Science.gov

Sample records for validation studies conducted

  1. A Framework for Conducting ESL/EFL Construct Validation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouw, John T.; Perkins, Kyle

    The purpose for which a test is used and the examinees' stage of learning are two anchor points that are incorporated into a suggested framework for conducting construct validation studies for tests of students with English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL). The framework includes the use of generalizability theory,…

  2. Conducting Licensure Validity Studies: The Need To Broaden the Evidentiary Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John P.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Green, Sam B.; Tollefson, Nona

    Findings are reported from a series of comprehensive and detailed empirical investigations that evaluated four different teacher certification paper-and-pencil tests through a typical content validation method and from three distinct and independent empirical validation studies of these devices. These latter studies can be understood as providing…

  3. Conducting ecologically valid prevention research: recruiting and retaining a "whole village" in multimethod, multiagent studies.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, D M; Chamberlain, P; Fetrow, R A; Wilson, J E

    1997-08-01

    Many prevention studies are now designed with complementary interventions in different settings. Evaluations of these interventions require assessing the child's behavior in each of these settings. Conducting these studies, therefore, may involve recruiting school districts, principals, classroom teachers, peers, parents, siblings, and in later years, employers and intimate partners. These participants may be considered natural raters or satellite subjects, depending on their degree of involvement. Issues of recruitment and retention thus are magnified in multimethod, multiagent studies. To illustrate these issues, findings are presented for three studies conducted with risk populations in the past decade at the Oregon Social Learning Center: a passive longitudinal study, a selected prevention study, and an indicated prevention study. Findings indicate that achieving high recruitment and retention rates for at-risk and high-risk subjects in multisetting studies is possible, and that a developmental approach should be taken to recruiting risk populations. PMID:9338955

  4. Quantum Mechanics Studies of Fuel Cell Catalysts and Proton Conducting Ceramics with Validation by Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ho-Cheng

    We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML

  5. Quantum Mechanics Studies of Fuel Cell Catalysts and Proton Conducting Ceramics with Validation by Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ho-Cheng

    We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML

  6. Conducting and permeable states of cell membrane submitted to high voltage pulses: mathematical and numerical studies validated by the experiments.

    PubMed

    Leguèbe, M; Silve, A; Mir, L M; Poignard, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new model of in vitro cell electropermeabilization, which describes separately the conducting state and the permeable state of the membrane submitted to high voltage pulses. We first derive the model based on the experimental observations and we present the numerical methods to solve the non-linear partial differential equations. We then present numerical simulations that corroborate qualitatively the experimental data dealing with the uptake of propidium iodide (PI) after millipulses. This tends to justify the validity of our modeling. Forthcoming work will be to calibrate the parameters of the model for quantitative description of the uptake. PMID:25010659

  7. Development and Validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Several rating scales for measuring externalizing problems in children are inconsistent with widely used diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD). The Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS) was developed to provide valid measures of CD in children age 5 to 12 years. In Study 1, the CDRS was evaluated in a community sample of 1,554 children.…

  8. Validation of a two-step quality control approach for a large-scale human urine metabolomic study conducted in seven experimental batches with LC/QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Demetrowitsch, Tobias J; Petersen, Beate; Keppler, Julia K; Koch, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin

    2015-01-01

    After his study of food science at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University of Bonn, Tobias J Demetrowitsch obtained his doctoral degree in the research field of metabolomics at the Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel. The present paper is part of his doctoral thesis and describes an extended strategy to evaluate and verify complex or large-scale experiments and data sets. Large-scale studies result in high sample numbers, requiring the analysis of samples in different batches. So far, the verification of such LC-MS-based metabolomics studies is difficult. Common approaches have not provided a reliable validation procedure to date. This article shows a novel verification process for a large-scale human urine study (analyzed by a LC/QToF-MS system) using a two-step validation procedure. The first step comprises a targeted approach that aims to examine and exclude statistical outliers. The second step consists of a principle component analysis, with the aim of a tight cluster of all quality controls and a second for all volunteer samples. The applied study design provides a reliable two-step validation procedure for large-scale studies and additionally contains an inhouse verification procedure. PMID:25558939

  9. Carbon Fibers Conductivity Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. Y.; Butkus, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the process of electrical conduction in polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers, calculations were carried out on cluster models of the fiber consisting of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms using the modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap (MINDO) molecular orbital (MO) method. The models were developed based on the assumption that PAN carbon fibers obtained with heat treatment temperatures (HTT) below 1000 C retain nitrogen in a graphite-like lattice. For clusters modeling an edge nitrogen site, analysis of the occupied MO's indicated an electron distribution similar to that of graphite. A similar analysis for the somewhat less stable interior nitrogen site revealed a partially localized II electron distribution around the nitrogen atom. The differences in bonding trends and structural stability between edge and interior nitrogen clusters led to a two-step process proposed for nitrogen evolution with increasing HTT.

  10. Developing and Validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lauren C.; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christine; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R). Qualitative free listing (n = 74) and key informant interviews (n = 47) identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research. PMID:24949628

  11. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-01-01

    Background Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). Objective We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. Methods We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. Results The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss’ kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They

  12. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  13. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  14. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  15. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  16. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs. PMID:12083280

  17. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
. PMID:25806886

  18. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of...

  19. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  20. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  1. Bioconversion study conducted by JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of Caltech conducted a study of bioconversion as a means of identifying the role of biomass for meeting the national energy fuel and chemical requirements and the role and means for JPL-Caltech involvement in bioconversion. The bioconversion study included the following categories; biomass sources, chemicals from biomass, thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels, biological conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals, and basic bioconversion sciences. A detailed review is included of the bioconversion fields cited with specific conclusions and recommendations given for future research and development and overall biomass system engineering and economic studies.

  2. Content Validity Studies of Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, I. Leon; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    1990-01-01

    Implementing measurement specialists' ideas about content validity with licensure examinations and the problem of court litigation are discussed. Validity issues surfacing when sponsors of national licensure examinations conduct validity investigations are considered. Issues include local versus national focus on content validity, job analysis,…

  3. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Oware, A

    2012-07-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG), often shortened to 'EMGs', are a useful adjunct to clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system and striated skeletal muscle. NCS provide an efficient and rapid method of quantifying nerve conduction velocity (CV) and the amplitude of both sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) and compound motor action potentials (cMAPs). The CV reflects speed of propagation of action potentials, by saltatory conduction, along large myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. The amplitude of SNAPs is in part determined by the number of axons in a sensory nerve, whilst amplitude of cMAPs reflects integrated function of the motor axons, neuromuscular junction and striated muscle. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) can identify defects of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission, pre- or post-synaptic. Needle EMG examination can detect myopathic changes in muscle and signs of denervation. Combinations of these procedures can establish if motor and/or sensory nerve cell bodies or peripheral nerves are damaged (e.g. motor neuronopathy, sensory ganglionopathy or neuropathy), and also indicate if the primary target is the axon or the myelin sheath (i.e. axonal or demyelinating neuropathies). The distribution of nerve damage can be determined as either generalised, multifocal (mononeuropathy multiplex) or focal. The latter often due to compression at the common entrapment sites (such as the carpal tunnel, Guyon's canal, cubital tunnel, radial groove, fibular head and tarsal tunnel, to name but a few of the reported hundred or so 'entrapment neuropathies'). PMID:22614870

  4. NOAA's hydrolab conducts reef studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This summer, scuba-diving scientists operating from Hydrolab, NOAA's undersea laboratory, are carrying out four experiments aimed at producing better management of coral reefs and their fishery resources. Hydrolab is located at a depth of 50 feet, near the mouth of the Salt River, off St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The lab houses four scientists for up to 2 weeks at a time, permitting them to swim out into the water to conduct research. The projects make use of both the natural coral reef near Hydrolab and the nearby artificial reef constructed for comparison studies.

  5. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2016-07-01

    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  6. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2015-08-01

    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  7. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  8. VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

    2011-03-01

    A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compact’s unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

  9. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  10. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  11. Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Pilot studies play a vital role in health research, but are often misused, mistreated and misrepresented. A well-conducted pilot study with clear aims and objectives within a formal framework ensures methodological rigour, can lead to higher-quality research and scientifically valid work that is publishable and can benefit patients and health service delivery. A pilot study contributes valuable information to assist researchers in the conduct of their study. Conducting a pilot study provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop and enhance the skills necessary before commencing the larger study. By conducting a pilot the researcher obtains preliminary data, can evaluate their data-analysis method and clarify the financial and human resources required. This article presents an overview of pilot studies, why they are conducted, what to consider when reporting pilot studies and the authors' experience of conducting a pilot study. To conduct a successful study, researchers need to develop their skills, choose the right methods and carefully plan for all aspects of the process. PMID:26618678

  12. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  13. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  14. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  17. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  18. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  19. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  20. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  1. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  2. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (ΔHo) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ΔHo, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ΔHo, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ΔHo increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ΔHo must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  3. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  4. Conducting a wind sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Signal-to-noise requirements, and how signal-to-noise determines wind velocity measurement accuracy were studied. A Nd:YAG-based system was found to be competitive with a CO2-based system. Hardware was developed for a coherent Nd:YAG LIDAR system, and is being integrated into a functioning system. A diode-pumped monolithic rod laser to be used as a reference oscillator, a high-power, single-mode ring laser, for use as a master oscillator, and a high-gain, multipass amplifier were constructed.

  5. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  6. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  7. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  8. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  9. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  12. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  13. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  14. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  15. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  16. Thermographic validation of a novel, laminate body, analytical heat conduction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2014-07-01

    The two-region fin model captures the heat spreading behaviour in multilayered composite bodies (i.e., laminates), heated only over a small part of their domains (finite heat source), where there is an inner layer that has a substantial capacity for heat conduction parallel to the heat exchange surface (convection cooling). This resulting heat conduction behaviour improves the overall heat transfer process when compared to heat conduction in homogeneous bodies. Long-term heat storage using supercooling salt hydrate phase change materials, stovetop cookware, and electronics cooling applications could all benefit from this kind of heat-spreading in laminates. Experiments using laminate films reclaimed from post-consumer Tetra Brik cartons were conducted with thin rectangular and circular heaters to confirm the laminate body, steady-state, heat conduction behaviour predicted by the two-region fin model. Medium to high accuracy experimental validation of the two-region fin model was achieved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for forced external convection and natural convection, the latter for Cartesian only. These were conducted using constant heat flux finite heat source temperature profiles that were measured by infrared thermography. This validation is also deemed valid for constant temperature heat sources.

  17. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the removal process, remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  18. A Re-analysis of Published Differential Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, William W.

    A survey of recent literature was undertaken to locate validity studies of paper-and-pencil tests which met the following criteria: (1) Studies were conducted in a business or industrial (i.e. non-education, non-military) setting; (2) Separate statistics were available for blacks and whites; (3) Race was not confounded with some outside variable…

  19. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  20. Design and Validation of a High-Temperature Comparative Thermal-Conductivity Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; C Xing; H. Ban

    2012-02-01

    A measurement system has been designed and built for the specific application of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of a composite, nuclear-fuel compact (small cylinder) over a temperature range of 100 C to 800 C. Because of the composite nature of the sample as well as the need to measure samples pre- and postirradiation, measurement must be performed on the whole compact non-destructively. No existing measurement system is capable of obtaining its thermal conductivity in a non-destructive manner. The designed apparatus is an adaptation of the guardedcomparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system uniquely demonstrates the use of a radiative heat sink to provide cooling which greatly simplifies the design and setup of such high-temperature systems. The design was aimed to measure thermalconductivity values covering the expected range of effective thermal conductivity of the composite nuclear fuel from 10W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} to 70W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}. Several materials having thermal conductivities covering this expected range have been measured for system validation, and results are presented. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.Additionally, an uncertainty analysis is presented finding an overall uncertainty in sample thermal conductivity to be 6%, matching well with the results of the validation samples.

  1. Homework Purpose Scale for High School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale using 681 rural and 306 urban high school students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rural sample. The results reveal that the Homework Purpose Scale comprises three separate yet related factors, including Learning-Oriented Reasons,…

  2. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  3. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  4. Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T.; Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2010-07-07

    Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R{sub b}) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10{sup -4} Scm{sup -1} for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1} while for the MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10{sup -2} Scm{sup -1}. The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

  5. Principles and pitfalls of nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, J

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews the fundamental principles and the changing concepts of nerve stimulation techniques, and discusses the proper application of these techniques in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. Nerve conduction studies help delineate the extent and distribution of the neural lesion and distinguish two major categories of peripheral nerve disease: demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although the method is based on simple principles, pitfalls abound in practice. Variability in nerve conduction measurement may result from temperature change, variations among nerve segments, and the effects of age. Other sources of error include excessive spread of stimulation current, anomalous innervation, temporal dispersion, and inaccuracy of surface measurement. Unlike a bipolar derivation, which selectively records near-field potentials, a referential recording may give rise to stationary far-field peaks from a moving source. Overlooking this possibility can lead to an incorrect interpretation of findings. Conventional nerve conduction studies deal primarily with measurements of the distal nerve segments in an extremity. More recent techniques are applicable to less accessible anatomical regions, as illustrated by elicitation of the blink reflex, F wave, and H reflex, and the use of the inching technique. Other methods used to assess special aspects of nerve conduction include the ischemic test and studies of slow-conducting fibers. PMID:6093680

  6. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  7. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  8. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  9. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  11. A scattering model for perfectly conducting random surfaces. I - Model development. II - Range of validity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Pan, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    The surface current on a perfectly conducting randomly rough surface is estimated by solving iteratively a standard integral equation, and the estimate is then used to compute the far-zone scattered fields and the backscattering coefficients for vertical, horizontal and cross polarizations. The model developed here yields a simple backscattering coefficient expression in terms of the surface parameters. The expression reduces analytically to the Kirchhoff and the first-order small-perturbation model in the high- and low-frequency regions, respectively. The range of validity of the model is determined.

  12. Experimental validation of a new space marching finite difference algorithm for the inverse heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, M.; Bransier, J.

    A space-marching finite difference algorithm is developed for solving the one-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem. The method is easy to apply, stable, and as accurate as the most efficient existing methods. An experimental set-up made of a rectangular parallelepiped polymerized around a woof of thermocouples has been designed especially to validate the method. The thermal conductivity of the test specimen was previously determined with the same set-up, and the specific heat is estimated during the experiments. The estimated surface heat flux is in very good agreement with the heat flux measured by a foil heat flux gage, regardless of the sensor locations. These results show that the method remains effective in spite of the cumulated effects of the errors due to the data acquisition system, to the location and calibration of the sensors, and to the simultaneous estimation of the specific heat.

  13. On Conducting Construct Validity Meta-Analyses for the Rorschach: A Reply to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman (2016).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2016-01-01

    We respond to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman's (2016) critique of our systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables published in Psychological Bulletin (2013). The authors endorsed our supportive findings but critiqued the same methodology when used for the 13 unsupported variables. Unfortunately, their commentary was based on significant misunderstandings of our meta-analytic method and results, such as thinking we used introspectively assessed criteria in classifying levels of support and reporting only a subset of our externally assessed criteria. We systematically address their arguments that our construct label and criterion variable choices were inaccurate and, therefore, meta-analytic validity for these 13 CS variables was artificially low. For example, the authors created new construct labels for these variables that they called "the customary CS interpretation," but did not describe their methodology nor provide evidence that their labels would result in better validity than ours. They cite studies they believe we should have included; we explain how these studies did not fit our inclusion criteria and that including them would have actually reduced the relevant CS variables' meta-analytic validity. Ultimately, criticisms alone cannot change meta-analytic support from negative to positive; Tibon Czopp and Zeligman would need to conduct their own construct validity meta-analyses. PMID:27153466

  14. Intercostal nerve conduction study in man.

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, S; Taly, A

    1989-01-01

    A new surface technique for the conduction study of the lower intercostal nerves has been developed and applied to 30 normal subjects. The problem of the short available nerve segment of the intercostal nerves and the bizzare compound motor action potential (CMAP) of inconsistent latency while recording over the intercostal muscles, is overcome by applying recording electrodes over the rectus abdominis muscle and stimulating the nerves at two points at a fair distance away. With the use of multiple recording sites over the rectus abdominis, the motor points for different intercostal nerves were delineated. CMAP of reproducible latencies and waveforms with sharp take-off points were obtained. Conduction velocity of the intercostal nerves could be determined. PMID:2526200

  15. Copper Conductivity Model Development and Validation Using Flyer Plate Experiments on the Z-machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riford, L.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetically accelerated flyer plate experiments done on Sandia's Z-machine provide insight into a multitude of materials problems at high energies and densities including conductivity model development and validation. In an experiment with ten Cu flyer plates of thicknesses 500-1000 μm, VISAR measurements exhibit a characteristic jump in the velocity correlated with magnetic field burn-through and the expansion of melted material at the free surface. The experiment is modeled using Sandia's shock and multiphysics MHD code ALEGRA. Simulated free surface velocities are within 1% of the measured data early in time, but divergence occurs at the feature, where the simulation indicates a slower burn through time. The cause was found to be in the Cu conductivity model's compressed regime. The model was improved by lowering the conductivity in the region 12.5-16 g/cc and 350-16000 K with a novel parameter based optimization method using the velocity feature as a figure of merit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Two phase detonation studies conducted in 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A report is presented describing the research conducted on five phases: (1) ignition of fuel drops by a shock wave and passage of a shock wave over a burning drop, (2) the energy release pattern of a two-phase detonation with controlled drop sizes, (3) the attenuation of shock and detonation waves passing over an acoustic liner, (4) experimental and theoretical studies of film detonations, and (5) a simplified analytical model of a rotating two-phase detonation wave in a rocket motor.

  17. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N, flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 deg flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 deg and aft-cone angle of 55 deg. Both sets of experiments involve 30 deg compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  18. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  19. English Consequential Validity Study, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    This study, conducted by the San Diego Community College District in fall 2002, aims to answer the following research questions regarding student preparedness for courses in writing, reading, study skills, and composition: (1) Is there a relationship between instructor perception of preparedness and student performance? (2) Is there a relationship…

  20. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen

  1. The validation of the robust input estimation approach to two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan, P.C.; Ju, M.C.

    2000-03-01

    A novel adaptive and robust input estimation inverse methodology of estimating the time-varying unknown heat flux, named as the input, on the two active boundaries of a 2-D inverse heat conduction problem is presented. The algorithm includes using the Kalman filter to propose a regression model between the residual innovation and the two thermal unknown boundaries flux through given 2-D heat conduction state-space models and noisy measurement sequence. Based on this regression equation, a recursive least-square estimator (RLSE) weighted by the forgetting factor is proposed to on-line estimate these unknowns. The adaptive and robust weighting technique is essential since unknowns input are time-varied and have unpredictable changing status. In this article, the authors provide the bandwidth analysis together with bias and variance tests to construct an efficient and robust forgetting factor as the ratio between the standard deviation of measurement and observable bias innovation at each time step. Herein, the unknowns are robustly and adaptively estimated under the system involving measurement noise, process error, and unpredictable change status of time-varying unknowns. The capabilities of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through the comparison with the conventional input estimation algorithm and validated by two benchmark performance tests in 2-D cases. Results show that the proposed algorithm not only exhibits superior robust capability but also enhances the estimation performance and highly facilitates practical implementation.

  2. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples... Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure to... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed...

  3. Conductance Studies of Aqueous Succinic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1992-03-01

    Conductance measurements of aqueous solutions of succinic acid and of di-sodium succinate were performed from 278.15 to 308.15 K and the limiting conductances λ0 (1/2 Succ2- ) are reported. The Waiden product is independent of temperature: λ0(1/2 Succ2-)*η(T) = 0.503 ± 0.001. The salt conductances closely obey the Onsager limiting law. The evaluation of the equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, K1 and K2, and the limiting conductances of the hydrosuccinate ion, λ0(HSucc-), are discussed using the Quint and Viallard conductance equation

  4. Lightning electromagnetic radiation over a stratified conducting ground: 2. Validity of simplified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoory, Abdolhamid; Rachidi, Farhad; Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto

    2011-06-01

    In the first part of this paper, the rigorous theory describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning return stroke over a two-layered conducting ground was presented and the exact expressions for the lightning electromagnetic fields were developed and discussed. In this part of the paper, the theory along with its time domain numerical evaluation algorithm is used for the assessment of the validity of simplified approaches proposed in the literature for the vertical electric and horizontal magnetic field components. The simplified approaches are based on the concept of ground surface impedance and its corresponding attenuation function. It is shown that the results obtained using the simplified approaches are in excellent agreement with exact results in both near (50 m) and intermediate (1000 m) distance range. However, since the vertical electric and azimuthal magnetic field components are not appreciably affected by the ground finite conductivity, they can also be evaluated assuming the ground as a perfectly conducting ground. On the other hand, the horizontal electric field above a horizontally stratified ground is very much affected by the ground electrical parameters. Its waveform is characterized by an early negative excursion due to the currents flowing into the ground followed by a late time positive excursion which is due to the elevation of the observation point from the ground level. The magnitude of the negative peak is sharper for subsequent return strokes than first return strokes and is higher for lower conducting grounds. A new formula is proposed for the evaluation of the horizontal electric field at a given height above the air-ground interface. The formula can be viewed as the generalization of the Cooray-Rubinstein formula for the case of a two-layer ground. We show that the new formula is able to reproduce in a satisfactory manner the horizontal electric field above a two-layer ground. The proposed formulation is, however, less

  5. Conductance Studies on Aqueous Citric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1991-02-01

    Conductance measurements of citric acid and neutral citrates (tri-lithium citrate, tri-sodium citrate and tri-potassium citrate) were performed in water at 278.15 to 308.15 K. The equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, Kx and K2, and the limiting conductances, λ0(H2Cit-), λ°(1/2 HCit2-), and λ0(1/3 Cit3-) are reported as a function of temperature. They are obtained by application of the Quint and Viallard conductance equation. The enthalpies of dissociation are estimated.

  6. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  7. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  8. Structural and Electrical Study of Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Dixit, Manasvi; Saxena, N. S.; Sharma, Kananbala

    2010-06-01

    Pure and oxalic acid doped conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which provides information about the surface topography of polymers. I-V characteristics have been recorded at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 463 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be linear. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature in polyaniline samples with increase in temperature, whereas oxalic acid doped polypyrrole sample suggests a transition from semiconducting to metallic nature with the increase of temperature.

  9. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  10. Strategies in postoperative pain assessment: validation study.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, B; Dahlgren, L O; Haljamäe, H

    1999-10-01

    Pain assessment and management are major clinical problems that many categories of healthcare professionals have to deal with. Although there are many potentially successful approaches available for pain management, there is still a shortage of knowledge about the strategies used by staff members for the actual assessment of pain and how reliable these strategies are. The fact that patients often undergo a great deal of suffering from pain and lack of adequate pain relief may be considered an indicator of this shortage of knowledge. Clinical studies from different parts of the world reveal that the incidence of pain reported by patients is still high, with about 75% reporting moderate pain and an additional 15% severe pain. The aim of the present study was to validate different categories used in acute pain assessment and their accuracy in a new clinical sample and to explore further different dimensions of how staff members experience pain assessment. Intensive care nurses (n = 10) were carrying out pain assessment of postoperative patients (n = 30). Each pain assessment was followed by a detailed interview and indicating the estimated pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10 cm). The pain ratings by the nurses were compared to those of the patients to assess the accuracy of the pain assessments of the staff members. A previously developed category system for describing the initial empirical material regarding criteria the nurses relied on when assessing pain, combined with what experience has taught them in this respect, was used to assess the validity of previous observations. The results indicate that similar approaches were still used by the nurses but the accuracy of pain assessment had considerably improved. PMID:10808821

  11. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  12. Conduction Velocity of the Uterine Contraction in Serial Magnetomyogram (MMG) Data: Event Based Simulation and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Preissl, Hubert; Lowery, Curtis L.; Eswaran, Hari; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to calculate the conduction velocity (CV) of the uterine contraction bursts in magnetomyogram (MMG) signals measured using a multichannel SQUID array. For this purpose, we partition the sensor coordinates into four different quadrants and identify the contractile bursts using a previously proposed Hilbert-wavelet transform approach. If contractile burst is identified in more than one quadrant, we calculate the center of gravity (CoG) in each quadrant for each time point as the sum of the product of the sensor coordinates with the Hilbert amplitude of the MMG signals normalized by the sum of the Hilbert amplitude of the signals over all sensors. Following this we compute the delay between the CoGs of all (six) possible quadrant pairs combinations. As a first step, we validate this approach by simulating a stochastic model based on independent second-order autoregressive processes (AR2) and we divide them into 30 second disjoint windows and insert burst activity at specific time instances in preselected sensors. Also we introduce a lag of 5 ± 1 seconds between different quadrants. Using our approach we calculate the CoG of the signals in a quadrant. To this end, we compute the delay between CoGs obtained from different quadrants and show that our approach is able to reliably capture the delay incorporated in the model. We apply the proposed approach to 19 serial MMG data obtained from two subjects and show an increase in the CV as the subjects approached labor. PMID:22255713

  13. Conduction velocity of the uterine contraction in serial magnetomyogram (MMG) data: event based simulation and validation.

    PubMed

    Furdea, Adrian; Preissl, Hubert; Lowery, Curtis L; Eswaran, Hari; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to calculate the conduction velocity (CV) of the uterine contraction bursts in magnetomyogram (MMG) signals measured using a multichannel SQUID array. For this purpose, we partition the sensor coordinates into four different quadrants and identify the contractile bursts using a previously proposed Hilbert-wavelet transform approach. If contractile burst is identified in more than one quadrant, we calculate the center of gravity (CoG) in each quadrant for each time point as the sum of the product of the sensor coordinates with the Hilbert amplitude of the MMG signals normalized by the sum of the Hilbert amplitude of the signals over all sensors. Following this we compute the delay between the CoGs of all (six) possible quadrant pairs combinations. As a first step, we validate this approach by simulating a stochastic model based on independent second-order autoregressive processes (AR2) and we divide them into 30 second disjoint windows and insert burst activity at specific time instances in preselected sensors. Also we introduce a lag of 5 ± 1 seconds between different quadrants. Using our approach we calculate the CoG of the signals in a quadrant. To this end, we compute the delay between CoGs obtained from different quadrants and show that our approach is able to reliably capture the delay incorporated in the model. We apply the proposed approach to 19 serial MMG data obtained from two subjects and show an increase in the CV as the subjects approached labor. PMID:22255713

  14. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  15. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  16. Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

  17. Electrochemical corrosion studies in low conductivity propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, G. D.; Moran, C. M.; Distefano, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is investigating the possibility of developing advanced electrochemical techniques as accelerated compatibility tests for metal/propellant systems which overcome the problems associated with the low conductivity of the liquid propellants (e.g., hydrazines, nitrogen tetroxide). Both DC techniques and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are being evaluated. Progress has been made in experiments involving stainless steel with hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants.

  18. 40 CFR 160.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study... conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study, nature, and date of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 160.130...

  19. 40 CFR 160.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study... conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study, nature, and date of... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 160.130...

  20. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    -reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women. PMID:14615694

  1. Practical challenges in conducting respiratory studies

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sanjay D.; Patil, Mahesh L.; Shah, Tapankumar M.; Gokhale, Partha M.; Suvarna, Viraj

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory studies are complex on account of specific therapeutic knowledge that is needed and various instruments that are used for the management of this condition. Monitoring a respiratory study requires knowledge of the specific disease and associated guidelines. The intent of this article is to help clinical research professionals understand the technicalities, challenges, and the nuances of performing respiratory studies. PMID:25657898

  2. 18 CFR 5.15 - Conduct of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of studies. 5... Conduct of studies. (a) Implementation. The potential applicant must gather information and conduct studies as provided for in the approved study plan and schedule. (b) Progress reports. The...

  3. 18 CFR 5.15 - Conduct of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conduct of studies. 5... Conduct of studies. (a) Implementation. The potential applicant must gather information and conduct studies as provided for in the approved study plan and schedule. (b) Progress reports. The...

  4. 40 CFR 792.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 792.130 Section 792.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study shall be...

  5. 40 CFR 792.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study shall be conducted in accordance with the protocol. (b) The test systems shall be monitored in conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study,...

  6. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  7. An Agenda for NAEP Validity Research: NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Validity Studies Panel undertook a systematic analysis to consider the domain of validity threats to NAEP and to identify the most urgent research priorities. A framework of six broad categories was developed: (1) the constructs measured within each of NAEP's subject domains; (2) the manner in…

  8. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  9. Idaho NTE Core Battery Validation: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetler, Alan G.

    The content validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery tests of communications skills, general knowledge, and professional knowledge was examined to determine whether this commercially available test was suitable for initial teacher certification in Idaho. Focus was on recommending adoption scores (cut scores) to the State…

  10. Reviewing existing knowledge prior to conducting animal studies.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Highly polarised viewpoints about animal experimentation have often prevented agreement. However, important common ground between advocates and opponents was demonstrated within a discussion forum hosted at www.research-methodology.org.uk in July-August 2008, by the independent charity, SABRE Research UK. Agreement existed that many animal studies have methodological flaws - such as inappropriate sample sizes, lack of randomised treatments, and unblinded outcome assessments - that may introduce bias and limit statistical validity. There was also agreement that systematic reviews of the human utility of animal models yield the highest quality of evidence, as their reliance on methodical and impartial methods to select significant numbers of animal studies for review, serves to minimise bias. Unfortunately, disagreement remained that animal experimental licence applications should reference systematic reviews of existing studies, before approval. The UK Medical Research Council requires that researchers planning human clinical trials must reference such reviews of related previous work. Existing knowledge is thereby fully and appropriately utilised, and redundant experimentation is avoided. However, objections were raised that a similar requirement would interfere with animal experimental licensing, because, to date, there have been very few systematic reviews of animal studies. In fact, the relative dearth of such reviews is a matter of considerable concern, and may partially explain the very poor human success rates of drugs that appear safe and/or efficacious in animal trials. Nevertheless, the disturbing number of human trials which have proceeded concurrently with, or prior to, animal studies, or have continued despite equivocal evidence of efficacy in animals, clearly demonstrate that many researchers fail to conduct adequate prior reviews of existing evidence. Where neither sufficient primary studies, nor systematic reviews of such studies, exist, for citation

  11. A validation study for vinyl electrical tape end matches.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Maureen J; Gauntt, Jennifer M; Mehltretter, Andria H; Lowe, Preston C; Wright, Diana M

    2011-05-01

    Fracture matches are considered the strongest conclusion in the forensic examination of rigid materials, such as glass, metal, and paint. However, publications that support the fracture matching of polymeric films, such as tape backings, are limited. This study was designed to determine the validity and error rate associated with conducting end-match (fracture match) examinations on vinyl electrical tape. Test designs varied the source roll of tape, test preparer, or mode of separation from the roll. Results indicated that each affected the resulting severed tape ends. The analysts examining the end matches also had an effect on the results. Eight end matches in the study were not identified by the initial analysts and were considered inconclusive. One end match was misidentified, resulting in one false positive and an error rate of 0.049%. These results support a comprehensive physical and chemical tape comparison regardless of indications of an end match. PMID:21361956

  12. Conductivity and electrical studies of plasticized carboxymethyl cellulose based proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, M. I. N.; Noor, N. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBE) comprises of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as polymer host, ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) as doping salt and ethylene carbonate (EC) as plasticizer has been prepared via solution casting technique. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to study the conductivity and electrical properties of plasticized CMC-NH4SCN SBE system over a wide range of frequency between 50 Hz and 1 MHz at temperature range of 303 to 353 K. Upon addition of plasticizer into CMC-NH4SCN SBE system, the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 10-2 Scm-1. The highest conductivity was obtained by the electrolyte containing 10 wt.% of EC. The conductivity of plasticized CMC-NH4SCN SBE system by various temperatures obeyed Arrhenius law where the ionic conductivity increased as the temperature increased. The activation energy, Ea was found to decrease with enhancement of EC concentration. Dielectric studies for the highest conductivity electrolyte obeyed non-Debye behavior. The conduction mechanism for the highest conductivity electrolyte was determined by employing Jonsher's universal power law and thus, can be represented by the quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) model.

  13. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  14. Construct Validation Theory Applied to the Study of Personality Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263

  15. Experimental validation of an eddy current probe for defect detection in thick conducting specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh Raja, P.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling and experimental measurements of eddy current (EC) probe for detecting subsurface defects in 10 mm to 15 mm thick conducting specimen. Measurements are presented for a pancake air core coil to detect subsurface defect in 10 mm thick aluminum slab. EC coil parameters namely inner radius(r1), and outer radius(r2), and operating frequency (f) are optimized for deeper penetration in the conducting plate (35 MS/m) for a given coil height(h), and lift off distance (d). Preliminary simulation results are presented for a subsurface defect in 15 mm thick aluminium plate for the optimized EC coil parameters.

  16. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  17. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  18. Lightning return stroke current radiation in presence of a conducting ground: 2. Validity assessment of simplified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto; Rachidi, Farhad; Nucci, Carlo Alberto

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the developed formulation, which we shall call the "reference" one, is used to assess the validity of the most popular simplified approach for the calculation of the lightning electromagnetic field over a conducting earth, namely, the Cooray-Rubinstein (CR) approximation. This formula provides a simple method to evaluate the radial component of the electric field which is the component most affected by the finite ground conductivity and which plays an important role within the Agrawal et al. (1980) field-to-transmission line-coupling model. Several configurations are examined, with different values for the ground conductivity and different field observation points. A thorough analysis of all the simulated field components is carried out and comparisons are also made with the "ideal" field, namely, the field that would be present under the assumption of perfectly conducting ground. It is shown that for channel base current typical of subsequent strokes and for very low conductivities, the CR formula exhibits some deviations from the reference one but it still represents a conservative estimation of the radial field component, since it behaves as un upper bound for the exact curve. The developed algorithm is characterized by fast performances in terms of CPU time, lending itself to be used for several applications, including a coupling code for lightning induced overvoltages calculations.

  19. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons with Other Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Shiu, Julie Li-Ju; Tomita, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on research investigating the construct validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of implicit second language (L2) grammatical knowledge. It differs from previous studies in that the EI task focuses on a single grammatical feature and time on task is strictly controlled. Seventy-three EFL learners and 20 native English…

  20. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  1. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  2. FEM Simulation and Experimental Validation of LBW Under Conduction Regime of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churiaque, C.; Amaya-Vazquez, M. R.; Botana, F. J.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Laser Beam Welding (LBW) is an advanced process to join materials with a laser beam of high energy density. LBW is especially suitable to join titanium alloys, as it allows high localization and low size of the melting pool, reducing considerably the energy of the process, in comparison with other welding technologies. Among the two widely known welding regimes, conduction and keyhole, the former is claimed to be a viable alternative to keyhole, mainly because it is a very stable process, provides high-quality welds free of defects, and involves lower laser cost. In the present work, a Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to simulate the LBW of Ti6Al4V alloy under conduction regime. The "Goldak double ellipsoid model" has been taken for the first time to simulate this LBW conduction process. In order to refine and validate the model, experimental conduction welding tests were performed on Ti6Al4V pieces with a high-power diode laser. Microstructural analyses and hardness measurements were also performed on the laser weld beads to identify the generated phases. Distortion and residual stresses were also obtained from the FEM simulations. An excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental results was found regarding the bead morphology and phase transformations.

  3. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  4. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  5. Refinements in the care and use of animals in toxicology studies-regulation, validation, and progress.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Smiler, Kathleen L; Hargaden, Maureen; Koch, Michael A

    2003-11-01

    During the past decade, important advances have been made in the humane care and use of laboratory animals used in toxicology studies, and there is strong international interest by the pharmaceutical sector in continuing with this progress. Because of the potential influence on human health, safety studies are highly regulated, and implementing refinements in laboratory animal care and use may require an initial validation study to demonstrate a lack of effect on study outcome. This paper provides an overview of issues surrounding implementation of animal care refinements in toxicology laboratory settings, including regulatory constraints, conducting validation studies, current progress in refinements, and areas for future consideration. PMID:14615954

  6. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  7. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  8. Hyper-X Stage Separation Trajectory Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Bose, David M.; McMinn, John D.; Martin, John G.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2003-01-01

    An independent twelve degree-of-freedom simulation of the X-43A separation trajectory was created with the Program to Optimize Simulated trajectories (POST II). This simulation modeled the multi-body dynamics of the X-43A and its booster and included the effect of two pyrotechnically actuated pistons used to push the vehicles apart as well as aerodynamic interaction forces and moments between the two vehicles. The simulation was developed to validate trajectory studies conducted with a 14 degree-of-freedom simulation created early in the program using the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanics Systems (ADAMS) simulation software. The POST simulation was less detailed than the official ADAMS-based simulation used by the Project, but was simpler, more concise and ran faster, while providing similar results. The increase in speed provided by the POST simulation provided the Project with an alternate analysis tool. This tool was ideal for performing separation control logic trade studies that required the running of numerous Monte Carlo trajectories.

  9. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  10. Conducting Phase IV clinical studies: a moral imperative?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, TP

    2012-01-01

    The answer to this question lies in knowing the moral standing of Phase IV studies and whether we ought to conduct them. And to know this, in part, we need to compare them to studies in Phases I, II, and III and then determine where Phase IV studies stand in relation to Phase I–III studies scientifically and commercially.

  11. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  12. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  13. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  14. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  15. Factor Analysis and Validity Study of the Law School Admission Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alfred B.

    A factor analysis of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) battery was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the specific abilities which contribute to performance on the tests. To determine whether greater amounts of testing time should be allocated to groups of items defined by the factor analysis, a validity study was conducted. Existing…

  16. Validation study of the USDA’s Data Quality Evaluation System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of USDA has conducted a validation study of the USDA Data Quality Evaluation System. The system evaluates the quality of analytical data by rating important documentation concerning the analytical method, analytical quality control, number of samples...

  17. Which Study Designs Are Capable of Producing Valid Evidence about a Program's Effectiveness? A Brief Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guide is addressed to policy officials, program providers, and researchers who are seeking to: (1) identify and implement social programs backed by valid evidence of effectiveness; or (2) sponsor or conduct an evaluation to determine whether a program is effective. The guide provides a brief overview of which studies can produce valid…

  18. Validation study of the USDA’s data quality evaluation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of USDA conducted a validation study of the USDA Data Quality Evaluation System (DQES). The system evaluates the quality of analytical data by rating important documentation concerning the analytical method, analytical quality control, number of samples, sampling ...

  19. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  20. Academic Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of College Outcomes: Two Incremental Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A. Jr

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports the relationship between students' self-efficacy beliefs for academic tasks and milestones and their academic performance. Not surprisingly, some researchers have investigated the role that academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Two incremental validity studies were conducted to…

  1. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    PubMed

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research. PMID:25987305

  2. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  3. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  4. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment). At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation) and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items), informational support (seven items), emotional support (five items), problem solving (seven items), patient activation (10 items), intimacy/friendship (six items) and spirituality strengthening (14 items). Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument. PMID:26161370

  5. Symptom validity testing and its underlying psychophysiological response pattern: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vilar-López, R; Pérez-García, M; Sánchez-Barrera, M B; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Gómez-Río, M

    2011-03-01

    Very little is known about the autonomic psychophysiological responses while individuals are executing a Symptom Validity Test. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the peripheral psychophysiological correlates (electrodermal conductance and heart rate) during the performance of the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT). The sample of this study was composed of 30 participants who underwent the VSVT under two conditions: Exaggeration of cognitive deficits (ECD) and normal effort. Our results showed differences on skin conductance between correct answers and errors limited to the decision-making phase of the ECD condition. Those differences found in the maximum conductance value when participants decide to simulate their deficits could be related to emotional activation. No differences were found on the variable heart rate between the two conditions of the study. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21169274

  6. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  7. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene.

  8. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-21

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene. PMID:26493918

  9. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  10. The electrical conduction of conjugated molecular CAMs studied by a conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Kazufumi

    2006-09-01

    Monomolecular layers containing pyrrolyl groups between two parallel Pt electrodes on a glass substrate by a chemical adsorption technique using N-[11-(trichlorosilyl)undecyl] pyrrole (PNN) were studied. Polymerization with pure water by applying a DC voltage of 10 V between the two Pt electrodes was carried out, and several electric paths were formed between the two Pt electrodes were identified. Conductive probe of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine the electrical polymerized paths through the surface of the polypyrrolyl group in a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. With a measurement volume of about 0.2 nm (thickness of the monomolecular layer) × 100 μm (the average width of an electric path) × 100 μm (the distance between the Pt electrode and the Au-covered AFM tip), the resistance at room temperature of one electric path was 5 kΩ under ambient conditions. From the results conducted in an atmosphere, the conductivity of a super-long conjugated polypyrrolyl group without any dopant in a lateral direction was ohmically estimated to be at least 5.0 × 10 5 s/m.

  11. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  12. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI-Ag2O-[(1-x)B2O3-xTeO2] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz-3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303-423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300-523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10-2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  13. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  14. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  16. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  19. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  20. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  1. The Basic "How To's" for Validating a Study Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Virginia G.

    To find out what study skills were used by successful students at an urban commuter school whose primary degree program is business, the College Reading and Study Skills (CRSS) inventory was validated on 150 students. First the CRSS inventory was evaluated and revised slightly. The language of the statements was made positive and jargon free. The…

  2. Developing the Educational Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Cokluk, Omay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining educational beliefs of teachers and prospective teachers. After studies such as scale expert views and the evaluation of intelligibility, the measure is administered to a sample consisting of 154 teachers and 305 prospective teachers with a total number…

  3. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  4. The Jackson Career Explorer: Two Further Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2012-01-01

    The present report consists of two further validity studies using the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE), a short form and continuous version of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, measuring 34 interests. The first study examined the relationships between the JCE and five personality factors, from a sample of 528 individuals. The correlations found…

  5. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  6. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  7. Treatment of Conduct Disorders in Childhood: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Elizabeth A.

    Children evidencing conduct disorders comprise the bulk of clinical referrals. Longitudinal studies have found that the prognosis for these children is poor in that the majority exhibit antisocial behavior in adulthood. In order to compare two methods of treatment, relationship-based and contingency management, 53 children (33 boys, 20 girls),…

  8. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  9. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  10. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  11. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  12. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  13. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  14. Recent Studies of RF Breakdown Physics in Normal Conducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    The operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The behavior of the rf breakdown depends on multiple parameters, including the input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Here we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical studies of rf breakdown physics.

  15. Preparation, characterization and conductivity studies of chlorinated natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Subburaj; Ramesan, M. T.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated natural rubber (CNR) was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform using phase transfer catalyst. The chlorination in CNR was monitored by FTIR and UV spectroscopy and these studies indicated the formation of dichloro cyclopropyl ring to the double bond of natural rubber (NR). XRD and SEM analysis revealed the extent of chlorination in natural rubber. Electrical properties such as AC conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of CNR was higher than that of NR. Conductivity of NR increased with the increase in the concentration of chlorine percentage. LOI values indicated that the chemical modification imparts better flame resistant to NR.

  16. Validation study for secretarial/administrative classifications using computer-based testing

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content and concurrent criterion-related validity study conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for clerical, secretarial and administrative classifications using computer-based testing. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of testing software incorporated in the study are explored. Job analysis methodology, adverse impact analysis, procedure for establishing cut-off score and problems associated with criterion development and restriction of range are discussed. 6 tabs.

  17. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  18. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  19. Conceptualization and Utility of University Mattering: A Construct Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Megan K.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the University Mattering Scale. Theoretically based factor structures were tested, resulting in the four-factor conceptualization of mattering being championed. As predicted, university mattering related positively to academic motivational and relatedness constructs and negatively to…

  20. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  1. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  2. Homework Purpose Scale for Middle School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was…

  3. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  4. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of logotherapy…

  5. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

  6. The Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised: A Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.

    2003-01-01

    This study supported evidence of reliability and validity of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised (TOPS-R) scores. The TOPS-R was designed to measure theoretical orientation among counselors and trainees. Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution accounting for 87.5% of the total variance in the scale. The 6 factors corresponded to…

  7. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  8. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section 761.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... selected testing parameters and experimental conditions. Take a standard wipe sample of the...

  9. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  10. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  11. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  12. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.

  13. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Gowda, Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-07-15

    Glasses in the system xLi{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-20Li{sub 2}O-(80-x) [80P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20V{sub 2}O{sub 5}](5{>=}x{>=}20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation {sigma}({omega}) = {sigma}(0)+A{omega}{sup s} where 's' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  14. Meteorological conditions during the winter validation study at Rocky Flats, Colorado: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1991-11-06

    The objective for the Winter Validation Study was to gather field data for validation of the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) under winter time meteorological conditions. Twelve tracer tests were conducted during a two-week period in February 1991. Each test lasted 12 hours, with releases of SF{sub 6} tracer from the Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado. The tests included ground-based and airborne sampling to 16 km from the release point. This presentation summarizes meteorological conditions during the testing period. Forty six viewgraphs are included.

  15. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  16. Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Idvall, E; Hamrin, E; Sjöström, B; Unosson, M

    2001-01-01

    Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study. In a previous study, strategic and clinical quality indicators were developed from a tentative model to assess high quality in postoperative pain management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content validity of these 15 indicators. The indicators were compiled in a questionnaire, and two groups of nurses (n=210, n=321) scored each indicator on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) from three different standpoints: whether it was essential for achieving high quality, whether it was realistic to carry out, and whether it was possible for nurses to influence management. The respondents were also asked to choose the most crucial indicators for the quality of care. The results showed that both groups of nurses judged the 15 indicators to have content validity from all three standpoints. Both groups also found the same six indicators to be the most crucial. These indicators concerned detecting and acting on signs and symptoms, performing prescriptions, informing and educating, acting on behalf of patients, competence/knowledge, and attitudes. The validated indicators should be useful to consider when implementing a strategy for postoperative pain management and when planning to evaluate the quality of care. PMID:12453175

  17. Metal-containing polyacrylonitriles: ESR studies and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein, L.M.; ERemin, V.S.; Solodovnikov, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    Metal-containing polyacrylonitriles (PAN) synthesized by the complexation of VI B group metal hexacarbonyls with PAN nitrile groups were studied during thermolysis in air at 220{degrees}C to find conditions for preparation of conductive polymeric films. It was shown that increase of W content in polymer leads to significant decrease of {gamma}{sub v} to magnitude about 10{sup -16} {Omega}/cm as compared with conductivity of thermolized initial PAN ({gamma}{sub v} = 10{sup -11} {Omega}/cm). In contrast, PAN-Cr samples heated under the same temperature-time conditions in an external field 40-50 kV/cm show the increase of conductivity: at a chromium content of 3.1 wt.% {gamma}{sub v} reaches a value of 10{sup -5} {Omega}/cm. According to ESR study, the thermolized PAN-Cr contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (a broad ESR signal at H=65 Oe); in so doing rough estimate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersity gives a value about 3 nm. Upon thermolysis of PAN-Mo in external field the enhancement of conductivity also occurs. The values of the temperature resistance factors for PAN-Cr and PAN-Mo in the temperature range 20-200{degrees}C reaches a value 1-9 x 10{sup -4} K{sup -1}.

  18. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  19. Sources of Self-Efficacy in Mathematics: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N=1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N=824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best.…

  20. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  1. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  2. Validity of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey: A Confirmatory Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of the present study were to evaluate whether investigator bias influenced the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores of children with normal binocular vision (NBV) in our original validation study, reevaluate the usefulness of the cut-off score of 16, and reexamine the validity of the CISS. Methods Six clinical sites participating in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) enrolled 46 children 9 - <18 years with NBV. Examiners masked to the child’s binocular vision status administered the CISS. The mean CISS score was compared to that from the children with NBV in the original, unmasked CISS study and also to that of the 221 symptomatic CI children enrolled in the CITT. Results The mean (±SD) CISS score for 46 subjects with NBV was 10.4 (±8.1). This was comparable to that from our prior unmasked NBV study (mean = 8.1(± 6.2); p = 0.11), but was significantly different from that of the CITT CI group (mean = 29.8 ± 9.0; p < 0.001). Eighty-three percent of these NBV subjects scored less than 16 on the CISS, which is not statistically different from the 87.5% found in the original unmasked study (p = 0.49). Conclusions Examiner bias did not affect the CISS scores for subjects with NBV in our prior study. The CISS continues to be a valid instrument for quantifying symptoms in 9 to <18 year-old children and these results confirm the validity of a cut-point of ≥ 16 in distinguishing children with symptomatic CI from those with NBV. PMID:19289977

  3. Paper use in research ethics applications and study conduct.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M

    2011-02-01

    Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees. PMID:21404784

  4. A multisite validity study of self-reported anesthesia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Pekmezaris, Renee; Lesser, Martin L; Nouryan, Christian N; Rosinia, Frank; Pratt, Kathy; LaVopa, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a multisite anesthesia voluntary adverse event reporting process. A data validation methodology was used through medical chart review on live records at 3 facilities (N = 600). The per-item aggregated error rate among all 42 data items was 0.3%: 0.1% for quality indicators, 1.3% for demographic/status variables, and 1.7% for administrative items. The per-patient error rate among all 42 data items was 6.3%: 3.0% for quality indicators, 1.7% for demographic/status variables, and 3.0% for administrative items. Trends such as better accuracy for more serious events continue, but observed error rates were lower than those found in previous surveys-an indication that, while further study is needed, nonpunitive voluntary reporting may reduce errors in anesthesia care. PMID:22326979

  5. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS1

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness Method: methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems; and validation of the contents of the recordings of the expressions by LIBRAS specialists. Data were processed in a spreadsheet and analyzed using univariate tables, with absolute frequencies and percentages. The validation results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: 33 expressions in LIBRAS, of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems were evaluated, and 28 expressions obtained a satisfactory CVI (1.00). Conclusions: the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS presented validity, in the study region, for health professionals, especially nurses, for use in the clinical anamnesis of the nursing consultation for people with deafness. PMID:26625991

  6. Design, development, testing and validation of a Photonics Virtual Laboratory for the study of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Francisco L.; Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel L.; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the design, development, testing and validation of a Photonic Virtual Laboratory, highlighting the study of LEDs. The study was conducted from a conceptual, experimental and didactic standpoint, using e-learning and m-learning platforms. Specifically, teaching tools that help ensure that our students perform significant learning have been developed. It has been brought together the scientific aspect, such as the study of LEDs, with techniques of generation and transfer of knowledge through the selection, hierarchization and structuring of information using concept maps. For the validation of the didactic materials developed, it has been used procedures with various assessment tools for the collection and processing of data, applied in the context of an experimental design. Additionally, it was performed a statistical analysis to determine the validity of the materials developed. The assessment has been designed to validate the contributions of the new materials developed over the traditional method of teaching, and to quantify the learning achieved by students, in order to draw conclusions that serve as a reference for its application in the teaching and learning processes, and comprehensively validate the work carried out.

  7. The Relationship between Nerve Conduction Study and Clinical Grading of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheluvaiah, Janardhan D.; Agadi, Jagadish B.; Nagaraj, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment. Subjective sensory symptoms are common place in patients with CTS, but sometimes they are not supported by objective findings in the neurological examination. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. The amplitudes along with the conduction velocities of the sensory nerve action potential and motor nerve action potential reflect the functional state of axons, and are useful parameters and complement the clinical grading in the assessment of severity of CTS. Aim To conduct median nerve sensory and motor conduction studies on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and correlate the relationship between nerve conduction study parameters and the clinical severity grading. Materials and Methods Based on clinical assessment, the study patients were divided into 03 groups with mild CTS, moderate CTS and severe CTS respectively as per Mackinnson’s classification. Median and ulnar nerve conduction studies were performed on bilateral upper limbs of 50 patients with symptoms of CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. The relationship between the clinical severity grade and various nerve conduction study parameters were correlated. Results In this prospective case control study, 50 patients with symptoms consistent with CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were examined over a 10 month period. A total of 30 patients had unilateral CTS (right upper limb in 19 and left upper limb in 11) and 20 patients had bilateral CTS. Female to male ratio was 3.54 to 1. Age ranged from 25 to 81 years. The mean age at presentation was 49.68±11.7 years. Tingling paresthesias of hand and first three fingers were the most frequent symptoms 48 (98%). Tinel’s and Phalen’s sign were positive in 36 (72%) and 44 (88%) patients respectively. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 52.68±99.81 weeks. 16 patients (32%) had

  8. Use and validity of principles of extremum of entropy production in the study of complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heitor Reis, A.

    2014-07-15

    It is shown how both the principles of extremum of entropy production, which are often used in the study of complex systems, follow from the maximization of overall system conductivities, under appropriate constraints. In this way, the maximum rate of entropy production (MEP) occurs when all the forces in the system are kept constant. On the other hand, the minimum rate of entropy production (mEP) occurs when all the currents that cross the system are kept constant. A brief discussion on the validity of the application of the mEP and MEP principles in several cases, and in particular to the Earth’s climate is also presented. -- Highlights: •The principles of extremum of entropy production are not first principles. •They result from the maximization of conductivities under appropriate constraints. •The conditions of their validity are set explicitly. •Some long-standing controversies are discussed and clarified.

  9. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  10. Electronic conductivity studies on oxyhalide glasses containing TMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayatha, D.; Viswanatha, R.; Sujatha, B.; Narayana Reddy, C.

    2016-05-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis is cleaner, more economical and much faster than conventional methods. The development of new routes for the synthesis of solid materials is an integral part of material science and technology. The electronic conductivity studies on xPbCl2 - 60 PbO - (40-x) V2O5 (1 ≥ x ≤ 10) glass system has been carried out over a wide range of composition and temperature (300 K to 423 K). X-ray diffraction study confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the formation of cluster like morphology in PbCl2 containing glasses. The d.c conductivity exhibits Arrhenius behaviour and increases with V2O5 concentration. Analysis of the results is interpreted in view Austin-Mott's small polaron model of electron transport. Activation energies calculated using regression analysis exhibit composition dependent trend and the variation is explained in view of the structure of lead-vanadate glass.

  11. Predictive Validity Study of the APS Writing and Reading Tests [and] Validating Placement Rules for the APS Writing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    California's College of the Canyons has used the College Board Assessment and Placement Services (APS) test to assess students' abilities in basic and college English since spring 1993. These two reports summarize data from a May 1994 study of the predictive validity of the APS writing and reading tests and a June 1994 effort to validate the cut…

  12. Conductive Education: Feasibility Study on Developing a National Curriculum Plan for Those Working in Conductive Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Graham A.

    This study sought to determine whether there are national training needs among staff of conductive education programs in New Zealand. Conductive education is a unified system of education for children and adults with a motor disorder whose disability has been caused by damage to the central nervous system. The study, which focuses primarily on…

  13. Online crowdsourcing for efficient rating of speech: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blinded listener ratings are essential for valid assessment of interventions for speech disorders, but collecting these ratings can be time-intensive and costly. This study evaluated the validity of speech ratings obtained through online crowdsourcing, a potentially more efficient approach. 100 words from children with /r/ misarticulation were electronically presented for binary rating by 35 phonetically trained listeners and 205 naïve listeners recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing platform. Bootstrapping was used to compare different-sized samples of AMT listeners against a “gold standard” (mode across all trained listeners) and an “industry standard” (mode across bootstrapped samples of 3 trained listeners). There was strong overall agreement between trained and AMT listeners. The “industry standard” level of performance was matched by bootstrapped samples with n = 9 AMT listeners. These results support the hypothesis that valid ratings of speech data can be obtained in an efficient manner through AMT. Researchers in communication disorders could benefit from increased awareness of this method. PMID:25578293

  14. Summary of remote vehicle emissions sensing studies conducted in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Rendahl, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    The State of Wisconsin received Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) grants to conduct studies during the summers of 1993 and 1994 to determine the effectiveness of using a remote sensing device (RSD) to fulfill the {open_quotes}On-Road{close_quotes} emissions testing requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The RSD used in the Wisconsin studies was designed and patented by Dr. Donald H. Stedman of the University of Denver, and was produced by Remote Sensing Technologies, Inc. (RSTi) of Tucson, AZ. This paper will summarize sampling activities, intercomparison results with the existing Basic vehicle inspection/maintenance (IM) centralized test facilities, and look at the results of data collected on close to 200,000 vehicles tested in the two year period.

  15. Recommendations for conducting controlled clinical studies of dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hickel, R; Roulet, J-F; Bayne, S; Heintze, S D; Mjör, I A; Peters, M; Rousson, V; Randall, R; Schmalz, G; Tyas, M; Vanherle, G

    2007-03-01

    About 35 years ago, Ryge provided a practical approach to evaluation of clinical performance of restorative materials. This systematic approach was soon universally accepted. While that methodology has served us well, a large number of scientific methodologies and more detailed questions have arisen that require more rigor. Current restorative materials have vastly improved clinical performance and any changes over time are not easily detected by the limited sensitivity of the Ryge criteria in short term clinical investigations. However, the clinical evaluation of restorations not only involves the restorative material per se but also different operative techniques. For instance, a composite resin may show good longevity data when applied in conventional cavities but not in modified operative approaches. Insensitivity, combined with the continually evolving and non-standard investigator modifications of the categories, scales, and reporting methods, has created a body of literature that is extremely difficult to meaningfully interpret. In many cases, the insensitivity of the original Ryge methods is misinterpreted as good clinical performance. While there are many good features of the original system, it is now time to move to a more contemporary one. The current review approaches this challenge in two ways: (1) a proposal for a modern clinical testing protocol for controlled clinical trials, and (2) an in-depth discussion of relevant clinical evaluation parameters, providing 84 references that are primarily related to issues or problems for clinical research trials. Together, these two parts offer a standard for the clinical testing of restorative materials/procedures and provide significant guidance for research teams in the design and conduct of contemporary clinical trials. Part 1 of the review considers the recruitment of subjects, restorations per subject, clinical events, validity versus bias, legal and regulatory aspects, rationales for clinical trial

  16. Field Studies for Validation of Urban Dispersion Models - Current Status and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwine, J.

    2007-12-01

    Urban dispersion models are important tools in addressing consequences from potential releases of harmful airborne materials in urban areas. These models are used by emergency management, law enforcement, and intelligence personnel to effectively plan for and respond to potential terrorist attacks and accidents. Field studies are vitally important for improving and validating these urban dispersion models which are used to simulate contaminant dispersion in and around cities. Over the past decade, three major urban field studies have been designed and conducted in the United States. The primary objectives of these studies have been to advance the state-of-science of understanding and modeling atmospheric flows and dispersion in and around cities, and to provide field observation for validation of urban dispersion models. The three major field studies (Salt Lake City, October 2000; Oklahoma City, July 2003; and New York City, August 2005) were conducted in cities of different sizes, in different geographic regions and during different times of the year. The tracer and meteorological data from these three field campaigns provide a rich dataset for validation of urban dispersion models over a range of conditions. The status and uses of the three urban dispersion datasets will be summarized, followed by a discussion of the current observational gaps and research needs in characterizing specific urban dispersion processes, such as outdoor-indoor coupling and outdoor-subway coupling.

  17. Validation studies of the DOE-2 Building Energy Simulation Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents many of the validation studies (Table 1) of the DOE-2 building energy analysis simulation program that have taken place since 1981. Results for several versions of the program are presented with the most recent study conducted in 1996 on version DOE-2.1E and the most distant study conducted in 1981 on version DOE-1.3. This work is part of an effort related to continued development of DOE-2, particularly in its use as a simulation engine for new specialized versions of the program such as the recently released RESFEN 3.1. RESFEN 3.1 is a program specifically dealing with analyzing the energy performance of windows in residential buildings. The intent in providing the results of these validation studies is to give potential users of the program a high degree of confidence in the calculated results. Validation studies in which calculated simulation data is compared to measured data have been conducted throughout the development of the DOE-2 program. Discrepancies discovered during the course of such work has resulted in improvements in the simulation algorithms. Table 2 provides a listing of additions and modifications that have been made to various versions of the program since version DOE-2.1A. One of the most significant recent changes in the program occurred with version DOE-2.1E. An improved algorithm for calculating the outside surface film coefficient was implemented. In addition, integration of the WINDOW 4 program was accomplished resulting in improved ability in analyzing window energy performance. Validation and verification of a program as sophisticated as DOE-2 must necessarily be limited because of the approximations inherent in the program. For example, the most accurate model of the heat transfer processes in a building would include a three-dimensional analysis. To justify such detailed algorithmic procedures would correspondingly require detailed information describing the building and/or HVAC system and energy plant parameters

  18. Obtaining Valid Laboratory Data in Clinical Trials Conducted in Resource Diverse Settings: Lessons Learned from a Microbicide Phase III Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crucitti, Tania; Fransen, Katrien; Maharaj, Rashika; Tenywa, Tom; Massinga Loembé, Marguerite; Murugavel, Kailapuri Gangatharan; Mendonca, Kevin; Abdellati, Said; Beelaert, Greet; Van Damme, Lut

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade several phase III microbicides trials have been conducted in developing countries. However, laboratories in resource constrained settings do not always have the experience, infrastructure, and the capacity to deliver laboratory data meeting the high standards of clinical trials. This paper describes the design and outcomes of a laboratory quality assurance program which was implemented during a phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the candidate microbicide Cellulose Sulfate 6% (CS) [1]. Methodology In order to assess the effectiveness of CS for HIV and STI prevention, a phase III clinical trial was conducted in 5 sites: 3 in Africa and 2 in India. The trial sponsor identified an International Central Reference Laboratory (ICRL), responsible for the design and management of a quality assurance program, which would guarantee the reliability of laboratory data. The ICRL provided advice on the tests, assessed local laboratories, organized trainings, conducted supervision visits, performed re-tests, and prepared control panels. Local laboratories were provided with control panels for HIV rapid tests and Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) amplification technique. Aliquots from respective control panels were tested by local laboratories and were compared with results obtained at the ICRL. Results Overall, good results were observed. However, discordances between the ICRL and site laboratories were identified for HIV and CT/NG results. One particular site experienced difficulties with HIV rapid testing shortly after study initiation. At all sites, DNA contamination was identified as a cause of invalid CT/NG results. Both problems were timely detected and solved. Through immediate feedback, guidance and repeated training of laboratory staff, additional inaccuracies were prevented. Conclusions Quality control guidelines when applied in field laboratories ensured the reliability and validity of final study data

  19. Thermal conductivity at the nanoscale: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyver, John W., IV

    With the growing use of nanotechnology and nanodevices in many fields of engineering and science, a need for understanding the thermal properties of such devices has increased. The ability for nanomaterials to conduct heat is highly dependent on the purity of the material, internal boundaries due to material changes and the structure of the material itself. Experimentally measuring the heat transport at the nanoscale is extremely difficult and can only be done as a macro output from the device. Computational methods such as various Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) techniques for studying the contribution of atomic vibrations associated with heat transport properties are very useful. The Green--Kubo method in conjunction with Fourier's law for calculating the thermal conductivity, kappa, has been used in this study and has shown promise as one approach well adapted for understanding nanosystems. Investigations were made of the thermal conductivity using noble gases, modeled with Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions, in solid face-centered cubic (FCC) structures. MC and MD simulations were done to study homogeneous monatomic and binary materials as well as slabs of these materials possessing internal boundaries. Additionally, MD simulations were done on silicon carbide nanowires, nanotubes, and nanofilaments using a potential containing two-body and three-body terms. The results of the MC and MD simulations were matched against available experimental and other simulations and showed that both methods can accurately simulate real materials in a fraction of the time and effort. The results of the study show that in compositionally disordered materials the selection of atomic components by their mass, hard-core atomic diameter, well depth, and relative concentration can change the kappa by as much as an order of magnitude. It was found that a 60% increase in mass produces a 25% decrease in kappa. A 50% increase in interatomic strength produces a 25% increase in

  20. Thermal conductivity and rectification study of restructured Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Anuj

    Electronics' miniaturization, has led to search for better thermal management techniques and discovery of important transport phenomenon. Thermal rectification, directionally preferential heat transport analogous to electrical diode, is one such technique, garnering tremendous interest. Its possibility has been explored through structural asymmetry, introducing a differential phonon density of states in hot and cold regions. As of now, mass and shape asymmetries have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically. However, strict requirements of material length being shorter than phonon mean free path and phonon coherence preservation at surface, makes connecting two materials with different temperature-dependent thermal conductivities, a more natural approach. To avoid resultant thermal boundary resistance and integration complexities, we achieve the affect in single material, by restructuring a region of Graphene by introducing defects. The asymmetry impedes ballistic phonon transport, modulating temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the two regions. We perform deviational Monte Carlo simulations based on Energy-based formulation to microscopically investigate phonon transport, possibility and optimal conditions for thermal rectification. The proposed method uses phonon properties obtained from first principle, treat phonon-boundary scattering explicitly with properties drawn from Bose-Einstein Distribution.

  1. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported. PMID:23428273

  2. Validation of holistic nursing competencies: role-delineation study, 2012.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Helen Lorraine; Erickson, Margaret Elizabeth; Campbell, Joan A; Brekke, Mary E; Sandor, M Kay

    2013-12-01

    The American Holistic Nurses Credentialing Corporation (AHNCC), certifying body for nurses practicing within the precepts of holistic nursing, uses a systematic process to guide program development. A previous publication described their early work that distinguished basic and advanced holistic nursing and development of related examinations. A more recent publication described the work of AHNCC from 2004 to 2012, including a role-delineation study (RDS) that was undertaken to identify and validate competencies currently used by holistic nurses. A final report describes the RDS design, methods, and raw data information. This article discusses AHNCC's goals for undertaking the 2012 Holistic Nursing RDS and the implications for the certification programs. PMID:23783664

  3. Low frequency eddy current benchmark study for model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mooers, R. D.; Boehnlein, T. R.; Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  4. A Study of Equating in NAEP. NAEP Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Vevea, Jack L.

    This study investigates the amount of uncertainty added to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) estimates by equating error under both ideal and less than ideal circumstances. Data from past administrations are used to guide simulations of various equating designs and error due to equating is estimated empirically. The design…

  5. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  6. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  7. Proton Conduction and Defect Studies in Acceptor - Potassium Tantalate Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wing Kit

    The protonic transport properties of the cubic perovskite structured crystal KTaO(,3) doped with transition metal ions (Fe('3+), Cu('2+), etc.) are studied. These dopants substitute for the Ta('5+) ions and require oxygen vacancies for charge compensation. Protons are introduced by annealing the doped crystals in water vapor. A sharp IR peak at 3472 cm('-1) is observed at room temperature. This OH('-) band can be removed by vacuum annealing. Undoped crystals are not susceptible to H('+) incorporation. A reaction is proposed for the incorporation of H('+): H(,2)O + V(,o) (--->) O(,o)('x) + 2H(.). A saturation content of H('+) is always attained which is independent of both pH(,2)O and annealing temperature. Impendence analysis is employed to obtain the bulk electrical conductivity, (sigma). The (sigma) of H('+) charged samples is an order of magnitude higher than that without H('+). The activation energy for conduction, E(,H), for H('+) charged samples is close to 1.05 eV, irrespective of nature of dopants. A rough monotonic relation between (sigma) and (alpha)(,OH), the IR absorption coefficient, is observed. Conductivity calculated from diffusion data is in rough agreement with the measured (sigma). In addi- tion, the protonic transport number is found to be almost unity in an electrochemical cell experiment. The position of the IR peak is the same for different dopants, suggesting no association between dopant and H('+). The presence of an EPR axial spectrum in H('+) free Fe-doped samples and its conversion to a cubic spectrum after charging with H('+) favors the suggestion that H('+) dissociates from dopants. No dielectric relaxa- tion peak related to H('+) is ever observed. E(,H) thus corresponds to migrational energy only. The migration of the proton is probably just the jump of H('+) between neighboring O('2-) ions in the direction of O-H vibration. The isotope effect on (sigma) is also studied when H('+) is replaced entirely by D('+). The result is non

  8. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  9. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  10. First principles study of thermal conductivity cross-over in nanostructured zinc-chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-01-28

    Systematic first principles studies of zinc-chalcogenides have been performed to understand their thermal transport behaviour. We have applied the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation to calculate the thermal conductivity of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find a thermal conductivity cross-over between ZnS and ZnSe at nanostructure sizes around 0.1–0.2 μm and explain this in terms of the different contributions of phonon modes in these materials. We study the effect of nanostructuring using both the diffusive boundary scattering and confined mean free path limit and discuss the variations in the results. Furthermore, we show the strong influence of isotope scattering on the thermal conductivity. The calculated thermal conductivity is found to be strongly dependent on the volume and we explain the observed differences between local density and generalized gradient approximation calculations. We compare further calculated thermal properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient, to experiment to validate our approach.

  11. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. PMID:25937613

  12. Phase behaviour and conductivity study of electrolytes in supercritical hydrofluorocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Philip N; Cook, David C; George, Michael W; Ke, Jie; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Su, Wenta; Zhang, Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterise supercritical hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) that can be used as solvents for electrodeposition. The phase behaviour of CHF(3), CH(2)F(2), and CH(2)FCF(3) containing [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)], [NBu(n)(4)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] and Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] was studied and the conditions for forming a single supercritical phase established. Although all three HFCs are good solvents for [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] the results show that the CH(2)F(2) system has the lowest p(r) for dissolving a given amount of [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)]. The solubility of Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] in CH(2)F(2) was found to be unexpectedly high. Studies of the phase behaviour of CH(2)F(2) containing [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] and [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] showed that the copper complex was unstable in the absence of CH(3)CN. For CHF(3), [Cu(hfac)(2)] was more soluble and more stable than [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] and only increased the phase-separation pressure by a moderate amount. Studies of the conductivity of [NBu(n)(4)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], [NBu(n)(4)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)], [NR(f)Bu(n)(3)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] (R(f) = (CH(2))(3)C(7)F(15)), and Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] were carried out in scCH(2)F(2). The results show that these salts are more conducting than [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] under the same conditions although the increase is much less significant than that reported in previous work in supercritical CO(2) + CH(3)CN. Consequently, either [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] or the corresponding BARF salts would be suitable background electrolytes for electrodeposition from scCH(2)F(2). PMID:21072413

  13. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  14. Case study for model validation : assessing a model for thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Leslie, Ian H.; Hobbs, Michael L.; Rutherford, Brian Milne; Hills, Richard Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2004-10-01

    A case study is reported to document the details of a validation process to assess the accuracy of a mathematical model to represent experiments involving thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. The focus of the report is to work through a validation process. The process addresses the following activities. The intended application of mathematical model is discussed to better understand the pertinent parameter space. The parameter space of the validation experiments is mapped to the application parameter space. The mathematical models, computer code to solve the models and its (code) verification are presented. Experimental data from two activities are used to validate mathematical models. The first experiment assesses the chemistry model alone and the second experiment assesses the model of coupled chemistry, conduction, and enclosure radiation. The model results of both experimental activities are summarized and uncertainty of the model to represent each experimental activity is estimated. The comparison between the experiment data and model results is quantified with various metrics. After addressing these activities, an assessment of the process for the case study is given. Weaknesses in the process are discussed and lessons learned are summarized.

  15. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  16. Validation Study of the Integral-Differential Scheme for Multi-Block Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrema, Honest Frank

    This MS Thesis seeks to validate the accuracy of the Integral-Differential Scheme (IDS). In the attempts to accomplish this task, research efforts were focused on the scheme's ability to capture the physics of known flow fields, as well as the scheme's ability to predict the features of flow field quantities that may be derived from experimental measurements. The IDS was developed with the goal of being computationally efficient, from a programming perspective, as well as being numerically accurate, stable, and robust, from a mathematical perspective. The IDS is designed to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in their integral forms. Unlike traditional control volume schemes, the IDS is built upon two sets of cells: spatial and temporal cells. For 2-D flows, the IDS considers an elementary control volume as a collection of four spatial cells and a single temporal cell. Similar to other explicit CFD schemes, the IDS relies on the use of the Taylor series expansion and other traditional CFD criteria. It is of interest to note that there are previous IDS validation studies which were conducted at North Carolina A&T State University. These past studies mainly focused on the qualitative aspects of the flow field physics. Furthermore, in all cases, they focused on flow field problems that can be represented by single-block grids. In this analysis, the validation studies are focused on multi-block grids in which the physics of the flow field is made complicated due to the presence of shock waves and flow separation zones. Of interest to this MS Thesis are two supersonic flow field problems that are supported by experimental data; namely, the supersonic flow over a rearward-facing step problem and the supersonic flow over a cavity problem. The validation studies conducted herein demonstrated that the IDS was able to predict the experimental data in both cases.

  17. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  18. A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  19. The Fast Scattering Code (FSC): Validation Studies and Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Dunn, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a frequency domain noise prediction program developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to simulate the acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time harmonic incident sound with bodies of arbitrary shape and surface impedance immersed in a potential flow. The code uses the equivalent source method (ESM) to solve an exterior 3-D Helmholtz boundary value problem (BVP) by expanding the scattered acoustic pressure field into a series of point sources distributed on a fictitious surface placed inside the actual scatterer. This work provides additional code validation studies and illustrates the range of code parameters that produce accurate results with minimal computational costs. Systematic noise prediction studies are presented in which monopole generated incident sound is scattered by simple geometric shapes - spheres (acoustically hard and soft surfaces), oblate spheroids, flat disk, and flat plates with various edge topologies. Comparisons between FSC simulations and analytical results and experimental data are presented.

  20. Practical aspects of designing and conducting pharmacoeconomic studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jim; Sato, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    The advent of simultaneous global clinical trials and drug registration strategies has increased the demand for global pharmacoeconomic strategies. Outcomes researchers in pharmaceutical companies are faced with the challenge of assessing at a strategic level what pharmacoeconomic data are most useful in Japan and when, and then deciding at a tactical level what type of study designs are feasible. This paper is written mainly for the benefit of researchers working outside of Japan in the pharmaceutical/medical device industry or academia who are interested in conducting research in Japan. We reviewed the existing pharmacoeconomic literature in Japan, and found that the number of studies per year has been steadily increasing. The majority of studies have been cost-effectiveness and cost-consequence analyses. Typical data sources available in Japan are somewhat limited compared with other Western countries. However, charge data can be easily accessed through the national uniform reimbursement fee system and these data are particularly relevant for pharmaceutical pricing negotiations with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). The present use of pharmacoeconomic data by pharmaceutical companies is mainly for pricing negotiations but recent reforms make certain types of data useful for marketing strategies too. The demand for pharmacoeconomic data may increase because of upcoming MHLW pharmaceutical pricing and/or recent health insurance system reforms. Economic evaluation of medical technologies in Japan, though lagging behind North America, Australia and Europe, has the potential to rapidly gather momentum as increasing cost-escalation worries contribute to a growing interest in pharmacoeconomic data. PMID:12959624

  1. Can large surveys conducted on highly selected populations provide valid information on the epidemiology of common health conditions? An analysis of UK Biobank data on musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Beasley, Marcus; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biobank-type studies are typically large but have very low participation rates. It has been suggested that these studies may provide biased estimates of prevalence but are likely to provide valid estimates of association. We test these hypotheses using data collected on pain in a large Biobank study in the United Kingdom. Methods: UK Biobank recruited 503,325 persons aged 40–69 years (participation rate 5.5%). Participants completed questionnaires, including pain, lifestyle and environment factors. As a comparison, we used both a large population study of pain (MUSICIAN: n = 8847, aged: 40–69 years) conducted 2008–2009 and the National Child Development study (NCDS) which recruited all persons in Great Britain born during one week of 1958 and followed them up at age 44 years (n = 9377). Results: ‘Any pain’ (UK Biobank 61.0%; MUSICIAN 63.9%), chronic pain (42.9%, 52.2%) and site-specific musculoskeletal pain (back 26.2%, 29.7%; shoulder/neck 23.3%, 25.3%) were generally similar in UK Biobank and MUSICIAN. The prevalence of chronic pain and most regional musculoskeletal pains in UK Biobank were all within 2% of that in NCDS. Conclusion: UK Biobank has provided estimates of the prevalence of pain which are similar to those from previous large-scale studies, although a formal comparison of the estimates cannot be made. It has also confirmed known associations with the reporting of pain. Despite its very low participation rate, such a study provides the opportunity to investigate novel exposure–pain relationships and investigate rarer exposures and characteristics to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of pain. PMID:26526341

  2. Study for Electric Device Assembly Process Using Conductive Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Junji

    Electric devices with semiconductors are applied to all apparatus including substation equipment, transport machines, home electronics, and cellular phones. Power modules deal large current, and high frequency/optical modules control GHz band signals. As a result, these semiconductors have more than 100 times heat density of memory or MPU chips. Pb-rich high temperature solder and expensive Au-rich solder are applied to these modules, however, thermal stress might be a problem not only for long-term reliability but also for the initial characteristics. The authors studied the assembly of these electric devices using conductive adhesive as a substitute bonding material. We proved that atmospheric aluminum oxides caused electric resistance and that power chips with long rectangle sides over 10 mm have a much larger thermal resistance than theoretical values. We found that it is effective to scratch and remove these oxides through transferred adhesive on aluminum electrodes and to diebond them onto the solder projection previously formed on the die pads.

  3. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  4. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology. PMID:12392231

  5. Highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of arsenene: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeraati, Majid; Vaez Allaei, S. Mehdi; Abdolhosseini Sarsari, I.; Pourfath, Mahdi; Donadio, Davide

    2016-02-01

    Elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit intriguing heat transport and phononic properties. Here we have investigated the lattice thermal conductivity of newly proposed arsenene, the 2D honeycomb structure of arsenic, using ab initio calculations. Solving the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, we predict a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of 30.4 and 7.8 W/mK along the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively, at room temperature. Our calculations reveal that phonons with mean free paths between 20 nm and 1 μ m provide the main contribution to the large thermal conductivity in the zigzag direction; mean free paths of phonons contributing to heat transport in the armchair directions range between 20 and 100 nm. The obtained anisotropic thermal conductivity and feasibility of synthesis, in addition to high electron mobility reported elsewhere, make arsenene a promising material for nanoelectronic applications and thermal management.

  6. Comparative Study of the Thermal Conductivity of Solid Biomass Fuels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid biomass fuels is useful information in the investigation of biomass combustion behavior and the development of modeling especially in the context of large scale power generation. There are little published data on the thermal conductivity of certain types of biomass such as wheat straw, miscanthus, and torrefied woods. Much published data on wood is in the context of bulk materials. A method for determining the thermal conductivities of small particles of biomass fuels has been developed using a custom built test apparatus. Fourteen different samples of various solid biomass fuel were processed to form a homogenized pellet for analysis. The thermal conductivities of the pelletized materials were determined and compared against each other and to existing data. PMID:27041819

  7. A Known Group Analysis Validity Study of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education in US Elementary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covay Minor, Elizabeth; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen B.; Cravens, Xiu; Elloitt, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) provides educators with a tool for principal evaluation based on principal, teacher, and supervisor reports of principals' learning-centered leadership. In this study, we conduct a known group analysis as part of a larger argument for the validity of the VAL-ED in US elementary and…

  8. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: CHEMICAL DEHALOGENATION (QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund program. his manual focuses on chemical dehalogenation treatability studies conducted in support of remedy selection that is conducted ...

  9. A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Garg, Amandeep; Dhillon, Guneet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D.A.V [C] Dental College and Hospital, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India conducted a study on patients with maxillofacial fractures in a time span of seven years (2003-2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate their aetiology, incidence, patterns and different modalities employed for management. Methods: In this study, 740 patients with 1054 fractures were evaluated clinically and radiographically, based on which closed reduction and open reduction was undertaken. Review of patient records included: Age, sex, time, mechanism and etiology of injury, history of bleeding, unconsciousness and prior first aid, type of vehicle and use of preventive measures, type of fracture and treatment modalities. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for highest number of fractures predominantly occurring in the age group of 21-30 years (38.3%)1,2. Males incurred more fractures with a male female ratio of 4.2: 1.Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone with parasymphysis being the commonest affected site.76.66% patients had associated head injury and 15.68 % had history of unconsciousness. Open reduction and internal fixation was the preferred modality for mandible whereas the mid face fractures were treated more often by closed methods. Conclusions: Injuries occurred more commonly in 20 – 40 age range with road traffic accident being the major etiological factor. Majority of the patients were driving two wheelers and most were under the effect of alcohol. Most of the injuries occurred during night and road traffic accidents (71.89%) were found to be the major etiological factor. Out of 532 road traffic accidents, 490 patients (66.2%) were on two wheelers, among whom 49(10%) were wearing helmet. In the mandible, fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region (224, 30.2%), and out of the 314 fractures of the middle third showed, 155 (49.4%) ZMC. OPG was the most commonly advised X

  10. Nerve conduction studies in upper extremities: skin temperature corrections.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L

    1983-09-01

    The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) temperature and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper extremities. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN temperature were determined at ambient temperature (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin temperature. Skin temperatures on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN temperature at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin temperature and NN temperature at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN temperatures correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin temperature showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin temperature change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist temperature for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin temperature at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin temperature in the temperature correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin temperature, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of temperature correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin temperature outside 29.6-36.4C temperature range. PMID:6615178