299047

  9. Beryllium dimer: a bond based on non-dynamical correlation.

    PubMed

    El Khatib, Muammar; Bendazzoli, Gian Luigi; Evangelisti, Stefano; Helal, Wissam; Leininger, Thierry; Tenti, Lorenzo; Angeli, Celestino

    2014-08-21

    The bond nature in beryllium dimer has been theoretically investigated using high-level ab initio methods. A series of ANO basis sets of increasing quality, going from sp to spdf ghi contractions, has been employed, combined with HF, CAS-SCF, CISD, and MRCI calculations with several different active spaces. The quality of these calculations has been checked by comparing the results with valence Full-CI calculations, performed with the same basis sets. It is shown that two quasi-degenerated partly occupied orbitals play a crucial role to give a qualitatively correct description of the bond. Their nature is similar to that of the edge orbitals that give rise to the quasi-degenerated singlet-triplet states in longer beryllium chains. PMID:24866399

  10. The law of constant rejection. [chemical bonding in crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpotts, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements in analytical technique, study of multielement partitioning in natural systems, and improvements in ionic radius values have permitted construction of Onuma diagrams, in which the logarithm of partition coefficient is plotted versus ionic radius. The optimum radii, corresponding to crystallographic sites, do change in response to changes in major element composition for any particular mineral-type. In natural systems elements compete for sites rather than substituting for another element. It is proposed on empirical grounds, for equilibrium ionic bonding, that Onuma diagram curves for a particular lattice site are parabolic near optimum radius, linear elsewhere, parallel for different valences, and mirror images on opposite sides of optimum. Deviations may be due to overlapping peaks, liquid structure, polyvalence, bonding differences, contamination, kinetics, alteration, etc. However, dominant crystal-chemical control is indicated.

  11. A Systematic Study of RPC Spacer Bond Strength for PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kish, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    The Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently undergoing a forward muon trigger upgrade by incorporating large Resistive Plate Chamber tracking stations. The upgrade will make it possible to determine the spin contributions of sea and valence quarks to the spin of the proton. Many aspects of the PHENIX RPC design were borrowed from the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment at CERN. Unfortunately, approximately 5% of CMS gas gaps had gas leaks or failed spacer integrity testing. In order to address the problem of spacer failure, a systematic study of spacer-epoxy-Bakelite bond strength was conducted. Several tests were performed in order to determine the relationship, if any, between various surface treatments, curing temperature, spacer geometry and bond strength. The methods, results and improvements will be discussed.

  12. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  13. Inter-Valence-Subband/Conduction-Band-Transport IR Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) detectors characterized by a combination of (1) high-quantum-efficiency photoexcitation of inter-valence-subband transitions of charge carriers and (2) high-mobility conduction- band transport of the thus-excited charge carriers have been proposed in an effort to develop focal-plane arrays of such devices for infrared imaging. Like many prior quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), the proposed devices would be made from semiconductor heterostructures. In order to obtain the combination of characteristics mentioned above, the proposed devices would be designed and fabricated in novel InAs/GaSb superlattice configurations that would exploit a phenomenon known in the semiconductor art as type-II broken-gap band offset.

  14. The contribution of chromatic and achromatic valence to spectral saturation.

    PubMed

    Fuld, K

    1991-01-01

    The spectral efficiency of the achromatic and opponent chromatic channels was measured in three subjects by use of heterochromatic flicker photometry and hue cancellation, respectively. Heterochromatic brightness matching was also used for measuring achromatic spectral efficiency. These data were then used to predict spectral saturation based on Hurvich and Jameson's (1957; Psychological Review, 64, 384-404) opponent colors model. A standard color-naming procedure and a saturation matching technique were used for measures of spectral saturation. The ratio of saturation of short-wave to long-wave lights was found to be less than that predicted by the linear valence model. Allowing for nonlinearity at the opponent site of the yellow-blue channel plus a desaturating signal from the rods provided a good fit between data and theory. PMID:2017884

  15. Expectation modulates neural representations of valence throughout the human brain.

    PubMed

    Ramayya, Ashwin G; Pedisich, Isaac; Kahana, Michael J

    2015-07-15

    The brain's sensitivity to unexpected gains or losses plays an important role in our ability to learn new behaviors (Rescorla and Wagner, 1972; Sutton and Barto, 1990). Recent work suggests that gains and losses are ubiquitously encoded throughout the human brain (Vickery et al., 2011), however, the extent to which reward expectation modulates these valence representations is not known. To address this question, we analyzed recordings from 4306 intracranially implanted electrodes in 39 neurosurgical patients as they performed a two-alternative probability learning task. Using high-frequency activity (HFA, 70-200 Hz) as an indicator of local firing rates, we found that expectation modulated reward-related neural activity in widespread brain regions, including regions that receive sparse inputs from midbrain dopaminergic neurons. The strength of unexpected gain signals predicted subjects' abilities to encode stimulus-reward associations. Thus, neural signals that are functionally related to learning are widely distributed throughout the human brain. PMID:25937489

  16. Fullerene valence photoemission time delay near ionization cavity minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Anstine, Dylan; Dixit, Gopal; Madjet, Mohamed; Chakraborty, Himadri

    2015-05-01

    We investigate photoemission quantum phases and associated Wigner-Smith time delays for HOMO and HOMO-1 electrons of a C60 molecule using time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA). The interference oscillations in C60 valence emissions produce series of minima whose energy separation depends on the molecular size. We show that the quantum phase associated with these minima exhibits rapid variations due to electron correlations, causing rich structures in the photoemission time delay. Besides fullerenes, the detection of photoemission minima in metal clusters suggests a possible universality of the phenomenon in cluster systems, or even quantum dots, that confine finite-sized electron gas. The work predicts a new research direction to apply attosecond metrology, such as RABITT, in the world of nanosystems. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  17. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence.

    PubMed

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Bigand, Emmanuel; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task to investigate whether music affects time estimation differently from a matched auditory neutral stimulus, and whether the emotional valence of the musical stimuli (i.e., sad vs. happy music) modulates this effect. The results showed that, compared to sine wave control music, music presented in a major (happy) or a minor (sad) key shifted the bisection function toward the right, thus increasing the bisection point value (point of subjective equality). This indicates that the duration of a melody is judged shorter than that of a non-melodic control stimulus, thus confirming that "time flies" when we listen to music. Nevertheless, sensitivity to time was similar for all the auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the temporal bisection functions did not differ as a function of musical mode. PMID:20674884

  18. Ab initio valence-space theory for exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in ab initio nuclear structure theory have led to groundbreaking predictions in the exotic medium-mass region, from the location of the neutron dripline to the emergence of new magic numbers far from stability. Playing a key role in this progress has been the development of sophisticated many-body techniques and chiral effective field theory, which provides a systematic basis for consistent many-nucleon forces and electroweak currents. Within the context of valence-space Hamiltonians derived from the nonperturbative in-medium similarity renormalization group (IM-SRG) approach, I will discuss the importance of 3N forces in understanding and making new discoveries in the exotic sd -shell region. Beginning in oxygen, we find that the effects of 3N forces are decisive in explaining why 24O is the last bound oxygen isotope, validating first predictions of this phenomenon from several years ago. Furthermore, 3N forces play a key role in reproducing spectroscopy, including signatures of doubly magic 22,24O, and physics beyond the dripline. Similar improvements are obtained in new spectroscopic predictions for exotic fluorine and neon isotopes, where agreement with recent experimental data is competitive with state-of-the-art phenomenology. Finally, I will discuss first applications of the IM-SRG to effective valence-space operators, such as radii and E 0 transitions, as well as extensions to general operators crucial for our future understanding of electroweak processes, such as neutrinoless double-beta decay. This work was supported by NSERC and the NRC Canada.

  19. Materials with intermediate valence ; a comparison with transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, N. F.

    A discussion of metallic intermediate valence materials is given, particularly of hybridisation between the 4f and the conduction band δ. If n, 1 - n are the numbers of ions in each of two charge states, the variation of n with temperature is described. Resistivity is ascribed to scattering of the conduction electrons into the 4f band. The mechanism is compared with that in transition metals and their alloys, particularly Pd1-xAg x. The resistivity can be very large, of order of the Ioffe-Regel value 1/3 e2/ħa. It is argued that both here and in metallic alloys, this can only occur with a two-band model. At high temperatures there is some evidence that s-f scattering does not occur. On discute des matériaux métalliques à valence intermédiaire, en particulier de l'hybridation entre la bande 4f et la bande de conduction. Notant n et 1 - n les nombres d'ions dans chacun des deux états de charge, on décrit la variation de n avec la température. Le mécanisme est comparé avec celui des métaux de transition et de leurs alliages, particulièrement Pd1-xAg x. La résistivité peut être très grande, de l'ordre de la valeur de Ioffe-Regel 1/3 e2/ħa. On donne des arguments tendant à prouver que ceci ne peut se produire que dans le cadre d'un modèle à 2 bandes. Il y a des évidences qu'à haute température la diffusion s-f n'a pas lieu.

  20. A density functional for core-valence correlation energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Frisch, Michael J.; Petersson, George A.

    2015-12-01

    A density functional, ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv), describing the core-valence correlation energy has been constructed as a linear combination of ɛLY Pcorr(ρc), ɛV WN5corr(ρc, ρv), ɛPBEcorr(ρc, ρv), ɛSlaterex(ρc, ρv), ɛHCTHex(ρc, ρv), ɛHFex(ρc, ρv), and F CV -DFT (" separators=" N i , Z i ) , a function of the nuclear charges. This functional, with 6 adjustable parameters, reproduces (±0.27 kcal/mol rms error) a benchmark set of 194 chemical energy changes including 9 electron affinities, 18 ionization potentials, and 167 total atomization energies covering the first- and second-rows of the periodic table. This is almost twice the rms error (±0.16 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD(T)/MTsmall calculations, but less than half the rms error (±0.65 kcal/mol) obtained with MP2/GTlargeXP calculations, and somewhat smaller than the rms error (±0.39 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD/MTsmall calculations. The largest positive and negative errors from ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) were 0.88 and -0.75 kcal/mol with the set of 194 core-valence energy changes ranging from +3.76 kcal/mol for the total atomization energy of propyne to -9.05 kcal/mol for the double ionization of Mg. Evaluation of the ɛCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) functional requires less time than a single SCF iteration, and the accuracy is adequate for any model chemistry based on the CCSD(T) level of theory.

  1. A density functional for core-valence correlation energy.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Frisch, Michael J; Petersson, George A

    2015-12-01

    A density functional, εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv), describing the core-valence correlation energy has been constructed as a linear combination of εLY P (corr)(ρc), εV WN5 (corr)(ρc, ρv), εPBE (corr)(ρc, ρv), εSlater (ex)(ρc, ρv), εHCTH (ex)(ρc, ρv), εHF (ex)(ρc, ρv), and FCV-DFTNi,Zi, a function of the nuclear charges. This functional, with 6 adjustable parameters, reproduces (±0.27 kcal/mol rms error) a benchmark set of 194 chemical energy changes including 9 electron affinities, 18 ionization potentials, and 167 total atomization energies covering the first- and second-rows of the periodic table. This is almost twice the rms error (±0.16 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD(T)/MTsmall calculations, but less than half the rms error (±0.65 kcal/mol) obtained with MP2/GTlargeXP calculations, and somewhat smaller than the rms error (±0.39 kcal/mol) obtained with CCSD/MTsmall calculations. The largest positive and negative errors from εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) were 0.88 and -0.75 kcal/mol with the set of 194 core-valence energy changes ranging from +3.76 kcal/mol for the total atomization energy of propyne to -9.05 kcal/mol for the double ionization of Mg. Evaluation of the εCV-DFT(ρc, ρv) functional requires less time than a single SCF iteration, and the accuracy is adequate for any model chemistry based on the CCSD(T) level of theory. PMID:26646873

  2. The Halogen Bond.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Gabriella; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Milani, Roberto; Pilati, Tullio; Priimagi, Arri; Resnati, Giuseppe; Terraneo, Giancarlo

    2016-02-24

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  3. The Halogen Bond

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  4. C60 bonding to graphite and boron nitride surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, P.; Feldermann, H.; Oelhafen, P.

    2003-12-01

    The present study focuses on the interaction of C60 with the surfaces of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) and sp2-bonded boron nitride (BN). The nanocrystalline BN film was deposited by mass selected ion beams and features an sp2-bonded surface layer, which covers a cubic phase BN film. The first part of the experiment is the sequential deposition of C60, which is monitored by photoelectron spectroscopy in the x-ray (XPS) and ultraviolet (UPS) regime. The growth of the C60 layer on HOPG is close to a layer-by-layer growth mode, but on the BN surface island growth is favored. No charge transfer or chemical reaction (e.g., carbide formation) between the fullerene layer, and the underlying substrate is observed in either case. In the second part of the experiment the samples are heated at a rate of 10 K/min while simultaneously recording the UPS VB spectra. The complete desorption of C60 from the HOPG surface occurs in a small temperature interval between 510-530 K. For the sp2 BN surface the majority of C60 desorbs around 493 K, about half a monolayer (ML) remains, and the C60 concentration decreases gradually with increasing temperature; less than a tenth of a ML can be detected even at 1000 K. The first desorption event at 493 K is attributable to the multilayer desorption from islands. The remaining C60 directly in contact with the BN surface is then removed in a large temperature interval between 500 and 1000 K which indicates the presence of a multitude of adsorption sites. The presence of C60 on the BN film surface also induces a band bending and related B 1s and N 1s core level shifts. An upward band bending is present in the C60 overlayer, which indicates that defects are responsible for the pinning of the Fermi level at the interface.

  5. Junk-Bond Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Werf, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Describes how a long-predicted decline in the fortunes of small private colleges is beginning to show up in the bond market, as the number of colleges now rated in the junk category has nearly doubled. (EV)

  6. Bonding aerogels with polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, F.M.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1989-11-01

    Aerogels, porous silica glasses with ultra-fine cell size (30nm), are made by a solution gelation (sol-gel) process. The resulting gel is critical point dried to densities from 0.15--0.60 g/cc. This material is machinable, homogeneous, transparent, coatable and bondable. To bond aerogel an adhesive should have long cure time, no attack on the aerogel structure, and high strength. Several epoxies and urethanes were examined to determine if they satisfied these conditions. Bond strengths above 13 psi were found with double bubble and DP-110 epoxies and XI-208/ODA-1000 and Castall U-2630 urethanes. Hardman Kalex Tough Stuff'' A-85 hardness urethane gave 18 psi bond strength. Hardman A-85, Tuff-Stuff'' was selected for further evaluation because it produced bond strengths comparable to the adherend cohesive strength. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46…

  8. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Stein, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a component of nonrecollective retrieval) relative to…

  9. Converging Paradigms of the Causes of Human Behavior: Interpersonal Valence and Organizational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Larry E.; Sullivan, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Compares interpersonal valence and organizational climate. Argues that measures of interpersonal valence can serve as useful input to organizational climate and organization development research. Maintains that a convergence of the concepts offers rich opportunity for improving understanding of quality of life and that metric-multidimensional…

  10. Group Motivation and Group Task Performance: The Expectancy-Valence Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakanishi, Masayuki

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group motivation on group task performance. Created two levels of valence, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence variable reflected on group productivity on unstructured and task persistence measures. Expectancy variable's effect was on task persistence measure. Instrumentality affected group productivity on structured

  11. Linguistic Types and the Valence of Operators in Applicative Universal Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypniewski, Bernard Paul

    The relationship between linguistic types and the valence of operators on the genotype level of Applicative Universal Grammar (AUG) is examined. Assuming that the "t" and "s" types may be treated as zero-place operators, a relationship is found between the valence of an operator and its genotype, which explains the difference between types

  12. Identifying Facial Emotions: Valence Specific Effects and an Exploration of the Effects of Viewer Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansari, Ashok; Rodway, Paul; Goncalves, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The valence hypothesis suggests that the right hemisphere is specialised for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is specialised for positive emotions (Silberman & Weingartner, 1986). It is unclear to what extent valence-specific effects in facial emotion perception depend upon the gender of the perceiver. To explore this question 46

  13. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Recollective and Nonrecollective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Stein, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of valence and arousal on memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and nonrecollective components of recall without relying on metacognitive judgments to separate them. The results showed that valenced words increased reconstruction (a component of nonrecollective retrieval) relative to

  14. Dissociable modulation of overt visual attention in valence and arousal revealed by topology of scan path.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jianguang; Jiang, Huihui; Jin, Yixiang; Chen, Nanhui; Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Zhengbo; Luo, Yuejia; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2011-01-01

    Emotional stimuli have evolutionary significance for the survival of organisms; therefore, they are attention-grabbing and are processed preferentially. The neural underpinnings of two principle emotional dimensions in affective space, valence (degree of pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of evoked emotion), have been shown to be dissociable in the olfactory, gustatory and memory systems. However, the separable roles of valence and arousal in scene perception are poorly understood. In this study, we asked how these two emotional dimensions modulate overt visual attention. Twenty-two healthy volunteers freely viewed images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) that were graded for affective levels of valence and arousal (high, medium, and low). Subjects' heads were immobilized and eye movements were recorded by camera to track overt shifts of visual attention. Algebraic graph-based approaches were introduced to model scan paths as weighted undirected path graphs, generating global topology metrics that characterize the algebraic connectivity of scan paths. Our data suggest that human subjects show different scanning patterns to stimuli with different affective ratings. Valence salient stimuli (with neutral arousal) elicited faster and larger shifts of attention, while arousal salient stimuli (with neutral valence) elicited local scanning, dense attention allocation and deep processing. Furthermore, our model revealed that the modulatory effect of valence was linearly related to the valence level, whereas the relation between the modulatory effect and the level of arousal was nonlinear. Hence, visual attention seems to be modulated by mechanisms that are separate for valence and arousal. PMID:21494331

  15. Structure and bonding of [(SIPr)AgX] (X = Cl, Br, I and OTf).

    PubMed

    Wong, Valerie H L; White, Andrew J P; Hor, T S Andy; Hii, King Kuok Mimi

    2015-12-28

    A series of iso-structural complexes [(SIPr)AgX] (X = Cl, Br, I, OTf; SIPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazolidene) were synthesised, including the first example of a N-heterocyclic carbene silver(I) complex containing an O-bound triflate. Bond Energy Dissociation and Natural Orbitals for Chemical Valence bond analyses (BEDA & ETS-NOCV) revealing a significant NHC → M σ-back-donation, which influences the stability and sigma-donicity of these complexes. PMID:26489888

  16. Effects of Emotion on Associative Recognition: Valence and Retention Interval Matter

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Benton H.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effects of emotional valence and arousal on associative binding. Participants studied negative, positive, and neutral word pairs, followed by an associative recognition test. In Experiment 1, with a short-delayed test, accuracy for intact pairs was equivalent across valences, whereas accuracy for rearranged pairs was lower for negative than for positive and neutral pairs. In Experiment 2, we tested participants after a one-week delay and found that accuracy was greater for intact negative than for intact neutral pairs, whereas rearranged pair accuracy was equivalent across valences. These results suggest that, although negative emotional valence impairs associative binding after a short delay, it may improve binding after a longer delay. The results also suggest that valence, as well as arousal, needs to be considered when examining the effects of emotion on associative memory. PMID:21401233

  17. Valence fluctuations of europium in the boride Eu4Pd29+x B8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumeniuk, Roman; Schnelle, Walter; Ahmida, Mahmoud A.; Abd-Elmeguid, Mohsen M.; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Geibel, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    We synthesized a high-quality sample of the boride Eu4Pd29+x B8 (x  =  0.76) and studied its structural and physical properties. Its tetragonal structure was solved by direct methods and confirmed to belong to the Eu4Pd29B8 type. All studied physical properties indicate a valence fluctuating Eu state, with a valence decreasing continuously from about 2.9 at 5 K to 2.7 at 300 K. Maxima in the T dependence of the susceptibility and thermopower at around 135 K and 120 K, respectively, indicate a valence fluctuation energy scale on the order of 300 K. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility evidences some inconsistencies when using the ionic interconfigurational fluctuation (ICF) model, thus suggesting a stronger relevance of hybridization between 4f and valence electrons compared to standard valence-fluctuating Eu systems.

  18. Dissociated representations of irritation and valence in human primary olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Zelano, C; Montag, J; Johnson, B; Khan, R; Sobel, N

    2007-03-01

    Irritation and negative valence are closely associated in perception. However, these perceptual aspects can be dissociated in olfaction where irritation can accompany both pleasant and unpleasant odorants. Whereas the sensation of odor reflects transduction at olfactory receptors, irritation reflects concurrent transduction of the odorant at trigeminal receptors. Thus a stimulus can be either a pure olfactant activating the olfactory receptors only or a bimodal odorant activating both types of receptors. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a 2 x 2 experimental design contrasting odorant valence (pleasant/unpleasant) and odorant type (pure olfactant/bimodal) we found activity in piriform cortex to be associated with valence, and not type, of odors. In contrast, activity in the olfactory tubercle was associated with type, and not valence, of odors. Importantly, this was found when perceived intensity was held equal across odorants. These findings suggest that dissociable neural substrates subserve the encoding of irritation and valence in olfaction. PMID:17215504

  19. Valence fluctuations of europium in the boride Eu4Pd29+x B8.

    PubMed

    Gumeniuk, Roman; Schnelle, Walter; Ahmida, Mahmoud A; Abd-Elmeguid, Mohsen M; Kvashnina, Kristina O; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Geibel, Christoph

    2016-03-23

    We synthesized a high-quality sample of the boride Eu4Pd29+x B8 (x  =  0.76) and studied its structural and physical properties. Its tetragonal structure was solved by direct methods and confirmed to belong to the Eu4Pd29B8 type. All studied physical properties indicate a valence fluctuating Eu state, with a valence decreasing continuously from about 2.9 at 5 K to 2.7 at 300 K. Maxima in the T dependence of the susceptibility and thermopower at around 135 K and 120 K, respectively, indicate a valence fluctuation energy scale on the order of 300 K. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility evidences some inconsistencies when using the ionic interconfigurational fluctuation (ICF) model, thus suggesting a stronger relevance of hybridization between 4f and valence electrons compared to standard valence-fluctuating Eu systems. PMID:26895077

  20. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    PubMed

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence. PMID:24715543

  1. Identifying words that emerge into consciousness: Effects of word valence and unconscious previewing.

    PubMed

    Prioli, Simone C; Kahan, Todd A

    2015-09-01

    Words with negative valence capture attention and this increase in attentional resources typically enhances perceptual processing. Recently, data using continuous flash suppression (CFS) appear to contradict this. In prior research when Chinese words were unconsciously presented in CFS and contrast was raised until the word was identified, RTs to identify words with negative valence were slower than RTs to words with neutral valence. This result might be limited to situations where a logographic writing system is used and could reflect a type of cognitive aftereffect where previewing the word causes habituation. Data (N=60) indicate that results generalize from a logographic (Chinese) to an orthographic writing system (English). In addition, when words were previewed in CFS RTs were slowed for words with negative valence relative to words with neutral valence and this was reversed when words were shown binocularly. Implications for theories of unconscious word processing and cognitive aftereffects are discussed. PMID:25982055

  2. Crystallographic perturbations to valence charge density and hydrogen-surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciston, James W.

    The subject of surfaces has been the epicenter of numerous studies in recent years, particularly with respect to applications in catalysis, thin films, and self-assembly of nanostructures where the surface-to-volume ratio is large. Understanding how the atomic structure of materials differs at surfaces where the atoms are far less constrained can yield fundamental insight into these interesting nanoscale phenomena. Quantum surface crystallography takes this one step further in an attempt to experimentally measure the structure of the electrons themselves, which is of greater importance than atomic positions in determining material properties. We report a procedure for obtaining a much better initial parameterization of the charge density than what is possible from a neutral atom model. This procedure involves the parameterization of a bulk charge density model in terms of simple variables such as bond lengths, which can then be transferred to the problem of interest, for instance a surface. Parameterization is accomplished through the fitting of Density Functional Theory calculations of a variety of crystal distortions to a bond-centered pseudoatom (BCPA) model. This parameterized model can then be applied to surfaces or for other problems where an initial higher-order model is needed without the addition of any extra fitted parameters. Through the use of the BCPA model, we report a three-dimensional charge density refinement from x-ray diffraction intensities of the Si (001) 2x1H surface. By properly accounting for the covalent bonding effects in the silicon structure, we were able to stably refine the positions of hydrogen atoms at this surface in three dimensions, which had never before been accomplished for any surface. In addition, we found experimentally an increased, slightly localized bond density of approximately 0.31 electrons between each Si atom pair at the surface. Both the atomic positions and the charge density were found to be in remarkably good agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The BCPA model was also applied to an experimental refinement of the local charge density at the Si (111) 7x7 surface utilizing a combination of x-ray and high energy electron diffraction. By perturbing about the bond-centered pseudoatom model, we found experimentally that the adatoms were in an anti-bonding state with the atoms directly below. We were also able to experimentally refine a charge transfer of 0.26+/-0.04 e- from each adatom site to the underlying layers. This was the first statistically significant refinement of site-specific bonding information at any surface utilizing x-ray diffraction data. Precession electron diffraction (PED) is a technique which is gaining increasing interest due to its ease of use and reduction of the dynamical scattering problem in electron diffraction. To further investigate the usefulness of this technique, we performed a systematic study of the effect of precession angle on the mineral andalusite where the semiangle was varied from 6.5 to 32 mrad in five discrete steps. We have shown that the intensities of kinematically forbidden reflections decayed exponentially as the precession semiangle (ϕ) was increased. Additionally, we have determined that charge density effects were best observed at moderately low angles (6.5-13 mrad) even though PED patterns became more kinematical in nature as the precession angle was increased further. We have also shown that the amount of interpretable information provided by direct methods phase inversion of the diffraction data increases monotonically but non-systematically as ϕ increases. We report an experimental and theoretical analysis of the ✓3x✓3-R30° and 2x2 reconstructions on the MgO (111) surface combining transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and reasonably accurate density functional calculations using the meta-GGA functional TPSS. We have not only conclusively solved the atomic structures of these reconstructions, but have developed a kinetic model for an evolutionary pathway between structures driven entirely by exchange of water molecules between the surface and the environment that does not require the cations to move when the structure transforms. This is the first time an experimentally and theoretically supported kinetic model has described not only all of the structures in a series on a single oxide surface, but also describes why none of the structures pass through the thermodynamically most stable configuration. Lastly, we have investigated the observability of valence bonding effects in aberration-corrected high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images along the [010] projection of the mineral Forsterite (Mg2SiO 4). Direct observability of bonding effects would be both faster and less ambiguous than the refinement of similar features against diffraction data. Through analysis of simulated high resolution electron microscopy images, we have determined that bonding effects should be observable at levels approaching 20% of the total contrast. Initial experimental results for this material system have also been presented.

  3. Chemical bonding in a linear chromium metal string complex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lai-Chin; Thomsen, Maja K; Madsen, Solveig R; Schmoekel, Mette; Jørgensen, Mads R V; Cheng, Ming-Chuan; Peng, Shie-Ming; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B

    2014-12-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical electron density study of the shortest trichromium metal wire, Cr3(dpa)4Cl2·(C2H5OC2H5)(x)(CH2Cl2)(1-x) (1, dpa = bis(2-pyridyl)amido), is reported. High resolution X-ray diffraction data has been collected both at 100 K using a conventional X-ray source (DS1) and at 15 K using a synchrotron X-ray source (DS2). The linear chromium string is terminated by Cl(-) ions at both ends, and each Cr atom is also coordinated by four N atoms from bridging dpa ligands. The two Cr-Cr bond distances are unequal at 100 K (with d(Cr1-Cr2) being 0.029 Å shorter than d(Cr2-Cr3)) but at 15 K they are almost equal (0.002 Å difference). Analysis of the slightly elongated thermal ellipsoids of the Cr2 atom suggests that it is not due to disorder, but the presence of a shallow potential energy surface. Laplacian maps clearly show local valence shell charge concentration (VSCC) in the electron density along the bisector of the equatorial Cr-N bonds. Integration over the atomic basins indicates that Cr2 has smaller atomic charge and volume than Cr1 and Cr3. The topological characterization of the Cr-Cr bonds indicates partly covalent characters with electron density at the bond critical point of ∼0.3 e Å(-3) and negative total energy density. The delocalization index of Cr-Cr is 0.8 for Cr1-Cr2 and 0.08 for Cr1-Cr3. Second-order perturbation analysis shows high stabilization energy of the Cr-Cr bonds (E(2) ∼ 190 kcal mol(-1)). Delocalization indices and source function and natural bond orbital analyses are all indicative of localized Cr-Cr bonding interactions. PMID:25383889

  4. Impurity signatures in two-dimensional materials in atomic-resolution valence-electron-energy-loss spectroscopic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Oxley, Mark; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates

    The local atomic configurations and electronic states of impurities in 2D materials can be probed directly by several microscopy techniques. Probes of electronic excitations, however, lack spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate that valence-electron energy-loss spectroscopy in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope yields atomic-resolution maps of electronic excitations that provide unique signatures of distinct bonding configuration impurities in 2D materials. We report simulations of the maps based on density functional theory and dynamical scattering theory, which agree with and provide direct interpretation of the observed features. The maps differentiate between different bonding configurations of impurities in graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The theoretical analysis yields information on local electronic excitations, corresponding to impurity-induced bound, resonant and antiresonant states. The method stands to benefit from new monochromators and detectors that enhance spatial and energy resolution and constitutes a powerful alternative to optical spectroscopies for probing electronic and magnetic signatures related with impurities and defects. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-0946554 and by DOE BES MSED.

  5. Valence-to-Core X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy as a Tool for Investigation of Organometallic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smolentsev, Grigory; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Messinger, Johannes; Merz, Katrin; Weyhermuller, Thomas; Pushkar, Yulia; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Glatzel, Pieter

    2007-02-02

    The fine structure of X-ray emission satellite lines just below the Fermi level (K{beta} satellite lines), which arise from transitions from valence bands to the core 1s level in 3d transition metals, is a developing technique and the full potential is not well known or understood. On the basis of DFT calculations for some theoretical model complexes that are relevant in bioinorganic chemistry we show that the method can be used to distinguish bonds of the metal atom with different light atoms O/N/C even if the coordination geometries are exactly the same, which is not possible using EXAFS or XANES spectroscopy. Moreover the method is sensitive to the bonding of H to the ligands, which allows to discriminate, for example, between OH- and water near the metal. Both these aspects clearly demonstrate that the K{beta} satellite lines yield information that is complementary to traditional X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental spectra for a complex Mn system was also achieved.

  6. Skin-depth lattice strain, core-level trap depression and valence charge polarization of Al surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Bo, Maolin; Liu, Yonghui; Guo, Yongling; Wang, Haibin; Yue, Jian; Huang, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Clarifying the origin for surface core-level shift (SCLS) and gaining quantitative information regarding the coordination-resolved local strain, binding energy (BE) shift and cohesive energy change have been a challenge. Here, we show that a combination of the bond order-length-strength (BOLS) premise, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations of aluminum (Al) 2p3/2 energy shift of Al surfaces has enabled us to derive such information, namely, (i) the 2p3/2 energy of an isolated Al atom (72.146 ± 0.003eV) and its bulk shift (0.499 eV); (ii) the skin lattice contracts by up to 12.5% and the BE density increases by 70%; and (iii) the cohesive energy drops up to 38%. It is affirmed that the shorter and stronger bonds between under-coordinated atoms provide a perturbation to the Hamiltonian and hence lead to the local strain, quantum entrapment and valence charge polarization. Findings should help in understanding the phenomena of surface pre-melting and skin-high elasticity, in general.

  7. 27 CFR 24.147 - Operations bond or unit bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operations bond or unit bond. 24.147 Section 24.147 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Bonds and Consents of Surety § 24.147 Operations bond or unit...

  8. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.33 Bonds and bonding requirements. (a) When the leasing...

  9. 30 CFR 281.33 - Bonds and bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonds and bonding requirements. 281.33 Section 281.33 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF... Bonds and bonding requirements. (a) When the leasing notice specifies that payment of a portion of...

  10. Crystal structure of a mixed-valence μ-oxide Sn12 cluster

    PubMed Central

    Kireenko, Marina M.; Zaitsev, Kirill V.; Karlov, Sergey S.; Egorov, Mikhail P.; Churakov, Andrei V.

    2014-01-01

    The mixed-valence μ-oxide Sn12 cluster, deca­carbonyl­tetra-μ4-oxido-hexa-μ3-oxido-tetra­kis­[μ-2,2′-(pyridine-2,6-di­yl)bis(1,1-di­phenyl­ethano­lato)]deca­tin(II)ditin(IV)dimolyb­denum(O)(2 Mo—Sn) toluene hepta­solvate, [Mo2Sn12(C33H27NO2)4O10(CO)10]·7C7H8, has a crystallographically imposed inversion centre. The asymmetric unit also contains three and a half toluene solvent mol­ecules, one of which is disordered about a centre of symmetry. The complex mol­ecule comprises six distinct Sn atom species with four different coordination numbers, namely 3, 4, 5, and 6. The SnII atoms forming the central Sn10O10 core adopt distorted trigonal–pyramidal, square-pyramidal and octa­hedral coordination geometries provided by the μ-oxide atoms and by the O- and N-donor atoms of two pyridinedi­ethano­late ligands. The terminal SnIV atoms have distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination geometries, with a μ4-oxide atom and the N atom of a pyridinedi­ethano­late ligand occupying the axial positions, and the Mo atom of a Mo(CO)5 group and the alk­oxy O atoms of a ligand forming the equatorial plane. In the crystal, weak intra- and inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. PMID:25484784

  11. Empirical valence bond simulations of the hydride transfer step in the monoamine oxidase B catalyzed metabolism of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Repič, Matej; Vianello, Robert; Purg, Miha; Duarte, Fernanda; Bauer, Paul; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Mavri, Janez

    2014-12-01

    Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) A and B are flavoenzymes responsible for the metabolism of biogenic amines such as dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. In this work, we present a comprehensive study of the rate-limiting step of dopamine degradation by MAO B, which consists in the hydride transfer from the methylene group of the substrate to the flavin moiety of the FAD prosthetic group. This article builds on our previous quantum chemical study of the same reaction using a cluster model (Vianello et al., Eur J Org Chem 2012; 7057), but now considering the full dimensionality of the hydrated enzyme with extensive configurational sampling. We show that MAO B is specifically tuned to catalyze the hydride transfer step from the substrate to the flavin moiety of the FAD prosthetic group and that it lowers the activation barrier by 12.3 kcal mol⁻¹ compared to the same reaction in aqueous solution, a rate enhancement of more than nine orders of magnitude. Taking into account the deprotonation of the substrate prior to the hydride transfer reaction, the activation barrier in the enzyme is calculated to be 16.1 kcal mol⁻¹, in excellent agreement with the experimental value of 16.5 kcal mol⁻¹. Additionally, we demonstrate that the protonation state of the active site residue Lys296 does not have an influence on the hydride transfer reaction. PMID:25220264

  12. Strength of Chemical Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Jerry D.

    1973-01-01

    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  13. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... quotation in excess of $2,000, shall be accompanied by a guaranty or a bid bond in a sum equal to twenty...-LUMPSUMREP Contract. The stand- ard Government form of bid bond (Standard Form 24 Revised November 1950) shall be used. (b) In compliance with the perform- ance bond and payment bond requirements of Article...

  14. Formation of unprecedented actinidecarbon triple bonds in uranium methylidyne molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Jonathan T.; Hu, Han-Shi; Andrews, Lester; Li, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Chemistry of the actinide elements represents a challenging yet vital scientific frontier. Development of actinide chemistry requires fundamental understanding of the relative roles of actinide valence-region orbitals and the nature of their chemical bonding. We report here an experimental and theoretical investigation of the uranium methylidyne molecules X3UCH (X = F, Cl, Br), F2ClUCH, and F3UCF formed through reactions of laser-ablated uranium atoms and trihalomethanes or carbon tetrafluoride in excess argon. By using matrix infrared spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry calculations, we have shown that these actinide complexes possess relatively strong UC triple bonds between the U 6d-5f hybrid orbitals and carbon 2s-2p orbitals. Electron-withdrawing ligands are critical in stabilizing the U(VI) oxidation state and sustaining the formation of uranium multiple bonds. These unique UC-bearing molecules are examples of the long-sought actinide-alkylidynes. This discovery opens the door to the rational synthesis of triple-bonded actinidecarbon compounds. PMID:18024591

  15. Valence band structure in crystalline pentacene thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Richard; Huber, David; Höchst, Hartmut

    2009-03-01

    Organic semiconductors, such as pentacene (Pn), are beginning to show promise as a low-cost substitute for conventional semiconductors for a variety of electronic devices. The overlap of π-orbitals in the Pn crystal leads to molecular orbital-derived bands. We used angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to reveal the Pn in-plane band structure of the two highest occupied molecular orbital-derived bands in crystalline thin film Pn (grown on a Bi substrate) for various temperatures between 75 K and 300 K. We mapped these two bands in several crystallographic directions with special attention given to the region near the top of the valence band and show, within the limits of our experimental resolution, that temperature does not change the dispersions of these bands. We fit the band structure to a tight binding model and compared our results with recent theoretical predictions[1-2]. We also calculated the in-plane reciprocal effective mass for the M point and compared it with the measured mobility. [1] H. Yoshida et. al. Phys. Rev. B 77, 235205 (2008). [2] G. A. de Wijs et. al. Synth. Met. 139, 109 (2003).

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection enhances the kairomonal valence of rat urine

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Anand; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-01-01

    Many animals use chemicals as pheromones to communicate between individuals of the same species, for example to influence mate choice or to assert dominance. Pheromonal communication is an open broadcast system that can be intercepted by unintended receivers such as predators and prey. We have recently reported that male rats infected by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii become more attractive to female rats. This suggests a facilitatory effect of infection on rat pheromone production. In view of the open nature of pheromonal communication, we postulate that Toxoplasma gondii infection collateraly enhances kairomonal valence of infected rats to their prey. We compared the strength of kairomonal interception by mice when using scent marks from rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii vs. marks from uninfected control rats. Mice exhibited greater avoidance to both fresh urine and aged rat urine marks obtained from infected animals. These results indicate that, at least in some cases, parasitism can result in opportunity costs for hosts by making prey species more averse to them. PMID:25075300

  17. Delocalization and Valence Tautomerism in Vanadium Tris(iminosemiquinone) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Jesper; Clark, Kensha Marie

    2016-02-01

    To survey the noninnocence of bis(arylimino) acenaphthene (BIAN) ligands (L) in complexes with early metals, the homoleptic vanadium complex, [V(L)3 ] (1), and its monocation, [V(L)3 ]PF6 (2), were synthesized. These complexes were found to have a very rich electronic behavior, whereby 1 displays strong electronic delocalization and 2 can be observed in unprecedented valence tautomeric forms. The oxidation states of the metal and ligand components in these complexes were assigned by using spectroscopic, crystallographic, and magnetic analyses. Complex 1 was identified as [V(IV) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ] (L(red) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylamido)acenaphthylene; L(.) =N,N'-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylimino)acenaphthenesemiquinonate). Complex 2 was determined to be [V(V) (L(red) )(L(.) )2 ](+) at T<150 K and [V(IV) (L(.) )3 ](+) at T>150 K. Cyclic voltammetry experiments reveal six quasi-reversible processes, thus indicating the potential of this metal-ligand combination in catalysis or materials applications. PMID:26799365

  18. Quasicrystalline valence bands in decagonal AlNiCo

    PubMed

    Rotenberg; Theis; Horn; Gille

    2000-08-10

    Quasicrystals are metallic alloys that possess perfect long-range structural order, in spite of the fact that their rotational symmetries are incompatible with long-range periodicity. The exotic structural properties of this class of materials are accompanied by physical properties that are unexpected for metallic alloys. Considerable progress in resolving the geometric structures of quasicrystals has been made using X-ray and neutron diffraction, and concepts such as the quasi-unit-cell model have provided theoretical insights. But the basic properties of the valence electronic states--whether they are extended as in periodic crystals or localized as in amorphous materials--are still largely unresolved. Here we investigate the electronic bandstructure of quasicrystals through angle-resolved photoemission experiments on decagonal Al71.8Ni14.8Co13.4. We find that the s-p and d states exhibit band-like behaviour with the symmetry of the quasiperiodic lattice, and that the Fermi level is crossed by dispersing d-bands. The observation of free-electron-like bands, distributed in momentum space according to the surface diffraction pattern, suggests that the electronic states are not dominated by localization. PMID:10949295

  19. Quasicrystalline valence bands in decagonal AlNiCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotenberg, Eli; Theis, W.; Horn, K.; Gille, P.

    2000-08-01

    Quasicrystals are metallic alloys that possess perfect long-range structural order, in spite of the fact that their rotational symmetries are incompatible with long-range periodicity. The exotic structural properties of this class of materials are accompanied by physical properties that are unexpected for metallic alloys. Considerable progress in resolving the geometric structures of quasicrystals has been made using X-ray and neutron diffraction, and concepts such as the quasi-unit-cell model have provided theoretical insights. But the basic properties of the valence electronic states-whether they are extended as in periodic crystals or localized as in amorphous materials-are still largely unresolved. Here we investigate the electronic bandstructure of quasicrystals through angle-resolved photoemission experiments on decagonal Al71.8Ni14.8Co13.4. We find that the s-p and d states exhibit band-like behaviour with the symmetry of the quasiperiodic lattice, and that the Fermi level is crossed by dispersing d-bands. The observation of free-electron-like bands, distributed in momentum space according to the surface diffraction pattern, suggests that the electronic states are not dominated by localization.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection enhances the kairomonal valence of rat urine.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Anand; Vyas, Ajai

    2014-01-01

    Many animals use chemicals as pheromones to communicate between individuals of the same species, for example to influence mate choice or to assert dominance. Pheromonal communication is an open broadcast system that can be intercepted by unintended receivers such as predators and prey. We have recently reported that male rats infected by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii become more attractive to female rats. This suggests a facilitatory effect of infection on rat pheromone production. In view of the open nature of pheromonal communication, we postulate that Toxoplasma gondii infection collateraly enhances kairomonal valence of infected rats to their prey. We compared the strength of kairomonal interception by mice when using scent marks from rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii vs. marks from uninfected control rats. Mice exhibited greater avoidance to both fresh urine and aged rat urine marks obtained from infected animals. These results indicate that, at least in some cases, parasitism can result in opportunity costs for hosts by making prey species more averse to them. PMID:25075300

  1. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true memory to total memory) decreased with age. These surprising developmental trends were more pronounced for negatively-valenced materials than for positively-valenced materials, they were more pronounced for high-arousal materials than for low-arousal materials, and developmental increases in the effects of arousal were small in comparison to developmental increases in the effects of valence. These findings have ramifications for legal applications of false-memory research: Materials that share the emotional hallmark of crimes (events that are negatively valenced and arousing) produced the largest age increases in false memory and the largest age declines in net accuracy. PMID:20547393

  2. Vivid: How valence and arousal influence word processing under different task demands.

    PubMed

    Delaney-Busch, Nathaniel; Wilkie, Gianna; Kuperberg, Gina

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine how different dimensions of emotion-valence and arousal-influence different stages of word processing under different task demands. In two experiments, two groups of participants viewed the same single emotional and neutral words while carrying out different tasks. In both experiments, valence (pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral) was fully crossed with arousal (high and low). We found that the task made a substantial contribution to how valence and arousal modulated the late positive complex (LPC), which is thought to reflect sustained evaluative processing (particularly of emotional stimuli). When participants performed a semantic categorization task in which emotion was not directly relevant to task performance, the LPC showed a larger amplitude for high-arousal than for low-arousal words, but no effect of valence. In contrast, when participants performed an overt valence categorization task, the LPC showed a large effect of valence (with unpleasant words eliciting the largest positivity), but no effect of arousal. These data show not only that valence and arousal act independently to influence word processing, but that their relative contributions to prolonged evaluative neural processes are strongly influenced by the situational demands (and by individual differences, as revealed in a subsequent analysis of subjective judgments). PMID:26833048

  3. High and low roads to odor valence? A choice response-time study.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Bowman, Nicholas E; Gottfried, Jay A

    2013-10-01

    Valence and edibility are two important features of olfactory perception, but it remains unclear how they are read out from an olfactory input. For a given odor object (e.g., the smell of rose or garlic), does perceptual identification of that object necessarily precede retrieval of information about its valence and edibility, or alternatively, are these processes independent? In the present study, we studied rapid, binary perceptual decisions regarding odor detection, object identity, valence, and edibility for a set of common odors. We found that decisions regarding odor-object identity were faster than decisions regarding odor valence or edibility, but slower than detection. Mediation analysis revealed that odor valence and edibility decision response times were predicted by a model in which odor-object identity served as a mediator along the perceptual pathway from detection to both valence and edibility. According to this model, odor valence is determined through both a "low road" that bypasses odor objects and a "high road" that utilizes odor-object information. Edibility evaluations are constrained to processing via the high road. The results outline a novel causal framework that explains how major perceptual features might be rapidly extracted from odors through engagement of odor objects early in the processing stream. PMID:23875569

  4. From Semantics to Feelings: How Do Individuals with Schizophrenia Rate the Emotional Valence of Words?

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Ana P.; McCarley, Robert W.; Thompson, Elizabeth; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by both emotional and language abnormalities. However, in spite of reports of preserved evaluation of valence of affective stimuli, such as pictures, it is less clear how individuals with schizophrenia assess verbal material with emotional valence, for example, the overall unpleasantness/displeasure relative to pleasantness/attraction of a word. This study aimed to investigate how schizophrenic individuals rate the emotional valence of adjectives, when compared with a group of healthy controls. One hundred and eighty-four adjectives differing in valence were presented. These adjectives were previously categorized as “neutral,” “positive” (pleasant), or “negative” (unpleasant) by five judges not participating in the current experiment. Adjectives from the three categories were matched on word length, frequency, and familiarity. Sixteen individuals with schizophrenia diagnosis and seventeen healthy controls were asked to rate the valence of each word, by using a computerized version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley and Lang, 1994). Results demonstrated similar ratings of emotional valence of words, suggesting a similar representation of affective knowledge in schizophrenia, at least in terms of the valence dimension. PMID:22966437

  5. Insulation bonding test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, J. M.; Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.; Portwood, J. N.; Saunders, J. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Porter, A. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a system for testing the bonding of foam insulation attached to metal is described. The system involves the use of an impacter which has a calibrated load cell mounted on a plunger and a hammer head mounted on the end of the plunger. When the impacter strikes the insulation at a point to be tested, the load cell measures the force of the impact and the precise time interval during which the hammer head is in contact with the insulation. This information is transmitted as an electrical signal to a load cell amplifier where the signal is conditioned and then transmitted to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. The FFT analyzer produces energy spectral density curves which are displayed on a video screen. The termination frequency of the energy spectral density curve may be compared with a predetermined empirical scale to determine whether a igh quality bond, good bond, or debond is present at the point of impact.

  6. Valence Scaling of Dynamic Facial Expressions Is Altered in High-Functioning Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An FMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahko, Jukka S.; Paakki, Jyri-Johan; Starck, Tuomo H.; Nikkinen, Juha; Pauls, David L.; Katsyri, Jari V.; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira M.; Carter, Alice S.; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Jussila, Katja K.; Remes, Jukka J.; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna A.; Sams, Mikko E.; Bolte, Sven; Ebeling, Hanna E.; Moilanen, Irma K.; Tervonen, Osmo; Kiviniemi, Vesa

    2012-01-01

    FMRI was performed with the dynamic facial expressions fear and happiness. This was done to detect differences in valence processing between 25 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 27 typically developing controls. Valence scaling was abnormal in ASDs. Positive valence induces lower deactivation and abnormally strong activity in ASD…

  7. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the…

  8. The Effect of Action Valence and Race on 3- to 8-Year-Old Children's Social Cognitive Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Hughes, Brittany C.; Mejia, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated children's judgments of actions as a function of the valence of the action and the race of the actor. Three- to 8-year-old children were read an illustrated storybook in which 1 character did not share (a negatively valenced action) and the other character was helpful (a positively valenced action). The race of the

  9. Valence anions in complexes of adenine and 9-methyladenine with formic acid: stabilization by intermolecular proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Kamil; Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Rak, Janusz; Radisic, Dunja; Eustis, Soren N; Wang, Di; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-02-01

    Photoelectron spectra of adenine-formic acid (AFA(-)) and 9-methyladenine-formic acid (MAFA(-)) anionic complexes have been recorded with 2.540 eV photons. These spectra reveal broad features with maxima at 1.5-1.4 eV that indicate formation of stable valence anions in the gas phase. The neutral and anionic complexes of adenine/9-methyladenine and formic acid were also studied computationally at the B3LYP, second-order Møller-Plesset, and coupled-cluster levels of theory with the 6-31++G** and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. The neutral complexes form cyclic hydrogen bonds, and the most stable dimers are bound by 17.7 and 16.0 kcal/mol for AFA and MAFA, respectively. The theoretical results indicate that the excess electron in both AFA(-) and MAFA(-) occupies a pi* orbital localized on adenine/9-methyladenine, and the adiabatic stability of the most stable anions amounts to 0.67 and 0.54 eV for AFA(-) and MAFA(-), respectively. The attachment of the excess electron to the complexes induces a barrier-free proton transfer (BFPT) from the carboxylic group of formic acid to a N atom of adenine or 9-methyladenine. As a result, the most stable structures of the anionic complexes can be characterized as neutral radicals of hydrogenated adenine (9-methyladenine) solvated by a deprotonated formic acid. The BFPT to the N atoms of adenine may be biologically relevant because some of these sites are not involved in the Watson-Crick pairing scheme and are easily accessible in the cellular environment. We suggest that valence anions of purines might be as important as those of pyrimidines in the process of DNA damage by low-energy electrons. PMID:17263404

  10. Role of molecular valence in C_60 polymerization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendele, Goetz M.

    2000-03-01

    The discovery that some alkali fullerides undergo reversible phase transitions consisting of the formation and deformation of covalent bonds between C_60 molecules has attracted continued interest. It was found that the charge state of the C_60 molecule determines whether the interfullerene connection occurs via [2+2] cycloaddition or via a single carbon-carbon bond. However, the number of polymeric fulleride phases found at ambient pressure is limited even when different temperatures and cation types are considered. We(in collaboration with P.W. Stephens, A. Huq, J. Chen (SUNY Stony Brook), Y. Zhao (LANL), and T. Yildirim (NIST).) have performed x-ray powder diffraction experiments at high pressure using diamond anvil cells and multi-anvil presses in order to obtain information on additional polymeric phases, which helps to gain a more general understanding of this class of mixed sp^2- and sp^3-carbon materials. Here, our focus has been on the tetravalent A_4C_60 (A= K, Rb) phases, of which the latter undergoes a metal-insulator transition at around p=8 kbar, and on bivalent Na_2C_60 which is the only stable such phase and which, in terms of its charge state, lies in between the monovalent AC_60 [2+2]-cyloaddition polymers and the trivalent Na_2AC_60 single-bonded ones. These experimental results are put into the general context of polymerization in fullerene materials.

  11. The computation of C-C and N-N bond dissociation energies for singly, doubly, and triply bonded systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The bond dissociation energies (De) of C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, N2, N2H2, and N2H4 are studied at various levels of correlation treatment. The convergence of De with respect to the one-particle basis is studied at the single-reference modified coupled-pair-functional (MCPF)level. At all levels of correlation treatment, the errors in the bond dissociation energies increase with the degree of multiple bond character. The multireference configuration-interaction (MRCI) De values, corrected for an estimate of higher excitations, are in excellent agreement with those determined using the size-extensive averaged-coupled-pair-functional (ACPF) method. The full-valence complete-active-space self-consistent-field (CASSCF)/MRCI calculations are reproduced very well by MRCI calculations based on a CASSCF calculation that includes in the active space only those electrons involved in the C-C or N-N bonds.

  12. Breakdown of ionic character of molecular alkali bromides in inner-valence photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Karpenko, A. Iablonskyi, D.; Kettunen, J. A.; Cao, W.; Huttula, M.; Aksela, H.; Urpelainen, S.

    2014-05-28

    The inner-valence region of alkali bromide XBr (X=Li, Na, K, Rb) vapours has been studied experimentally by means of synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. Experimental spectra were analyzed by comparing them with available theoretical results and previous experiments. Ionic character of alkali bromides is seen to change in the inner-valence region with increasing atomic number of the alkali atom. A mechanism involving mixing between Br 4s and Rb 4p orbitals has been suggested to account for the fine structure observed in inner-valence ionization region of RbBr.

  13. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580.412-20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-20 Use of existing...

  14. 29 CFR 2580.412-20 - Use of existing bonds, separate bonds and additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... bonding. 2580.412-20 Section 2580.412-20 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY BONDING RULES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES General Bond Rules § 2580.412-20 Use of existing...

  15. Dynamic and electro-optical non-equivalency of NH bonds in amino groups of aniline, aminotoluenes and monohalogen-substituted anilines in their H-bonded 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, V. E.; Morev, A. V.

    1994-06-01

    The spectra of 1 : 2 H-bonded complexes of aniline, aminotoluene and mono- (F, Cl, Br)-substituted anilines with acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide and hexamethylphosphoramide were studied in the region of the stretching and deformation vibrations of the amino group. The spectral moments M(0) and M(1) and the effective half-width 2( M(2)) {1}/{2} of the absorption bands of the amino group valence vibrations and the frequencies of the deformational vibrations of the 1 : 2 complexes were determined taking into account Fermi resonance phenomena. Force constants, valence angles γ(HNH) and electro-optical parameters ∂μ/∂ q and ∂μ/∂ q' of the NH-bonds of the amino group were calculated. A comparative investigation of the parameters of the amino group of free molecules and 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes was carried out. The force constants and electro-optical parameters of bonded NH groups in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes were shown to be non-equivalent. Dynamic and electro-optical non-equivalence of the bonds increase with the growth of H-bond stability. The transition from free molecules to bonded ones in 1 : 2 complexes is accompanied by a significant increase in the valence angles γ(HNH). The parameters of linear regression equations combining geometric, dynamic and spectral characteristics of the aniline amino group in H-bonded complexes are defined. The amino group electro-optical parameters of substituted anilines, ∂μ/∂ q and ∂μ/∂ q', depend significantly on the character and position of the substituents in the aniline aromatic ring and on the properties of the proton-accepting molecules.

  16. A class Vb chitin synthase in Colletotrichum graminicola is localized in the growing tips of multiple cell types, in nascent septa, and during septum conversion to an end wall after hyphal breakage.

    PubMed

    Amnuaykanjanasin, A; Epstein, L

    2006-05-01

    Previous complementation of a chitin synthase class Vb null mutant (Colletotrichum graminicola chsA) indicated that the encoded protein is responsible for approximately 30% of the conidial chitin, is essential for conidial wall strength in media with high water potential, and contributes to strength of hyphal tips. We complemented a chsA null mutant with chsA fused to the green-fluorescent protein (sgfp) gene driven by a heterologous constitutively expressed promoter. Comparisons of the strain with the ectopic chsA-sgfp to the wild type indicated that ChsA-sGFP serves the same biological functions as ChsA in that like the wild type, the chsADelta chsA::sgfp (EC) had conidia that did not explode and hyphal tips that did not swell. Confocal microscopy of ChsA-sGFP (EC) cells stained with the membrane stain FM 4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(6-(4-(diethylamino)phenyl)hexatrienyl)pyridinium dibromide) indicated that ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of the following: growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia; in nascent septa; and in septa that are being converted to an end wall after hyphal breakage. The data support the hypothesis that chsA either directly or indirectly encodes the information for its localization, that ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane, and that the class Vb enzyme produces chitin synthase in multiple cells and after wall breakage. PMID:16520880

  17. Bonding to porcelain and gold.

    PubMed

    Wood, D P; Jordan, R E; Way, D C; Galil, K A

    1986-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of bonding orthodontic attachments to porcelain, edgewise brackets were bonded to 160 lower incisor, porcelain denture teeth by means of two different resin systems and three different porcelain bonding agents. Bonding to porcelain was found to be not only effective, but the use of a porcelain primer before bonding resulted in shear strengths comparable to those achieved with conventional acid-etch enamel bonding when the same resin was used. Roughening the porcelain surface and bonding with a heavily filled resin without a porcelain primer provided shear strengths (30.6 lbs) comparable to conventional acid-etch enamel bonding with a lightly filled resin (28.8 lbs). Roughening the porcelain surface before bonding, adding porcelain primers, and using highly filled resins all added significantly to bond strength, but caused a progressively greater risk of porcelain fracture during debonding. One of three methods to polish porcelain completely restored a roughened porcelain surface to its former appearance. The porcelain bonding primers failed to provide a significant increase in bond strength when bonding to gold. However, a roughened gold surface bonded with a heavily filled resin provided shear strengths (27.3 lbs). comparable to conventional acid-etch enamel bonding by means of a lightly filled resin (28.8 lbs). The use of a highly filled resin on an intact, glazed porcelain surface without using a porcelain primer may provide sufficient bond strength clinically. If more bond strength is needed, the use of Reliance porcelain primer on an intact glaze is preferable to Ormco porcelain primer or Fusion. Still greater bond strength can be developed by roughening the porcelain surface before application of a primer and use of a highly filled resin. The potential for porcelain fracture in debonding, however, is much increased and it is questionable whether bond strengths of this magnitude are required clinically. PMID:2937306

  18. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W.; Kochevar, Irene E.

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  19. Bonding with the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Ground: Archeology and Ethnography in the Public Interest, 1998

    1998-01-01

    An interview with Linda Mayro, archaeologist and cultural resources manager for Pima County, Arizona, discusses efforts of local groups to preserve local Native-American and Mexican cultural-heritage sites in oppositon to commercial land developers. A public information campaign led to passage of a $6.4 million historic preservation bond. (SAS)

  20. Flax Fiber - Interfacial Bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measured flax fiber physical and chemical properties potentially impact bonding and thus stress transfer between the matrix and fiber within composites. These first attempts at correlating flax fiber quality and biofiber composites contain the initial steps towards identifying key flax fiber charac...

  1. Bonds Between Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Alan

    The field of inquiry into how atoms are bonded together to form molecules and solids crosses the borderlines between physics and chemistry encompassing methods characteristic of both sciences. At one extreme, the inquiry is pursued with care and rigor into the simplest cases; at the other extreme, suggestions derived from the more careful inquiry

  2. Bonding without Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses merits of using sigma-pi model of ethylene as a teaching aid in introductory organic chemistry. The nonmathematical treatment of sigma-pi bonding is then extended to such phenomena as conjugation, hyperconjugation, Markovnikoff addition, aromaticity, and aromatic substitution. (SK)

  3. GRAPHITE BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1964-02-25

    A process for bonding or joining graphite members together in which a thin platinum foil is placed between the members, heated in an inert atmosphere to a temperature of 1800 deg C, and then cooled to room temperature is described. (AEC)

  4. Bonding with Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Kim, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 12 recently and not-so-recently published books for young adults, that speak to a wide range of interests at a variety of reading levels, and that could be "just the ticket" to help a reluctant reader bond with books. (SR)

  5. Effect of Pr Valence State on Interfacial Structure and Electrical Properties of Pr Oxide/PrON/Ge Gate Stack Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kimihiko; Sakashita, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Wakana; Kondo, Hiroki; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the valence state and chemical bonding state of Pr in a Pr oxide/PrON/Ge structure. We clarified the relationship between the valence state of Pr and the Pr oxide/Ge interfacial reaction using Pr oxide/Ge and Pr oxide/PrON/Ge samples. We found the formation of three Pr oxide phases in Pr oxide films; hexagonal Pr2O3 (h-Pr2O3) (Pr3+), cubic Pr2O3 (c-Pr2O3) (Pr3+), and c-PrO2 (Pr4+). We also investigated the effect of a nitride interlayer on the interfacial reaction in Pr oxide/Ge gate stacks. In a sample with a nitride interlayer (Pr oxide/PrON/Ge), metallic Pr-Pr bonds are also formed in the c-Pr2O3 film. After annealing in H2 ambient, the diffusion of Ge into Pr oxide is not observed in this sample. Pr-Pr bonds probably prevent the interfacial reaction and Ge oxide formation, considering that the oxygen chemical potential of this film is lower than that of a GeO2/Ge system. On the other hand, the rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) treatment terminates the O vacancies and defects in c-Pr2O3. As a result, c-PrO2 with tetravalent Pr is formed in the Pr oxide/PrON/Ge sample with RTO. In this sample, the leakage current density is effectively decreased in comparison with the sample without RTO. Hydrogen termination works effectively in Pr oxide/PrON/Ge samples with and without RTO, and we can achieve an interface state density of as low as 4 ×1011 eV-1·cm-2.

  6. Overlap valence quarks on a twisted mass sea: A case study for mixed action lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Drach, Vincent; García-Ramos, Elena; Herdoíza, Gregorio; Jansen, Karl

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a lattice QCD mixed action investigation employing Wilson maximally twisted mass sea and overlap valence fermions. Using four values of the lattice spacing, we demonstrate that the overlap Dirac operator assumes a point-like locality in the continuum limit. We also show that by adopting suitable matching conditions for the sea and valence theories a consistent continuum limit for the pion decay constant and light baryon masses can be obtained. Finally, we confront results for sea-valence mixed meson masses and the valence scalar correlator with corresponding expressions of chiral perturbation theory. This allows us to extract low energy constants of mixed action chiral perturbation which characterize the strength of unitarity violations in our mixed action setup.

  7. Halo and devil effects demonstrate valenced-based influences on source-monitoring decisions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gabriel I; Marsh, Richard L; Hicks, Jason L

    2003-06-01

    Source attributions based on positive versus negative valence were examined in four experiments. The two sources were individuals who were depicted positively or negatively, and the content of their statements was similarly valenced. When valenced information about the sources was provided after learning the statements, test biases to attribute positive statements to the positive source and negative statements to the negative source were strongly present. Providing the same information prior to learning improved memory, but did not entirely eliminate test biases based on valence. Signal detection analysis suggests that these "halo effect" biases are criterion-based and not memory-based. Therefore, the results are more consistent with descriptions of source-monitoring processes that can benefit from familiarity-based partial information as opposed to descriptions in which source monitoring is primarily recollection-based. PMID:12763008

  8. THE VALENCE AND METHYLATION STATE OF ARSENIC DETERMINES ITS POTENCY IN INTERACTION WITH THE MITOTIC APPARATUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have previously shown that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potency of arsenicals is dependent upon their valence and methylation state. Trivalent methylated arsenicals are much more potent DNA damaging agents than are their inorganic and pentavalent counterparts. Furthermore, thei...

  9. Dissociating motivational direction and affective valence: specific emotions alter central motor processes.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Stephen A; Cauraugh, James H; Janelle, Christopher M

    2007-11-01

    We aimed to clarify the relation between affective valence and motivational direction by specifying how central and peripheral components of extension movements are altered according to specific unpleasant affective states. As predicted, premotor reaction time was quicker for extension movements initiated during exposure to attack than for extension movements initiated during exposure to all other valence categories (mutilation, erotic couples, opposite-sex nudes, neutral humans, household objects, blank). Exposure to erotic couples and mutilations yielded greater peak force than exposure to images of attack, neutral humans, and household objects. Finally, motor reaction time and peak electromyographic amplitude were not altered by valence. These findings indicate that unpleasant states do not unilaterally prime withdrawal movements, and that the quick execution of extension movements during exposure to threatening images is due to rapid premotor, rather than motor, reaction time. Collectively, our findings support the call for dissociating motivational direction and affective valence. PMID:17958705

  10. Pion form factor using domain wall valence quarks and asqtad sea quarks

    SciTech Connect

    George Fleming; Frederic Bonnet; Robert Edwards; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2004-09-01

    We compute the pion electromagnetic form factor in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (asqtad) sea quarks. This method can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  11. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. PMID:26160332

  12. Factors affecting the relation between stretching frequencies and bond lengths. Diatomic and polyatomic species without adjustable fitting parameters.

    PubMed

    Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2015-12-01

    In 76 sets of similar type bonds in species A2, AB, AB2, AB3, and AB4 the stretching frequency, ν, is related to the bond length, r, by ν=a/(rμ(1/2))-b, where μ is the reduced mass. The sets treated include all ground states for which spectroscopic date were found for stable molecules, free radicals, carbenes and other species with unsatisfied valences, both ionic and covalent. The linear correlation coefficients of each set are always greater than 0.998. The slopes a and intercepts b are defined by the data of each set and vary widely. They become congruent, but not exactly identical, when a is multiplied by the square root of the mean value of the number of electrons in the valence shell of the two bonded atoms, the electrons that become joined in the molecular orbitals formed upon bonding. No adjustable parameters are used. The number of bonds treated, over 300, is not as important as the fact that all species found were treated. The aim is not to add yet another parametric correlation to the many extant, but to better understand the relation between these two fundamental properties of chemical bonds. PMID:26162344

  13. Coexistence of solvated electron and benzene-centered valence anion in the negatively charged benzene-water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhou, Lianwen; Bu, Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined M06 functional calculation and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of an excess electron (EE) in a microhydrated aromatic complex (modeled by benzene (Bz)-water binary clusters, Bz(H2O)n). Calculated results illustrate that Bz ring and water clusters are indeed linked through the π⋯HO interactions in the neutral Bz(H2O)n (n = 1-8) clusters, and the size of the water cluster does not influence the nature of its interaction with the π system for the oligo-hydrated complexes. The states and the dynamics of an EE trapped in such Bz-water clusters were also determined. All of possible localized states for the EE can be roughly classified into two types: (i) single, ring-localized states (the Bz-centered valence anions) in which an EE occupies the LUMO of the complexes originating from the LUMO (π*) of the Bz ring, and the π⋯HO interactions are enhanced for increase of electron density of the Bz ring. In this mode, the carbon skeleton of the Bz part is significantly deformed due to increase of electron density and nonsymmetric distribution of electron density induced by the interacting H-O bonds; (ii) solvated states, in which an EE is trapped directly as a surface state by the dangling hydrogen atoms of water molecules or as a solvated state in a mixed cavity formed by Bz and water cluster. In the latter case, Bz may also participate in capturing an EE using its C-H bonds in the side edge of the aromatic ring as a part of the cavity. In general, a small water cluster is favorable to the Bz-centered valence anion state, while a large one prefers a solvated electron state. Fluctuations and rearrangement of water molecules can sufficiently modify the relative energies of the EE states to permit facile conversion from the Bz-centered to the water cluster-centered state. This indicates that aromatic Bz can be identified as a stepping stone in electron transfer and the weak π⋯HO interaction plays an important role as the driving force in conversion of the two states.

  14. Adolescents' responses to the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery: the role of affect and the self-concept.

    PubMed

    Shadel, William G; Niaura, Raymond; Abrams, David B

    2004-12-01

    The studies presented in this manuscript evaluated the role that affect and the self-concept play in adolescent never smokers' reactions to the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery. Study 1 (n=29; 59% female) revealed that adolescent females have more positive affective reactions to female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery compared to male-valenced cigarette advertising imagery. Study 2 (n=101; 56% female) revealed that adolescent females viewed female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery as more relevant to their self-concepts compared to male-valenced cigarette advertising imagery. Across both studies, male adolescents did not respond differently as a function of the gender valence of cigarette advertising imagery. Thus, female-valenced cigarette advertising imagery may have specific effects on never smoking female adolescents by enhancing positive affect and suggesting that women who smoke hold the same characteristics as do the young women themselves. PMID:15530718

  15. Theoretical study of valence orbital response to guanine tautomerization in coordinate and momentum spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zejin; Duffy, Patrick; Zhu, Quan; Takahashi, Masahiko; Wang, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The binding energy spectra and electron momentum spectra of eight stable guanine tautomers are calculated in the complete valence space. The present results show that the canonical keto (C=O) guanine N(9)H tautomer (GU1) possesses the largest dipole moment, molecular electronic spatial extent, molecular hardness value, and the minimum first vertical ionization potential (VIP). Valence orbital profile investigations find that several orbitals remain almost unchanged during tautomerization, such as frontier highest occupied molecular orbital 39a and 18a. Several orbitals with interchanged order and inverse direction in charge spatial orientations are also detected. Outer valence orbitals (with smaller VIPs) show more complex orbital shapes in the momentum space than those of inner ones (larger VIPs) due mainly to the relatively strong inter-orbital interaction and delocalized electronic distributions. Proton rotation along C-O(H) and C-N(H) axes within hexagonal ring causes smaller influence to orbital profiles than those of proton migration within pentagonal and/or hexagonal rings. Orbital variation trends between enol (GU3-GU5) and keto (GU1, GU2, GU6-GU8) tautomers are observed, including the signature orbitals of enol form, the variation tendency of total orbital intensity, and the variation order of the maximum orbital intensity. In the outer valence momentum space (outside 26a), orbital composed by pz electrons show single peak with a gradual increasing peak site from 0.5 a.u. of inner valence orbital to 1.0 a.u. of outer valence orbital, whereas orbitals composed by px,y electrons form double peaks with respective sites at about 0.5 and 1.5 a.u., only three px,y-orbitals present single peaks (33a,34a,36a). The general variation trends in the complete valence space for all the valence orbitals on their intensities, peak sites, and orbital components are concluded.

  16. Chiral perturbation theory for staggered sea quarks and Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Oliver; Bernard, Claude; Rupak, Gautam; Shoresh, Noam

    2005-09-01

    We study lattice QCD with staggered sea and Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks. The Symanzik effective action for this mixed lattice theory, including the lattice spacing contributions of O(a{sup 2}), is derived. Using this effective theory we construct the leading-order chiral Lagrangian. The masses and decay constants of pseudoscalars containing two Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks are computed at one-loop order.

  17. Hadronic physics with domain-wall valence and improved staggered sea quarks

    SciTech Connect

    D. B. Renner; W. Schroers; R. Edwards; G. T. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; J. W. Negele; K. Orginos; A. V. Pochinski; D. Richards

    2004-06-01

    With the advent of chiral fermion formulations, the simulation of light valence quarks has finally become realistic for numerical simulations of lattice QCD. The simulation of light dynamical quarks, however, remains one of the major challenges and is still an obstacle to realistic simulations. We attempt to meet this challenge using a hybrid combination of Asqtad sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. Initial results for the proton form factor and the nucleon axial coupling are presented.

  18. Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Jones, J. H.; Newville, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing an oxygen barometer based on the valence state of V (V(2+), V(3+), V(4+), and V(5+)) in solar system basaltic glasses. The V valence is determined by synchrotron micro x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), which uses x-ray absorption associated with core-electronic transitions (absorption edges) to reveal a pre-edge peak whose intensity is directly proportional to the valence state of an element. XANES has advantages over other techniques that determine elemental valence because measurements can be made non-destructively in air and in situ on conventional thin sections at a micrometer spatial resolution with elemental sensitivities of approx. 100 ppm. Recent results show that fO2 values derived from the V valence technique are consistent with fO2 estimates determined by other techniques for materials that crystallized above the IW buffer. The fO2's determined by V valence (IW-3.8 to IW-2) for the lunar pyroclastic glasses, however, are on the order of 1 to 2.8 log units below previous estimates. Furthermore, the calculated fO2's decrease with increasing TiO2 contents from the A17 VLT to the A17 Orange glasses. In order to investigate these results further, we have synthesized lunar green and orange glasses and examined them by XANES.

  19. Distracted by pleasure: Effects of positive versus negative valence on emotional capture under load.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Hur, Young-Jin; Lavie, Nilli

    2016-04-01

    We report 3 experiments examining the effects of positive versus negative valence and perceptual load in determining attention capture by irrelevant emotional distractors. Participants performed a letter search task searching for 1 of 2 target letters (X or N) in conditions of either low perceptual load (circular nontarget letters) or high perceptual load (angular nontarget letters that are similar to the target letters). On 25% of the trials an irrelevant emotional distractor was presented at the display center and participants were instructed to ignore it. The distractor stimulus was either positive or negative and was selected from 3 different classes: IAPS pictures of erotica or mutilated bodies (Experiment 1), happy or angry faces (Experiment 2), and faces associated with gain or loss in a prior value-learning phase involving a betting game (Experiment 3). The results showed a consistent pattern of interaction of load and valence across the 3 experiments. Irrelevant emotional distractors produced interference effects on search reaction time (RT) in conditions of low load, with no difference between negative and positive valence. High perceptual load, however, consistently reduced interference from the negative-valence distractors, but had no effect on the positive-valence distractors. As these results were consistently found across 3 different categories of emotional distractors, they suggest the general conclusion that attentional capture by irrelevant emotional distractors depends on both their valence and the level of perceptual load in the task and highlight the special status of distractors associated with pleasure. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479771

  20. 27 CFR 24.147 - Operations bond or unit bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... or contiguous distilled spirits plant qualified under 27 CFR part 19 for the production of distilled... amended, give an operations bond or unit bond in accordance with the applicable provisions of 27 CFR part... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Bonds and Consents of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.147 - Operations bond or unit bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amended, give an operations bond or unit bond in accordance with the applicable provisions of 27 CFR part... or contiguous distilled spirits plant qualified under 27 CFR part 19 for the production of distilled... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operations bond or...

  2. Bonding and Electronic Structure of Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides by X-Ray Photoelectron and Absorption Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosvenor, Andrew P.; Cavell, Ronald G.; Mar, Arthur

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and related techniques such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy provide useful information about the electronic structure and bonding of inorganic solids. However, interpretation of these spectra is more difficult for compounds with significant covalent bonding character. In this chapter, these spectroscopic techniques are applied to various transition-metal phosphides, arsenides, and antimonides, including a diverse class of compounds based on the MnP-type structure, as well as some binary and ternary skutterudites. Because shifts in binding and absorption energies are less pronounced, other features such as lineshape and satellite intensity become important in the determination of relative charges and valence states. These shifts can be rationalized in terms of a charge potential model and related to electronegativity differences. Valence band spectra can also be interpreted through comparison with calculated electronic structures.

  3. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/hydrogen-terminated diamond heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. W.; Liao, M. Y.; Cheng, S. H.; Imura, M.; Koide, Y.

    2013-03-28

    CaF{sub 2} films are deposited on hydrogen-terminated diamond (H-diamond) by a radio-frequency sputter-deposition technique at room temperature. Interfacial chemical bonding state and band alignment of CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunction are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is confirmed that there are only C-Ca bonds at the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterointerface. Valence and conductance band offsets of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton are determined to be 3.7 {+-} 0.2 and 0.3 {+-} 0.2 eV, respectively. It shows a type I straddling band configuration. The large valence band offset suggests advantage of the CaF{sub 2}/H-diamond heterojunciton for the development of high power and high frequency field effect transistors.

  4. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Bionta, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  5. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  6. Cooperativity in Tetrel Bonds.

    PubMed

    Marín-Luna, Marta; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical study of the cooperativity in linear chains of (H3SiCN)n and (H3SiNC)n complexes connected by tetrel bonds has been carried out by means of MP2 and CCSD(T) computational methods. In all cases, a favorable cooperativity is observed, especially in some of the largest linear chains of (H3SiNC)n, where the effect is so large that the SiH3 group is almost equidistant to the two surrounding CN groups and it becomes planar. In addition, the combination of tetrel bonds with other weak interactions (halogen, chalcogen, pnicogen, triel, beryllium, lithium, and hydrogen bond) has been explored using ternary complexes, (H3SiCN)2:XY and (H3SiNC)2:XY. In all cases, positive cooperativity is obtained, especially in the (H3SiNC)2:ClF and (H3SiNC)2:SHF ternary complexes, where, respectively, halogen and chalcogen shared complexes are formed. PMID:26756083

  7. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond... merchandise to file a written bond application which may be in the form of a letter. The application...

  8. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond... merchandise to file a written bond application which may be in the form of a letter. The application...

  9. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond... merchandise to file a written bond application which may be in the form of a letter. The application...

  10. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond... merchandise to file a written bond application which may be in the form of a letter. The application...

  11. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond... merchandise to file a written bond application which may be in the form of a letter. The application...

  12. The role of non-bonding electron pairs in intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Fässler, Thomas F

    2003-03-01

    The Electron Localisation Function, ELF pictorially visualises chemists' intuitive ideas of single and multiple bonds as well as non-bonding electron pairs in molecules. The power of the representation of chemical bonds via ELF is that on the one hand covalent, polar, and ionic bonds are distinguishable, and that on the other hand ELF can be calculated for molecules and solids. This enables us to transfer the ideas of chemical bonding from molecular to intermetallic compounds. Localised two-electron-two-centre bonds and lone pairs are present in solid-state valence compounds (Zintl phases) as expected by the 8-N rule. In solids, lone pairs are generally more contracted than in molecules due to 'lone-pair repulsion'. In intermetallic compounds localised electrons predominantly occur in the form of lone pairs. Lattice vibrations influence the strength of lone pair interactions and non-bonded interactions lead to an exchange of delocalised and localised electrons. Such a mechanism of local electron pair formation gives rise to ideas of a chemical view of the phenomenon of superconductivity in intermetallic compounds. PMID:12683104

  13. Chemical activation of molecules by metals: Experimental studies of electron distributions and bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberger, D. L.

    1991-10-01

    The formal relationship between measured molecular ionization energies and thermodynamic bond dissociation energies has been developed into a single equation which unifies the treatment of covalent bonds, ionic bonds, and partially ionic bonds. This relationship has been used to clarify the fundamental thermodynamic information relating to metal-hydrogen, metal-alkyl, and metal-metal bond energies. We have been able to obtain a direct observation and measurement of the stabilization energy provided by the agostic interaction of the C-H bond with the metal. The ionization energies have also been used to correlate the rates of carbonyl substitution reactions of (eta sup 5-C5H4)Rh(CO)2 complexes, and to reveal the electronic factors that control the stability of the transition state. The extent that the electronic features of these bonding interactions transfer to other chemical systems is being investigated in terms of the principle of additivity of ligand electronic effects. Specific examples under study include metal- phosphines, metal-halides, and metallocenes. Especially interesting has been the recent application of these techniques to the characterization of the soccer-ball shaped C60 molecule, buckminsterfullerene, and its interaction with a metal surface. The high resolution valence ionizations in the gas phase reveal the high symmetry of the molecule, and studies of thin films of C60 reveal weak intermolecular interactions. Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy reveal the arrangement of spherical molecules on gold substrates, with significant delocalization of charge from the metal surface.

  14. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitrov, Vesselin; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2012-12-15

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  15. Two-electron three-centered bond in side-on (eta2) uranyl(V) superoxo complexes.

    PubMed

    Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S; de Jong, Wibe A; Cossel, Kevin C; Diallo, Mamadou S; Goddard, William A; Groenewold, Gary S; Chien, Winnie; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Theoretical calculations suggest a novel two-electron three-atom bonding scheme for complexation of O 2 with U(V) compounds, leading to the stabilization of superoxo complexes in the side-on (eta (2)) configuration. This binding motif is likely to play an important role in the oxidative processes involving trans-uranium compounds having valence 5f phi electrons. PMID:18540589

  16. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal.

    PubMed

    Citron, Francesca M M; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with "up" responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are based on implicit associations between stimulus valence and response, there is no influence of arousal. In line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, arousal seems to affect participants' approach-withdrawal tendencies only when such tendencies are made explicit by the task, and a minimal degree of processing depth is required. PMID:26779067

  17. Approach and Withdrawal Tendencies during Written Word Processing: Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Francesca M. M.; Abugaber, David; Herbert, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are based on implicit associations between stimulus valence and response, there is no influence of arousal. In line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, arousal seems to affect participants' approach-withdrawal tendencies only when such tendencies are made explicit by the task, and a minimal degree of processing depth is required. PMID:26779067

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form...

  20. 46 CFR Sec. 10 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REPAIRS UNDER NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 10 Bonds. (a... awarded work and the furnishing of the performance and payment bonds required by Article 14 of the NSA... of the NSA-LUMPSUMREP Contract, the standard form of individual performance bond (Standard Form...