Science.gov

Sample records for validation studies conducted

  1. A Framework for Conducting ESL/EFL Construct Validation Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouw, John T.; Perkins, Kyle

    The purpose for which a test is used and the examinees' stage of learning are two anchor points that are incorporated into a suggested framework for conducting construct validation studies for tests of students with English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL). The framework includes the use of generalizability theory,…

  2. Conducting Licensure Validity Studies: The Need To Broaden the Evidentiary Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poggio, John P.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.; Green, Sam B.; Tollefson, Nona

    Findings are reported from a series of comprehensive and detailed empirical investigations that evaluated four different teacher certification paper-and-pencil tests through a typical content validation method and from three distinct and independent empirical validation studies of these devices. These latter studies can be understood as providing…

  3. Conducting ecologically valid prevention research: recruiting and retaining a "whole village" in multimethod, multiagent studies.

    PubMed

    Capaldi, D M; Chamberlain, P; Fetrow, R A; Wilson, J E

    1997-08-01

    Many prevention studies are now designed with complementary interventions in different settings. Evaluations of these interventions require assessing the child's behavior in each of these settings. Conducting these studies, therefore, may involve recruiting school districts, principals, classroom teachers, peers, parents, siblings, and in later years, employers and intimate partners. These participants may be considered natural raters or satellite subjects, depending on their degree of involvement. Issues of recruitment and retention thus are magnified in multimethod, multiagent studies. To illustrate these issues, findings are presented for three studies conducted with risk populations in the past decade at the Oregon Social Learning Center: a passive longitudinal study, a selected prevention study, and an indicated prevention study. Findings indicate that achieving high recruitment and retention rates for at-risk and high-risk subjects in multisetting studies is possible, and that a developmental approach should be taken to recruiting risk populations. PMID:9338955

  4. Quantum Mechanics Studies of Fuel Cell Catalysts and Proton Conducting Ceramics with Validation by Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ho-Cheng

    We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML

  5. Quantum Mechanics Studies of Fuel Cell Catalysts and Proton Conducting Ceramics with Validation by Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ho-Cheng

    We carried out quantum mechanics (QM) studies aimed at improving the performance of hydrogen fuel cells. In part I, The challenge was to find a replacement for the Pt cathode that would lead to improved performance for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) while remaining stable under operational conditions and decreasing cost. Our design strategy was to find an alloy with composition Pt3M that would lead to surface segregation such that the top layer would be pure Pt, with the second and subsequent layers richer in M. Under operating conditions we expect the surface to have significant O and/or OH chemisorbed on the surface; we searched for M that would remain segregated under these conditions. Using QM we examined surface segregation for 28 Pt3M alloys, where M is a transition metal. We found that only Pt3Os and Pt3Ir showed significant surface segregation when O and OH are chemisorbed on the catalyst surfaces. This result indicates that Pt3Os and Pt 3Ir favor formation of a Pt-skin surface layer structure that would resist the acidic electrolyte corrosion during fuel cell operation environments. We chose to focus on Os because the phase diagram for Pt-Ir indicated that Pt-Ir could not form a homogeneous alloy at lower temperature. To determine the performance for ORR, we used QM to examine intermediates, reaction pathways, and reaction barriers involved in the processes for which protons from the anode reactions react with O2 to form H2O. These QM calculations used our Poisson-Boltzmann implicit solvation model include the effects of the solvent (water with dielectric constant 78 with pH 7 at 298K). We also carried out similar QM studies followed by experimental validation for the Os/Pt core-shell catalyst fabricated by the underpotential deposition (UPD) method. The QM results indicated that the RDS for ORR is a compromise between the OOH formation step (0.37 eV for Pt, 0.23 eV for Pt2ML/Os core-shell) and H2O formation steps (0.32 eV for Pt, 0.22 eV for Pt2ML

  6. Conducting and permeable states of cell membrane submitted to high voltage pulses: mathematical and numerical studies validated by the experiments.

    PubMed

    Leguèbe, M; Silve, A; Mir, L M; Poignard, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new model of in vitro cell electropermeabilization, which describes separately the conducting state and the permeable state of the membrane submitted to high voltage pulses. We first derive the model based on the experimental observations and we present the numerical methods to solve the non-linear partial differential equations. We then present numerical simulations that corroborate qualitatively the experimental data dealing with the uptake of propidium iodide (PI) after millipulses. This tends to justify the validity of our modeling. Forthcoming work will be to calibrate the parameters of the model for quantitative description of the uptake. PMID:25010659

  7. Development and Validation of the Conduct Disorder Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Elgar, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Several rating scales for measuring externalizing problems in children are inconsistent with widely used diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD). The Conduct Disorder Rating Scale (CDRS) was developed to provide valid measures of CD in children age 5 to 12 years. In Study 1, the CDRS was evaluated in a community sample of 1,554 children.…

  8. Validation of a two-step quality control approach for a large-scale human urine metabolomic study conducted in seven experimental batches with LC/QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Demetrowitsch, Tobias J; Petersen, Beate; Keppler, Julia K; Koch, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin

    2015-01-01

    After his study of food science at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University of Bonn, Tobias J Demetrowitsch obtained his doctoral degree in the research field of metabolomics at the Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel. The present paper is part of his doctoral thesis and describes an extended strategy to evaluate and verify complex or large-scale experiments and data sets. Large-scale studies result in high sample numbers, requiring the analysis of samples in different batches. So far, the verification of such LC-MS-based metabolomics studies is difficult. Common approaches have not provided a reliable validation procedure to date. This article shows a novel verification process for a large-scale human urine study (analyzed by a LC/QToF-MS system) using a two-step validation procedure. The first step comprises a targeted approach that aims to examine and exclude statistical outliers. The second step consists of a principle component analysis, with the aim of a tight cluster of all quality controls and a second for all volunteer samples. The applied study design provides a reliable two-step validation procedure for large-scale studies and additionally contains an inhouse verification procedure. PMID:25558939

  9. Carbon Fibers Conductivity Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, C. Y.; Butkus, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    In an attempt to understand the process of electrical conduction in polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon fibers, calculations were carried out on cluster models of the fiber consisting of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms using the modified intermediate neglect of differential overlap (MINDO) molecular orbital (MO) method. The models were developed based on the assumption that PAN carbon fibers obtained with heat treatment temperatures (HTT) below 1000 C retain nitrogen in a graphite-like lattice. For clusters modeling an edge nitrogen site, analysis of the occupied MO's indicated an electron distribution similar to that of graphite. A similar analysis for the somewhat less stable interior nitrogen site revealed a partially localized II electron distribution around the nitrogen atom. The differences in bonding trends and structural stability between edge and interior nitrogen clusters led to a two-step process proposed for nitrogen evolution with increasing HTT.

  10. Developing and Validating the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda: A Mixed Methods Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lauren C.; Kanyanganzi, Frederick; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christine; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R). Qualitative free listing (n = 74) and key informant interviews (n = 47) identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research. PMID:24949628

  11. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool

    PubMed Central

    Tscholl, David W; Weiss, Mona; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-01-01

    Background Tablet computers such as the Apple iPad are progressively replacing traditional paper-and-pencil-based data collection. We combined the iPad with the ready-to-use survey software, iSurvey (from Harvestyourdata), to create a straightforward tool for data collection during the Anesthesia Pre-Induction Checklist (APIC) study, a hospital-wide multimethod intervention study involving observation of team performance and team member surveys in the operating room (OR). Objective We aimed to provide an analysis of the factors that led to the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool for data collection, illustrate our experiences with the use of this data collection tool, and report the results of an expert survey about user experience with this tool. Methods We used an iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe anesthesia inductions conducted by 205 teams (N=557 team members) in the OR. In Phase 1, expert raters used the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to rate team performance during anesthesia inductions, and anesthesia team members were asked to indicate their perceptions after the inductions. In Phase 2, we surveyed the expert raters about their perceptions regarding the use of the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool to observe, rate, and survey teams in the ORs. Results The results of Phase 1 showed that training data collectors on the iPad- and iSurvey-based data collection tool was effortless and there were no serious problems during data collection, upload, download, and export. Interrater agreement of the combined data collection tool was found to be very high for the team observations (median Fleiss’ kappa=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.00). The results of the follow-up expert rater survey (Phase 2) showed that the raters did not prefer a paper-and-pencil-based data collection method they had used during other earlier studies over the iPad- and iSurvey-based tool (median response 1, IQR 1-1; 1=do not agree, 2=somewhat disagree, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat agree, 5=fully agree). They

  12. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  13. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  14. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  15. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? As a laboratory, when you conduct validity... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct...

  16. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs. PMID:12083280

  17. Conducting pilot and feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-03-01

    Planning a well-designed research study can be tedious and laborious work. However, this process is critical and ultimately can produce valid, reliable study findings. Designing a large-scale randomized, controlled trial (RCT)-the gold standard in quantitative research-can be even more challenging. Even the most well-planned study potentially can result in issues with research procedures and design, such as recruitment, retention, or methodology. One strategy that may facilitate sound study design is the completion of a pilot or feasibility study prior to the initiation of a larger-scale trial. This article will discuss pilot and feasibility studies, their advantages and disadvantages, and implications for oncology nursing research. 
. PMID:25806886

  18. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of other validity studies. 1607.7 Section 1607.7 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.7 Use of other validity studies. A. Validity studies not conducted by the user. Users may, under certain circumstances, support the use of...

  19. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  20. Conducting Simulation Studies in Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Richard A.; Rubright, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation studies are fundamental to psychometric discourse and play a crucial role in operational and academic research. Yet, resources for psychometricians interested in conducting simulations are scarce. This Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement Series (ITEMS) module is meant to address this deficiency by providing a comprehensive…

  1. Bioconversion study conducted by JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J.

    1978-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of Caltech conducted a study of bioconversion as a means of identifying the role of biomass for meeting the national energy fuel and chemical requirements and the role and means for JPL-Caltech involvement in bioconversion. The bioconversion study included the following categories; biomass sources, chemicals from biomass, thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels, biological conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals, and basic bioconversion sciences. A detailed review is included of the bioconversion fields cited with specific conclusions and recommendations given for future research and development and overall biomass system engineering and economic studies.

  2. Content Validity Studies of Licensing Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, I. Leon; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    1990-01-01

    Implementing measurement specialists' ideas about content validity with licensure examinations and the problem of court litigation are discussed. Validity issues surfacing when sponsors of national licensure examinations conduct validity investigations are considered. Issues include local versus national focus on content validity, job analysis,…

  3. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Oware, A

    2012-07-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG), often shortened to 'EMGs', are a useful adjunct to clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system and striated skeletal muscle. NCS provide an efficient and rapid method of quantifying nerve conduction velocity (CV) and the amplitude of both sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) and compound motor action potentials (cMAPs). The CV reflects speed of propagation of action potentials, by saltatory conduction, along large myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. The amplitude of SNAPs is in part determined by the number of axons in a sensory nerve, whilst amplitude of cMAPs reflects integrated function of the motor axons, neuromuscular junction and striated muscle. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) can identify defects of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission, pre- or post-synaptic. Needle EMG examination can detect myopathic changes in muscle and signs of denervation. Combinations of these procedures can establish if motor and/or sensory nerve cell bodies or peripheral nerves are damaged (e.g. motor neuronopathy, sensory ganglionopathy or neuropathy), and also indicate if the primary target is the axon or the myelin sheath (i.e. axonal or demyelinating neuropathies). The distribution of nerve damage can be determined as either generalised, multifocal (mononeuropathy multiplex) or focal. The latter often due to compression at the common entrapment sites (such as the carpal tunnel, Guyon's canal, cubital tunnel, radial groove, fibular head and tarsal tunnel, to name but a few of the reported hundred or so 'entrapment neuropathies'). PMID:22614870

  4. NOAA's hydrolab conducts reef studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This summer, scuba-diving scientists operating from Hydrolab, NOAA's undersea laboratory, are carrying out four experiments aimed at producing better management of coral reefs and their fishery resources. Hydrolab is located at a depth of 50 feet, near the mouth of the Salt River, off St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The lab houses four scientists for up to 2 weeks at a time, permitting them to swim out into the water to conduct research. The projects make use of both the natural coral reef near Hydrolab and the nearby artificial reef constructed for comparison studies.

  5. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2016-07-01

    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  6. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2015-08-01

    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  7. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  8. VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

    2011-03-01

    A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compact’s unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

  9. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback. PMID:15564053

  10. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders in Clinically Referred Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Boeldt, Debra; Chen, Diane; Coyne, Claire; Donald, Radiah; Duax, Jeanne; Hart, Katherine; Perrott, Jennifer; Strickland, Jennifer; Danis, Barbara; Hill, Carri; Davis, Shante; Kampani, Smita; Humphries, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders (ODD and CD) for preschoolers has been questioned based on concerns regarding the ability to differentiate normative, transient disruptive behavior from clinical symptoms. Data on concurrent validity have accumulated, but predictive validity is limited. Predictive…

  11. Conducting a pilot study: case study of a novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Doody, Owen; Doody, Catriona M

    Pilot studies play a vital role in health research, but are often misused, mistreated and misrepresented. A well-conducted pilot study with clear aims and objectives within a formal framework ensures methodological rigour, can lead to higher-quality research and scientifically valid work that is publishable and can benefit patients and health service delivery. A pilot study contributes valuable information to assist researchers in the conduct of their study. Conducting a pilot study provides the researcher with the opportunity to develop and enhance the skills necessary before commencing the larger study. By conducting a pilot the researcher obtains preliminary data, can evaluate their data-analysis method and clarify the financial and human resources required. This article presents an overview of pilot studies, why they are conducted, what to consider when reporting pilot studies and the authors' experience of conducting a pilot study. To conduct a successful study, researchers need to develop their skills, choose the right methods and carefully plan for all aspects of the process. PMID:26618678

  12. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  13. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  14. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  15. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  16. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  17. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  18. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the development and use of other... technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the obligation otherwise to comply... information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a review of information about the job...

  19. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  20. 49 CFR 40.91 - What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What validity tests must laboratories conduct on primary specimens? 40.91 Section 40.91 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Drug Testing Laboratories § 40.91 What validity tests must laboratories...

  1. Conducting and Reporting Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Merilyn; Taylor, Satomi Izumi

    Issues and elements of case study research are explored and illustrated with the example of a case study of a kindergarten in a suburb of Tokyo (Japan). Case study research is a type of qualitative research that concentrates on a single unit or entity, with boundaries established by the researcher. The case is an example drawn from a larger class,…

  2. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (ΔHo) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ΔHo, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ΔHo, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ΔHo increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ΔHo must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  3. Vitamin D Dietary Intake Questionnaire Validation Conducted among Young Polish Women

    PubMed Central

    Głąbska, Dominika; Guzek, Dominika; Sidor, Patrycja; Włodarek, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Due to inadequate intake of Vitamin D, identification of individuals characterised by the highest risk of deficiencies is one of the more crucial tasks for public health. The aim of the presented study was to assess the validity and reproducibility of the designed Vitamin D dietary intake questionnaire based on food frequency assessment—VIDEO-FFQ (VItamin D Estimation Only—Food Frequency Questionnaire) in a group of Polish women aged 20–30 years. Seventy-five participants kept a three-day dietary record and filled out the VIDEO-FFQ twice (immediately after the three-day dietary record and after six weeks). The assessment of validity and reproducibility was conducted by verifying standard errors of estimation, median differences, and percentages of individuals classified into tertiles, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. The Vitamin D intake for the majority of the surveyed women was inadequate as over 85% of them were characterised by values of intake lower than 5.0 μg per day. The results allowed concluding that a high accuracy of the VIDEO-FFQ was achieved. The required Bland-Altman index values lower than 5.0% were obtained, confirming satisfactory validity and reproducibility. The VIDEO-FFQ may be deemed a convenient practical tool for the estimation of Vitamin D intake in young women. PMID:26742070

  4. Conducting a wind sensing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Signal-to-noise requirements, and how signal-to-noise determines wind velocity measurement accuracy were studied. A Nd:YAG-based system was found to be competitive with a CO2-based system. Hardware was developed for a coherent Nd:YAG LIDAR system, and is being integrated into a functioning system. A diode-pumped monolithic rod laser to be used as a reference oscillator, a high-power, single-mode ring laser, for use as a master oscillator, and a high-gain, multipass amplifier were constructed.

  5. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  6. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  7. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  8. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures by validity studies conducted by other users or conducted by test publishers or distributors and described in test manuals. While publishers of selection procedures have a professional obligation to... seeking to obtain selection procedures from publishers and distributors should be careful to...

  9. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  12. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  13. 41 CFR 60-3.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be met in conducting a validity study. Nothing in these guidelines is intended to preclude the... procedures. Where it is not technically feasible for a user to conduct a validity study, the user has the... should be based on review of information about the job. Any validity study should be based upon a...

  14. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  15. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  16. Thermographic validation of a novel, laminate body, analytical heat conduction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2014-07-01

    The two-region fin model captures the heat spreading behaviour in multilayered composite bodies (i.e., laminates), heated only over a small part of their domains (finite heat source), where there is an inner layer that has a substantial capacity for heat conduction parallel to the heat exchange surface (convection cooling). This resulting heat conduction behaviour improves the overall heat transfer process when compared to heat conduction in homogeneous bodies. Long-term heat storage using supercooling salt hydrate phase change materials, stovetop cookware, and electronics cooling applications could all benefit from this kind of heat-spreading in laminates. Experiments using laminate films reclaimed from post-consumer Tetra Brik cartons were conducted with thin rectangular and circular heaters to confirm the laminate body, steady-state, heat conduction behaviour predicted by the two-region fin model. Medium to high accuracy experimental validation of the two-region fin model was achieved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates for forced external convection and natural convection, the latter for Cartesian only. These were conducted using constant heat flux finite heat source temperature profiles that were measured by infrared thermography. This validation is also deemed valid for constant temperature heat sources.

  17. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the removal process, remedial investigation/ feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  18. A Re-analysis of Published Differential Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruch, William W.

    A survey of recent literature was undertaken to locate validity studies of paper-and-pencil tests which met the following criteria: (1) Studies were conducted in a business or industrial (i.e. non-education, non-military) setting; (2) Separate statistics were available for blacks and whites; (3) Race was not confounded with some outside variable…

  19. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  20. Design and Validation of a High-Temperature Comparative Thermal-Conductivity Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; C Xing; H. Ban

    2012-02-01

    A measurement system has been designed and built for the specific application of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of a composite, nuclear-fuel compact (small cylinder) over a temperature range of 100 C to 800 C. Because of the composite nature of the sample as well as the need to measure samples pre- and postirradiation, measurement must be performed on the whole compact non-destructively. No existing measurement system is capable of obtaining its thermal conductivity in a non-destructive manner. The designed apparatus is an adaptation of the guardedcomparative-longitudinal heat flow technique. The system uniquely demonstrates the use of a radiative heat sink to provide cooling which greatly simplifies the design and setup of such high-temperature systems. The design was aimed to measure thermalconductivity values covering the expected range of effective thermal conductivity of the composite nuclear fuel from 10W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1} to 70W {center_dot} m{sup -1} {center_dot} K{sup -1}. Several materials having thermal conductivities covering this expected range have been measured for system validation, and results are presented. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.Additionally, an uncertainty analysis is presented finding an overall uncertainty in sample thermal conductivity to be 6%, matching well with the results of the validation samples.

  1. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  2. Homework Purpose Scale for High School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale using 681 rural and 306 urban high school students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the rural sample. The results reveal that the Homework Purpose Scale comprises three separate yet related factors, including Learning-Oriented Reasons,…

  3. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  4. Proton Conductivity Studies on Biopolymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Harun, N. I.; Sabri, N. S.; Rosli, N. H. A.; Taib, M. F. M.; Saaid, S. I. Y.; Kudin, T. I. T.; Ali, A. M. M.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2010-07-07

    Proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte membranes consisting of methyl cellulose (MC) and different wt.% of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) were prepared by solution cast technique. Impedance spectroscopy was carried out to study electrical characteristics of bulk materials. The ionic conductivity of the prepared samples was calculated using the bulk resistance (R{sub b}) obtained from impedance spectroscopy plot. The highest ionic conductivity obtained was 1.17x10{sup -4} Scm{sup -1} for the sample with composition ratio of MC(50): NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}(50). To enhance the ionic conductivity, propylene carbonate (PC) and ethylene carbonate (EC) plasticizers were introduced. It was found that the ionic conductivity of polymer electrolyte membranes increased with the increase in plasticizers concentration. The ionic conductivities of solid polymer electrolytes based on MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-PC was enhanced up to 4.91x10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1} while for the MC-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}-EC system, the highest conductivity was 1.74x10{sup -2} Scm{sup -1}. The addition of more plasticizer however decreases in mechanical stability of the membranes.

  5. Principles and pitfalls of nerve conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Kimura, J

    1984-10-01

    This report reviews the fundamental principles and the changing concepts of nerve stimulation techniques, and discusses the proper application of these techniques in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. Nerve conduction studies help delineate the extent and distribution of the neural lesion and distinguish two major categories of peripheral nerve disease: demyelination and axonal degeneration. Although the method is based on simple principles, pitfalls abound in practice. Variability in nerve conduction measurement may result from temperature change, variations among nerve segments, and the effects of age. Other sources of error include excessive spread of stimulation current, anomalous innervation, temporal dispersion, and inaccuracy of surface measurement. Unlike a bipolar derivation, which selectively records near-field potentials, a referential recording may give rise to stationary far-field peaks from a moving source. Overlooking this possibility can lead to an incorrect interpretation of findings. Conventional nerve conduction studies deal primarily with measurements of the distal nerve segments in an extremity. More recent techniques are applicable to less accessible anatomical regions, as illustrated by elicitation of the blink reflex, F wave, and H reflex, and the use of the inching technique. Other methods used to assess special aspects of nerve conduction include the ischemic test and studies of slow-conducting fibers. PMID:6093680

  6. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  7. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  8. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  9. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related validity... validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study should consist of data showing... test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study should consist of data...

  11. A scattering model for perfectly conducting random surfaces. I - Model development. II - Range of validity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Pan, G. W.

    1987-01-01

    The surface current on a perfectly conducting randomly rough surface is estimated by solving iteratively a standard integral equation, and the estimate is then used to compute the far-zone scattered fields and the backscattering coefficients for vertical, horizontal and cross polarizations. The model developed here yields a simple backscattering coefficient expression in terms of the surface parameters. The expression reduces analytically to the Kirchhoff and the first-order small-perturbation model in the high- and low-frequency regions, respectively. The range of validity of the model is determined.

  12. Experimental validation of a new space marching finite difference algorithm for the inverse heat conduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, M.; Bransier, J.

    A space-marching finite difference algorithm is developed for solving the one-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem. The method is easy to apply, stable, and as accurate as the most efficient existing methods. An experimental set-up made of a rectangular parallelepiped polymerized around a woof of thermocouples has been designed especially to validate the method. The thermal conductivity of the test specimen was previously determined with the same set-up, and the specific heat is estimated during the experiments. The estimated surface heat flux is in very good agreement with the heat flux measured by a foil heat flux gage, regardless of the sensor locations. These results show that the method remains effective in spite of the cumulated effects of the errors due to the data acquisition system, to the location and calibration of the sensors, and to the simultaneous estimation of the specific heat.

  13. On Conducting Construct Validity Meta-Analyses for the Rorschach: A Reply to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman (2016).

    PubMed

    Mihura, Joni L; Meyer, Gregory J; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2016-01-01

    We respond to Tibon Czopp and Zeligman's (2016) critique of our systematic reviews and meta-analyses of 65 Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) variables published in Psychological Bulletin (2013). The authors endorsed our supportive findings but critiqued the same methodology when used for the 13 unsupported variables. Unfortunately, their commentary was based on significant misunderstandings of our meta-analytic method and results, such as thinking we used introspectively assessed criteria in classifying levels of support and reporting only a subset of our externally assessed criteria. We systematically address their arguments that our construct label and criterion variable choices were inaccurate and, therefore, meta-analytic validity for these 13 CS variables was artificially low. For example, the authors created new construct labels for these variables that they called "the customary CS interpretation," but did not describe their methodology nor provide evidence that their labels would result in better validity than ours. They cite studies they believe we should have included; we explain how these studies did not fit our inclusion criteria and that including them would have actually reduced the relevant CS variables' meta-analytic validity. Ultimately, criticisms alone cannot change meta-analytic support from negative to positive; Tibon Czopp and Zeligman would need to conduct their own construct validity meta-analyses. PMID:27153466

  14. Intercostal nerve conduction study in man.

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, S; Taly, A

    1989-01-01

    A new surface technique for the conduction study of the lower intercostal nerves has been developed and applied to 30 normal subjects. The problem of the short available nerve segment of the intercostal nerves and the bizzare compound motor action potential (CMAP) of inconsistent latency while recording over the intercostal muscles, is overcome by applying recording electrodes over the rectus abdominis muscle and stimulating the nerves at two points at a fair distance away. With the use of multiple recording sites over the rectus abdominis, the motor points for different intercostal nerves were delineated. CMAP of reproducible latencies and waveforms with sharp take-off points were obtained. Conduction velocity of the intercostal nerves could be determined. PMID:2526200

  15. Copper Conductivity Model Development and Validation Using Flyer Plate Experiments on the Z-machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riford, L.; Lemke, R. W.; Cochrane, K.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetically accelerated flyer plate experiments done on Sandia's Z-machine provide insight into a multitude of materials problems at high energies and densities including conductivity model development and validation. In an experiment with ten Cu flyer plates of thicknesses 500-1000 μm, VISAR measurements exhibit a characteristic jump in the velocity correlated with magnetic field burn-through and the expansion of melted material at the free surface. The experiment is modeled using Sandia's shock and multiphysics MHD code ALEGRA. Simulated free surface velocities are within 1% of the measured data early in time, but divergence occurs at the feature, where the simulation indicates a slower burn through time. The cause was found to be in the Cu conductivity model's compressed regime. The model was improved by lowering the conductivity in the region 12.5-16 g/cc and 350-16000 K with a novel parameter based optimization method using the velocity feature as a figure of merit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Two phase detonation studies conducted in 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A report is presented describing the research conducted on five phases: (1) ignition of fuel drops by a shock wave and passage of a shock wave over a burning drop, (2) the energy release pattern of a two-phase detonation with controlled drop sizes, (3) the attenuation of shock and detonation waves passing over an acoustic liner, (4) experimental and theoretical studies of film detonations, and (5) a simplified analytical model of a rotating two-phase detonation wave in a rocket motor.

  17. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N, flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 deg flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 deg and aft-cone angle of 55 deg. Both sets of experiments involve 30 deg compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  18. CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.

  19. English Consequential Validity Study, Fall 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego Community Coll. District, CA. Research and Planning.

    This study, conducted by the San Diego Community College District in fall 2002, aims to answer the following research questions regarding student preparedness for courses in writing, reading, study skills, and composition: (1) Is there a relationship between instructor perception of preparedness and student performance? (2) Is there a relationship…

  20. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sungshin Y.; Cole, Nicolas; Reyes, America; Lai, San-Huei; Klotz, Rebecca; Beegle, Janet E.; Wigley, Cecilia L.; Pletcher, David; Globus, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Prior rodent experiments on the Shuttle were limited by the short flight duration. The International Space Station (ISS) provides a new platform for conducting rodent experiments under long duration conditions. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 days (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNAlater at -80C (n2group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses on-orbit were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC) housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between Flight (FLT) and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were processed under optimal conditions in the laboratory. Liver samples dissected on-orbit yielded high quality RNA (RIN8.99+-0.59, n7). Liver samples dissected post-flight from the intact, frozen FLT carcasses yielded RIN of 7.27 +- 0.52 (n6). Additionally, wet weights of various tissues were measured. Adrenal glands and spleen showed no significant differences in FLT compared to GC although thymus and livers weights were significantly greater in FLT compared to GC. Over 3,000 tissue aliquots collected post-flight from the four groups of mice were deposited into the Ames Life Science Data Archives for future Biospecimen

  1. The validation of the robust input estimation approach to two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan, P.C.; Ju, M.C.

    2000-03-01

    A novel adaptive and robust input estimation inverse methodology of estimating the time-varying unknown heat flux, named as the input, on the two active boundaries of a 2-D inverse heat conduction problem is presented. The algorithm includes using the Kalman filter to propose a regression model between the residual innovation and the two thermal unknown boundaries flux through given 2-D heat conduction state-space models and noisy measurement sequence. Based on this regression equation, a recursive least-square estimator (RLSE) weighted by the forgetting factor is proposed to on-line estimate these unknowns. The adaptive and robust weighting technique is essential since unknowns input are time-varied and have unpredictable changing status. In this article, the authors provide the bandwidth analysis together with bias and variance tests to construct an efficient and robust forgetting factor as the ratio between the standard deviation of measurement and observable bias innovation at each time step. Herein, the unknowns are robustly and adaptively estimated under the system involving measurement noise, process error, and unpredictable change status of time-varying unknowns. The capabilities of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through the comparison with the conventional input estimation algorithm and validated by two benchmark performance tests in 2-D cases. Results show that the proposed algorithm not only exhibits superior robust capability but also enhances the estimation performance and highly facilitates practical implementation.

  2. Conductance Studies of Aqueous Succinic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1992-03-01

    Conductance measurements of aqueous solutions of succinic acid and of di-sodium succinate were performed from 278.15 to 308.15 K and the limiting conductances λ0 (1/2 Succ2- ) are reported. The Waiden product is independent of temperature: λ0(1/2 Succ2-)*η(T) = 0.503 ± 0.001. The salt conductances closely obey the Onsager limiting law. The evaluation of the equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, K1 and K2, and the limiting conductances of the hydrosuccinate ion, λ0(HSucc-), are discussed using the Quint and Viallard conductance equation

  3. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples... Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure to... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed...

  4. Lightning electromagnetic radiation over a stratified conducting ground: 2. Validity of simplified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoory, Abdolhamid; Rachidi, Farhad; Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto

    2011-06-01

    In the first part of this paper, the rigorous theory describing the electromagnetic field radiated by a lightning return stroke over a two-layered conducting ground was presented and the exact expressions for the lightning electromagnetic fields were developed and discussed. In this part of the paper, the theory along with its time domain numerical evaluation algorithm is used for the assessment of the validity of simplified approaches proposed in the literature for the vertical electric and horizontal magnetic field components. The simplified approaches are based on the concept of ground surface impedance and its corresponding attenuation function. It is shown that the results obtained using the simplified approaches are in excellent agreement with exact results in both near (50 m) and intermediate (1000 m) distance range. However, since the vertical electric and azimuthal magnetic field components are not appreciably affected by the ground finite conductivity, they can also be evaluated assuming the ground as a perfectly conducting ground. On the other hand, the horizontal electric field above a horizontally stratified ground is very much affected by the ground electrical parameters. Its waveform is characterized by an early negative excursion due to the currents flowing into the ground followed by a late time positive excursion which is due to the elevation of the observation point from the ground level. The magnitude of the negative peak is sharper for subsequent return strokes than first return strokes and is higher for lower conducting grounds. A new formula is proposed for the evaluation of the horizontal electric field at a given height above the air-ground interface. The formula can be viewed as the generalization of the Cooray-Rubinstein formula for the case of a two-layer ground. We show that the new formula is able to reproduce in a satisfactory manner the horizontal electric field above a two-layer ground. The proposed formulation is, however, less

  5. Conductance Studies on Aqueous Citric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Barthel, Josef

    1991-02-01

    Conductance measurements of citric acid and neutral citrates (tri-lithium citrate, tri-sodium citrate and tri-potassium citrate) were performed in water at 278.15 to 308.15 K. The equilibrium constants for the primary and secondary steps of dissociation, Kx and K2, and the limiting conductances, λ0(H2Cit-), λ°(1/2 HCit2-), and λ0(1/3 Cit3-) are reported as a function of temperature. They are obtained by application of the Quint and Viallard conductance equation. The enthalpies of dissociation are estimated.

  6. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  7. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  8. Structural and Electrical Study of Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaktawat, Vinodini; Dixit, Manasvi; Saxena, N. S.; Sharma, Kananbala

    2010-06-01

    Pure and oxalic acid doped conducting polymers (polyaniline and polypyrrole) were chemically synthesized using ammonium persulfate (APS) as an oxidant. These samples were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which provides information about the surface topography of polymers. I-V characteristics have been recorded at room temperature as well as in the temperature range from 313 K to 463 K. So obtained characteristic curves were found to be linear. Temperature dependence of conductivity suggests a semiconducting nature in polyaniline samples with increase in temperature, whereas oxalic acid doped polypyrrole sample suggests a transition from semiconducting to metallic nature with the increase of temperature.

  9. Strategies in postoperative pain assessment: validation study.

    PubMed

    Sjöström, B; Dahlgren, L O; Haljamäe, H

    1999-10-01

    Pain assessment and management are major clinical problems that many categories of healthcare professionals have to deal with. Although there are many potentially successful approaches available for pain management, there is still a shortage of knowledge about the strategies used by staff members for the actual assessment of pain and how reliable these strategies are. The fact that patients often undergo a great deal of suffering from pain and lack of adequate pain relief may be considered an indicator of this shortage of knowledge. Clinical studies from different parts of the world reveal that the incidence of pain reported by patients is still high, with about 75% reporting moderate pain and an additional 15% severe pain. The aim of the present study was to validate different categories used in acute pain assessment and their accuracy in a new clinical sample and to explore further different dimensions of how staff members experience pain assessment. Intensive care nurses (n = 10) were carrying out pain assessment of postoperative patients (n = 30). Each pain assessment was followed by a detailed interview and indicating the estimated pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS, 0-10 cm). The pain ratings by the nurses were compared to those of the patients to assess the accuracy of the pain assessments of the staff members. A previously developed category system for describing the initial empirical material regarding criteria the nurses relied on when assessing pain, combined with what experience has taught them in this respect, was used to assess the validity of previous observations. The results indicate that similar approaches were still used by the nurses but the accuracy of pain assessment had considerably improved. PMID:10808821

  10. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  11. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  12. Conduction Velocity of the Uterine Contraction in Serial Magnetomyogram (MMG) Data: Event Based Simulation and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Preissl, Hubert; Lowery, Curtis L.; Eswaran, Hari; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to calculate the conduction velocity (CV) of the uterine contraction bursts in magnetomyogram (MMG) signals measured using a multichannel SQUID array. For this purpose, we partition the sensor coordinates into four different quadrants and identify the contractile bursts using a previously proposed Hilbert-wavelet transform approach. If contractile burst is identified in more than one quadrant, we calculate the center of gravity (CoG) in each quadrant for each time point as the sum of the product of the sensor coordinates with the Hilbert amplitude of the MMG signals normalized by the sum of the Hilbert amplitude of the signals over all sensors. Following this we compute the delay between the CoGs of all (six) possible quadrant pairs combinations. As a first step, we validate this approach by simulating a stochastic model based on independent second-order autoregressive processes (AR2) and we divide them into 30 second disjoint windows and insert burst activity at specific time instances in preselected sensors. Also we introduce a lag of 5 ± 1 seconds between different quadrants. Using our approach we calculate the CoG of the signals in a quadrant. To this end, we compute the delay between CoGs obtained from different quadrants and show that our approach is able to reliably capture the delay incorporated in the model. We apply the proposed approach to 19 serial MMG data obtained from two subjects and show an increase in the CV as the subjects approached labor. PMID:22255713

  13. Conduction velocity of the uterine contraction in serial magnetomyogram (MMG) data: event based simulation and validation.

    PubMed

    Furdea, Adrian; Preissl, Hubert; Lowery, Curtis L; Eswaran, Hari; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to calculate the conduction velocity (CV) of the uterine contraction bursts in magnetomyogram (MMG) signals measured using a multichannel SQUID array. For this purpose, we partition the sensor coordinates into four different quadrants and identify the contractile bursts using a previously proposed Hilbert-wavelet transform approach. If contractile burst is identified in more than one quadrant, we calculate the center of gravity (CoG) in each quadrant for each time point as the sum of the product of the sensor coordinates with the Hilbert amplitude of the MMG signals normalized by the sum of the Hilbert amplitude of the signals over all sensors. Following this we compute the delay between the CoGs of all (six) possible quadrant pairs combinations. As a first step, we validate this approach by simulating a stochastic model based on independent second-order autoregressive processes (AR2) and we divide them into 30 second disjoint windows and insert burst activity at specific time instances in preselected sensors. Also we introduce a lag of 5 ± 1 seconds between different quadrants. Using our approach we calculate the CoG of the signals in a quadrant. To this end, we compute the delay between CoGs obtained from different quadrants and show that our approach is able to reliably capture the delay incorporated in the model. We apply the proposed approach to 19 serial MMG data obtained from two subjects and show an increase in the CV as the subjects approached labor. PMID:22255713

  14. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  15. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section...)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using the... must be 10 µg/100 cm2, then the validation study failed and the solvent may not be used...

  16. Thermal and electrical contact conductance studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansciver, S. W.; Nilles, M.

    1985-01-01

    Prediction of electrical and thermal contact resistance for pressed, nominally flat contacts is complicated by the large number of variables which influence contact formation. This is reflected in experimental results as a wide variation in contact resistances, spanning up to six orders of magnitude. A series of experiments were performed to observe the effects of oxidation and surface roughness on contact resistance. Electrical contact resistance and thermal contact conductance from 4 to 290 K on OFHC Cu contacts are reported. Electrical contact resistance was measured with a 4-wire DC technique. Thermal contact conductance was determined by steady-state longitudinal heat flow. Corrections for the bulk contribution ot the overall measured resistance were made, with the remaining resistance due solely to the presence of the contact.

  17. Electrochemical corrosion studies in low conductivity propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blue, G. D.; Moran, C. M.; Distefano, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is investigating the possibility of developing advanced electrochemical techniques as accelerated compatibility tests for metal/propellant systems which overcome the problems associated with the low conductivity of the liquid propellants (e.g., hydrazines, nitrogen tetroxide). Both DC techniques and AC electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are being evaluated. Progress has been made in experiments involving stainless steel with hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide propellants.

  18. 40 CFR 160.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study... conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study, nature, and date of... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 160.130...

  19. 40 CFR 160.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study... conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study, nature, and date of... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 160.130...

  20. [Validation study of the Depressive Experience Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Atger, F; Frasson, G; Loas, G; Guibourgé, S; Corcos, M; Perez Diaz, F; Speranza, M; Venisse, J-L; Lang, F; Stephan, Ph; Bizouard, P; Flament, M; Jeammet, Ph

    2003-01-01

    -reliant and as sociotropic and autonomous . Our work presents the results of a validation study of both forms of Blatt's questionnaire (for adults--DEQ--and for adolescents--DEQA) translated in French in a large population of normal subjects, aged 15 to 45 years. DEQ and DEQ-A were compared by inspection of items loading strongly on each factor and by correlation of the three factors of adults and adolescents. The exploratory factor analysis of DEQ and DEQA revealed three orthogonal factors, corresponding with Blatt's original dimensions. Consistency and external validity were adequate for all 3 factors of DEQ and DEQ-A. Anaclitism and self-criticism dimensions of DEQ and DEQ-A correlate positively with measures of depression (DSM-IV, Beck Depression Inventory), consistently with the results obtained by Blatt. Differently from this author, anaclitism appears to be less differentiated in males than in females, suggesting that the concept of dependence could assume different relevance for men and women. PMID:14615694

  1. Practical challenges in conducting respiratory studies

    PubMed Central

    Hake, Sanjay D.; Patil, Mahesh L.; Shah, Tapankumar M.; Gokhale, Partha M.; Suvarna, Viraj

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory studies are complex on account of specific therapeutic knowledge that is needed and various instruments that are used for the management of this condition. Monitoring a respiratory study requires knowledge of the specific disease and associated guidelines. The intent of this article is to help clinical research professionals understand the technicalities, challenges, and the nuances of performing respiratory studies. PMID:25657898

  2. 18 CFR 5.15 - Conduct of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of studies. 5... Conduct of studies. (a) Implementation. The potential applicant must gather information and conduct studies as provided for in the approved study plan and schedule. (b) Progress reports. The...

  3. 18 CFR 5.15 - Conduct of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conduct of studies. 5... Conduct of studies. (a) Implementation. The potential applicant must gather information and conduct studies as provided for in the approved study plan and schedule. (b) Progress reports. The...

  4. 40 CFR 792.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conduct of a study. 792.130 Section 792.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study shall be...

  5. 40 CFR 792.130 - Conduct of a study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.130 Conduct of a study. (a) The study shall be conducted in accordance with the protocol. (b) The test systems shall be monitored in conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study,...

  6. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  7. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  8. An Agenda for NAEP Validity Research: NAEP Validity Studies. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancavage, Frances B.

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Validity Studies Panel undertook a systematic analysis to consider the domain of validity threats to NAEP and to identify the most urgent research priorities. A framework of six broad categories was developed: (1) the constructs measured within each of NAEP's subject domains; (2) the manner in…

  9. Idaho NTE Core Battery Validation: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetler, Alan G.

    The content validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery tests of communications skills, general knowledge, and professional knowledge was examined to determine whether this commercially available test was suitable for initial teacher certification in Idaho. Focus was on recommending adoption scores (cut scores) to the State…

  10. Reviewing existing knowledge prior to conducting animal studies.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-12-01

    Highly polarised viewpoints about animal experimentation have often prevented agreement. However, important common ground between advocates and opponents was demonstrated within a discussion forum hosted at www.research-methodology.org.uk in July-August 2008, by the independent charity, SABRE Research UK. Agreement existed that many animal studies have methodological flaws - such as inappropriate sample sizes, lack of randomised treatments, and unblinded outcome assessments - that may introduce bias and limit statistical validity. There was also agreement that systematic reviews of the human utility of animal models yield the highest quality of evidence, as their reliance on methodical and impartial methods to select significant numbers of animal studies for review, serves to minimise bias. Unfortunately, disagreement remained that animal experimental licence applications should reference systematic reviews of existing studies, before approval. The UK Medical Research Council requires that researchers planning human clinical trials must reference such reviews of related previous work. Existing knowledge is thereby fully and appropriately utilised, and redundant experimentation is avoided. However, objections were raised that a similar requirement would interfere with animal experimental licensing, because, to date, there have been very few systematic reviews of animal studies. In fact, the relative dearth of such reviews is a matter of considerable concern, and may partially explain the very poor human success rates of drugs that appear safe and/or efficacious in animal trials. Nevertheless, the disturbing number of human trials which have proceeded concurrently with, or prior to, animal studies, or have continued despite equivocal evidence of efficacy in animals, clearly demonstrate that many researchers fail to conduct adequate prior reviews of existing evidence. Where neither sufficient primary studies, nor systematic reviews of such studies, exist, for citation

  11. A validation study for vinyl electrical tape end matches.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Maureen J; Gauntt, Jennifer M; Mehltretter, Andria H; Lowe, Preston C; Wright, Diana M

    2011-05-01

    Fracture matches are considered the strongest conclusion in the forensic examination of rigid materials, such as glass, metal, and paint. However, publications that support the fracture matching of polymeric films, such as tape backings, are limited. This study was designed to determine the validity and error rate associated with conducting end-match (fracture match) examinations on vinyl electrical tape. Test designs varied the source roll of tape, test preparer, or mode of separation from the roll. Results indicated that each affected the resulting severed tape ends. The analysts examining the end matches also had an effect on the results. Eight end matches in the study were not identified by the initial analysts and were considered inconclusive. One end match was misidentified, resulting in one false positive and an error rate of 0.049%. These results support a comprehensive physical and chemical tape comparison regardless of indications of an end match. PMID:21361956

  12. Conductivity and electrical studies of plasticized carboxymethyl cellulose based proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, M. I. N.; Noor, N. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBE) comprises of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as polymer host, ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN) as doping salt and ethylene carbonate (EC) as plasticizer has been prepared via solution casting technique. Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to study the conductivity and electrical properties of plasticized CMC-NH4SCN SBE system over a wide range of frequency between 50 Hz and 1 MHz at temperature range of 303 to 353 K. Upon addition of plasticizer into CMC-NH4SCN SBE system, the conductivity increased from 10-5 to 10-2 Scm-1. The highest conductivity was obtained by the electrolyte containing 10 wt.% of EC. The conductivity of plasticized CMC-NH4SCN SBE system by various temperatures obeyed Arrhenius law where the ionic conductivity increased as the temperature increased. The activation energy, Ea was found to decrease with enhancement of EC concentration. Dielectric studies for the highest conductivity electrolyte obeyed non-Debye behavior. The conduction mechanism for the highest conductivity electrolyte was determined by employing Jonsher's universal power law and thus, can be represented by the quantum mechanical tunneling (QMT) model.

  13. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  14. Construct Validation Theory Applied to the Study of Personality Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Guller, Leila; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review theory validation and construct validation principles as related to the study of personality dysfunction. Historically, personality disorders have been understood to be syndromes of heterogeneous symptoms. The authors argue that the syndrome approach to description results in diagnoses of unclear meaning and constrained validity. The alternative approach of describing personality dysfunction in terms of homogeneous dimensions of functioning avoids the problems of the syndromal approach and has been shown to provide more valid description and diagnosis. The authors further argue that description based on homogeneous dimensions of personality function/dysfunction is more useful, because it provides direct connections to validated treatments. PMID:22321263

  15. Experimental validation of an eddy current probe for defect detection in thick conducting specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh Raja, P.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling and experimental measurements of eddy current (EC) probe for detecting subsurface defects in 10 mm to 15 mm thick conducting specimen. Measurements are presented for a pancake air core coil to detect subsurface defect in 10 mm thick aluminum slab. EC coil parameters namely inner radius(r1), and outer radius(r2), and operating frequency (f) are optimized for deeper penetration in the conducting plate (35 MS/m) for a given coil height(h), and lift off distance (d). Preliminary simulation results are presented for a subsurface defect in 15 mm thick aluminium plate for the optimized EC coil parameters.

  16. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  17. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  18. Lightning return stroke current radiation in presence of a conducting ground: 2. Validity assessment of simplified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfino, Federico; Procopio, Renato; Rossi, Mansueto; Rachidi, Farhad; Nucci, Carlo Alberto

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, the developed formulation, which we shall call the "reference" one, is used to assess the validity of the most popular simplified approach for the calculation of the lightning electromagnetic field over a conducting earth, namely, the Cooray-Rubinstein (CR) approximation. This formula provides a simple method to evaluate the radial component of the electric field which is the component most affected by the finite ground conductivity and which plays an important role within the Agrawal et al. (1980) field-to-transmission line-coupling model. Several configurations are examined, with different values for the ground conductivity and different field observation points. A thorough analysis of all the simulated field components is carried out and comparisons are also made with the "ideal" field, namely, the field that would be present under the assumption of perfectly conducting ground. It is shown that for channel base current typical of subsequent strokes and for very low conductivities, the CR formula exhibits some deviations from the reference one but it still represents a conservative estimation of the radial field component, since it behaves as un upper bound for the exact curve. The developed algorithm is characterized by fast performances in terms of CPU time, lending itself to be used for several applications, including a coupling code for lightning induced overvoltages calculations.

  19. Validating an Elicited Imitation Task as a Measure of Implicit Knowledge: Comparisons with Other Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Nina; Shiu, Julie Li-Ju; Tomita, Yasuyo

    2015-01-01

    This study builds on research investigating the construct validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure of implicit second language (L2) grammatical knowledge. It differs from previous studies in that the EI task focuses on a single grammatical feature and time on task is strictly controlled. Seventy-three EFL learners and 20 native English…

  20. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  1. Rocky Flats 1990--91 winter validation tracer study: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.J.

    1991-10-01

    During the winter of 1990--91, North American Weather Consultants (NAWC) and its subcontractor, ABB Environmental Services (ABBES), conducted a Winter Validation Study (WVS) for EG&G Rocky Flats involving 12 separate tracer experiments conducted between February 3 and February 19, 1991. Six experiments were conducted during nighttime hours and four experiments were conducted during daytime hours. In addition, there was one day/night and one night/day transitional experiment conducted. The primary purpose of the WVS was to gather data to further the approval process for the Terrain Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC). TRAC is an atmospheric dispersion model developed and operated at the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) north of Denver, Colorado. A secondary objective was to gather data that will serve to validate the TRAC model physics.

  2. FEM Simulation and Experimental Validation of LBW Under Conduction Regime of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churiaque, C.; Amaya-Vazquez, M. R.; Botana, F. J.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Laser Beam Welding (LBW) is an advanced process to join materials with a laser beam of high energy density. LBW is especially suitable to join titanium alloys, as it allows high localization and low size of the melting pool, reducing considerably the energy of the process, in comparison with other welding technologies. Among the two widely known welding regimes, conduction and keyhole, the former is claimed to be a viable alternative to keyhole, mainly because it is a very stable process, provides high-quality welds free of defects, and involves lower laser cost. In the present work, a Finite Element Method (FEM) has been developed to simulate the LBW of Ti6Al4V alloy under conduction regime. The "Goldak double ellipsoid model" has been taken for the first time to simulate this LBW conduction process. In order to refine and validate the model, experimental conduction welding tests were performed on Ti6Al4V pieces with a high-power diode laser. Microstructural analyses and hardness measurements were also performed on the laser weld beads to identify the generated phases. Distortion and residual stresses were also obtained from the FEM simulations. An excellent agreement between the simulation and experimental results was found regarding the bead morphology and phase transformations.

  3. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  4. Designing SoTL Studies--Part I: Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses how to improve validity in SoTL studies through generating appropriate measures and using designs that examine causality between an activity and students' performance. [Part II available at EJ1029365.

  5. Refinements in the care and use of animals in toxicology studies-regulation, validation, and progress.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Smiler, Kathleen L; Hargaden, Maureen; Koch, Michael A

    2003-11-01

    During the past decade, important advances have been made in the humane care and use of laboratory animals used in toxicology studies, and there is strong international interest by the pharmaceutical sector in continuing with this progress. Because of the potential influence on human health, safety studies are highly regulated, and implementing refinements in laboratory animal care and use may require an initial validation study to demonstrate a lack of effect on study outcome. This paper provides an overview of issues surrounding implementation of animal care refinements in toxicology laboratory settings, including regulatory constraints, conducting validation studies, current progress in refinements, and areas for future consideration. PMID:14615954

  6. Validation Study of the Malay Version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    SANAZ, Aazami; SYAQIRAH, Akmal; KHADIJAH, Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflict has received increasing attention in recent decades in the area of workplace stressors, which can affect employees’ health. However, the dimensionality of the work–family conflict construct among the Malay-speaking population has not been clarified. In order to do so, it is crucial to use an instrument that is appropriate and valid for the Malay-speaking population. As such, the goal of this study was to validate and test the dimensionality of the Malay version of the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire. Methods: The present study conducted exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency, using Cronbach’s alpha, of the work–family conflict construct among 332 working women in Malaysia. Results: The results supported the existence of four dimensions in the Work-Family Conflict Questionnaire that distinguish between time based and strain-based work-family conflict and family-work conflict. The discriminant validity, convergent validity, and internal consistency of this construct are adequately supported. Conclusion: The findings of this study supported the existence of discriminant and convergent validity, as well as adequate reliability, for the construct. Thus, the Work–Family Conflict Questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument among Malay-speaking working women. PMID:24639612

  7. Conducting Internet Research With the Transgender Population: Reaching Broad Samples and Collecting Valid Data.

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Bockting, Walter O; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raman, Sivakumaran

    2012-05-01

    Health research on transgender people has been hampered by the challenges inherent in studying a hard-to-reach, relatively small, and geographically dispersed population. The Internet has the potential to facilitate access to transgender samples large enough to permit examination of the diversity and syndemic health disparities found among this population. In this article, we describe the experiences of a team of investigators using the Internet to study HIV risk behaviors of transgender people in the United States. We developed an online instrument, recruited participants exclusively via websites frequented by members of the target population, and collected data using online quantitative survey and qualitative synchronous and asynchronous interview methods. Our experiences indicate that the Internet environment presents the investigator with some unique challenges and that commonly expressed criticisms about Internet research (e.g., lack of generalizable samples, invalid study participants, and multiple participation by the same subject) can be overcome with careful method design, usability testing, and pilot testing. The importance of both usability and pilot testing are described with respect to participant engagement and retention and the quality of data obtained online. PMID:24031157

  8. Identifying Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax from Administrative Databases: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Frechette, Eric; Guidolin, Keegan; Seyam, Ayman; Choi, Yun-Hee; Jones, Sarah; McClure, J. Andrew; Winick-Ng, Jennifer; Welk, Blayne; Malthaner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) is a disorder commonly encountered in healthy young individuals. There is no differentiation between PSP and secondary pneumothorax (SP) in the current version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). This complicates the conduct of epidemiological studies on the subject. Objective. To validate the accuracy of an algorithm that identifies cases of PSP from administrative databases. Methods. The charts of 150 patients who consulted the emergency room (ER) with a recorded main diagnosis of pneumothorax were reviewed to define the type of pneumothorax that occurred. The corresponding hospital administrative data collected during previous hospitalizations and ER visits were processed through the proposed algorithm. The results were compared over two different age groups. Results. There were 144 cases of pneumothorax correctly coded (96%). The results obtained from the PSP algorithm demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (97% versus 81%, p = 0.038) and positive predictive value (87% versus 46%, p < 0.001) in patients under 40 years of age than in older patients. Conclusions. The proposed algorithm is adequate to identify cases of PSP from administrative databases in the age group classically associated with the disease. This makes possible its utilization in large population-based studies.

  9. Hyper-X Stage Separation Trajectory Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Bose, David M.; McMinn, John D.; Martin, John G.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2003-01-01

    An independent twelve degree-of-freedom simulation of the X-43A separation trajectory was created with the Program to Optimize Simulated trajectories (POST II). This simulation modeled the multi-body dynamics of the X-43A and its booster and included the effect of two pyrotechnically actuated pistons used to push the vehicles apart as well as aerodynamic interaction forces and moments between the two vehicles. The simulation was developed to validate trajectory studies conducted with a 14 degree-of-freedom simulation created early in the program using the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanics Systems (ADAMS) simulation software. The POST simulation was less detailed than the official ADAMS-based simulation used by the Project, but was simpler, more concise and ran faster, while providing similar results. The increase in speed provided by the POST simulation provided the Project with an alternate analysis tool. This tool was ideal for performing separation control logic trade studies that required the running of numerous Monte Carlo trajectories.

  10. Conducting Phase IV clinical studies: a moral imperative?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, TP

    2012-01-01

    The answer to this question lies in knowing the moral standing of Phase IV studies and whether we ought to conduct them. And to know this, in part, we need to compare them to studies in Phases I, II, and III and then determine where Phase IV studies stand in relation to Phase I–III studies scientifically and commercially.

  11. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  12. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  13. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  14. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... experimental conditions apply for any solvent: (a) Temperature and pressure. Conduct the validation study and perform decontamination at room temperature (from ≥15 °C to ≤30 °C) and at atmospheric pressure....

  15. Conducting spoken word recognition research online: Validation and a new timing method.

    PubMed

    Slote, Joseph; Strand, Julia F

    2016-06-01

    Models of spoken word recognition typically make predictions that are then tested in the laboratory against the word recognition scores of human subjects (e.g., Luce & Pisoni Ear and Hearing, 19, 1-36, 1998). Unfortunately, laboratory collection of large sets of word recognition data can be costly and time-consuming. Due to the numerous advantages of online research in speed, cost, and participant diversity, some labs have begun to explore the use of online platforms such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (AMT) to source participation and collect data (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 3-5, 2011). Many classic findings in cognitive psychology have been successfully replicated online, including the Stroop effect, task-switching costs, and Simon and flanker interference (Crump, McDonnell, & Gureckis PLoS ONE, 8, e57410, 2013). However, tasks requiring auditory stimulus delivery have not typically made use of AMT. In the present study, we evaluated the use of AMT for collecting spoken word identification and auditory lexical decision data. Although online users were faster and less accurate than participants in the lab, the results revealed strong correlations between the online and laboratory measures for both word identification accuracy and lexical decision speed. In addition, the scores obtained in the lab and online were equivalently correlated with factors that have been well established to predict word recognition, including word frequency and phonological neighborhood density. We also present and analyze a method for precise auditory reaction timing that is novel to behavioral research. Taken together, these findings suggest that AMT can be a viable alternative to the traditional laboratory setting as a source of participation for some spoken word recognition research. PMID:25987305

  16. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  17. Academic Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of College Outcomes: Two Incremental Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Paul A. Jr

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports the relationship between students' self-efficacy beliefs for academic tasks and milestones and their academic performance. Not surprisingly, some researchers have investigated the role that academic self-efficacy beliefs play in predicting college success. Two incremental validity studies were conducted to…

  18. Which Study Designs Are Capable of Producing Valid Evidence about a Program's Effectiveness? A Brief Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This guide is addressed to policy officials, program providers, and researchers who are seeking to: (1) identify and implement social programs backed by valid evidence of effectiveness; or (2) sponsor or conduct an evaluation to determine whether a program is effective. The guide provides a brief overview of which studies can produce valid…

  19. Validation study of the USDA’s data quality evaluation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of USDA conducted a validation study of the USDA Data Quality Evaluation System (DQES). The system evaluates the quality of analytical data by rating important documentation concerning the analytical method, analytical quality control, number of samples, sampling ...

  20. Factor Analysis and Validity Study of the Law School Admission Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Alfred B.

    A factor analysis of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) battery was undertaken to gain a better understanding of the specific abilities which contribute to performance on the tests. To determine whether greater amounts of testing time should be allocated to groups of items defined by the factor analysis, a validity study was conducted. Existing…

  1. Validation study of the USDA’s Data Quality Evaluation System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of USDA has conducted a validation study of the USDA Data Quality Evaluation System. The system evaluates the quality of analytical data by rating important documentation concerning the analytical method, analytical quality control, number of samples...

  2. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  3. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Reddy, C. Narayana; Gowda, Veeranna

    2011-07-01

    Glasses in the system xLi2SO4-20Li2O-(80-x) [80P2O5-20V2O5] (5⩾x⩾20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation σ(ω) = σ(0)+Aωs where `s' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li2SO4 concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  4. Design and Implementation Content Validity Study: Development of an instrument for measuring Patient-Centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of content validity in the instrument psychometric and its relevance with reliability, have made it an essential step in the instrument development. This article attempts to give an overview of the content validity process and to explain the complexity of this process by introducing an example. Methods: We carried out a methodological study conducted to examine the content validity of the patient-centered communication instrument through a two-step process (development and judgment). At the first step, domain determination, sampling (item generation) and instrument formation and at the second step, content validity ratio, content validity index and modified kappa statistic was performed. Suggestions of expert panel and item impact scores are used to examine the instrument face validity. Results: From a set of 188 items, content validity process identified seven dimensions includes trust building (eight items), informational support (seven items), emotional support (five items), problem solving (seven items), patient activation (10 items), intimacy/friendship (six items) and spirituality strengthening (14 items). Content validity study revealed that this instrument enjoys an appropriate level of content validity. The overall content validity index of the instrument using universal agreement approach was low; however, it can be advocated with respect to the high number of content experts that makes consensus difficult and high value of the S-CVI with the average approach, which was equal to 0.93. Conclusion: This article illustrates acceptable quantities indices for content validity a new instrument and outlines them during design and psychometrics of patient-centered communication measuring instrument. PMID:26161370

  5. Symptom validity testing and its underlying psychophysiological response pattern: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Vilar-López, R; Pérez-García, M; Sánchez-Barrera, M B; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Gómez-Río, M

    2011-03-01

    Very little is known about the autonomic psychophysiological responses while individuals are executing a Symptom Validity Test. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the peripheral psychophysiological correlates (electrodermal conductance and heart rate) during the performance of the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT). The sample of this study was composed of 30 participants who underwent the VSVT under two conditions: Exaggeration of cognitive deficits (ECD) and normal effort. Our results showed differences on skin conductance between correct answers and errors limited to the decision-making phase of the ECD condition. Those differences found in the maximum conductance value when participants decide to simulate their deficits could be related to emotional activation. No differences were found on the variable heart rate between the two conditions of the study. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21169274

  6. Study of AC electrical conduction mechanisms in an epoxy polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilani, Wissal; Mzabi, Nissaf; Gallot-Lavallée, Olivier; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Zerrouki, Rachida; Guermazi, Hajer

    2015-11-01

    The AC conductivity of an epoxy resin was investigated in the frequency range 10^{-1} - 106 Hz at temperatures ranging from -100 to 120 °C. The frequency dependence of σ_{ac} was described by the law: σ_{ac}=ω \\varepsilon0\\varepsilon^''_{HN}+Aωs. The study of temperature variation of the exponent (s) reveals two conduction models: the AC conduction dependence upon temperature is governed by the small polaron tunneling mechanism (SPTM) at low temperature (-100 -60 °C) and the correlated barrier hopping (CHB) model at high temperature (80-120 °C).

  7. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-01

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene.

  8. Thermal conductivity of penta-graphene from molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-10-21

    Using classical equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and applying the original Tersoff interatomic potential, we study the thermal transport property of the latest two dimensional carbon allotrope, penta-graphene. It is predicted that its room-temperature thermal conductivity is about 167 W/mK, which is much lower than that of graphene. With normal mode decomposition, the accumulated thermal conductivity with respect to phonon frequency and mean free path is analyzed. It is found that the acoustic phonons make a contribution of about 90% to the thermal conductivity, and phonons with mean free paths larger than 100 nm make a contribution over 50%. We demonstrate that the remarkably lower thermal conductivity of penta-graphene compared with graphene results from the lower phonon group velocities and fewer collective phonon excitations. Our study highlights the importance of structure-property relationship and provides better understanding of thermal transport property and valuable insight into thermal management of penta-graphene. PMID:26493918

  9. The electrical conduction of conjugated molecular CAMs studied by a conductive atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shin-ichi; Ogawa, Kazufumi

    2006-09-01

    Monomolecular layers containing pyrrolyl groups between two parallel Pt electrodes on a glass substrate by a chemical adsorption technique using N-[11-(trichlorosilyl)undecyl] pyrrole (PNN) were studied. Polymerization with pure water by applying a DC voltage of 10 V between the two Pt electrodes was carried out, and several electric paths were formed between the two Pt electrodes were identified. Conductive probe of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine the electrical polymerized paths through the surface of the polypyrrolyl group in a chemically adsorbed monomolecular layer. With a measurement volume of about 0.2 nm (thickness of the monomolecular layer) × 100 μm (the average width of an electric path) × 100 μm (the distance between the Pt electrode and the Au-covered AFM tip), the resistance at room temperature of one electric path was 5 kΩ under ambient conditions. From the results conducted in an atmosphere, the conductivity of a super-long conjugated polypyrrolyl group without any dopant in a lateral direction was ohmically estimated to be at least 5.0 × 10 5 s/m.

  10. The Validity and Precision of the Comparative Interrupted Time-Series Design: Three Within-Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Travis; Hallberg, Kelly; Cook, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the conditions under which short, comparative interrupted time-series (CITS) designs represent valid alternatives to randomized experiments in educational evaluations. To do so, we conduct three within-study comparisons, each of which uses a unique data set to test the validity of the CITS design by comparing its causal estimates to…

  11. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Appa; Kumar, E. Ramesh; Kumari, K. Rajani; Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-01

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI-Ag2O-[(1-x)B2O3-xTeO2] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz-3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303-423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300-523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO2 as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10-2 S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  12. Electrical studies on silver based fast ion conducting glassy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B. Appa Kumar, E. Ramesh Kumari, K. Rajani Bhikshamaiah, G.

    2014-04-24

    Among all the available fast ion conductors, silver based glasses exhibit high conductivity. Further, glasses containing silver iodide enhances fast ion conducting behavior at room temperature. Glasses of various compositions of silver based fast ion conductors in the AgI−Ag{sub 2}O−[(1−x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−xTeO{sub 2}] (x=0 to1 mol% in steps of 0.2) glassy system have been prepared by melt quenching method. The glassy nature of the compounds has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity (AC) measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 1 KHz–3MHz by Impedance Analyzer in the temperature range 303–423K. The DC conductivity measurements were also carried out in the temperature range 300–523K. From both AC and DC conductivity studies, it is found that the conductivity increases and activation energy decreases with increasing the concentration of TeO{sub 2} as well as with temperature. The conductivity of the present glass system is found to be of the order of 10{sup −2} S/cm at room temperature. The ionic transport number of these glasses is found to be 0.999 indicating that these glasses can be used as electrolyte in batteries.

  13. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  14. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  16. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  17. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  18. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a... this part. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a content validity study.... Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure through a construct validity study...

  19. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  20. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  1. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  2. The Basic "How To's" for Validating a Study Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasingame, Virginia G.

    To find out what study skills were used by successful students at an urban commuter school whose primary degree program is business, the College Reading and Study Skills (CRSS) inventory was validated on 150 students. First the CRSS inventory was evaluated and revised slightly. The language of the statements was made positive and jargon free. The…

  3. Developing the Educational Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Cokluk, Omay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining educational beliefs of teachers and prospective teachers. After studies such as scale expert views and the evaluation of intelligibility, the measure is administered to a sample consisting of 154 teachers and 305 prospective teachers with a total number…

  4. The Jackson Career Explorer: Two Further Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schermer, Julie Aitken

    2012-01-01

    The present report consists of two further validity studies using the Jackson Career Explorer (JCE), a short form and continuous version of the Jackson Vocational Interest Survey, measuring 34 interests. The first study examined the relationships between the JCE and five personality factors, from a sample of 528 individuals. The correlations found…

  5. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  6. NASA's Rodent Research Project: Validation of Flight Hardware, Operations and Science Capabilities for Conducting Long Duration Experiments in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. Y.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Pletcher, D.; Globus, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Research using rodents is an essential tool for advancing biomedical research on Earth and in space. Rodent Research (RR)-1 was conducted to validate flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities that were developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. Twenty C57BL/6J adult female mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in a Dragon Capsule (SpaceX-4), then transferred to the ISS for a total time of 21-22 days (10 commercial mice) or 37 (10 validation mice). Tissues collected on-orbit were either rapidly frozen or preserved in RNA later at less than or equal to -80 C (n=2/group) until their return to Earth. Remaining carcasses were rapidly frozen for dissection post-flight. The three controls groups at Kennedy Space Center consisted of: Basal mice euthanized at the time of launch, Vivarium controls, housed in standard cages, and Ground Controls (GC), housed in flight hardware within an environmental chamber. FLT mice appeared more physically active on-orbit than GC, and behavior analysis are in progress. Upon return to Earth, there were no differences in body weights between FLT and GC at the end of the 37 days in space. RNA was of high quality (RIN greater than 8.5). Liver enzyme activity levels of FLT mice and all control mice were similar in magnitude to those of the samples that were optimally processed in the laboratory. Liver samples collected from the intact frozen FLT carcasses had RNA RIN of 7.27 +/- 0.52, which was lower than that of the samples processed on-orbit, but similar to those obtained from the control group intact carcasses. Nonetheless, the RNA samples from the intact carcasses were acceptable for the most demanding transcriptomic analyses. Adrenal glands, thymus and spleen (organs associated with stress response) showed no significant difference in weights between FLT and GC. Enzymatic activity was also not significantly different. Over 3,000 tissues collected from the four groups of mice have become available for the Biospecimen Sharing

  7. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  8. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  9. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  10. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  11. 40 CFR 761.326 - Conducting the comparison study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-liquid PCB Remediation Waste Samples § 761.326 Conducting the comparison study. Extract or analyze the... be met. (a) All samples having PCB concentrations greater than or equal to the level of concern, as... found to have a PCB concentration greater than the level of concern as measured by the...

  12. Recent Studies of RF Breakdown Physics in Normal Conducting Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, Valery; /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    The operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The behavior of the rf breakdown depends on multiple parameters, including the input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Here we discuss recent experimental data and theoretical studies of rf breakdown physics.

  13. Treatment of Conduct Disorders in Childhood: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Elizabeth A.

    Children evidencing conduct disorders comprise the bulk of clinical referrals. Longitudinal studies have found that the prognosis for these children is poor in that the majority exhibit antisocial behavior in adulthood. In order to compare two methods of treatment, relationship-based and contingency management, 53 children (33 boys, 20 girls),…

  14. Paraphasias in Multilingual Conduction Aphasia: A Single Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegde, Medha; Bhat, Sapna

    2007-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia, which is caused due to the damage to the supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus resulting in repetition disturbance. It has been speculated that linguistic system in bilingual aphasics can breakdown in different ways across languages. There is a lack of detailed linguistic studies in specific…

  15. Preparation, characterization and conductivity studies of chlorinated natural rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Subburaj; Ramesan, M. T.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2014-10-01

    Chlorinated natural rubber (CNR) was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform using phase transfer catalyst. The chlorination in CNR was monitored by FTIR and UV spectroscopy and these studies indicated the formation of dichloro cyclopropyl ring to the double bond of natural rubber (NR). XRD and SEM analysis revealed the extent of chlorination in natural rubber. Electrical properties such as AC conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of CNR was higher than that of NR. Conductivity of NR increased with the increase in the concentration of chlorine percentage. LOI values indicated that the chemical modification imparts better flame resistant to NR.

  16. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  17. Validation study for secretarial/administrative classifications using computer-based testing

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content and concurrent criterion-related validity study conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for clerical, secretarial and administrative classifications using computer-based testing. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of testing software incorporated in the study are explored. Job analysis methodology, adverse impact analysis, procedure for establishing cut-off score and problems associated with criterion development and restriction of range are discussed. 6 tabs.

  18. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  19. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of logotherapy…

  20. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

  1. The Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised: A Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.

    2003-01-01

    This study supported evidence of reliability and validity of the Theoretical Orientation Profile Scale-Revised (TOPS-R) scores. The TOPS-R was designed to measure theoretical orientation among counselors and trainees. Factor analysis yielded a 6-factor solution accounting for 87.5% of the total variance in the scale. The 6 factors corresponded to…

  2. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  3. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  4. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  5. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  6. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  7. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  8. Conceptualization and Utility of University Mattering: A Construct Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Megan K.; Finney, Sara J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather validity evidence for the University Mattering Scale. Theoretically based factor structures were tested, resulting in the four-factor conceptualization of mattering being championed. As predicted, university mattering related positively to academic motivational and relatedness constructs and negatively to…

  9. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section 761.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... selected testing parameters and experimental conditions. Take a standard wipe sample of the...

  10. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  11. Homework Purpose Scale for Middle School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was…

  12. Heat conduction in multifunctional nanotrusses studied using Boltzmann transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Nicholas G.; Minnich, Austin J.

    2016-01-01

    Materials that possess low density, low thermal conductivity, and high stiffness are desirable for engineering applications, but most materials cannot realize these properties simultaneously due to the coupling between them. Nanotrusses, which consist of hollow nanoscale beams architected into a periodic truss structure, can potentially break these couplings due to their lattice architecture and nanoscale features. In this work, we study heat conduction in the exact nanotruss geometry by solving the frequency-dependent Boltzmann transport equation using a variance-reduced Monte Carlo algorithm. We show that their thermal conductivity can be described with only two parameters, solid fraction and wall thickness. Our simulations predict that nanotrusses can realize unique combinations of mechanical and thermal properties that are challenging to achieve in typical materials.

  13. AC Conductivity Studies of Lithium Based Phospho Vanadate Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendra, K.; Babu, G. Satish; Gowda, Veeranna; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-07-15

    Glasses in the system xLi{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-20Li{sub 2}O-(80-x) [80P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-20V{sub 2}O{sub 5}](5{>=}x{>=}20 mol%) has been prepared by melt quenching method. Dc and ac conductivity has been studied over a wide range of frequency (10 Hz to 10 MHz) and temperature (298 K-523 K). The dc conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. The ac conductivities have been fitted to the Almond-West type single power law equation {sigma}({omega}) = {sigma}(0)+A{omega}{sup s} where 's' is the power law exponent. The ac conductivity found to increase with increase of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration. An attempt is made to elucidate the enhancement of lithium ion conduction in phosphor-vanadate glasses by considering the expansion of network structure.

  14. Meteorological conditions during the winter validation study at Rocky Flats, Colorado: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1991-11-06

    The objective for the Winter Validation Study was to gather field data for validation of the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) under winter time meteorological conditions. Twelve tracer tests were conducted during a two-week period in February 1991. Each test lasted 12 hours, with releases of SF{sub 6} tracer from the Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado. The tests included ground-based and airborne sampling to 16 km from the release point. This presentation summarizes meteorological conditions during the testing period. Forty six viewgraphs are included.

  15. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  16. Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Idvall, E; Hamrin, E; Sjöström, B; Unosson, M

    2001-01-01

    Quality indicators in postoperative pain management: a validation study. In a previous study, strategic and clinical quality indicators were developed from a tentative model to assess high quality in postoperative pain management. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content validity of these 15 indicators. The indicators were compiled in a questionnaire, and two groups of nurses (n=210, n=321) scored each indicator on a 5-point scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree) from three different standpoints: whether it was essential for achieving high quality, whether it was realistic to carry out, and whether it was possible for nurses to influence management. The respondents were also asked to choose the most crucial indicators for the quality of care. The results showed that both groups of nurses judged the 15 indicators to have content validity from all three standpoints. Both groups also found the same six indicators to be the most crucial. These indicators concerned detecting and acting on signs and symptoms, performing prescriptions, informing and educating, acting on behalf of patients, competence/knowledge, and attitudes. The validated indicators should be useful to consider when implementing a strategy for postoperative pain management and when planning to evaluate the quality of care. PMID:12453175

  17. Metal-containing polyacrylonitriles: ESR studies and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bronstein, L.M.; ERemin, V.S.; Solodovnikov, S.P.

    1995-12-01

    Metal-containing polyacrylonitriles (PAN) synthesized by the complexation of VI B group metal hexacarbonyls with PAN nitrile groups were studied during thermolysis in air at 220{degrees}C to find conditions for preparation of conductive polymeric films. It was shown that increase of W content in polymer leads to significant decrease of {gamma}{sub v} to magnitude about 10{sup -16} {Omega}/cm as compared with conductivity of thermolized initial PAN ({gamma}{sub v} = 10{sup -11} {Omega}/cm). In contrast, PAN-Cr samples heated under the same temperature-time conditions in an external field 40-50 kV/cm show the increase of conductivity: at a chromium content of 3.1 wt.% {gamma}{sub v} reaches a value of 10{sup -5} {Omega}/cm. According to ESR study, the thermolized PAN-Cr contains Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (a broad ESR signal at H=65 Oe); in so doing rough estimate of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersity gives a value about 3 nm. Upon thermolysis of PAN-Mo in external field the enhancement of conductivity also occurs. The values of the temperature resistance factors for PAN-Cr and PAN-Mo in the temperature range 20-200{degrees}C reaches a value 1-9 x 10{sup -4} K{sup -1}.

  18. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  19. Sources of Self-Efficacy in Mathematics: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N=1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N=824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best.…

  20. Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  1. Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingwen

    2012-04-01

    With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.

  2. Validity of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey: A Confirmatory Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of the present study were to evaluate whether investigator bias influenced the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores of children with normal binocular vision (NBV) in our original validation study, reevaluate the usefulness of the cut-off score of 16, and reexamine the validity of the CISS. Methods Six clinical sites participating in the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) enrolled 46 children 9 - <18 years with NBV. Examiners masked to the child’s binocular vision status administered the CISS. The mean CISS score was compared to that from the children with NBV in the original, unmasked CISS study and also to that of the 221 symptomatic CI children enrolled in the CITT. Results The mean (±SD) CISS score for 46 subjects with NBV was 10.4 (±8.1). This was comparable to that from our prior unmasked NBV study (mean = 8.1(± 6.2); p = 0.11), but was significantly different from that of the CITT CI group (mean = 29.8 ± 9.0; p < 0.001). Eighty-three percent of these NBV subjects scored less than 16 on the CISS, which is not statistically different from the 87.5% found in the original unmasked study (p = 0.49). Conclusions Examiner bias did not affect the CISS scores for subjects with NBV in our prior study. The CISS continues to be a valid instrument for quantifying symptoms in 9 to <18 year-old children and these results confirm the validity of a cut-point of ≥ 16 in distinguishing children with symptomatic CI from those with NBV. PMID:19289977

  3. Paper use in research ethics applications and study conduct.

    PubMed

    Chakladar, Abhijoy; Eckstein, Sue; White, Stuart M

    2011-02-01

    Application for Research Ethics Committee (REC) approval and the conduct of medical research is paper intensive. This retrospective study examined all applications to a single REC in the south of England over one year. It estimated the mass of paper used, comparing the proportional paper consumption of different trial types and during different stages of the research process, quantifying the consumption in terms of carbon dioxide emissions. In 2009, 68 trials were submitted to the REC. Total paper consumption for the REC process and study conduct was 176,150 sheets of A4 paper (879 kg), equivalent to an estimated 11.5 million sheets (88 tonnes, 2100 trees) a year for the U.K.; the REC process accounted for 26.4%. REC applications and the conduct of approved trials generate considerable environmental impact through paper consumption contributing to the NHS's carbon footprint. Paper use might be reduced through the implementation of digital technologies and revised research methods, namely changing attitudes in both researchers and ethics committees. PMID:21404784

  4. A multisite validity study of self-reported anesthesia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter; Pekmezaris, Renee; Lesser, Martin L; Nouryan, Christian N; Rosinia, Frank; Pratt, Kathy; LaVopa, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of a multisite anesthesia voluntary adverse event reporting process. A data validation methodology was used through medical chart review on live records at 3 facilities (N = 600). The per-item aggregated error rate among all 42 data items was 0.3%: 0.1% for quality indicators, 1.3% for demographic/status variables, and 1.7% for administrative items. The per-patient error rate among all 42 data items was 6.3%: 3.0% for quality indicators, 1.7% for demographic/status variables, and 3.0% for administrative items. Trends such as better accuracy for more serious events continue, but observed error rates were lower than those found in previous surveys-an indication that, while further study is needed, nonpunitive voluntary reporting may reduce errors in anesthesia care. PMID:22326979

  5. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS1

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness Method: methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems; and validation of the contents of the recordings of the expressions by LIBRAS specialists. Data were processed in a spreadsheet and analyzed using univariate tables, with absolute frequencies and percentages. The validation results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: 33 expressions in LIBRAS, of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems were evaluated, and 28 expressions obtained a satisfactory CVI (1.00). Conclusions: the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS presented validity, in the study region, for health professionals, especially nurses, for use in the clinical anamnesis of the nursing consultation for people with deafness. PMID:26625991

  6. Design, development, testing and validation of a Photonics Virtual Laboratory for the study of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Francisco L.; Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel L.; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the design, development, testing and validation of a Photonic Virtual Laboratory, highlighting the study of LEDs. The study was conducted from a conceptual, experimental and didactic standpoint, using e-learning and m-learning platforms. Specifically, teaching tools that help ensure that our students perform significant learning have been developed. It has been brought together the scientific aspect, such as the study of LEDs, with techniques of generation and transfer of knowledge through the selection, hierarchization and structuring of information using concept maps. For the validation of the didactic materials developed, it has been used procedures with various assessment tools for the collection and processing of data, applied in the context of an experimental design. Additionally, it was performed a statistical analysis to determine the validity of the materials developed. The assessment has been designed to validate the contributions of the new materials developed over the traditional method of teaching, and to quantify the learning achieved by students, in order to draw conclusions that serve as a reference for its application in the teaching and learning processes, and comprehensively validate the work carried out.

  7. The Relationship between Nerve Conduction Study and Clinical Grading of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cheluvaiah, Janardhan D.; Agadi, Jagadish B.; Nagaraj, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment. Subjective sensory symptoms are common place in patients with CTS, but sometimes they are not supported by objective findings in the neurological examination. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. The amplitudes along with the conduction velocities of the sensory nerve action potential and motor nerve action potential reflect the functional state of axons, and are useful parameters and complement the clinical grading in the assessment of severity of CTS. Aim To conduct median nerve sensory and motor conduction studies on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and correlate the relationship between nerve conduction study parameters and the clinical severity grading. Materials and Methods Based on clinical assessment, the study patients were divided into 03 groups with mild CTS, moderate CTS and severe CTS respectively as per Mackinnson’s classification. Median and ulnar nerve conduction studies were performed on bilateral upper limbs of 50 patients with symptoms of CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. The relationship between the clinical severity grade and various nerve conduction study parameters were correlated. Results In this prospective case control study, 50 patients with symptoms consistent with CTS and 50 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were examined over a 10 month period. A total of 30 patients had unilateral CTS (right upper limb in 19 and left upper limb in 11) and 20 patients had bilateral CTS. Female to male ratio was 3.54 to 1. Age ranged from 25 to 81 years. The mean age at presentation was 49.68±11.7 years. Tingling paresthesias of hand and first three fingers were the most frequent symptoms 48 (98%). Tinel’s and Phalen’s sign were positive in 36 (72%) and 44 (88%) patients respectively. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 52.68±99.81 weeks. 16 patients (32%) had

  8. Use and validity of principles of extremum of entropy production in the study of complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heitor Reis, A.

    2014-07-15

    It is shown how both the principles of extremum of entropy production, which are often used in the study of complex systems, follow from the maximization of overall system conductivities, under appropriate constraints. In this way, the maximum rate of entropy production (MEP) occurs when all the forces in the system are kept constant. On the other hand, the minimum rate of entropy production (mEP) occurs when all the currents that cross the system are kept constant. A brief discussion on the validity of the application of the mEP and MEP principles in several cases, and in particular to the Earth’s climate is also presented. -- Highlights: •The principles of extremum of entropy production are not first principles. •They result from the maximization of conductivities under appropriate constraints. •The conditions of their validity are set explicitly. •Some long-standing controversies are discussed and clarified.

  9. Intent inferencing by an intelligent operator's associate - A validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.

    1988-01-01

    In the supervisory control of a complex, dynamic system, one potential form of aiding for the human operator is a computer-based operator's associate. The design philosophy of the operator's associate is that of 'amplifying' rather than automating human skills. In particular, the associate possesses understanding and control properties. Understanding allows it to infer operator intentions and thus form the basis for context-dependent advice and reminders; control properties allow the human operator to dynamically delegate individual tasks or subfunctions to the associate. This paper focuses on the design, implementation, and validation of the intent inferencing function. Two validation studies are described which empirically demonstrate the viability of the proposed approach to intent inferencing.

  10. Electronic conductivity studies on oxyhalide glasses containing TMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayatha, D.; Viswanatha, R.; Sujatha, B.; Narayana Reddy, C.

    2016-05-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis is cleaner, more economical and much faster than conventional methods. The development of new routes for the synthesis of solid materials is an integral part of material science and technology. The electronic conductivity studies on xPbCl2 - 60 PbO - (40-x) V2O5 (1 ≥ x ≤ 10) glass system has been carried out over a wide range of composition and temperature (300 K to 423 K). X-ray diffraction study confirms the amorphous nature of the samples. The Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal the formation of cluster like morphology in PbCl2 containing glasses. The d.c conductivity exhibits Arrhenius behaviour and increases with V2O5 concentration. Analysis of the results is interpreted in view Austin-Mott's small polaron model of electron transport. Activation energies calculated using regression analysis exhibit composition dependent trend and the variation is explained in view of the structure of lead-vanadate glass.

  11. Predictive Validity Study of the APS Writing and Reading Tests [and] Validating Placement Rules for the APS Writing Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA. Office of Institutional Development.

    California's College of the Canyons has used the College Board Assessment and Placement Services (APS) test to assess students' abilities in basic and college English since spring 1993. These two reports summarize data from a May 1994 study of the predictive validity of the APS writing and reading tests and a June 1994 effort to validate the cut…

  12. Conductive Education: Feasibility Study on Developing a National Curriculum Plan for Those Working in Conductive Education in New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Graham A.

    This study sought to determine whether there are national training needs among staff of conductive education programs in New Zealand. Conductive education is a unified system of education for children and adults with a motor disorder whose disability has been caused by damage to the central nervous system. The study, which focuses primarily on…

  13. Online crowdsourcing for efficient rating of speech: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Halpin, Peter F.; Szeredi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Blinded listener ratings are essential for valid assessment of interventions for speech disorders, but collecting these ratings can be time-intensive and costly. This study evaluated the validity of speech ratings obtained through online crowdsourcing, a potentially more efficient approach. 100 words from children with /r/ misarticulation were electronically presented for binary rating by 35 phonetically trained listeners and 205 naïve listeners recruited through the Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) crowdsourcing platform. Bootstrapping was used to compare different-sized samples of AMT listeners against a “gold standard” (mode across all trained listeners) and an “industry standard” (mode across bootstrapped samples of 3 trained listeners). There was strong overall agreement between trained and AMT listeners. The “industry standard” level of performance was matched by bootstrapped samples with n = 9 AMT listeners. These results support the hypothesis that valid ratings of speech data can be obtained in an efficient manner through AMT. Researchers in communication disorders could benefit from increased awareness of this method. PMID:25578293

  14. Summary of remote vehicle emissions sensing studies conducted in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Rendahl, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    The State of Wisconsin received Congestion Mitigation & Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) grants to conduct studies during the summers of 1993 and 1994 to determine the effectiveness of using a remote sensing device (RSD) to fulfill the {open_quotes}On-Road{close_quotes} emissions testing requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The RSD used in the Wisconsin studies was designed and patented by Dr. Donald H. Stedman of the University of Denver, and was produced by Remote Sensing Technologies, Inc. (RSTi) of Tucson, AZ. This paper will summarize sampling activities, intercomparison results with the existing Basic vehicle inspection/maintenance (IM) centralized test facilities, and look at the results of data collected on close to 200,000 vehicles tested in the two year period.

  15. Recommendations for conducting controlled clinical studies of dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hickel, R; Roulet, J-F; Bayne, S; Heintze, S D; Mjör, I A; Peters, M; Rousson, V; Randall, R; Schmalz, G; Tyas, M; Vanherle, G

    2007-03-01

    About 35 years ago, Ryge provided a practical approach to evaluation of clinical performance of restorative materials. This systematic approach was soon universally accepted. While that methodology has served us well, a large number of scientific methodologies and more detailed questions have arisen that require more rigor. Current restorative materials have vastly improved clinical performance and any changes over time are not easily detected by the limited sensitivity of the Ryge criteria in short term clinical investigations. However, the clinical evaluation of restorations not only involves the restorative material per se but also different operative techniques. For instance, a composite resin may show good longevity data when applied in conventional cavities but not in modified operative approaches. Insensitivity, combined with the continually evolving and non-standard investigator modifications of the categories, scales, and reporting methods, has created a body of literature that is extremely difficult to meaningfully interpret. In many cases, the insensitivity of the original Ryge methods is misinterpreted as good clinical performance. While there are many good features of the original system, it is now time to move to a more contemporary one. The current review approaches this challenge in two ways: (1) a proposal for a modern clinical testing protocol for controlled clinical trials, and (2) an in-depth discussion of relevant clinical evaluation parameters, providing 84 references that are primarily related to issues or problems for clinical research trials. Together, these two parts offer a standard for the clinical testing of restorative materials/procedures and provide significant guidance for research teams in the design and conduct of contemporary clinical trials. Part 1 of the review considers the recruitment of subjects, restorations per subject, clinical events, validity versus bias, legal and regulatory aspects, rationales for clinical trial

  16. Field Studies for Validation of Urban Dispersion Models - Current Status and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allwine, J.

    2007-12-01

    Urban dispersion models are important tools in addressing consequences from potential releases of harmful airborne materials in urban areas. These models are used by emergency management, law enforcement, and intelligence personnel to effectively plan for and respond to potential terrorist attacks and accidents. Field studies are vitally important for improving and validating these urban dispersion models which are used to simulate contaminant dispersion in and around cities. Over the past decade, three major urban field studies have been designed and conducted in the United States. The primary objectives of these studies have been to advance the state-of-science of understanding and modeling atmospheric flows and dispersion in and around cities, and to provide field observation for validation of urban dispersion models. The three major field studies (Salt Lake City, October 2000; Oklahoma City, July 2003; and New York City, August 2005) were conducted in cities of different sizes, in different geographic regions and during different times of the year. The tracer and meteorological data from these three field campaigns provide a rich dataset for validation of urban dispersion models over a range of conditions. The status and uses of the three urban dispersion datasets will be summarized, followed by a discussion of the current observational gaps and research needs in characterizing specific urban dispersion processes, such as outdoor-indoor coupling and outdoor-subway coupling.

  17. Validation studies of the DOE-2 Building Energy Simulation Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents many of the validation studies (Table 1) of the DOE-2 building energy analysis simulation program that have taken place since 1981. Results for several versions of the program are presented with the most recent study conducted in 1996 on version DOE-2.1E and the most distant study conducted in 1981 on version DOE-1.3. This work is part of an effort related to continued development of DOE-2, particularly in its use as a simulation engine for new specialized versions of the program such as the recently released RESFEN 3.1. RESFEN 3.1 is a program specifically dealing with analyzing the energy performance of windows in residential buildings. The intent in providing the results of these validation studies is to give potential users of the program a high degree of confidence in the calculated results. Validation studies in which calculated simulation data is compared to measured data have been conducted throughout the development of the DOE-2 program. Discrepancies discovered during the course of such work has resulted in improvements in the simulation algorithms. Table 2 provides a listing of additions and modifications that have been made to various versions of the program since version DOE-2.1A. One of the most significant recent changes in the program occurred with version DOE-2.1E. An improved algorithm for calculating the outside surface film coefficient was implemented. In addition, integration of the WINDOW 4 program was accomplished resulting in improved ability in analyzing window energy performance. Validation and verification of a program as sophisticated as DOE-2 must necessarily be limited because of the approximations inherent in the program. For example, the most accurate model of the heat transfer processes in a building would include a three-dimensional analysis. To justify such detailed algorithmic procedures would correspondingly require detailed information describing the building and/or HVAC system and energy plant parameters

  18. Obtaining Valid Laboratory Data in Clinical Trials Conducted in Resource Diverse Settings: Lessons Learned from a Microbicide Phase III Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crucitti, Tania; Fransen, Katrien; Maharaj, Rashika; Tenywa, Tom; Massinga Loembé, Marguerite; Murugavel, Kailapuri Gangatharan; Mendonca, Kevin; Abdellati, Said; Beelaert, Greet; Van Damme, Lut

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the last decade several phase III microbicides trials have been conducted in developing countries. However, laboratories in resource constrained settings do not always have the experience, infrastructure, and the capacity to deliver laboratory data meeting the high standards of clinical trials. This paper describes the design and outcomes of a laboratory quality assurance program which was implemented during a phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the candidate microbicide Cellulose Sulfate 6% (CS) [1]. Methodology In order to assess the effectiveness of CS for HIV and STI prevention, a phase III clinical trial was conducted in 5 sites: 3 in Africa and 2 in India. The trial sponsor identified an International Central Reference Laboratory (ICRL), responsible for the design and management of a quality assurance program, which would guarantee the reliability of laboratory data. The ICRL provided advice on the tests, assessed local laboratories, organized trainings, conducted supervision visits, performed re-tests, and prepared control panels. Local laboratories were provided with control panels for HIV rapid tests and Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) amplification technique. Aliquots from respective control panels were tested by local laboratories and were compared with results obtained at the ICRL. Results Overall, good results were observed. However, discordances between the ICRL and site laboratories were identified for HIV and CT/NG results. One particular site experienced difficulties with HIV rapid testing shortly after study initiation. At all sites, DNA contamination was identified as a cause of invalid CT/NG results. Both problems were timely detected and solved. Through immediate feedback, guidance and repeated training of laboratory staff, additional inaccuracies were prevented. Conclusions Quality control guidelines when applied in field laboratories ensured the reliability and validity of final study data

  19. Thermal conductivity at the nanoscale: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyver, John W., IV

    With the growing use of nanotechnology and nanodevices in many fields of engineering and science, a need for understanding the thermal properties of such devices has increased. The ability for nanomaterials to conduct heat is highly dependent on the purity of the material, internal boundaries due to material changes and the structure of the material itself. Experimentally measuring the heat transport at the nanoscale is extremely difficult and can only be done as a macro output from the device. Computational methods such as various Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) techniques for studying the contribution of atomic vibrations associated with heat transport properties are very useful. The Green--Kubo method in conjunction with Fourier's law for calculating the thermal conductivity, kappa, has been used in this study and has shown promise as one approach well adapted for understanding nanosystems. Investigations were made of the thermal conductivity using noble gases, modeled with Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions, in solid face-centered cubic (FCC) structures. MC and MD simulations were done to study homogeneous monatomic and binary materials as well as slabs of these materials possessing internal boundaries. Additionally, MD simulations were done on silicon carbide nanowires, nanotubes, and nanofilaments using a potential containing two-body and three-body terms. The results of the MC and MD simulations were matched against available experimental and other simulations and showed that both methods can accurately simulate real materials in a fraction of the time and effort. The results of the study show that in compositionally disordered materials the selection of atomic components by their mass, hard-core atomic diameter, well depth, and relative concentration can change the kappa by as much as an order of magnitude. It was found that a 60% increase in mass produces a 25% decrease in kappa. A 50% increase in interatomic strength produces a 25% increase in

  20. Thermal conductivity and rectification study of restructured Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Anuj

    Electronics' miniaturization, has led to search for better thermal management techniques and discovery of important transport phenomenon. Thermal rectification, directionally preferential heat transport analogous to electrical diode, is one such technique, garnering tremendous interest. Its possibility has been explored through structural asymmetry, introducing a differential phonon density of states in hot and cold regions. As of now, mass and shape asymmetries have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically. However, strict requirements of material length being shorter than phonon mean free path and phonon coherence preservation at surface, makes connecting two materials with different temperature-dependent thermal conductivities, a more natural approach. To avoid resultant thermal boundary resistance and integration complexities, we achieve the affect in single material, by restructuring a region of Graphene by introducing defects. The asymmetry impedes ballistic phonon transport, modulating temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the two regions. We perform deviational Monte Carlo simulations based on Energy-based formulation to microscopically investigate phonon transport, possibility and optimal conditions for thermal rectification. The proposed method uses phonon properties obtained from first principle, treat phonon-boundary scattering explicitly with properties drawn from Bose-Einstein Distribution.

  1. Validation of holistic nursing competencies: role-delineation study, 2012.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Helen Lorraine; Erickson, Margaret Elizabeth; Campbell, Joan A; Brekke, Mary E; Sandor, M Kay

    2013-12-01

    The American Holistic Nurses Credentialing Corporation (AHNCC), certifying body for nurses practicing within the precepts of holistic nursing, uses a systematic process to guide program development. A previous publication described their early work that distinguished basic and advanced holistic nursing and development of related examinations. A more recent publication described the work of AHNCC from 2004 to 2012, including a role-delineation study (RDS) that was undertaken to identify and validate competencies currently used by holistic nurses. A final report describes the RDS design, methods, and raw data information. This article discusses AHNCC's goals for undertaking the 2012 Holistic Nursing RDS and the implications for the certification programs. PMID:23783664

  2. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported. PMID:23428273

  3. Low frequency eddy current benchmark study for model validation

    SciTech Connect

    Mooers, R. D.; Boehnlein, T. R.; Cherry, M. R.; Knopp, J. S.; Aldrin, J. C.; Sabbagh, H. A.

    2011-06-23

    This paper presents results of an eddy current model validation study. Precise measurements were made using an impedance analyzer to investigate changes in impedance due to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) notches in aluminum plates. Each plate contained one EDM notch at an angle of 0, 10, 20, or 30 degrees from the normal of the plate surface. Measurements were made with the eddy current probe both scanning parallel and perpendicular to the notch length. The experimental response from the vertical and oblique notches will be reported and compared to results from different numerical simulation codes.

  4. A Study of Equating in NAEP. NAEP Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedges, Larry V.; Vevea, Jack L.

    This study investigates the amount of uncertainty added to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) estimates by equating error under both ideal and less than ideal circumstances. Data from past administrations are used to guide simulations of various equating designs and error due to equating is estimated empirically. The design…

  5. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Burlinson, Brian; Escobar, Patricia A; Kraynak, Andrew R; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Nakajima, Madoka; Pant, Kamala; Asano, Norihide; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this validation effort was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The purpose of the pre-validation studies (i.e., Phase 1 through 3), conducted in four or five laboratories with extensive comet assay experience, was to optimize the protocol to be used during the definitive validation study. PMID:26212293

  6. Fit-for-purpose bioanalytical cross-validation for LC-MS/MS assays in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ji, Qin C; Jemal, Mohammed; Gleason, Carol; Shen, Jim X; Stouffer, Bruce; Arnold, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift of globalized research and conducting clinical studies at different geographic locations worldwide to access broader patient populations has resulted in increased need of correlating bioanalytical results generated in multiple laboratories, often across national borders. Cross-validations of bioanalytical methods are often implemented to assure the equivalency of the bioanalytical results is demonstrated. Regulatory agencies, such as the US FDA and European Medicines Agency, have included the requirement of cross-validations in their respective bioanalytical validation guidance and guidelines. While those documents provide high-level expectations, the detailed implementation is at the discretion of each individual organization. At Bristol-Myers Squibb, we practice a fit-for-purpose approach for conducting cross-validations for small-molecule bioanalytical methods using LC-MS/MS. A step-by-step proposal on the overall strategy, procedures and technical details for conducting a successful cross-validation is presented herein. A case study utilizing the proposed cross-validation approach to rule out method variability as the potential cause for high variance observed in PK studies is also presented. PMID:23256474

  7. Proton Conduction and Defect Studies in Acceptor - Potassium Tantalate Crystals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wing Kit

    The protonic transport properties of the cubic perovskite structured crystal KTaO(,3) doped with transition metal ions (Fe('3+), Cu('2+), etc.) are studied. These dopants substitute for the Ta('5+) ions and require oxygen vacancies for charge compensation. Protons are introduced by annealing the doped crystals in water vapor. A sharp IR peak at 3472 cm('-1) is observed at room temperature. This OH('-) band can be removed by vacuum annealing. Undoped crystals are not susceptible to H('+) incorporation. A reaction is proposed for the incorporation of H('+): H(,2)O + V(,o) (--->) O(,o)('x) + 2H(.). A saturation content of H('+) is always attained which is independent of both pH(,2)O and annealing temperature. Impendence analysis is employed to obtain the bulk electrical conductivity, (sigma). The (sigma) of H('+) charged samples is an order of magnitude higher than that without H('+). The activation energy for conduction, E(,H), for H('+) charged samples is close to 1.05 eV, irrespective of nature of dopants. A rough monotonic relation between (sigma) and (alpha)(,OH), the IR absorption coefficient, is observed. Conductivity calculated from diffusion data is in rough agreement with the measured (sigma). In addi- tion, the protonic transport number is found to be almost unity in an electrochemical cell experiment. The position of the IR peak is the same for different dopants, suggesting no association between dopant and H('+). The presence of an EPR axial spectrum in H('+) free Fe-doped samples and its conversion to a cubic spectrum after charging with H('+) favors the suggestion that H('+) dissociates from dopants. No dielectric relaxa- tion peak related to H('+) is ever observed. E(,H) thus corresponds to migrational energy only. The migration of the proton is probably just the jump of H('+) between neighboring O('2-) ions in the direction of O-H vibration. The isotope effect on (sigma) is also studied when H('+) is replaced entirely by D('+). The result is non

  8. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing U.S. adult populations from...

  9. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  10. First principles study of thermal conductivity cross-over in nanostructured zinc-chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-01-28

    Systematic first principles studies of zinc-chalcogenides have been performed to understand their thermal transport behaviour. We have applied the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation to calculate the thermal conductivity of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find a thermal conductivity cross-over between ZnS and ZnSe at nanostructure sizes around 0.1–0.2 μm and explain this in terms of the different contributions of phonon modes in these materials. We study the effect of nanostructuring using both the diffusive boundary scattering and confined mean free path limit and discuss the variations in the results. Furthermore, we show the strong influence of isotope scattering on the thermal conductivity. The calculated thermal conductivity is found to be strongly dependent on the volume and we explain the observed differences between local density and generalized gradient approximation calculations. We compare further calculated thermal properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient, to experiment to validate our approach.

  11. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. PMID:25937613

  12. Phase behaviour and conductivity study of electrolytes in supercritical hydrofluorocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Philip N; Cook, David C; George, Michael W; Ke, Jie; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; Su, Wenta; Zhang, Wenjian

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterise supercritical hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) that can be used as solvents for electrodeposition. The phase behaviour of CHF(3), CH(2)F(2), and CH(2)FCF(3) containing [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)], [NBu(n)(4)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] and Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] was studied and the conditions for forming a single supercritical phase established. Although all three HFCs are good solvents for [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] the results show that the CH(2)F(2) system has the lowest p(r) for dissolving a given amount of [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)]. The solubility of Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] in CH(2)F(2) was found to be unexpectedly high. Studies of the phase behaviour of CH(2)F(2) containing [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] and [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] showed that the copper complex was unstable in the absence of CH(3)CN. For CHF(3), [Cu(hfac)(2)] was more soluble and more stable than [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)][BF(4)] and only increased the phase-separation pressure by a moderate amount. Studies of the conductivity of [NBu(n)(4)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)], [NBu(n)(4)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)], [NR(f)Bu(n)(3)][B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] (R(f) = (CH(2))(3)C(7)F(15)), and Na[B{3,5-C(6)H(3)(CF(3))(2)}(4)] were carried out in scCH(2)F(2). The results show that these salts are more conducting than [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] under the same conditions although the increase is much less significant than that reported in previous work in supercritical CO(2) + CH(3)CN. Consequently, either [NBu(n)(4)][BF(4)] or the corresponding BARF salts would be suitable background electrolytes for electrodeposition from scCH(2)F(2). PMID:21072413

  13. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  14. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  15. Case study for model validation : assessing a model for thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam.

    SciTech Connect

    Dowding, Kevin J.; Leslie, Ian H.; Hobbs, Michael L.; Rutherford, Brian Milne; Hills, Richard Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2004-10-01

    A case study is reported to document the details of a validation process to assess the accuracy of a mathematical model to represent experiments involving thermal decomposition of polyurethane foam. The focus of the report is to work through a validation process. The process addresses the following activities. The intended application of mathematical model is discussed to better understand the pertinent parameter space. The parameter space of the validation experiments is mapped to the application parameter space. The mathematical models, computer code to solve the models and its (code) verification are presented. Experimental data from two activities are used to validate mathematical models. The first experiment assesses the chemistry model alone and the second experiment assesses the model of coupled chemistry, conduction, and enclosure radiation. The model results of both experimental activities are summarized and uncertainty of the model to represent each experimental activity is estimated. The comparison between the experiment data and model results is quantified with various metrics. After addressing these activities, an assessment of the process for the case study is given. Weaknesses in the process are discussed and lessons learned are summarized.

  16. Validation Study of the Integral-Differential Scheme for Multi-Block Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrema, Honest Frank

    This MS Thesis seeks to validate the accuracy of the Integral-Differential Scheme (IDS). In the attempts to accomplish this task, research efforts were focused on the scheme's ability to capture the physics of known flow fields, as well as the scheme's ability to predict the features of flow field quantities that may be derived from experimental measurements. The IDS was developed with the goal of being computationally efficient, from a programming perspective, as well as being numerically accurate, stable, and robust, from a mathematical perspective. The IDS is designed to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in their integral forms. Unlike traditional control volume schemes, the IDS is built upon two sets of cells: spatial and temporal cells. For 2-D flows, the IDS considers an elementary control volume as a collection of four spatial cells and a single temporal cell. Similar to other explicit CFD schemes, the IDS relies on the use of the Taylor series expansion and other traditional CFD criteria. It is of interest to note that there are previous IDS validation studies which were conducted at North Carolina A&T State University. These past studies mainly focused on the qualitative aspects of the flow field physics. Furthermore, in all cases, they focused on flow field problems that can be represented by single-block grids. In this analysis, the validation studies are focused on multi-block grids in which the physics of the flow field is made complicated due to the presence of shock waves and flow separation zones. Of interest to this MS Thesis are two supersonic flow field problems that are supported by experimental data; namely, the supersonic flow over a rearward-facing step problem and the supersonic flow over a cavity problem. The validation studies conducted herein demonstrated that the IDS was able to predict the experimental data in both cases.

  17. A Protocol for Conducting Rainfall Simulation to Study Soil Runoff

    PubMed Central

    Kibet, Leonard C.; Saporito, Louis S.; Allen, Arthur L.; May, Eric B.; Kleinman, Peter J. A.; Hashem, Fawzy M.; Bryant, Ray B.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  18. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff. PMID:24748061

  19. The Fast Scattering Code (FSC): Validation Studies and Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Dunn, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a frequency domain noise prediction program developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to simulate the acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time harmonic incident sound with bodies of arbitrary shape and surface impedance immersed in a potential flow. The code uses the equivalent source method (ESM) to solve an exterior 3-D Helmholtz boundary value problem (BVP) by expanding the scattered acoustic pressure field into a series of point sources distributed on a fictitious surface placed inside the actual scatterer. This work provides additional code validation studies and illustrates the range of code parameters that produce accurate results with minimal computational costs. Systematic noise prediction studies are presented in which monopole generated incident sound is scattered by simple geometric shapes - spheres (acoustically hard and soft surfaces), oblate spheroids, flat disk, and flat plates with various edge topologies. Comparisons between FSC simulations and analytical results and experimental data are presented.

  20. Practical aspects of designing and conducting pharmacoeconomic studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jim; Sato, Keiko

    2003-01-01

    The advent of simultaneous global clinical trials and drug registration strategies has increased the demand for global pharmacoeconomic strategies. Outcomes researchers in pharmaceutical companies are faced with the challenge of assessing at a strategic level what pharmacoeconomic data are most useful in Japan and when, and then deciding at a tactical level what type of study designs are feasible. This paper is written mainly for the benefit of researchers working outside of Japan in the pharmaceutical/medical device industry or academia who are interested in conducting research in Japan. We reviewed the existing pharmacoeconomic literature in Japan, and found that the number of studies per year has been steadily increasing. The majority of studies have been cost-effectiveness and cost-consequence analyses. Typical data sources available in Japan are somewhat limited compared with other Western countries. However, charge data can be easily accessed through the national uniform reimbursement fee system and these data are particularly relevant for pharmaceutical pricing negotiations with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). The present use of pharmacoeconomic data by pharmaceutical companies is mainly for pricing negotiations but recent reforms make certain types of data useful for marketing strategies too. The demand for pharmacoeconomic data may increase because of upcoming MHLW pharmaceutical pricing and/or recent health insurance system reforms. Economic evaluation of medical technologies in Japan, though lagging behind North America, Australia and Europe, has the potential to rapidly gather momentum as increasing cost-escalation worries contribute to a growing interest in pharmacoeconomic data. PMID:12959624

  1. Can large surveys conducted on highly selected populations provide valid information on the epidemiology of common health conditions? An analysis of UK Biobank data on musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Macfarlane, Gary J; Beasley, Marcus; Smith, Blair H; Jones, Gareth T; Macfarlane, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Biobank-type studies are typically large but have very low participation rates. It has been suggested that these studies may provide biased estimates of prevalence but are likely to provide valid estimates of association. We test these hypotheses using data collected on pain in a large Biobank study in the United Kingdom. Methods: UK Biobank recruited 503,325 persons aged 40–69 years (participation rate 5.5%). Participants completed questionnaires, including pain, lifestyle and environment factors. As a comparison, we used both a large population study of pain (MUSICIAN: n = 8847, aged: 40–69 years) conducted 2008–2009 and the National Child Development study (NCDS) which recruited all persons in Great Britain born during one week of 1958 and followed them up at age 44 years (n = 9377). Results: ‘Any pain’ (UK Biobank 61.0%; MUSICIAN 63.9%), chronic pain (42.9%, 52.2%) and site-specific musculoskeletal pain (back 26.2%, 29.7%; shoulder/neck 23.3%, 25.3%) were generally similar in UK Biobank and MUSICIAN. The prevalence of chronic pain and most regional musculoskeletal pains in UK Biobank were all within 2% of that in NCDS. Conclusion: UK Biobank has provided estimates of the prevalence of pain which are similar to those from previous large-scale studies, although a formal comparison of the estimates cannot be made. It has also confirmed known associations with the reporting of pain. Despite its very low participation rate, such a study provides the opportunity to investigate novel exposure–pain relationships and investigate rarer exposures and characteristics to further our knowledge of the epidemiology of pain. PMID:26526341

  2. Study for Electric Device Assembly Process Using Conductive Adhesive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Junji

    Electric devices with semiconductors are applied to all apparatus including substation equipment, transport machines, home electronics, and cellular phones. Power modules deal large current, and high frequency/optical modules control GHz band signals. As a result, these semiconductors have more than 100 times heat density of memory or MPU chips. Pb-rich high temperature solder and expensive Au-rich solder are applied to these modules, however, thermal stress might be a problem not only for long-term reliability but also for the initial characteristics. The authors studied the assembly of these electric devices using conductive adhesive as a substitute bonding material. We proved that atmospheric aluminum oxides caused electric resistance and that power chips with long rectangle sides over 10 mm have a much larger thermal resistance than theoretical values. We found that it is effective to scratch and remove these oxides through transferred adhesive on aluminum electrodes and to diebond them onto the solder projection previously formed on the die pads.

  3. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  4. Secondary traumatic stress and vicarious trauma: a validational study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Baird, Stephanie

    2002-10-01

    Vicarious trauma (VT) and secondary traumatic stress (STS) or compassion fatigue both describe effects of working with traumatized persons on therapists. Despite conceptual similarities, their emphases differ: cognitive schemas vs. posttraumatic symptoms and burnout, respectively. The TSI Belief Scale (TSI-BSL) measures VT; the Compassion Fatigue Self-Test (CFST) for Psychotherapists measures STS. Neither has substantial psychometric evidence yet, nor has their association been studied. Results for 99 sexual assault and domestic violence counselors show concurrent validity between TSI-BSL and CFST, moderate convergence with burnout but useful discrimination, and strong convergence with general distress, but adequate independent shared variance. Counselors with interpersonal trauma histories scored higher on CFST, but not TSI-BSL or burnout, consistent with the CFST's emphasis on trauma symptomatology. PMID:12392231

  5. Highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of arsenene: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeraati, Majid; Vaez Allaei, S. Mehdi; Abdolhosseini Sarsari, I.; Pourfath, Mahdi; Donadio, Davide

    2016-02-01

    Elemental two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit intriguing heat transport and phononic properties. Here we have investigated the lattice thermal conductivity of newly proposed arsenene, the 2D honeycomb structure of arsenic, using ab initio calculations. Solving the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, we predict a highly anisotropic thermal conductivity of 30.4 and 7.8 W/mK along the zigzag and armchair directions, respectively, at room temperature. Our calculations reveal that phonons with mean free paths between 20 nm and 1 μ m provide the main contribution to the large thermal conductivity in the zigzag direction; mean free paths of phonons contributing to heat transport in the armchair directions range between 20 and 100 nm. The obtained anisotropic thermal conductivity and feasibility of synthesis, in addition to high electron mobility reported elsewhere, make arsenene a promising material for nanoelectronic applications and thermal management.

  6. Comparative Study of the Thermal Conductivity of Solid Biomass Fuels

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of solid biomass fuels is useful information in the investigation of biomass combustion behavior and the development of modeling especially in the context of large scale power generation. There are little published data on the thermal conductivity of certain types of biomass such as wheat straw, miscanthus, and torrefied woods. Much published data on wood is in the context of bulk materials. A method for determining the thermal conductivities of small particles of biomass fuels has been developed using a custom built test apparatus. Fourteen different samples of various solid biomass fuel were processed to form a homogenized pellet for analysis. The thermal conductivities of the pelletized materials were determined and compared against each other and to existing data. PMID:27041819

  7. A Known Group Analysis Validity Study of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education in US Elementary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covay Minor, Elizabeth; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen B.; Cravens, Xiu; Elloitt, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) provides educators with a tool for principal evaluation based on principal, teacher, and supervisor reports of principals' learning-centered leadership. In this study, we conduct a known group analysis as part of a larger argument for the validity of the VAL-ED in US elementary and…

  8. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: CHEMICAL DEHALOGENATION (QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund program. his manual focuses on chemical dehalogenation treatability studies conducted in support of remedy selection that is conducted ...

  9. A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Garg, Amandeep; Dhillon, Guneet

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D.A.V [C] Dental College and Hospital, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India conducted a study on patients with maxillofacial fractures in a time span of seven years (2003-2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate their aetiology, incidence, patterns and different modalities employed for management. Methods: In this study, 740 patients with 1054 fractures were evaluated clinically and radiographically, based on which closed reduction and open reduction was undertaken. Review of patient records included: Age, sex, time, mechanism and etiology of injury, history of bleeding, unconsciousness and prior first aid, type of vehicle and use of preventive measures, type of fracture and treatment modalities. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for highest number of fractures predominantly occurring in the age group of 21-30 years (38.3%)1,2. Males incurred more fractures with a male female ratio of 4.2: 1.Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone with parasymphysis being the commonest affected site.76.66% patients had associated head injury and 15.68 % had history of unconsciousness. Open reduction and internal fixation was the preferred modality for mandible whereas the mid face fractures were treated more often by closed methods. Conclusions: Injuries occurred more commonly in 20 – 40 age range with road traffic accident being the major etiological factor. Majority of the patients were driving two wheelers and most were under the effect of alcohol. Most of the injuries occurred during night and road traffic accidents (71.89%) were found to be the major etiological factor. Out of 532 road traffic accidents, 490 patients (66.2%) were on two wheelers, among whom 49(10%) were wearing helmet. In the mandible, fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region (224, 30.2%), and out of the 314 fractures of the middle third showed, 155 (49.4%) ZMC. OPG was the most commonly advised X

  10. Nerve conduction studies in upper extremities: skin temperature corrections.

    PubMed

    Halar, E M; DeLisa, J A; Soine, T L

    1983-09-01

    The relationship of skin to near nerve (NN) temperature and to nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and distal latency (DL) was studied in 34 normal adult subjects before and after cooling both upper extremities. Median and ulnar motor and sensory NCV, DL, and NN temperature were determined at ambient temperature (mean X skin temp = 33 C) and after cooling, at approximately 26, 28, and 30 C of forearm skin temperature. Skin temperatures on the volar side of the forearm, wrist, palm, and fingers and NN temperature at the forearm, midpalm, and thenar or hypothenar eminence were compared with respective NCV and DL. Results showed a significant linear correlation between skin temperature and NN temperature at corresponding sites (r2 range, 0.4-0.84; p less than 0.005). Furthermore, both skin and NN temperatures correlated significantly with respective NCV and DL. Midline wrist skin temperature showed the best correlation to NCV and DL. Median motor and sensory NCV were altered 1.5 and 1.4m/sec/C degree and their DL 0.2 msec/C degree of wrist skin temperature change, respectively. Ulnar motor and sensory NCV were changed 2.1 and 1.6m/sec/C degree respectively, and 0.2 msec/C degree wrist temperature for motor and sensory DL. Average ambient skin temperature at the wrist (33 C) was used as a standard skin temperature in the temperature correction formula: NCV or DL(temp corrected) = CF(Tst degree - Tm degree) + obtained NCV or DL, where Tst = 33 C for wrist, Tm = the measured skin temperature, and CF = correction factor of tested nerve. Use of temperature correction formula for NCV and DL is suggested in patients with changed wrist skin temperature outside 29.6-36.4C temperature range. PMID:6615178

  11. Study of new proton conducting glasses for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiple, S. R.; Deshpande, V. K.

    2015-08-01

    The glasses in the series (35-x) BaO:65 P2O5:x (NH4)2SO4 are synthesized and characterized by Tg, CTE, density and electrical conductivity measurements. The decrease in density and Tg is observed with addition of (NH4)2SO4. The increase in CTE compliments the observed variation in Tg. The protonic conductivity increases with addition of (NH4)2SO4 up to 7.5 mol% and decreases beyond this composition. The increase in the ratio of O/P, which in turn, creates more non-bridging oxygens, enhances the conductivity. Further, sulfur is mainly incorporated in sulfophosphate glasses as isolated SO42- group which also results in increase in conductivity. The glass with maximum conductivity [7.5(NH4)2SO4:27.5BaO:65 P2O5] is used to fabricate a fuel cell. It gives the power density of 12.43 μW/cm2. The power density of the fuel cell in the present work at room temperature is higher than that reported in literature at 473 K. The fuel cell has a potential of giving higher power density at higher temperature of 423 K.

  12. Electrical Characterization and Morphological Studies of Conducting Polymer Nanofibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, N. J.; Zhou, Y. X.; Freitag, M.; Johnson, A. T.; MacDiarmid, A. G.; Mueller, C. H.; Theofylaktos, N.; Robinson, D. C.; Miranda, F. A.

    2003-01-01

    Doped polyaniline blended with poly(ethylene oxide) has been electrospun in air to give fibers with diameters in the range 3 nm 200 nm. These fibers were captured on wafers of degenerately doped Si/SiO2 by placing the wafer in the path of the fiber jet formed during the electrospinning process. Individual fibers were contacted using shadow mask evaporation and were also captured on prepatterned wafers. Fibers having diameters greater than 100 nm show a slight increase in the conductivity as compared to the bulk film, while fibers with diameters less than 30 nm had lower conductivity than the bulk. Data on Scanning Conductance Microscopy along the length of individual fibers will be presented. For fibers where the diameter was not uniform, we found that below a certain diameter ( approx.15 nm) the fiber was less conducting as compared to thicker diameter fibers. Dependence of the fiber conductivity on a gate bias is underway and these results will also be presented.

  13. A validation study of elementary science ISTEP+ scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Glenn

    The Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+) was designed to assess student mastery of key educational goals. The 5th grade ISTEP+ Science Test (5-GIST) is part of the ISTEP+ testing regime. The Indiana Academic Standards were developed to guide instruction in the state, and questions on the ISTEP+ were aligned with these standards. Since its inception, the use of the ISTEP+ exam has been changed to comply with the dictates of both Indiana Public Law 221 and the national No Child Left Behind act. With these modifications, the purpose of the tests has shifted from assessment of individual student academic progress to evaluation of the quality of the educational institution administering the tests. The validity of this use has never been established. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the 5-GIST as an instrument for assessing and forming judgments about the quality of science instruction in a particular school. ISTEP+ scores of 2 cohorts of students in a Midwestern school district were converted into Z-scores and tracked from 3rd to 5th grade. A regression line was established to account for the general aptitude and the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. Examining the residuals of the 5-GIST scores revealed that between 57% and 60% of the variance in the scores can be attributed to the general aptitude and SES of the students, leaving between 40% and 43% that can be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the school on student learning.

  14. Materials characterization study of conductive flexible second surface mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levadou, F.; Bosma, S. J.; Paillous, A.

    1981-01-01

    The status of prequalification and qualification work on conductive flexible second surface mirrors is described. The basic material is FEP Teflon witn either aluminium or silver vacuum deposited reflectors. The top layer has been made conductive by deposition of layer of a indium oxide. The results of a prequalification program comprised of decontamination, humidity, thermal cycling, thermal shock and vibration tests are presented. Thermo-optical and electrical properties. The results of a prequalification program comprised of decontamination, humidity, thermal cycling, thermal shock and vibration tests are presented. Thermo-optical and electrical properties, the electrostatic behavior of the materials under simulated substorm environment and electrical conductivity at low temperatures are characterized. The effects of simulated ultra violet and particles irradiation on electrical and thermo-optical properties of the materials are also presented.

  15. Validity Shrinkage in Ridge Regression: A Simulation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian; Bobko, Philip

    1982-01-01

    Ridge regression offers advantages over ordinary least squares estimation when a validity shrinkage criterion is considered. Comparisons of cross-validated multiple correlations indicate that ridge estimation is superior when the predictors are multicollinear, the number of predictors is large relative to sample size, and the population multiple…

  16. The Adaptive Behavior Scale: A Study of Criterion Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreat, Scott

    1980-01-01

    The validity of the Adaptive Behavior Scale (ABS) for placement purposes was estimated using as Ss 95 formerly institutionalized retarded persons, 97 institutional residents referred for discharge, and 178 institutional residents. Results suggest that knowledge of an individual's ABS scores would enable a test user to make valid estimates of group…

  17. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: A Construct Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian W.

    1983-01-01

    Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…

  18. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  19. Examining Temporal Stability of Scale Validity in Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    2006-01-01

    A method for examining invariance in validity of multiple-component instruments in repeated measure designs is outlined. The approach is developed within the framework of covariance structure modeling and is applicable for purposes of ascertaining temporal stability in scale validity. In addition, the procedure provides a range of plausible values…

  20. Thermal conductivity of model zeolites: molecular dynamics simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murashov, Vladimir V.

    1999-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of model zeolites was investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations. This type of calculation was found to overestimate the thermal conductivity of low-density silica polymorphs. A better reproduction of the experimental results was found for zeolites, and this was related to the lower phonon mean free path. The thermal conductivity of framework silicates was shown to be determined primarily by the vibrations of the continuous oxygen sublattice. Thus, the most drastic suppression of the heat transfer was related to alterations of the O-O distances; for example, a sixfold reduction in thermal conductivity compared to that of siliceous LTA zeolite was found for LTA-A1PO4. Framework cations were shown to affect the heat transfer by changing the vibrational modes of the structural building units of the framework and non-framework counter-cations, by disturbing the oxygen sublattice locally and acting as Rayleigh and resonant scatterers. A model assuming the heat transfer to be due only to non-dispersive acoustic phonons failed to reproduce the dependence of the thermal conductivity on the mass of the cations and the unit-cell dimension, thus suggesting a more sophisticated mechanism of heat transfer to be operative in framework materials. The effect of non-framework non-ionic species on the thermal conductivity was shown to be determined by their effect on the characteristics of the oxygen framework vibrations. Thus, repulsive interactions between the oxygen sublattice and Xe8 clusters, reducing the anisotropy and anharmonicity of the oxygen vibrations, give rise to enhanced heat transfer in LTA-SiO2 at ambient conditions.

  1. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  2. Verification and Validation Studies for the LAVA CFD Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Barad, Michael F; Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2013-01-01

    The verification and validation of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is presented. A modern strategy for verification and validation is described incorporating verification tests, validation benchmarks, continuous integration and version control methods for automated testing in a collaborative development environment. The purpose of the approach is to integrate the verification and validation process into the development of the solver and improve productivity. This paper uses the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for the verification of 2D Euler equations, 3D Navier-Stokes equations as well as turbulence models. A method for systematic refinement of unstructured grids is also presented. Verification using inviscid vortex propagation and flow over a flat plate is highlighted. Simulation results using laminar and turbulent flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil and ONERA M6 wing are validated against experimental and numerical data.

  3. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA will... and well-conducted foreign clinical study not conducted under an IND, if the following conditions...

  4. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA will... and well-conducted foreign clinical study not conducted under an IND, if the following conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA will... and well-conducted foreign clinical study not conducted under an IND, if the following conditions...

  6. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an....120 Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND. (a) Acceptance of studies. (1) FDA will... and well-conducted foreign clinical study not conducted under an IND, if the following conditions...

  7. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-01

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO - Fe2O3- V2O5, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (ρ) from several MΩcm to several Ωcm. 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (Δ) of FeIII, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of "distorted" FeO4 and VO4 tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu2O -containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. "n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory" was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  8. Ionic conductivity studies of gel polyelectrolyte based on ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, E. H.; Lim, S. A.; Park, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Macfarlane, D. R.

    Novel lithium polyelectrolyte-ionic liquids have been prepared and characterized of their properties. Poly(lithium 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propanesulfonate) (PAMPSLi) and its copolymer with N-vinyl formamide (VF) also has been prepared as a copolymer. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tricyanomethanide (emImTCM) and N, N-dimethyl- N-propyl- N-butyl ammonium tricyanomethanide (N 1134TCM) which are chosen because of the same with the anion of ionic liquid were prepared. The ionic conductivity of copolymer system (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM: 5.43 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C) exhibits about over four times higher than that of homopolymer system (PAMPSLi/emImTCM: 1.28 × 10 -3 S cm -1 at 25 °C). Introduction of vinyl formamide into the copolymer type can increase the dissociation of the lithium cations from the polymer backbone. The ionic conductivity of copolymer with emImTCM (PAMPSLi/PVF/emImTCM) exhibits the higher conductivity than that of PAMPSLi/PVF/N 1134TCM (2.48 × 10 -3 S cm -1). Because of using the polymerizable anion it is seen to maintain high flexibility of imidazolium cation effectively to exhibit the higher conductivity. And also the viscosity of emImTCM (19.56 cP) is lower than that of N 1134TCM (28.61 cP). Low viscosity leads to a fast rate of diffusion of redox species.

  9. Study on Thermal Conductivities of Aromatic Polyimide Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junzong; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Yonggang; Du, Dongxuan; Feng, Jian

    2016-05-25

    Polyimide aerogels for low density thermal insulation materials were produced by 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether and 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, cross-linked with 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene. The densities of obtained polyimide aerogels are between 0.081 and 0.141 g cm(-3), and the specific surface areas are between 288 and 322 m(2) g(-1). The thermal conductivities were measured by a Hot Disk thermal constant analyzer. The value of the measured thermal conductivity under carbon dioxide atmosphere is lower than that under nitrogen atmosphere. Under pressure of 5 Pa at -130 °C, the thermal conductivity is the lowest, which is 8.42 mW (m K)(-1). The polyimide aerogels have lower conductivity [30.80 mW (m K)(-1)], compared to the value for other organic foams (polyurethane foam, phenolic foam, and polystyrene foam) with similar apparent densities under ambient pressure at 25 °C. The results indicate that polyimide aerogel is an ideal insulation material for aerospace and other applications. PMID:27149155

  10. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-27

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO‐Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}‐V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (ρ) from several MΩcm to several Ωcm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (Δ) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  11. Comparative study of ion conducting pathways in borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Andreas; Swenson, Jan; Adams, Stefan

    2006-11-01

    The conduction pathways in metal-halide doped silver, lithium, and sodium diborate glasses have been examined by bond valence analysis of reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) produced structural models of the glasses. Although all glass compositions have basically the same short-range structure of the boron-oxygen network, it is evident that the intermediate-range structure is strongly dependent on the type of mobile ion. The topography of the pathways and the coordination of the pathway sites differ distinctly between the three glass systems. The mobile silver ions in the AgI-doped glass tend to be mainly iodine-coordinated and travel in homogeneously distributed pathways located in salt-rich channels of the borate network. In the NaCl-doped glass, there is an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of pathways that reflects the inhomogeneous introduction of salt ions into the glass. However, since the salt clusters are not connected, no long-range conduction pathways are formed without including also oxygen-rich regions. The pathways in the LiCl-doped glass are slightly more evenly distributed compared to the NaCl-doped glass (but not as ordered as in the AgI-doped glass), and the regions of mainly oxygen-coordinated pathway sites are of higher importance for the long-range migration. In order to more accurately investigate how these differences in the intermediate-range order of the glasses affect the ionic conductivity, we have compared the realistic structure models to more or less randomized structures. An important conclusion from this comparison is that we find no evidence that a pronounced intermediate-range order in the atomic structure or in the network of conduction pathways, as in the AgI-doped glass, is beneficial for the dc conductivity.

  12. Measuring Small-Group Environments: A Validity Study of Scores from the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and the Group Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.; Junco, Reynol

    2007-01-01

    This concurrent validity study of Salter Environmental Type Assessment scores was conducted with the Group Environment Scale. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation of 191 college students' responses suggested two factors that accounted for 51% of the variance. The factor-analytic results and concurrent validity coefficients…

  13. Algorithms for verbal autopsies: a validation study in Kenyan children.

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M. A.; Armstrong Schellenberg, J. R.; Snow, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire is a widely used method for collecting information on cause-specific mortality where the medical certification of deaths in childhood is incomplete. This paper discusses review by physicians and expert algorithms as approaches to ascribing cause of deaths from the VA questionnaire and proposes an alternative, data-derived approach. In this validation study, the relatives of 295 children who had died in hospital were interviewed using a VA questionnaire. The children were assigned causes of death using data-derived algorithms obtained under logistic regression and using expert algorithms. For most causes of death, the data-derived algorithms and expert algorithms yielded similar levels of diagnostic accuracy. However, a data-derived algorithm for malaria gave a sensitivity of 71% (95% Cl: 58-84%), which was significantly higher than the sensitivity of 47% obtained under an expert algorithm. The need for exploring this and other ways in which the VA technique can be improved are discussed. The implications of less-than-perfect sensitivity and specificity are explored using numerical examples. Misclassification bias should be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating epidemiological studies. PMID:8706229

  14. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  15. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context

    PubMed Central

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Abdelmageed, Ahmed; Kiersma, Mary; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Anderson, Claire; Noreddin, Ayman; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Background Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor’s Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) and Elliot and Murayama’s revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) are widely used to assess students’ achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA. Methods In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit. Results In contrast to the scale developers’ findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study. Conclusion Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the achievement goals of undergraduate pharmacy students from these countries. PMID:25298743

  16. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  17. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of novel nanostructured transparent conducting oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroabadi, Akram A.; Norwood, R. A.

    2013-02-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to find the optical constants, including refractive index, extinction coefficient, thickness and volume fraction of nanostructured transparent conducting oxides including indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium zinc oxide (IZO). We observed sharp features in the ellipsometry data, with the spectral peaks and positions depending on the nanostructure dimensions and material. A superposition of Lorentzian oscillators and the effective medium approximation has been applied to determine the volume ratio of voids and nanopillars, thereby providing the effective optical constants.

  18. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions III: Synthesizing data from intervention studies using meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A M; Sargeant, J M; Wang, C

    2014-06-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of six articles describing systematic reviews of interventions in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. The first article provided an overview of systematic reviews, followed by an article on building evidence across study designs, and an article describing criteria for validity in randomized controlled trials. The fourth article in this series overviewed the initial steps in conducting a systematic review: development of a review protocol, identification of the structured question to be addressed and conducting a comprehensive literature search to identify potentially relevant research to address the review question. The fifth article introduced relevance screening of literature to identify and include research that is relevant to the review question, the use of standardized checklists and procedures to assess the risk of bias in the relevant research, data extraction from primary research studies and summarizing the results of the body of research identified. Many systematic reviews of interventions aim to use a quantitative method to combine the results of multiple studies and provide a more precise estimate of the effect of the intervention on the outcome, that is, a summary effect measure. The objective of this article was to describe general approaches that are available for quantitative synthesis of data. Specific details of all meta-analysis statistical approaches are beyond the capacity of this article. PMID:24905996

  19. A Validity Study of the Kinetic School Drawing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Celmer, David S.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between Kinetic School Drawing responses and academic achievement in 100 normal fifth-grade students. Significant correlations were found for a number of measures, generally supporting the validity of the technique. (JAC)

  20. MINET validation study using steam generator test data

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Guppy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three steam generator transient test cases that were simulated using the MINET computer code are described, with computed results compared against experimental data. The MINET calculations closely agreed with the experiment for both the once-through and the U-tube steam generator test cases. The effort is part of an ongoing effort to validate the MINET computer code for thermal-hydraulic plant systems transient analysis, and strongly supports the validity of the MINET models.

  1. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution

  2. Validation studies for brain blood flow assessment by radioxenon tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Rezai, K.; Kirchner, P.T.; Armstrong, C.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Heistad, D.

    1988-03-01

    A tomographic technique has been used recently for cerebral blood flow measurements with inhaled radioxenon. Based on experiments in a specially developed dynamic phantom and on studies in primates in vivo, we have analyzed the validity of this method for measurements of both regional and total blood flow in the brain. We have also examined the errors introduced into flow computations as a function of changes in such parameters as: rate of xenon input, size of region of interest, magnitude of regional flow rates, and inter-regional flow differences. Our findings indicate a reasonable degree of accuracy for flow measurements in gray matter regions that are 3 cm in diameter or larger, while white matter blood flow is generally overestimated. The accuracy for regional flow assessments degrades as a function of: diminishing region size, increasing inter-regional flow differences, and flow rates in excess of 100 ml/100 g/min. Measurements for brain regions 2 cm or smaller in diameter can be in error by 25-50% as a result of partial volume averaging. Although the technique is not ideal for accurate flow measurements in small regions of the brain, it nevertheless provides a convenient means of assessing perfusion in major vascular territories of the brain in routine clinical applications.

  3. Validation study of the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems (QSMP).

    PubMed

    de la Fuente Arias, Jesús; Peralta Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Sánchez Roda, María Dolores; Trianes Torres, María Victoria

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the exploratory and confirmatory structure, as well as other psychometric properties, of the Cuestionario de Problemas de Convivencia Escolar (CPCE; in Spanish, the Questionnaire on School Maladjustment Problems [QSMP]), using a sample of Spanish adolescents. The instrument was administered to 60 secondary education teachers (53.4% females and 46.6% males) between the ages of 28 and 54 years (M= 41.2, SD= 11.5), who evaluated a total of 857 adolescent students. The first-order exploratory factor analysis identified 7 factors, explaining a total variance of 62%. A second-order factor analysis yielded three dimensions that explain 84% of the variance. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed in order to reduce the number of factors obtained in the exploratory analysis as well as the number of items. Lastly, we present the results of reliability, internal consistency, and validity indices. These results and their implications for future research and for the practice of educational guidance and intervention are discussed in the conclusions. PMID:22420365

  4. The Predictive Validity of Preadmission Measures in Graduate Management Education: Three Years of the GMAC Validity Study Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Lawrence W.; Powers, Donald E.

    The Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC) Validity Study Service was created to enable graduate schools of management to investigate the adequacy of the devices and procedures they use for selection purposes and to facilitate the accumulation and summary of data from many individual graduate management schools. Participating schools are…

  5. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  6. Ionic Conductivity And Structural Relaxation Studies on Lithium Niobophosphate Glass

    SciTech Connect

    Dabas, Prashant; Hariharan, K.

    2011-07-15

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) increases the chemical and thermal stability of otherwise hygroscopic alkali phosphate glasses and also enhances the conduction characteristics. Ion dynamics and structural relaxation have been investigated for mol%50Li{sub 2}0-45P{sub 2}0{sub 5}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The non-linearity parameter 'x' in the Tool-Narayanaswamy model is evaluated using the dependence of fictive and glass transition temperatures on the cooling and heating rates.

  7. AOAC Official MethodSM Matrix Extension Validation Study of Assurance GDSTM for the Detection of Salmonella in Selected Spices.

    PubMed

    Feldsine, Philip; Kaur, Mandeep; Shah, Khyati; Immerman, Amy; Jucker, Markus; Lienau, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Assurance GDSTM for Salmonella Tq has been validated according to the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Methods Committee Guidelines for Validation of Microbiological Methods for Food and Environmental Surfaces for the detection of selected foods and environmental surfaces (Official Method of AnalysisSM 2009.03, Performance Tested MethodSM No. 050602). The method also completed AFNOR validation (following the ISO 16140 standard) compared to the reference method EN ISO 6579. For AFNOR, GDS was given a scope covering all human food, animal feed stuff, and environmental surfaces (Certificate No. TRA02/12-01/09). Results showed that Assurance GDS for Salmonella (GDS) has high sensitivity and is equivalent to the reference culture methods for the detection of motile and non-motile Salmonella. As part of the aforementioned validations, inclusivity and exclusivity studies, stability, and ruggedness studies were also conducted. Assurance GDS has 100% inclusivity and exclusivity among the 100 Salmonella serovars and 35 non-Salmonella organisms analyzed. To add to the scope of the Assurance GDS for Salmonella method, a matrix extension study was conducted, following the AOAC guidelines, to validate the application of the method for selected spices, specifically curry powder, cumin powder, and chili powder, for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:26268975

  8. Structural and AC conductivity study of CdTe nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sayantani; Banerjee, Sourish; Sinha, T. P.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanomaterials have been synthesized by soft chemical route using mercapto ethanol as a capping agent. Crystallization temperature of the sample is investigated using differential scanning calorimeter. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope measurements show that the prepared sample belongs to cubic structure with the average particle size of 20 nm. Impedance spectroscopy is applied to investigate the dielectric relaxation of the sample in a temperature range from 313 to 593 K and in a frequency range from 42 Hz to 1.1 MHz. The complex impedance plane plot has been analyzed by an equivalent circuit consisting of two serially connected R-CPE units, each containing a resistance (R) and a constant phase element (CPE). Dielectric relaxation peaks are observed in the imaginary parts of the spectra. The frequency dependence of real and imaginary parts of dielectric permittivity is analyzed using modified Cole-Cole equation. The temperature dependence relaxation time is found to obey the Arrhenius law having activation energy ~0.704 eV. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to follow the power law. The frequency dependence ac conductivity is analyzed by power law.

  9. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for Studying Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Happel, Patrick; Thatenhorst, Denis; Dietzel, Irmgard D.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a scanning probe technique that utilizes the increase in access resistance that occurs if an electrolyte filled glass micro-pipette is approached towards a poorly conducting surface. Since an increase in resistance can be monitored before the physical contact between scanning probe tip and sample, this technique is particularly useful to investigate the topography of delicate samples such as living cells. SICM has shown its potential in various applications such as high resolution and long-time imaging of living cells or the determination of local changes in cellular volume. Furthermore, SICM has been combined with various techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or patch clamping to reveal localized information about proteins or protein functions. This review details the various advantages and pitfalls of SICM and provides an overview of the recent developments and applications of SICM in biological imaging. Furthermore, we show that in principle, a combination of SICM and ion selective micro-electrodes enables one to monitor the local ion activity surrounding a living cell. PMID:23202197

  10. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  11. Electrokinetic experimental study on saturated rock samples: zeta potential and surface conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Hengshan; Guan, Wei; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    It is important to know the electrokinetic properties of crustal rocks for interpreting the conductivity mechanisms and seismoelectric phenomena during earthquakes and seismoelectric well logging. In this study, electrokinetic experiments are conducted using a special core-holder by employing an AC lock-in technique. A series of experiments are conducted on 10 sandstone samples to measure the streaming potentials and streaming currents, and the experiments on each sample are done at six different salinities. The streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient are calculated from the measured streaming potentials and streaming currents. The experimental results show that streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient decrease as the salinity increases. The dependence of these two coefficients on permeability and pore radius are analysed and compared with previous works. At low salinities, the streaming potential coefficient and streaming current coefficient increase with the increasing permeability and pore radius. At high salinities, the streaming potential coefficient (streaming current coefficient) almost share a same value for 10 different samples. This conclusion indicates that the differences of rock parameters can only be well recognized at lower salinities, and the electrokinetic signals are invalid at high salinities, which offers a restrictive condition for using the amplitude of electrokinetic signals to estimate rock parameters. The zeta-potential have also been estimated through combined measurements of streaming potential and streaming current. The surface conductivity and its contribution to electrokinetic effects are determined from a comparison of zeta-potentials by two different methods, and then the validation of the Helmholz-Smoluchowski equation for a capillary tube is tested in rocks. We also compare our date with theoretical and experimental works, and set up an expression about the relationship between

  12. Scanning ion conductance microscopy studies of amyloid fibrils at nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Cho, Sang-Joon; Busuttil, Katerina; Wang, Chen; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2012-05-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has developed to become a very versatile nano-scale technique to reveal the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of amyloid aggregates under physiological conditions. However, the imaging principle of AFM is based on measuring the `force' between a sharp tip and a given nanostructure, which may cause mechanical deformation of relatively soft objects. To avoid the deformation, scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is an alternative scanning probe microscopy technique, operating with alternating current mode. Here we can indeed reveal the 3D morphology of amyloid fibrils and it is capable of exploring proteins with nanoscale resolution. Compared with conventional AFM, we show that SICM can provide precise height measurements of amyloid protein aggregates, a feature that enables us to obtain unique insight into the detailed nucleation and growth mechanisms behind amyloid self-assembly.

  13. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  14. Validation of the Spanish Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales: A Comparative Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Jorge M.; Chavez, Kristhy; Vilela, Ana; Lazo, Maria; Huapaya, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Background Depressive disorders are leading contributors to burden of disease in developing countries. Research aiming to improve their diagnosis and treatment is fundamental in these settings, and psychometric tools are widely used instruments to support mental health research. Our aim is to validate and compare the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Methodology/Principal Findings A Spanish version of the CES-D was revised by 5 native Spanish speaking psychiatrists using as reference the English version. A locally standardized Spanish version of the ZSDS was used. These Spanish versions were administered to 70 patients with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV Major Depressive Episode (MDE), 63 without major depression but with clinical diagnosis of other psychiatric disorders (OPD), and 61 with no evidence of psychiatric disorders (NEP). For both scales, Cronbach's alpha (C-α) and Hierarchical McDonald Omega for polychoric variables (MD-Ω) were estimated; and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis performed. For the CES-D and ZSDS scales, C-α was 0.93 and 0.89 respectively, while MD-Ω was 0.90 and 0.75 respectively. The area under the ROC curve in MDE+OPD was 0.83 for CES-D and 0.84 for ZSDS; and in MDE+NEP was 0.98 for CES-D and 0.96 for ZSDS. Cut-off scores (co) for the highest proportions of correctly classified (cc) individuals among MDE+OPD were ≥29 for CES-D (sensitivity (ss) = 77.1/specificity (sp) = 79.4%/(cc) = 78.2%) and ≥47 for ZSDS (ss = 85.7%/sp = 71.4%/cc = 78.9%). In the MDE+NEP, co were ≥24 for the CES-D (ss = 91.4%/sp = 96.7%/cc = 93.9%) and ≥45 for the ZSDS (ss = 91.4%/sp = 91.8%/cc = 91.6%). Conclusion Spanish versions of the CES-D and ZSDS are valid instruments to detect depression in clinical settings and could be useful for both epidemiological

  15. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  16. Fun and Games: The Validity of Games for the Study of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.; Bonoma, Thomas V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines claimed advantages and criticisms of the use of games in the study of social conflict, differentiating the advantages and criticisms into questions of internal validity, external validity, and ecological validity. Available from: Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (JG)

  17. Contributions of Middle Grade Students to the Validation Process of a National Science Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morell, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This study used a national validity project to investigate specific research questions regarding the intersections among aspects of validity, educational measurement, and cognitive theory. Validity evidence was collected through traditional paper and pencil tests, surveys, think-alouds, and exit interviews of fifth and sixth grade students, as…

  18. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  19. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-09-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  20. Disentangling the Underlying Dimensions of Psychopathy and Conduct Problems in Childhood: A Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadds, Mark R.; Fraser, Jenny; Frost, Aaron; Hawes, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric and predictive validity of callous-unemotional (CU) traits as an early precursor of conduct disorder and antisocial behavior were assessed. A community sample of children (4-9 years of age) were tested 12 months apart with the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, 2002), a measure of early signs of…

  1. Subsurface Immobilization of Plutonium: Experimental and Model Validation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, Bruce E; Deo, Randhir P; Reed, Donald T

    2008-08-13

    We conducted a coordinated experimental and modeling study centered on the interaction of Shewanella alga BrY (S. alga) with plutonium species and phases. Plutonium is the key contaminant of concern at several DOE sites that are being addressed by the overall ERSP program. The over-arching goal of this research was to understand the long-term stability of bio-precipitated immobilized plutonium phases under changing redox conditions in biologically active systems. To initiate the process of plutonium immobilization, a side-by-side comparison of the bioreduction of uranyl and plutonyl species was conducted with S. alga. Uranyl was reduced in our system, consistent with literature reports, but we noted coupling between abiotic and biotic processes and observed that non-reductive pathways to precipitation typically exist. Additionally, a key role of biogenic Fe2+, which is known to reduce uranyl at low pH, is suggested. In contrast, residual organics, present in biologically active systems, reduce Pu(VI) species to Pu(V) species at near-neutral pH. The predominance of relatively weak complexes of PuO2+ is an important difference in how the uranyl and plutonyl species interacted with S. alga. Pu(V) also led to increased toxicity towards S. alga and is also more easily reduced by microbial activity. Biogenic Fe2+, produced by S. alga when Fe3+ is present as an electron acceptor, also played a key role in understanding redox controls and pathways in this system. Overall, the bioreduction of plutonyl was observed under anaerobic conditions, which favor its immobilization in the subsurface. Understanding the mechanism by which redox control is established in biologically active systems is a key aspect of remediation and immobilization strategies for actinides when they are present as subsurface contaminants.

  2. The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set: A validation study.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Helen; Pigat, Delia; Fridenson, Shimrit; Berggren, Steve; Tal, Shahar; Golan, Ofer; Bölte, Sven; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set is a newly developed collection of dynamic multimodal emotion and mental state representations. A total of 20 emotions and mental states are represented through facial expressions, vocal expressions, body gestures and contextual social scenes. This emotion set is portrayed by a multi-ethnic group of child and adult actors. Here we present the validation results, as well as participant ratings of the emotional valence, arousal and intensity of the visual stimuli from this emotion stimulus set. The EU-Emotion Stimulus Set is available for use by the scientific community and the validation data are provided as a supplement available for download. PMID:26424443

  3. Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.

  4. Lessons Learned from CFD Validation Study of Protuberance Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Brandon; Blaisdell, Greogory

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are: (1) Share lessons learned from a recent exercise in CFD validation of protuberance heating (2) Impact of experimental data reduction assumptions and techniques on validation activity (3) Advanced data reduction techniques may provide useful data from non-typical test methods (4) Significance of the recovery factor for high-speed flows (5) Show typical results of the Lag turbulence model on protuberances (6) Introduce and inform the listener of a protuberance heating dataset which will soon be available for comparison

  5. Using focus groups to improve the validity of cross-national survey research: a study of physician decision making.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Amy B; Lutfey, Karen E; Marceau, Lisa D; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how qualitative methods can form a foundation for quantitative research by improving instrument validity, informing the data collection process, and improving cost-effectiveness in a study of physician decision making. To test terminology, applicability, and comprehension of a quantitative questionnaire for doctors in the United States and United Kingdom, each country's researchers conducted physician focus groups with questions organized around the experiment, including (a) validity of video vignettes of actor "patients," (b) population accessibility, (c) level of remuneration, (d) appropriate endorsement figure, and (e) question comprehension. Focus group data collected during instrument development and fieldwork planning streamlined processes and achieved cost efficiencies and effectiveness for the overall study. Beyond simply adding a post hoc qualitative component to an already free-standing quantitative methodology, focus groups were used in the study formulation, where the qualitative methodology was integrated into the process of developing a valid survey instrument. PMID:17724109

  6. 43 CFR 404.18 - How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feasibility study? 404.18 Section 404.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... request assistance to conduct a feasibility study? To request assistance to conduct a feasibility study... submit a full proposal to conduct a feasibility study in response to the program announcement,...

  7. 43 CFR 404.18 - How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feasibility study? 404.18 Section 404.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... request assistance to conduct a feasibility study? To request assistance to conduct a feasibility study... submit a full proposal to conduct a feasibility study in response to the program announcement,...

  8. 43 CFR 404.18 - How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feasibility study? 404.18 Section 404.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF... request assistance to conduct a feasibility study? To request assistance to conduct a feasibility study... submit a full proposal to conduct a feasibility study in response to the program announcement,...

  9. Virtual Faces Expressing Emotions: An Initial Concomitant and Construct Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Joyal, Christian C.; Jacob, Laurence; Cigna, Marie-Hélène; Guay, Jean-Pierre; Renaud, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background: Facial expressions of emotions represent classic stimuli for the study of social cognition. Developing virtual dynamic facial expressions of emotions, however, would open-up possibilities, both for fundamental and clinical research. For instance, virtual faces allow real-time Human–Computer retroactions between physiological measures and the virtual agent. Objectives: The goal of this study was to initially assess concomitants and construct validity of a newly developed set of virtual faces expressing six fundamental emotions (happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust). Recognition rates, facial electromyography (zygomatic major and corrugator supercilii muscles), and regional gaze fixation latencies (eyes and mouth regions) were compared in 41 adult volunteers (20 ♂, 21 ♀) during the presentation of video clips depicting real vs. virtual adults expressing emotions. Results: Emotions expressed by each set of stimuli were similarly recognized, both by men and women. Accordingly, both sets of stimuli elicited similar activation of facial muscles and similar ocular fixation times in eye regions from man and woman participants. Conclusion: Further validation studies can be performed with these virtual faces among clinical populations known to present social cognition difficulties. Brain–Computer Interface studies with feedback–feedforward interactions based on facial emotion expressions can also be conducted with these stimuli. PMID:25324768

  10. Towards environmental construct validity in animal models of CNS disorders: optimizing translation of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2013-08-01

    There is an enormous demand for new therapeutic interventions for a range of major disorders. The majority of clinical trials in recent years have been unsuccessful despite highly promising preclinical data. Therefore, an urgent issue confronting both the academic and commercial medical research sectors is how to optimize translation of preclinical studies. The vast majority of preclinical studies are currently performed using laboratory mice and rats. We will discuss the various opportunities for optimization of animal models of CNS disorders. One limitation of current approaches is that most studies are conducted on sedentary, unstimulated animals with unlimited access to food in the home cage, thus leading to metabolic and physiological compromise. Environmental enrichment, which enhances sensory stimulation, cognitive activity and physical exercise, has been demonstrated to induce dramatic effects on brain and behavior in both wild-type and genetically modified rodent models, relative to standard-housed littermate controls. Environmental enrichment also exerts beneficial effects outside the CNS, such as a reduction in excess body fat. We propose that therapeutic interventions which are found to show promise in standard-housed preclinical models should be subsequently tested under conditions of greater environmental enrichment to identify therapeutics which continue to show efficacy in housing contexts of superior 'environmental construct validity'. Other possible approaches to optimize the quality, validity and reporting of preclinical studies in animal models are also discussed. PMID:23574171

  11. Independent validation test of the vote-counting strategy used to rank biomarkers from published studies

    PubMed Central

    Rikke, Brad A.; Wynes, Murry W.; Rozeboom, Leslie M.; Barón, Anna E.; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Vote counting is frequently used in meta-analyses to rank biomarker candidates, but to our knowledge, there have been no independent assessments of its validity. Here, we used predictions from a recent meta-analysis to determine how well number of supporting studies, combined sample size and mean fold change performed as vote-counting strategy criteria. Materials & methods Fifty miRNAs previously ranked for their ability to distinguish lung cancer tissue from normal were assayed by RT-qPCR using 45 paired tumor-normal samples. Results Number of supporting studies predicted biomarker performance (p = 0.0006; r = 0.44), but sample size and fold change did not (p > 0.2). Conclusion Despite limitations, counting the number supporting studies appears to be an effective criterion for ranking biomarkers. Predictions based on sample size and fold change provided little added value. External validation studies should be conducted to establish the performance characteristics of strategies used to rank biomarkers. PMID:26223535

  12. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  13. Mechanistic study of silver nanoparticle formation on conducting polymer surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mack, Nathan H; Bailey, James A; Doorn, Stephen K; Chen, Chien-An; Gau, Han-Mou; Xu, Ping; Williams, Darrick J; Akhadov, Elshan A; Wang, Hsing-Lin

    2011-04-19

    Conducting polymer (polyaniline) sheets are shown to be active substrates to promote the growth of nanostructured silver thin films with highly tunable morphologies. Using the spontaneous electroless deposition of silver, we show that a range of nanostructured metallic features can be controllably and reproducibly formed over large surface areas. The structural morphology of the resulting metal-polymer nanocomposite is demonstrated to be sensitive to experimental parameters such as ion concentration, temperature, and polymer processing and can range from densely packed oblate nanosheets to bulk crystalline metals. The deposition mechanisms are explained using a diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model to describe the semi-fractal-like growth of the metal nanostructures. We find these composite films to exhibit strong surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) activity, and the nanostructured features are optimized with respect to SERS activity using a self-assembled monolayer of mercapto-benzoic acid as a model Raman reporter. SERS enhancements are estimated to be on the order of 10(7). Through micro-Raman SERS mapping, these materials are shown to exhibit uniform SERS responses over macroscopic areas. These metal-polymer nanocomposites benefit from the underlying polymer's processability to yield SERS-active materials of almost limitless shape and size and show significant promise for future SERS-based sensing and detection schemes. PMID:21434643

  14. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  15. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  16. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  17. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  18. Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale: Two Studies of Convergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; La Vigne, Steven P.; Epstein, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    As the field of mental health services shifts its focus to early intervention, the need to develop valid and reliable measures of young children's behavioral functioning is clear. Traditional assessment instruments have focused on deficits, problems, and pathologies to the exclusion of strengths and competencies. However, assessing child strengths…

  19. Measuring Elementary Student's Mathematics Motivation: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosco, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a 10-item math motivation scale were empirically validated with an independent sample consisting of 182 elementary-school students. Analysis of the model dimensionality supported a one-factor structure fit. Item parameter estimates from a Classical Test Theory framework revealed that most items were highly…

  20. Conducting influenza virus pathogenesis studies in avian species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian infection studies with influenza A are an important means of assessing host susceptibility, viral pathogenesis, host responses to infection, mechanisms of transmission and viral pathotype. Complex systems and natural settings may also be explored with carefully designed infection studies. In ...

  1. Systematic validation of disease models for pharmacoeconomic evaluations. Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sendi, P P; Craig, B A; Pfluger, D; Gafni, A; Bucher, H C

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacoeconomic evaluations are often based on computer models which simulate the course of disease with and without medical interventions. The purpose of this study is to propose and illustrate a rigorous approach for validating such disease models. For illustrative purposes, we applied this approach to a computer-based model we developed to mimic the history of HIV-infected subjects at the greatest risk for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in Switzerland. The drugs included as a prophylactic intervention against MAC infection were azithromycin and clarithromycin. We used a homogenous Markov chain to describe the progression of an HIV-infected patient through six MAC-free states, one MAC state, and death. Probability estimates were extracted from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study database (1993-95) and randomized controlled trials. The model was validated testing for (1) technical validity (2) predictive validity (3) face validity and (4) modelling process validity. Sensitivity analysis and independent model implementation in DATA (PPS) and self-written Fortran 90 code (BAC) assured technical validity. Agreement between modelled and observed MAC incidence confirmed predictive validity. Modelled MAC prophylaxis at different starting conditions affirmed face validity. Published articles by other authors supported modelling process validity. The proposed validation procedure is a useful approach to improve the validity of the model. PMID:10461580

  2. Southern california offshore air quality model validation study. Volume I: executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zannetti, P.; Wilbur, D.M.; Baxter, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This volume summarizes the significant results of a BLM-funded study conducted jointly by AeroVironment Inc. and the Naval Postgraduate School to validate and/or modify screening models commonly used to predict onshore air quality impacts from outer continental shelf (OCS) emission sources. The study involved both field experiments and computer modeling analysis to give a better understanding of dispersion over water and at the land/sea interface. Two field experiments were performed releasing SF6 tracer gas from a research vessel offshore the Ventura-Oxnard, California coastal area in September, 1980 and January, 1981. Modifications are discussed for standard Gaussian models to predict peak plume concentration values, the horizontal and vertical shape of the plume, and peak ground-level impacts from OCS emission sources.

  3. Southern california offshore air quality model validation study. Volume II: synthesis of findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zannetti, P.; Wilbur, D.M.; Baxter, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    This volume describes the significant results of a BLM-funded study conducted jointly by AeroVironment Inc. and the Naval Postgraduate School to validate and/or modify screening models commonly used to predict onshore air quality impacts from outer continental shelf (OCS) emission sources. The study involved both field experiments and computer modeling analysis to give a better understanding of dispersion over water and at the land/sea interface. Two field experiments were performed releasing SF tracer gas from a research vessel offshore the Ventura-Oxnard, California coastal area in September, 1980 and January, 1981. Modifications are discussed for standard Gaussian models to predict peak plume concentration values, the horizontal and vertical shape of the plume, and peak ground-level impacts from OCS emission sources.

  4. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  5. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  6. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  7. 21 CFR 58.130 - Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study. 58.130 Section 58.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Protocol for and Conduct of a Nonclinical Laboratory Study § 58.130 Conduct of...

  8. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial ur...

  9. The knowledge, efficacy, and practices instrument for oral health providers: a validity study with dental students.

    PubMed

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cyndi W; Moore, Thomas E; Catalanotto, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Valid and reliable instruments to measure and assess cultural competence for oral health care providers are scarce in the literature, and most published scales have been contested due to a lack of item analysis and internal estimates of reliability. The purposes of this study were, first, to develop a standardized instrument to measure dental students' knowledge of diversity, skills in culturally competent patient-centered communication, and use of culture-centered practices in patient care and, second, to provide preliminary validity support for this instrument. The initial instrument used in this study was a thirty-six-item Likert-scale survey entitled the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument for Oral Health Providers (KEPI-OHP). This instrument is an adaption of an initially thirty-three-item version of the Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills Scale-Counselor Edition (MAKSS-CE), a scale that assesses factors related to social justice, cultural differences among clients, and cross-cultural client management. After the authors conducted cognitive and expert interviews, focus groups, pilot testing, and item analysis, their initial instrument was reduced to twenty-eight items. The KEPI-OHP was then distributed to 916 dental students (response rate=48.6 percent) across the United States to measure its reliability and assess its validity. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the scale's validity. The modification of the survey into a sensible instrument with a relatively clear factor structure using factor analysis resulted in twenty items. A scree test suggested three expressive factors, which were retained for rotation. Bentler's comparative fit and Bentler and Bonnett's non-normed indices were 0.95 and 0.92, respectively. A three-factor solution, including efficacy of assessment, knowledge of diversity, and culture-centered practice subscales, comprised of twenty-items was identified. The KEPI-OHP was found to

  10. Guidelines for the Design and Conduct of Clinical Studies in Knee Articular Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mithoefer, Kai; Saris, Daniel B.F.; Farr, Jack; Kon, Elizaveta; Zaslav, Kenneth; Cole, Brian J.; Ranstam, Jonas; Yao, Jian; Shive, Matthew; Levine, David; Dalemans, Wilfried; Brittberg, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To summarize current clinical research practice and develop methodological standards for objective scientific evaluation of knee cartilage repair procedures and products. Design: A comprehensive literature review was performed of high-level original studies providing information relevant for the design of clinical studies on articular cartilage repair in the knee. Analysis of cartilage repair publications and synopses of ongoing trials were used to identify important criteria for the design, reporting, and interpretation of studies in this field. Results: Current literature reflects the methodological limitations of the scientific evidence available for articular cartilage repair. However, clinical trial databases of ongoing trials document a trend suggesting improved study designs and clinical evaluation methodology. Based on the current scientific information and standards of clinical care, detailed methodological recommendations were developed for the statistical study design, patient recruitment, control group considerations, study endpoint definition, documentation of results, use of validated patient-reported outcome instruments, and inclusion and exclusion criteria for the design and conduct of scientifically sound cartilage repair study protocols. A consensus statement among the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) and contributing authors experienced in clinical trial design and implementation was achieved. Conclusions: High-quality clinical research methodology is critical for the optimal evaluation of current and new cartilage repair technologies. In addition to generally applicable principles for orthopedic study design, specific criteria and considerations apply to cartilage repair studies. Systematic application of these criteria and considerations can facilitate study designs that are scientifically rigorous, ethical, practical, and appropriate for the question(s) being addressed in any given cartilage repair research project

  11. Ultrasound assessment of transverse carpal ligament thickness: a validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhilei Liu; Li, Zong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) forms the palmar boundary of the carpal tunnel and plays an important role in carpal tunnel mechanics. TCL hypertrophy has been observed for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and postulated as a potential etiologic factor. Ultrasound is particularly advantageous for TCL imaging because of its capability of detecting the interfaces between the TCL and other tissues. The purposes of this study were to develop an ultrasound based method to measure the TCL thickness and to test the validity and reliability of this method. Three operators conducted two sessions of ultrasound examination on eight cadaveric specimens and eight healthy volunteers. A custom script was used to calculate TCL thickness along the TCL length from the ultrasound images. The ultrasound based TCL thickness of the cadaveric specimens was compared with the dissection based TCL thickness for validation. The results showed Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.867-0.928, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.726-0.865, a standard error of measurement of 0.02-0.07 mm and a minimal detectable difference of 0.05-0.15 mm. The high correlation coefficients and small errors indicate that the ultrasound based method is valid for measuring TCL thickness. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements showed excellent intraoperator and interoperator reliability with ICC values as 0.826-0.933 and 0.840-0.882, respectively. The ultrasound based TCL thickness was in the range of 0.93-2.34 (1.54 ± 0.33) mm and agreed well with previous studies. The ultrasound method developed in this study is a valuable tool to examine morphologic properties of healthy and pathologic TCLs. PMID:22502882

  12. Ultrasound Assessment of Transverse Carpal Ligament Thickness: A Validity and Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhilei Liu; Li, Zong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) forms the palmar boundary of the carpal tunnel and plays an important role in carpal tunnel mechanics. TCL hypertrophy has been observed for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and postulated as a potential etiological factor. Ultrasound is particularly advantageous for TCL imaging because of its capability of detecting the interfaces between the TCL and other tissues. The purposes of this study were to develop an ultrasound based method to measure the TCL thickness and to test the validity and reliability of this method. Three operators conducted two sessions of ultrasound examination on 8 cadaveric specimens and 8 healthy volunteers. A custom script was used to calculate TCL thickness along the TCL length from the ultrasound images. The ultrasound based TCL thickness of the cadaveric specimens was compared to the dissection based TCL thickness for validation. The results showed Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.867–0.928, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.726–0.865, a standard error of measurement of 0.02–0.07 mm, and a minimal detectable difference of 0.05–0.15 mm. The high correlation coefficients and small errors indicate that the ultrasound based method is valid for measuring TCL thickness. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements showed excellent intra-operator and inter-operator reliability with ICC values as 0.826–0.933 and 0.840–0.882, respectively. The ultrasound based TCL thickness was in the range of 0.93–2.34 (1.54 ± 0.33) mm and agreed well with previous studies. The ultrasound method developed in this study is a valuable tool to examine morphological properties of healthy and pathological TCLs. PMID:22502882

  13. Reanalysis of the Harvard Six Cities Study, part I: validation and replication.

    PubMed

    Krewski, D; Burnett, R T; Goldberg, M; Hoover, K; Siemiatycki, J; Abrahamowicz, M; White, W

    2005-01-01

    Because the results of the Harvard Six Cities Study played a critical role in the establishment of the current U.S. ambient air quality objective for fine particles (PM(2.5)), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, industry, and nongovernmental organizations called for an independent reanalysis of this study to validate the original findings reported by Dockery and colleagues in the New England Journal of Medicine (vol. 329, pp. 1753-1759) in 1993. Validation of the original findings was accomplished by a detailed statistical audit and replication of original results. With the exception of occupational exposure to dust (14 discrepancies of 249 questionnaires located for evaluation) and fumes (15/249), date of death (2/250), and cause of death (2/250), the audit identified no discrepancies between the original questionnaires and death certificates in the audit sample and the analytic file used by the original investigators. The data quality audit identified a computer programming problem that had resulted in early censorship in 5 of the 6 cities, which resulted in the loss of approximately 1% of the reported person-years of follow-up; the reanalysis team updated the Six Cities cohort to include the missing person-years of observation, resulting in the addition of 928 person-years of observation and 14 deaths. The reanalysis team was able to reproduce virtually all of the original numerical results, including the 26% increase in all-cause mortality in the most polluted city (Stubenville, OH) as compared to the least polluted city (Portage, WI). The audit and validation of the Harvard Six Cities Study conducted by the reanalysis team generally confirmed the quality of the data and the numerical results reported by the original investigators. The discrepancies noted during the audit were not of epidemiologic importance, and did not substantively alter the original risk estimates associated with particulate air pollution, nor the main conclusions reached by the

  14. Study of electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity into neutral plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, G. Rout, R. K.

    2015-07-31

    The major portion of the bulk plasma in magnetospheric space, interplanetary plasma belts and the solar winds contain neutral particles. Evidently these neutral particles undergo binary collisions with the charged particles and among themselves so as to contribute significantly to the transport and diffusion process in a singly charged electron – ion magnetoplasma. The effects of the neutral particles collisions on various diffusion transport coefficients are studied for magnetised electron-ion plasma and appropriately modified coefficients are derived analytically. The results reveal that these coefficients increase significantly owing to the effect of the charge -neutral and neutral-neutral collisions.

  15. A Validation Study of Merging and Spacing Techniques in a NAS-Wide Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaab, Patricia C.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2010, Intelligent Automation, Inc. (IAI) delivered an M&S software tool to that allows system level studies of the complex terminal airspace with the ACES simulation. The software was evaluated against current day arrivals in the Atlanta TRACON using Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (KATL) arrival schedules. Results of this validation effort are presented describing data sets, traffic flow assumptions and techniques, and arrival rate comparisons between reported landings at Atlanta versus simulated arrivals using the same traffic sets in ACES equipped with M&S. Initial results showed the simulated system capacity to be significantly below arrival capacity seen at KATL. Data was gathered for Atlanta using commercial airport and flight tracking websites (like FlightAware.com), and analyzed to insure compatible techniques were used for result reporting and comparison. TFM operators for Atlanta were consulted for tuning final simulation parameters and for guidance in flow management techniques during high volume operations. Using these modified parameters and incorporating TFM guidance for efficiencies in flowing aircraft, arrival capacity for KATL was matched for the simulation. Following this validation effort, a sensitivity study was conducted to measure the impact of variations in system parameters on the Atlanta airport arrival capacity.

  16. Commitment in different relationships statuses: validation study of the personal commitment scale.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Ana Pego; Costa-Ramalho, Susana; Ribeiro, Maria Teresa; Pinto, Alexandra Marques

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the validation process of the Portuguese version of the short-form Dedication Scale (Rhoades, Stanley, & Markman, 2006; Stanley, 1986), with a sample of 924 participants in different relationship statutes. With 14 items, this short version is recommended by the authors for its simple use, when wanting to measure commitment in romantic relationships. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the instrument did not have a totally acceptable fit with the data so an exploratory factor analysis was conducted. This revealed a one-dimensional structure of the scale, and led to the exclusion of two items, which relate to a distinct meta-commitment dimension. In sum, the Portuguese version (ECP - Personal Commitment Scale) has 12 items, with good internal consistency (α = .82), correlations item-total between .36 and .60, and good criteria validity (p < .001). Its use for research is therefore appropriate. In a second study, significant differences were found between the participants' four relationship statuses (dating non-cohabiting and cohabiting relationships, formal unions and marriage) (p < .001; η2 p = .03). Results showed that married participants were more committed than those in a formal union, even when controlling for several relational and socio-demographic variables. No differences were found between cohabiting and non-cohabiting dating participants. Men reported higher levels of commitment than women (p < .001; η2 p = .02). Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26037376

  17. Multicollinearity in Regression Analyses Conducted in Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vatcheva, Kristina P.; Lee, MinJae; McCormick, Joseph B.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    The adverse impact of ignoring multicollinearity on findings and data interpretation in regression analysis is very well documented in the statistical literature. The failure to identify and report multicollinearity could result in misleading interpretations of the results. A review of epidemiological literature in PubMed from January 2004 to December 2013, illustrated the need for a greater attention to identifying and minimizing the effect of multicollinearity in analysis of data from epidemiologic studies. We used simulated datasets and real life data from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort to demonstrate the adverse effects of multicollinearity in the regression analysis and encourage researchers to consider the diagnostic for multicollinearity as one of the steps in regression analysis. PMID:27274911

  18. Mutagenic activity of paracetamol. A study conducted on volunteers.

    PubMed

    Srám, R J; Kocisová, J; Rössner, P; Binková, B; Topinka, J; Bavorová, H

    1990-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of paracetamol (PC) was studied on a group of healthy persons (3 men, 8 women) after the simultaneous administration of 3 X 1000 mg of PC and an identical dose of PC + 1000 mg of ascorbic acid within a period of 8 hours. Blood sample tests were made at intervals of 0, 24, 72 and 168 hours. A cytogenetic analysis showed that in 24 hours PC had increased the aberrant cell frequency to 2.77 +/- 0.37 per cent as distinct from 1.68 +/- 0.30 per cent (p less than 0.05) prior to the drug. In 72 hours, the rate of buccal mucosa micronuclei had risen to 0.38 +/- 0.07% against 0.19 +/- 0.06% prior to PC (p less than 0.01). Unscheduled DNA synthesis in peripheral lymphocytes had dropped to T/C = 2.06 +/- 0.54 (p less than 0.01) against 3.16 +/- 0.84 before PC. The lipid peroxidation level in the plasma remained unchanged. Ascorbic acid administered simultaneously with PC had no effect on the changes observed. A further follow-up of other PC side effects is recommended. PMID:2245754

  19. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of selected conducting polypyrroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proń, A.; Kucharski, Z.; Budrowski, C.; Zagórska, M.; Krichene, S.; Suwalski, J.; Dehe, G.; Lefrant, S.

    1985-12-01

    Polypyrrole obtained by chemical oxidation of pyrrole in ethanol-water solution containing FeCl3 can be reduced chemically in Na+Naph-/THF solution and then reoxidized with FeCl3, SnCl4, and SbCl5. 57Fe and 119Sn Mössbauer spectra of the reaction products show only one type of iron and tin with Mössbauer parameters characteristic of FeCl-4 and SnCl-5. In the case of the oxidation with SbCl5, two nonequivalent antimony nuclei have been detected by 121Sb. The calculated isomer shift and quadrupole splitting values are consistent with SbCl-6 and SbCl3. The resonant absorption in all three systems studied is strongly temperature dependent and can be observed only at temperatures significantly lower than RT. This behavior indicates a low Mössbauer lattice temperature and an extremely loose bonding between the inserted anions and polymer chains.

  20. Tracking Study for Top-off Safety Validation at SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Bauer, J.; Corbett, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Hettel, B.; Liu, J.; Rabedeau, T.; Safranek, J.; Schmerge, J.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wang, L.

    2011-08-19

    A tracking study was performed at SSRL to identify necessary controls and to prove the safety of top-off operation from radiation hazard under such conditions. The safety rationale, tracking setup and the results are presented. Top-off operational mode has become a trend for existing and planned third-generation storage ring light sources for the many benefits such as increased average brightness, improved thermal stability and elimination of the interruption to user experiments due to traditional injection [1, 2]. Unlike the traditional decay mode injection which happens a few times a day and during which the photon beamline shutters are closed, top-off mode injection requires photon beamline shutters to remain open during injection and occurs much more frequently, from once every 5 seconds to once every 30 minutes. Therefore injection may be transparent to user experiments and the stored current variation can be significantly reduced. For a facility equipped with a full-energy injector, the biggest challenge to the implementation of the top-off mode may be the control of radiation hazard. Studies at ALS and SSRL [2, 3] have shown that a single injected electron pulse that enters the photon beamline and exits the radiation shield wall would cause unacceptable radiation doses on the experimental floor. For the protection of users and experimental equipment, it is hence a prerequisite for top-off operation to establish controls that absolutely prevent such occurrences. Similar to other facilities such as ALS and APS [2, 4], tracking simulations were conducted at SSRL to identify the control measures, define the specifications and prove the radiation safety. However, a different approach toward the proof of safety is taken at SSRL. In this paper we first describe the SSRL accelerator complex with emphasis on the aspects related to top-off in section 2. The general considerations and requirements for top-off are presented in section 3. Section 4 and 5 give a detailed

  1. Parametric Study Conducted of Rocket- Based, Combined-Cycle Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Smith, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Having reached the end of the 20th century, our society is quite familiar with the many benefits of recycling and reusing the products of civilization. The high-technology world of aerospace vehicle design is no exception. Because of the many potential economic benefits of reusable launch vehicles, NASA is aggressively pursuing this technology on several fronts. One of the most promising technologies receiving renewed attention is Rocket-Based, Combined-Cycle (RBCC) propulsion. This propulsion method combines many of the efficiencies of high-performance jet aircraft with the power and high-altitude capability of rocket engines. The goal of the present work at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to further understand the complex fluid physics within RBCC engines that govern system performance. This work is being performed in support of NASA's Advanced Reusable Technologies program. A robust RBCC engine design optimization demands further investigation of the subsystem performance of the engine's complex propulsion cycles. The RBCC propulsion system under consideration at Lewis is defined by four modes of operation in a singlestage- to-orbit configuration. In the first mode, the engine functions as a rocket-driven ejector. When the rocket engine is switched off, subsonic combustion (mode 2) is present in the ramjet mode. As the vehicle continues to accelerate, supersonic combustion (mode 3) occurs in the ramjet mode. Finally, as the edge of the atmosphere is approached and the engine inlet is closed off, the rocket is reignited and the final accent to orbit is undertaken in an all-rocket mode (mode 4). The performance of this fourth and final mode is the subject of this present study. Performance is being monitored in terms of the amount of thrust generated from a given amount of propellant.

  2. Probabilistic Study Conducted on Sensor-Based Engine Life Calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2004-01-01

    Turbine engine life management is a very complicated process to ensure the safe operation of an engine subjected to complex usage. The challenge of life management is to find a reasonable compromise between the safe operation and the maximum usage of critical parts to reduce maintenance costs. The commonly used "cycle count" approach does not take the engine operation conditions into account, and it oversimplifies the calculation of the life usage. Because of the shortcomings, many engine components are regularly pulled for maintenance before their usable life is over. And, if an engine has been running regularly under more severe conditions, components might not be taken out of service before they exceed their designed risk of failure. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been using measurable parameters to improve engine life estimation. This study was based on the Monte Carlo simulation of 5000 typical flights under various operating conditions. First a closed-loop engine model was developed to simulate the engine operation across the mission profile and a thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) damage model was used to calculate the actual damage during takeoff, where the maximum TMF accumulates. Next, a Weibull distribution was used to estimate the implied probability of failure for a given accumulated cycle count. Monte Carlo simulations were then employed to find the profiles of the TMF damage under different operating assumptions including parameter uncertainties. Finally, probabilities of failure for different operating conditions were analyzed to demonstrate the importance of a sensor-based damage calculation in order to better manage the risk of failure and on-wing life.

  3. Oxygen flux and dielectric response study of Mixed Ionic-Electronic Conducting (MIEC) heterogeneous functional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbi, Fazle

    Dense mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes consisting of ionic conductive perovskite-type and/or fluorite-type oxides and high electronic conductive spinel type oxides, at elevated temperature can play a useful role in a number of energy conversion related systems including the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), oxygen separation and permeation membranes, partial oxidization membrane reactors for natural gas processing, high temperature electrolysis cells, and others. This study will investigate the impact of different heterogeneous characteristics of dual phase ionic and electronic conductive oxygen separation membranes on their transport mechanisms, in an attempt to develop a foundation for the rational design of such membranes. The dielectric behavior of a material can be an indicator for MIEC performance and can be incorporated into computational models of MIEC membranes in order to optimize the composition, microstructure, and ultimately predict long term membrane performance. The dielectric behavior of the MIECs can also be an indicator of the transport mechanisms and the parameters they are dependent upon. For this study we chose a dual phase MIEC oxygen separation membrane consisting of an ionic conducting phase: gadolinium doped ceria-Ce0.8 Gd0.2O2 (GDC) and an electronic conductive phase: cobalt ferrite-CoFe2O4 (CFO). The membranes were fabricated from mixtures of Nano-powder of each of the phases for different volume percentages, sintered with various temperatures and sintering time to form systematic micro-structural variations, and characterized by structural analysis (XRD), and micro-structural analysis (SEM-EDS). Performance of the membranes was tested for variable partial pressures of oxygen across the membrane at temperatures from 850°C-1060°C using a Gas Chromatography (GC) system. Permeated oxygen did not directly correlate with change in percent mixture. An intermediate mixture 60%GDC-40%CFO had the highest flux compared to the 50%GDC

  4. 41 CFR 101-5.104-6 - Conduct of feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and detailed procedures to be followed in the conduct of each feasibility study. Arrangements will be... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conduct of feasibility... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-6 Conduct of feasibility studies. An...

  5. 41 CFR 101-5.104-6 - Conduct of feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and detailed procedures to be followed in the conduct of each feasibility study. Arrangements will be... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Conduct of feasibility... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-6 Conduct of feasibility studies. An...

  6. 41 CFR 101-5.104-6 - Conduct of feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and detailed procedures to be followed in the conduct of each feasibility study. Arrangements will be... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Conduct of feasibility... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-6 Conduct of feasibility studies. An...

  7. An Experimental Study of Characteristic Combustion-Driven Flow for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of uni-element rocket injector studies were completed to provide benchmark quality data needed to validate computational fluid dynamic models. A shear coaxial injector geometry was selected as the primary injector for study using gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants. Emphasis was placed on the use of nonintrusive diagnostic techniques to characterize the flowfields inside an optically-accessible rocket chamber. Measurements of the velocity and species fields were obtained using laser velocimetry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Qualitative flame shape information was also obtained using laser-induced fluorescence excited from OH radicals and laser light scattering studies of aluminum oxide particle seeded combusting flows. The gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant studies for the shear coaxial injector focused on breakup mechanisms associated with the liquid oxygen jet under subcritical pressure conditions. Laser sheet illumination techniques were used to visualize the core region of the jet and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer was utilized for drop velocity, size and size distribution characterization. The results of these studies indicated that the shear coaxial geometry configuration was a relatively poor injector in terms of mixing. The oxygen core was observed to extend well downstream of the injector and a significant fraction of the mixing occurred in the near nozzle region where measurements were not possible to obtain. Detailed velocity and species measurements were obtained to allow CFD model validation and this set of benchmark data represents the most comprehensive data set available to date. As an extension of the investigation, a series of gas/gas injector studies were conducted in support of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle program. A Gas/Gas Injector Technology team was formed consisting of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the NASA Lewis Research Center, Rocketdyne and Penn State. Injector

  8. An Experimental Study of Characteristic Combustion-Driven Flow for CFD Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of uni-element rocket injector studies were completed to provide benchmark quality data needed to validate computational fluid dynamic models. A shear coaxial injector geometry was selected as the primary injector for study using gaseous hydrogen/oxygen and gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellants. Emphasis was placed on the use of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques to characterize the flowfields inside an optically-accessible rocket chamber. Measurements of the velocity and species fields were obtained using laser velocimetry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively Qualitative flame shape information was also obtained using laser-induced fluorescence excited from OH radicals and laser light scattering studies of aluminum oxide particle seeded combusting flows. The gaseous hydrogen/liquid oxygen propellant studies for the shear coaxial injector focused on breakup mechanisms associated with the liquid oxygen jet under sub-critical pressure conditions. Laser sheet illumination techniques were used to visualize the core region of the jet and a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer was utilized for drop velocity, size and size distribution characterization. The results of these studies indicated that the shear coaxial geometry configuration was a relatively poor injector in terms of mixing. The oxygen core was observed to extend well downstream of the injector and a significant fraction of the mixing occurred in the near nozzle region where measurements were not possible to obtain Detailed velocity and species measurements were obtained to allow CFD model validation and this set of benchmark data represents the most comprehensive data set available to date As an extension of the investigation, a series of gas/gas injector studies were conducted in support of the X-33 Reusable Launch Vehicle program. A Gas/Gas Injector Technology team was formed consisting of the Marshall Space Flight Center, the NASA Lewis Research Center, Rocketdyne and Penn State. Injector

  9. Trials and tribulations of conducting interventional studies in urban slums of a developing country: Experiences from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Pal, Debottam; Saha, Jayanta; Lopez, AnnaLena; Ali, Mohammad; Bannerjee, Barnali; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit; Kanungo, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies involving human subjects provide most internally valid evidences in epidemiological research due to their robust methodology. While conducting population-based interventional studies, to achieve external validity, inclusion of information from vulnerable groups like urban slum-dwellers of the developing world, in the epidemiological estimates is of paramount importance. The challenges faced while conducting 2 consecutive large-scale, community-based vaccine trials in urban slums of Kolkata, India are presented in this article. Interventions in these communities often get constrained by issues pertaining to human rights and benefits, socio-cultural factors, political environment, methodological shortcomings in addition to the challenges in ensuring community participation. While conducting these trials although we intermittently faced obstacles, by virtue of having a long term and robust surveillance system and developing a trusted relationship between the researchers, community leaders and residents we were able to come up with a commendable community participation which culminated into the success of the interventions. Bridging the gap between research and field operations by incorporating knowledge gathered from interventional studies and making strategies to improve health conditions of these informal settlers is a major unfulfilled agenda. We believe the lessons learnt during our research will help researchers while developing efficient interventions in similar setting. PMID:26224251

  10. Validity of Internet-Based Longitudinal Study Data: The Elephant in the Virtual Room

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Kim M; Bronsvoort, B Mark C; Handel, Ian G; Clements, Dylan N

    2015-01-01

    Background Internet-based data collection relies on well-designed and validated questionnaires. The theory behind designing and validating questionnaires is well described, but few practical examples of how to approach validation are available in the literature. Objective We aimed to validate data collected in an ongoing Internet-based longitudinal health study through direct visits to participants and recall of their health records. We demonstrate that despite extensive pre-planning, social desirability can still affect data in unexpected ways and that anticipation of poor quality data may be confounded by positive validation. Methods Dogslife is a large-scale, Web-based longitudinal study of canine health, in which owners of Labrador Retrievers were recruited and questioned at regular intervals about the lifestyle and health of their dogs using an Internet-based questionnaire. The Dogslife questionnaire predominantly consists of closed-answer questions. In our work, two separate validation methodologies were used: (1) direct interviews with 43 participants during visits to their households and (2) comparison of owner-entered health reports with 139 historical health records. Results Our results indicate that user-derived measures should not be regarded as a single category; instead, each measurement should be considered separately as each presents its own challenge to participants. We recommend trying to ascertain the extent of recall decay within a study and, if necessary, using this to guide data collection timepoints and analyses. Finally, we recommend that multiple methods of communication facilitate validation studies and aid cohort engagement. Conclusions Our study highlighted how the theory underpinning online questionnaire design and validation translates into practical data issues when applied to Internet-based studies. Validation should be regarded as an extension of questionnaire design, and that validation work should commence as soon as sufficient

  11. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  12. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  13. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  14. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted... Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? Feasibility studies will be... feasibility study, including the Principles and Guidelines (incorporated by reference at § 404.4). You...

  15. External validity of Concealed Information Test experiment: Comparison of respiration, skin conductance, and heart rate between experimental and field card tests.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    The Concealed Information Test (CIT) is a memory detection method based on an examinee's physiological responses to crime-relevant items (critical items) in comparison with crime-irrelevant items (noncritical items). I examined the external validity of CIT laboratory experiments by comparing respiratory speed (RS), skin conductance response (SCR), and heart rate (HR) between a laboratory experiment (n = 30) and a field test (n = 30) in a card test. A linear mixed models analysis showed that the critical items in both CIT contexts elicited CIT effects: RS repression, SCR increase, and HR deceleration. Additionally, the critical items in the field elicited a larger RS suppression than those in the laboratory; however, SCR and HR on the critical items showed no statistical differences between the laboratory and field CITs. Moreover, the tonic HRs in the field tests were higher than in the CIT experiments, but there were no significant correlations between the tonic HR and each CIT effect in RS, SCR, and HR. These results suggested that CIT detection efficiency was not affected by arousal levels and may imply that the CIT effects observed with RS, SCR, and HR in the CIT laboratory experiments has adequate external validity and can be generalized to the CIT field. PMID:27031043

  16. Paraoxonase-1 Enzyme Activity Assay for Clinical Samples: Validation and Correlation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Garelnabi, Mahdi; Younis, Abdelmoneim

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme is reported in various types of tissues and linked to numerous pathophysiological disorders. It is a potential biomarker in many pathological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. Material/Methods We conducted several small-scale studies to evaluate PON1 performance as affected by sample types, storage, and interferences. We also carried out short-term studies to compare the performance of the widely used PON1 assay to the similar commercially available PON1 kit assay method; sample size for the method comparison was N=40, and the number varied for other validation experiments. Results Our studies using various types of anticoagulants show that samples collected in tubes with NaF, citrate, EDTA, clot activator, and sodium heparin have increased PON1 levels that are 49%, 24.5%, 19.8%, 11.4%, and 8%, respectively, higher compared to serum samples collected in plain tubes. However, samples collected in lithium heparin tubes demonstrated 10.4% lower PON1 levels compared to serum collected in plain tubes. Biological interference such as hemolysis has little effect on PON1 levels; however, samples spiked with lipids have shown 13% lower PON 1 levels. Our studies comparing the PON1 method commonly available for PON1 assay and a similar non-ELISA commercially available PON1 kit method showed a weak Spearman correlation coefficient of R2=0.40 for the range of 104.9–245.6 U/L. Conclusions The current study provides new validation data on enzyme PON1 performance. While no appreciable change was seen with storage, samples type affects the enzyme performance. Our results should encourage additional clinical studies to investigate other aspects of factors known to affect PON1 enzyme function and performance. PMID:25814092

  17. Validation of the Hygicult E dipslides method in surface hygiene control: a Nordic collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Salo, Satu; Alanko, Timo; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija; Wirtanen, Gun

    2002-01-01

    A collaborative study with Enterobacteriaceae was conducted to validate Hygicult E dipslides by comparison with violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA) contact plates and swabbing, using stainless steel surfaces artificially contaminated with microbes at various levels. Twelve laboratories participated in the validation procedure. The total number of collaborative samples was 108. The microbial level in each sample was assessed in triplicate by using the 3 above-mentioned methods. No Enterobacteriaceae were used at the low inoculation level. At the middle inoculation level, the percentages detached from the test surfaces were 16.6 with the Hygicult E method, 15.3 with the contact plate method, and 14.6 with swabbing; at the high innoculation level, the percentages were 14.5, 15.8, and 9.8, respectively. The percentage of acceptable results after the removal of outliers was 97.2. Repeatability relative standard deviations ranged from 33.4 to 44.9%; reproducibility relative standard deviations ranged from 45.2 to 77.1%. The Hygicult E dipslide, VRBGA contact plate, and swabbing methods gave similar results at all 3 microbial levels tested: <1.0 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm2 at the low level, 1.2-1.3 CFU/cm2 at the middle level (theoretical yield 8.0 CFU/cm2), and 1.2-2.0 CFU/cm2 at the high level (theoretical yield 12.5 CFU/cm2). PMID:11990024

  18. Comparative Study in Laboratory Rats to Validate Sperm Quality Methods and Endpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. A.; Briggs, G. B.; Alexander, W. K.; Still, K. R.; Grasman, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Naval Health Research Center, Detachment (Toxicology) performs toxicity studies in laboratory animals to characterize the risk of exposure to chemicals of Navy interest. Research was conducted at the Toxicology Detachment at WPAFB, OH in collaboration with Wright State University, Department of Biological Sciences for the validation of new bioassay methods for evaluating reproductive toxicity. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer was used to evaluate sperm damage produced by exposure to a known testicular toxic agent, methoxyacetic acid and by inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 in laboratory rats. Sperm quality parameters were evaluated (sperm concentration, motility, and morphology) to provide evidence of sperm damage. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer utilizes a DNA specific fluorescent stain (similar to flow cytometry) and digitized optical computer analysis to detect sperm cell damage. The computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is a more rapid, robust, predictive and sensitive method for characterizing reproductive toxicity. The results presented in this poster report validation information showing exposure to methoxyacetic acid causes reproductive toxicity and inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 had no significant effects. The CASA method detects early changes that result in reproductive deficits and these data will be used in a continuing program to characterize the toxicity of chemicals, and combinations of chemicals, of military interest to formulate permissible exposure limits.

  19. The effects of surface condition on an ultrasonic inspection: Engineering studies using validated computer model

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, M.S.

    1998-04-01

    This report documents work on the effects of surface roughness on the reliability of an ultrasonic inservice inspection. The primary objective of this research is to develop ASME Code recommendations in order to limit the adverse effects of a rough surface and thereby increase the reliability of ultrasonic inservice inspections. Engineering studies were conducted that included experimental validation of computer codes. The basic problem associated with a rough surface in an inservice inspection is that as the transducer rotates slightly to accommodate the rough surface, the beam direction in the metal changes and the time of flight of the echo changes as well. One problem is the excessive weld crown, where weld material protrudes above the adjoining surfaces. In this research this condition is modeled by considering a step discontinuity on the top surface. CNDE developed several models of increasing complexity in order to model an inservice inspection. This report describes the validation of four computer codes. These codes were used to mimic an inservice inspection in order to understand effects associated with rotation of the transducer as it traverses a step discontinuity.

  20. A Serious Game for Clinical Assessment of Cognitive Status: Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Chignell, Mark; Tierney, Mary C.; Lee, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background We propose the use of serious games to screen for abnormal cognitive status in situations where it may be too costly or impractical to use standard cognitive assessments (eg, emergency departments). If validated, serious games in health care could enable broader availability of efficient and engaging cognitive screening. Objective The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a game-based cognitive assessment delivered on tablet technology to a clinical sample and to conduct preliminary validation against standard mental status tools commonly used in elderly populations. Methods We carried out a feasibility study in a hospital emergency department to evaluate the use of a serious game by elderly adults (N=146; age: mean 80.59, SD 6.00, range 70-94 years). We correlated game performance against a number of standard assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Results After a series of modifications, the game could be used by a wide range of elderly patients in the emergency department demonstrating its feasibility for use with these users. Of 146 patients, 141 (96.6%) consented to participate and played our serious game. Refusals to play the game were typically due to concerns of family members rather than unwillingness of the patient to play the game. Performance on the serious game correlated significantly with the MoCA (r=–.339, P <.001) and MMSE (r=–.558, P <.001), and correlated (point-biserial correlation) with the CAM (r=.565, P <.001) and with other cognitive assessments. Conclusions This research demonstrates the feasibility of using serious games in a clinical setting. Further research is required to demonstrate the validity and reliability of game-based assessments for clinical decision making. PMID:27234145

  1. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  2. Teacher Evaluation Project. The Beginning Teacher Program, Intellectual Skills Development, Validity Studies of the Evaluation System, Special Instrument Development. Report for 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Coalition for the Development of a Performance Measurement System, Tallahassee.

    Reports, summaries, and recommendations are presented on the following research studies: (1) Beginning Teacher Studies; (2) Instructional Skills for Teaching Higher Order Thinking; (3) Development of the Conferential Observation Instrument; (4) Predictive Validity Studies Conducted to Test the Relationship Between Teacher Performance as Measured…

  3. Signs and Symptoms vs Nerve Conduction Studies to Diagnose Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Test whether physicians can validly and reproducibly diagnose diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN). Methods Twelve physicians assessed 24 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) on consecutive days (576 examinations) with physical features and voice disguised. Results were compared to gold standard 75% group diagnosis and a nerve conduction score (Σ 5 NC nds). Results Masking of patients was achieved. Reproducibility measured by the kappa coefficient and compared to Σ 5 NC nd varied considerably among physicians: median and ranges: signs 0.8 (0.32 to 1.0); symptoms 0.79 (0.36 to 1.0) and diagnoses 0.47 (0.33 to 0.84) – both low and high scores indicating poor performance. There was substantial agreement between 75% group dx and confirmed NC abnormality. As compared to Σ 5 NC, individual physicians’ clinical diagnosis was excessively variable and frequently inaccurate. Discussion Study physician diagnosis from signs and symptoms were excessively variable, often over-estimating DSPN. Specific approaches to improving proficiency should be tested. PMID:20658599

  4. The federal Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA): a construction and validation study.

    PubMed

    Lowenkamp, Christopher T; Johnson, James L; Holsinger, Alexander M; Vanbenschoten, Scott W; Robinson, Charles R

    2013-02-01

    Offender assessment has been and remains the cornerstone of effective community supervision. This article presents the development of and tests the predictive validity of a 4th-generation risk assessment instrument designed for U.S. probation. A large administrative data set was used to create the assessment instrument and conduct an initial validation. Subsequent data generated from officer-completed assessments were used to conduct a prospective validation. Finally, data from case vignettes scored by trained officers were used to test the interrater agreement of the assessment instrument. Overall, analysis revealed that the assessment instrument predicted rearrest reliably when using the assessment results based on administrative data or officer-completed assessments. Analysis also revealed high rates of interrater agreement. Recommendations for future research and policy implications are presented. PMID:23148771

  5. Validation of Health Extension Workers Job Motivation Scale in Gamo-Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Shikur; Tilahun, Marelign; Kote, Mesfin; Mama, Mohamedaman; Tamiru, Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Well-trained and highly motivated community health workers are critical for delivery of community-based health care services. Understanding what motivates especially community health care providers for better community health requires the use of psychometrically reliable and valid scale. This study was conducted to validate job motivation scale in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 150 health care posts in Gamo Gofa Zone, from February 01, 2013, to March 01, 2013. A total of 301 participants responded to questionnaires asking about sociodemographic characteristics and job motivation. Exploratory factor analysis with principal component extraction and varimax with Kaiser Normalization rotation were employed to develop scales for job motivation. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were used as criterion of extraction. Items with item factor loadings less than 0.4 and double loaded items were dropped. Alpha and exploratory factor analyses were examined to test reliability and validity of the scale. Results. During exploratory factor analysis eight factors emerged from the three dimensions of job motivation scale, namely, educational career, workload, financial incentive, supervisor encouragement, community recognition, access to infrastructure, living condition, and better achievement in work. The factor loadings of the items in each dimension ranged from 0.58 to 0.83. Crobach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.79 to 0.90. To check validities of the scales developed in this study, the previous studies conducted to develop job motivation scale were used. Conclusion. Although the present scale has the potential to measure the job motivation of health extension workers and it is low in cost and easy to administer and analyze, it should be field-tested at different settings.

  6. Strategies to assess the validity of recommendations: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) become quickly outdated and require a periodic reassessment of evidence research to maintain their validity. However, there is little research about this topic. Our project will provide evidence for some of the most pressing questions in this field: 1) what is the average time for recommendations to become out of date?; 2) what is the comparative performance of two restricted search strategies to evaluate the need to update recommendations?; and 3) what is the feasibility of a more regular monitoring and updating strategy compared to usual practice?. In this protocol we will focus on questions one and two. Methods The CPG Development Programme of the Spanish Ministry of Health developed 14 CPGs between 2008 and 2009. We will stratify guidelines by topic and by publication year, and include one CPG by strata. We will develop a strategy to assess the validity of CPG recommendations, which includes a baseline survey of clinical experts, an update of the original exhaustive literature searches, the identification of key references (reference that trigger a potential recommendation update), and the assessment of the potential changes in each recommendation. We will run two alternative search strategies to efficiently identify important new evidence: 1) PLUS search based in McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service (PLUS) database; and 2) a Restrictive Search (ReSe) based on the least number of MeSH terms and free text words needed to locate all the references of each original recommendation. We will perform a survival analysis of recommendations using the Kaplan-Meier method and we will use the log-rank test to analyse differences between survival curves according to the topic, the purpose, the strength of recommendations and the turnover. We will retrieve key references from the exhaustive search and evaluate their presence in the PLUS and ReSe search results. Discussion Our project, using a highly structured and transparent

  7. 41 CFR 101-5.104-6 - Conduct of feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... studies. 101-5.104-6 Section 101-5.104-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-6 Conduct of feasibility studies. An initial... and detailed procedures to be followed in the conduct of each feasibility study. Arrangements will...

  8. A Collection of Studies Conducted in Education about "Global Warming" Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2011-01-01

    The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…

  9. 41 CFR 101-5.104-6 - Conduct of feasibility studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... studies. 101-5.104-6 Section 101-5.104-6 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... FEDERAL BUILDINGS AND COMPLEXES 5.1-General § 101-5.104-6 Conduct of feasibility studies. An initial... and detailed procedures to be followed in the conduct of each feasibility study. Arrangements will...

  10. 21 CFR 58.130 - Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... laboratory study shall be conducted in accordance with the protocol. (b) The test systems shall be monitored in conformity with the protocol. (c) Specimens shall be identified by test system, study, nature, and... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conduct of a nonclinical laboratory study....

  11. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  12. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  13. Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) Validation Study Designs. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this "Fast Facts," a state has received Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge funds and is seeking information to inform the design of the Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) validation study. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) responds that according to Resnick (2012), validation of a QRIS is an…

  14. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  15. Validation Study of a Gatekeeping Attitude Index for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to validate the Gatekeeping Attitude Index, a 14-item Likert scaling index. The authors collected data from a convenience sample of social work field instructors (N = 188) with a response rate of 74.0%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution on the index after…

  16. Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients in sub-Saharan Africa commonly experience pain, which often is un-assessed and undertreated. One hindrance to routine pain assessment in these settings is the lack of a single-item pain rating scale validated for the particular context. The goal of this study was to examine the face validity and cultural acceptability of two single-item pain scales, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), in a population of patients on the medical, surgical, and pediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. Methods Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R were developed by standard translation and back-translation. Cognitive interviews were performed with 15 patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Interview transcripts were analyzed on a question-by-question basis to identify major themes revealed through the cognitive interviewing process and to uncover any significant problems participants encountered with understanding and using the pain scales. Results Cognitive interview analysis demonstrated that participants had good comprehension of both the NRS and the FPS-R and showed rational decision-making processes in choosing their responses. Participants felt that both scales were easy to use. The FPS-R was preferred almost unanimously to the NRS. Conclusions The face validity and acceptability of the Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R has been demonstrated for use in Kenyan patients. The broader application of these scales should be evaluated and may benefit patients who currently suffer from pain. PMID:22512923

  17. Experimental and numerical study of the effective thermal conductivity of silica nanocomposites with thermal boundary resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, Rushabh M; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Wang, Hsin

    2013-01-01

    . The current study presents experimental study of thermal boundary resistance for silica nano particles embedded inside epoxy resin. The bulk conductivity of the sample is measured and Rc is back calculated using Hasselman-Johnson s (H-J) equation. The numerical validation of the equation is also presented, including extrapolation study to predict effective conductivity of the nanocomposite TIM.

  18. Plume trajectory validation study: Brown cloud support project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-Strattan, M.A.; Smith, M.L.

    1991-09-30

    The brown cloud is an air pollution phenomenon of great concern to the Denver metropolitan area. Regulatory agencies, academia, and research organizations are involved in characterizing the development and transport of the brown cloud and identifying mitigation approaches. In support of this effort, NOAA conducted releases of small (one cubic meter) constant density balloons from sites in Denver and along the South Platte Valley. These balloons, called tetroons'' because of their tetrahedral shape, carried five-ounce transponders and were tracked by radar as they rose to predetermined altitudes and followed airflow patterns at those altitudes. The data gathered from these releases included the geographic position and altitude of each tetroon over time. These data will aid efforts to understand brown cloud development, structure, and transport.

  19. Plume trajectory validation study: Brown cloud support project overview

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-Strattan, M.A.; Smith, M.L.

    1991-09-30

    The brown cloud is an air pollution phenomenon of great concern to the Denver metropolitan area. Regulatory agencies, academia, and research organizations are involved in characterizing the development and transport of the brown cloud and identifying mitigation approaches. In support of this effort, NOAA conducted releases of small (one cubic meter) constant density balloons from sites in Denver and along the South Platte Valley. These balloons, called ``tetroons`` because of their tetrahedral shape, carried five-ounce transponders and were tracked by radar as they rose to predetermined altitudes and followed airflow patterns at those altitudes. The data gathered from these releases included the geographic position and altitude of each tetroon over time. These data will aid efforts to understand brown cloud development, structure, and transport.

  20. What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes…

  1. Validation sampling can reduce bias in healthcare database studies: an illustration using influenza vaccination effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jennifer C.; Marsh, Tracey; Lumley, Thomas; Larson, Eric B.; Jackson, Lisa A.; Jackson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimates of treatment effectiveness in epidemiologic studies using large observational health care databases may be biased due to inaccurate or incomplete information on important confounders. Study methods that collect and incorporate more comprehensive confounder data on a validation cohort may reduce confounding bias. Study Design and Setting We applied two such methods, imputation and reweighting, to Group Health administrative data (full sample) supplemented by more detailed confounder data from the Adult Changes in Thought study (validation sample). We used influenza vaccination effectiveness (with an unexposed comparator group) as an example and evaluated each method’s ability to reduce bias using the control time period prior to influenza circulation. Results Both methods reduced, but did not completely eliminate, the bias compared with traditional effectiveness estimates that do not utilize the validation sample confounders. Conclusion Although these results support the use of validation sampling methods to improve the accuracy of comparative effectiveness findings from healthcare database studies, they also illustrate that the success of such methods depends on many factors, including the ability to measure important confounders in a representative and large enough validation sample, the comparability of the full sample and validation sample, and the accuracy with which data can be imputed or reweighted using the additional validation sample information. PMID:23849144

  2. Electric field studies: TLE-induced waveforms and ground conductivity impact on electric field propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Garcia, Geraldine; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    propagation of the electromagnetic waves generated by lightning has also been studied in the frequency range 1 kHz-1MHz at distances lower than 1000 km from the lightning source. A propagation model has been developed to determine the ground waves which propagate in a homogenous medium using the analytical expression given by Maclean and Wu [1993]. This approach takes into account the electric finite conductivity and the fact that the Earth is spherical, which allow us to deal with over-the-horizon propagation. We installed in 2008 four stations which were more or less aligned - the maximum distance between two stations was about 870 km. Two stations were located close to the Mediterranean Sea and the two others inside the continent, at the centre of France. This station distribution and the observation period (from August to December) allowed statistical and physical studies, such as the influence of the electric conductivity on wave propagation. Comparison of electric field spectra, measured after propagation only over sea and only over ground, showed clearly the effects of ground conductivity on propagation. Comparison between observations and modelling has been used to evaluate the ground conductivity. In the future we will implement the sky-wave inside our model and validate it with the database.

  3. Assessing Households Preparedness for Earthquakes: An Exploratory Study in the Development of a Valid and Reliable Persian-version Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Iran is placed among countries suffering from the highest number of earthquake casualties. Household preparedness, as one component of risk reduction efforts, is often supported in quake-prone areas. In Iran, lack of a valid and reliable household preparedness tool was reported by previous disaster studies. This study is aimed to fill this gap by developing a valid and reliable tool for assessing household preparedness in the event of an earthquake. Methods: This survey was conducted through three phases including literature review and focus group discussions with the participation of eight key informants, validity measurements and reliability measurements. Field investigation was completed with the participation of 450 households within three provinces of Iran. Content validity, construct validity, the use of factor analysis; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability were carried out to develop the tool. Results: Based on the CVIs, ranging from 0.80 to 0.100, and exploratory factor analysis with factor loading of more than 0.5, all items were valid. The amount of Cronbach's alpha (0.7) and test-retest examination by Spearman correlations indicated that the scale was also reliable. The final instrument consisted of six categories and 18 questions including actions at the time of earthquakes, nonstructural safety, structural safety, hazard map, communications, drill, and safety skills. Conclusion: Using a Persian-version tool that is adjusted to the socio-cultural determinants and native language may result in more trustful information on earthquake preparedness. It is suggested that disaster managers and researchers apply this tool in their future household preparedness projects. Further research is needed to make effective policies and plans for transforming preparedness knowledge into behavior. PMID:26981326

  4. An exploratory study into the effect of time-restricted internet access on face-validity, construct validity and reliability of postgraduate knowledge progress testing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Yearly formative knowledge testing (also known as progress testing) was shown to have a limited construct-validity and reliability in postgraduate medical education. One way to improve construct-validity and reliability is to improve the authenticity of a test. As easily accessible internet has become inseparably linked to daily clinical practice, we hypothesized that allowing internet access for a limited amount of time during the progress test would improve the perception of authenticity (face-validity) of the test, which would in turn improve the construct-validity and reliability of postgraduate progress testing. Methods Postgraduate trainees taking the yearly knowledge progress test were asked to participate in a study where they could access the internet for 30 minutes at the end of a traditional pen and paper test. Before and after the test they were asked to complete a short questionnaire regarding the face-validity of the test. Results Mean test scores increased significantly for all training years. Trainees indicated that the face-validity of the test improved with internet access and that they would like to continue to have internet access during future testing. Internet access did not improve the construct-validity or reliability of the test. Conclusion Improving the face-validity of postgraduate progress testing, by adding the possibility to search the internet for a limited amount of time, positively influences test performance and face-validity. However, it did not change the reliability or the construct-validity of the test. PMID:24195696

  5. Reduced thermal conductivity of a nanoparticle decorated nanowire: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnoon, Ahmed Shafkat; Bipasha, Ferdaushi Alam; Morshed, A. K. M. M.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of nanoparticles decoration on the thermal conductivity of a nanowire is studied using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) simulation. The simulation was conducted using simplified molecular model with Lennard-Jones potential. Argon-like solid was used as the material for both the nanowire and nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were placed on the surface of the nanowire and also embedded inside the structure. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation was conducted by imposing temperature gradient along the length of the nanowire and thermal conductivity of the nanowire was calculated. Nanowire without any nanoparticles was used as the baseline data. Due to presence of nanoparticles thermal conductivity of the nanowire was observed to decrease and up to 40% reduction in thermal conductivity was observed. With the increase in number of the nanoparticles, thermal conductivity was observed to decrease; however size of nanoparticles has little effect.

  6. Conductivity study and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) characterization of methyl cellulose solid polymer electrolyte with sodium iodide conducting ion

    SciTech Connect

    Abiddin, Jamal Farghali Bin Zainal; Ahmad, Azizah Hanom

    2015-08-28

    Sodium ion (Na{sup +}) based solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) has been prepared using solution cast technique with distilled water as solvent and Methylcellulose (MC) as a polymer host. Methylcellulose polymer was chosen as the polymer host due to the abundance of lone pair electrons in the carbonyl and C-O-C constituents, which in turn provide multiple hopping sites for the Na{sup +} conducting ions. Variable compositions of sodium iodide (NaI) salt were prepared to investigate the optimum MC-NaI weight ratio. Results from Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) technique show that pure methylcellulose has a low conductivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −11} S/cm.The conductivity increases as NaI content increases up to optimum NaIcomposition of 40 wt%, which yields an average conductivity of 2.70 × 10{sup −5} S/cm.

  7. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION QUICK REFERENCE FACT SHEET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of remedy evaluation and selection under the Superfund Program. his fact sheet focuses on solvent extraction treatability studies, and is highly abridged version of the guide which bears the...

  8. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: THERMAL DESORPTION - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liab...

  9. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: AEROBIC BIODEGRADATION REMEDY SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (KU FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and L...

  10. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  11. Unmasking the Capability of Strategic Learning: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siren, Charlotta A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The strategic learning perspective has attracted increased interest among strategic management scholars, yet the operationalisation of this concept is still in its infancy. The aim of this study is to develop a multidimensional understanding of the strategic learning process and to build an instrument to measure this concept.…

  12. A Validation Study of a Measure of Musical Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Studies reliability of the Measures of Creativity in Sound and Music (MCSM), a test developed by Cecilia Wang. Compares the MCSM scores with subjects' academic achievement scores, sex, and age with music and classroom teacher ratings of subjects' creativity. Concludes that research is still needed to define a theory of musical creativity, define…

  13. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  14. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly divided into two…

  15. A Validity Study: Attitudes towards Statistics among Japanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Eike

    2015-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigated the relationship between attitudes toward statistics (ATS) and course achievement (CA) among Japanese college students. The sample consisted of 135 male and 134 female students from the first two-year liberal arts program of a four-year college in Tokyo, Japan. Attitudes about statistics were measured using…

  16. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who work in…

  17. Human factors validation study of 3 mg sumatriptan autoinjector, for migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Brand-Schieber, Elimor; Munjal, Sagar; Kumar, Rajesh; Andre, Anthony D; Valladao, Will; Ramirez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Background Migraine pain relief is reported by more than 50% of patients who receive low dose (3 mg) of sumatriptan. Currently, there is no two-step autoinjector of low-dose sumatriptan available on the market for acute migraine treatment. To fulfill this need, a fully assembled, single-dose, subcutaneous autoinjector (sumatriptan 3 mg; product-code DFN-11) was developed. The device allows for injection with a simple two-step, push-to-inject process and provides feedback of the injection activation, progress, and completion. Objective To determine if DFN-11 autoinjector can be used correctly and safely by migraine patients. Methods and participants A human factors validation study was conducted with 45 migraine patients (30 oral-only medications users; 15 injectable sumatriptan users) who performed one unaided simulated injection. Two days prior, half the oral participants were briefly trained. All others were only given the device to inspect and written instructions to review. No injections were performed during the initial session. All participants received written instructions at the injection session. Results All participants (45/45; 100%) performed the injection without any errors. Objective measures included device removal from packaging, cap removal, expiration date check, inspection of fluid in window, identification of allowable injection site, proper device positioning, dose confirmation, and device disposal. All participants (45/45; 100%) reported no difficulty administering the injection and no concerns about using the autoinjector during a severe migraine onset. Conclusion The results showed that the DFN-11 autoinjector can be used with safe handling without patterns of confusion, failures, high-risk errors, wet injections, or patient safety risks. The DFN-11 autoinjector was validated to be used correctly and safely by migraine patients, whether they were injection experienced, unexperienced, trained, or self-trained. PMID:27313479

  18. 21 CFR 312.120 - Foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measures described in the study protocol or elsewhere will protect the rights, safety, and well-being of...) monitored the study and ensured that the study was carried out consistently with the study protocol; and (11...)(i) of this section) and to conduct the study in accordance with the study protocol, and a...

  19. Using a 3D Virtual Supermarket to Measure Food Purchase Behavior: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hendrika Margaretha; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that supermarkets are an important environment for health-promoting interventions such as fiscal food policies or front-of-pack nutrition labeling. However, due to the complexities of undertaking such research in the real world, well-designed randomized controlled trials on these kinds of interventions are lacking. The Virtual Supermarket is a 3-dimensional computerized research environment designed to enable experimental studies in a supermarket setting without the complexity or costs normally associated with undertaking such research. Objective The primary objective was to validate the Virtual Supermarket by comparing virtual and real-life food purchasing behavior. A secondary objective was to obtain participant feedback on perceived sense of “presence” (the subjective experience of being in one place or environment even if physically located in another) in the Virtual Supermarket. Methods Eligible main household shoppers (New Zealand adults aged ≥18 years) were asked to conduct 3 shopping occasions in the Virtual Supermarket over 3 consecutive weeks, complete the validated Presence Questionnaire Items Stems, and collect their real supermarket grocery till receipts for that same period. Proportional expenditure (NZ$) and the proportion of products purchased over 18 major food groups were compared between the virtual and real supermarkets. Data were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Results A total of 123 participants consented to take part in the study. In total, 69.9% (86/123) completed 1 shop in the Virtual Supermarket, 64.2% (79/123) completed 2 shops, 60.2% (74/123) completed 3 shops, and 48.8% (60/123) returned their real supermarket till receipts. The 4 food groups with the highest relative expenditures were the same for the virtual and real supermarkets: fresh fruit and vegetables (virtual estimate: 14.3%; real: 17.4%), bread and bakery (virtual: 10.0%; real: 8.2%), dairy (virtual: 19.1%; real

  20. Validity of a two-point acetaminophen pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Scavone, J M; Greenblatt, D J; Blyden, G T; Luna, B G; Harmatz, J S

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single 650-mg intravenous dose of acetaminophen were determined in 82 volunteers using multiple (13 or more) plasma acetaminophen concentrations measured by high pressure liquid chromatography during 24 h after dosage. Kinetic values from the complete study were compared with kinetic estimates based on only two data points: (a) the 2- and 6-h points only; and (b) the 3 and 6-h points only. For elimination half-life, values from the complete study (mean 2.42 h) were highly correlated (r = 0.87 and 0.84) with methods a and b (means 2.41 and 2.43 h), with regression slopes of 1.00 and 0.99, respectively. For clearance, the complete study values (mean 312 ml/min) were highly correlated (r = 0.97 and 0.97) with method a and b values, but both two-point methods significantly overestimated clearance (means 350 and 355 ml/min) by an average of 13 and 14%, respectively. Results for volume of distribution were similar to those for clearance. Although acetaminophen elimination half-life can be estimated with reasonable precision using a two-point blood-sampling procedure, clearance and volume of distribution values using the two-point method overestimate the actual values. PMID:2305419

  1. Note: Optimization of the numerical data analysis for conductivity percolation studies of drying moist porous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moscicki, J. K.; Sokolowska, D.; Dziob, D.; Nowak, J.; Kwiatkowski, L.

    2014-02-15

    A simplified data analysis protocol, for dielectric spectroscopy use to study conductivity percolation in dehydrating granular media is discussed. To enhance visibility of the protonic conductivity contribution to the dielectric loss spectrum, detrimental effects of either low-frequency dielectric relaxation or electrode polarization are removed. Use of the directly measurable monofrequency dielectric loss factor rather than estimated DC conductivity to parameterize the percolation transition substantially reduces the analysis work and time.

  2. A Validation Study of the Korean-Ruminative Response Scale in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Korean version of Ruminative Response Scale (K-RRS) for Korean adolescents. Methods A community sample of 1220 adolescents was recruited from middle schools and high schools. Exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, and additional analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the K-RRS. Results An exploratory factor analysis of a sample of adolescents (n=550) yielded a three factor structure: 'depressive rumination', 'reflective pondering', and 'brooding'. Confirmatory factor analyses of another sample of adolescents (n=530) supported the three-factor model for the K-RRS. The K-RRS was found to have good internal consistency and construct validity. Conclusion Our results suggest that K-RRS is a valid measurement to assess rumination in adolescents, as well as in adults. PMID:26508962

  3. Standardized classroom management program: Social validation and replication studies in Utah and Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Hops, Hyman; Walker, Hill M.; Guild, Jacqueline J.; Stokes, Judith; Young, K. Richard; Keleman, Kenneth S.; Willardson, Marlyn

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive validation study was conducted of the Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS), a consultant-based, teacher-mediated program for student classroom behavior. The study addressed questions related to: (a) brief consultant training, (b) subsequent teacher training by consultants using PASS manuals, (c) contrasts between PASS experimental teachers and students and equivalent controls on measures of teacher management skills, student classroom behavior, teacher ratings of student problem behaviors, and academic achievement, (d) reported satisfaction of participants, and (e) replication of effects across two separate school sites. Results indicated that in both sites significant effects were noted in favor of the PASS experimental group for (a) teacher approval, (b) student appropriate classroom behavior, and (c) four categories of student inappropriate behavior. Program satisfaction ratings of students, teachers, and consultants were uniformly positive, and continued use of the program was reported a year later. Discussion focused upon issues of cost-effectiveness, differential site effects, and the relationship between appropriate classroom behavior and academic achievement. PMID:16795604

  4. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  5. Validation study of a verbal autopsy method for causes of childhood mortality in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C C; Boerma, J T; Titus, S; Lohrke, B; Shangula, K; Black, R E

    1996-12-01

    Verbal autopsy uses a caretaker interview to determine the cause of death. We conducted a study of the major causes of child death in Namibia to determine the validity of this method. A questionnaire, including signs and symptoms of the diagnoses of interest was administered to the caretaker in 135 deaths of children < 5 years old who were identified from hospital records. The 243 diagnoses included malnutrition (77), diarrhoea (73), pneumonia (36), malaria (33), and measles (24). Sensitivity and specificity of various algorithms of reported signs and symptoms were compared to the medical diagnoses. An algorithm for malnutrition (very thin or swelling) had 73 per cent sensitivity and 76 per cent specificity. An algorithm for cerebral malaria (fever, loss of consciousness or convulsion) had 72 per cent sensitivity and 85 per cent specificity, while for all malaria deaths the same algorithm had low sensitivity (45 per cent) and high specificity (87 per cent). For diarrhoea, loose or liquid stools had high sensitivity (89 per cent), but low specificity (61 per cent). Cough with dyspnoea or tachypnoea had 72 per cent sensitivity and 64 per cent specificity. An algorithm for measles (age > or = 120 days, rash) had 71 per cent sensitivity and 85 per cent specificity. The study results suggest verbal autopsy data can be useful to ascertain the leading causes of death in childhood, but may have limitations for health impact evaluation. PMID:9009566

  6. Conducting Real-Time Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study via Telepractice: A Preliminary Feasibility and Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Clare L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda

    2016-06-01

    A small number of studies have examined the feasibility of conducting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) via telepractice. While the results have confirmed this potential, the systems tested to date have either reported issues that impacted the ability to analyze/interpret the VFSS recordings in real time, or they were not designed to enable real-time interpretation. Further system design is needed to establish a telepractice model that enables the VFSS assessment to be both guided and interpreted live in real time. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of using a telepractice system to enable live VFSS assessment. Twenty adult patients underwent a VFSS assessment directed by a telepractice SLP with competency in VFSS located in another room of the hospital. The telepractice clinician led the sessions using a C20 Cisco TelePresence System. This was linked in real time via a secure telehealth network (at 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s)) to a C60 Cisco TelePresence System located in a fluoroscopy suite, connected to the digital fluoroscopy system. Levels of agreement were calculated between the telepractice clinician and a face-to-face clinician who simultaneously rated the VFSS in real time. High levels of agreement for swallowing parameters (range = 75-100 %; k = -0.34 to 1.0) and management decisions (range = 70-100 %, k = 0.64-1.0) were found. A post-session questionnaire revealed clinicians agreed that the telepractice system enabled successful remote assessment of VFSS. The findings support the potential to conduct live VFSS assessment via a telepractice model. PMID:26979971

  7. In-Trail Procedure Air Traffic Control Procedures Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartrand, Ryan C.; Hewitt, Katrin P.; Sweeney, Peter B.; Graff, Thomas J.; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2012-01-01

    In August 2007, Airservices Australia (Airservices) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a validation experiment of the air traffic control (ATC) procedures associated with the Automatic Dependant Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) In-Trail Procedure (ITP). ITP is an Airborne Traffic Situation Awareness (ATSA) application designed for near-term use in procedural airspace in which ADS-B data are used to facilitate climb and descent maneuvers. NASA and Airservices conducted the experiment in Airservices simulator in Melbourne, Australia. Twelve current operational air traffic controllers participated in the experiment, which identified aspects of the ITP that could be improved (mainly in the communication and controller approval process). Results showed that controllers viewed the ITP as valid and acceptable. This paper describes the experiment design and results.

  8. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison. PMID:26234529

  9. Human subject protection; foreign clinical studies not conducted under an investigational new drug application. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-04-28

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on acceptance of foreign clinical studies not conducted under an investigational new drug application (IND) (non-IND foreign clinical studies) as support for an IND or application for marketing approval for a drug or biological product. The final rule replaces the requirement that these studies be conducted in accordance with ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki (Declaration) issued by the World Medical Association (WMA), specifically the 1989 version (1989 Declaration), with a requirement that the studies be conducted in accordance with good clinical practice (GCP), including review and approval by an independent ethics committee (IEC). The final rule updates the standards for the acceptance of foreign clinical studies not conducted under an IND and helps ensure the protection of human subjects and the quality and integrity of data obtained from these studies. PMID:18567164

  10. Conductivity of nanosecond discharges in nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride studied by particle-in-cell simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Levko, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2012-06-15

    The conductivity of the discharge gap during the nanosecond high-voltage pulsed discharge in nitrogen and sulfur hexafluoride is studied using particle-in-cell numerical simulations. It is shown that the conductivity in different locations of the cathode-anode gap is not uniform and that the conductivity is determined by both the runaway and the plasma electrons. In addition, it is shown that runaway electrons generated prior to the virtual cathode formation pre-ionize the discharge gap, which makes it conductive.

  11. Simulation study on effects of channel noise on differential conduction at an axon branch.

    PubMed Central

    Horikawa, Y

    1993-01-01

    Effects of membrane channel noise (random opening and closing of ion channels) are studied on spike conduction at a branching point on an axon. Computer simulation is done on the basis of a stochastic version of the Hodgkin-Huxley cable model, into which the channel noise is incorporated. It is shown that the channel noise makes conduction of spikes into daughter branches random; spikes randomly succeed or fail in conduction into daughter branches. The conduction is then randomly differential even though the forms and properties of daughter branches are the same. The randomness is considerable when the radius of an axon is small (approximately 1 microns). PMID:7693002

  12. 43 CFR 404.18 - How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study? 404.18 Section 404.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.18 How can I request assistance to conduct...

  13. First-Year Students' Expectations of Conduct and Consequence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crance Gutmann, Gina-Lyn

    2008-01-01

    Research on first-year students' expectations about college has explored areas of academic and social expectations, but not first-year college students' expectations about judicial conduct and consequence. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore two questions: what are first year students' expectations about campus conduct and…

  14. 43 CFR 404.18 - How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I request assistance to conduct a feasibility study? 404.18 Section 404.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.18 How can I request assistance to conduct...

  15. Concept study and validation of Antarctic telescope tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanford, Ephraim; Swain, Mark; Meyers, Catherine; Muramatsu, Tamao; Nielson, Greg; Olson, Valerie; Ronsse, Sebastien; Vinding Nyden, Emily; Hammerschlag, Robert; Little, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Studies by Mark Swain and a colleague at the Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie, coupled with results from past and ongoing projects at Harvey Mudd College, strongly suggest that it may be possible to achieve imaging performance comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope at relatively low cost using available, commercial products. This is achievable by placing a 2.4 m telescope, with readily available adaptive optics, on a 30 m tower located at a high-elevation geological "dome" in Antarctica. An initial project surveyed relevant tower design approaches, then generated and evaluated six concept designs for telescope towers. Using data for typical and extreme wind at Dome C to generate wind loads, finite element analysis yielded lateral deflections at the top of 0.3 mm for typical winds and 12.1 mm for extreme gusts, with the lowest resonant frequency at 0.7 Hz; some tower concepts are innovative and allow for easy shipment, setup, and relocation. A subsequent project analyzed a tower designed by Hammerschlag and found fundamental resonance frequencies at 4.3 Hz for bending and 5.9 Hz for torsion; this project also designed and simulated an active telescope control system that maintained 17 milliarcsecond pointing error for the telescope atop the tower during typical wind conditions.

  16. An external construct validity study of Rorschach personality variables.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, D F

    1990-01-01

    This study examined (a) hypothesized relationships between Rorschach variables and self-report test measures relating to nominally similar aspects of personality functioning and (b) interrelationships among Rorschach variables. Sixty-two undergraduates were administered the Rorschach, Barron Ego Strength Scale, Kaplan Self-Derogation Scale, Eagly Self-Esteem Scale, Multiple Affective Adjective Checklist (MAACL), Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Rotter Locus of Control Scale. Only a few of the predictions received confirmation: inanimate movement (m) correlated, as expected, with MAACL anxiety and hostility, the egocentricity index (3r + 2)/R (R = total responses) correlated significantly with self-esteem, and human movement with minus form level (M-) correlated (inversely) with ego strength. Among the unpredicted findings were some that appear inconsistent with standard Rorschach interpretation. Rorschach variables human movement (M), and experience actual (EA), generally interpreted as reflecting coping resources, related significantly with self-report measures of poor coping and of dysphoric affect. In general, the Rorschach appears better at identifying weaknesses in the ego rather than strengths. PMID:2280339

  17. Validation of Maturity Offset in the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, Wm Cameron

    2016-08-01

    Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs. PMID:26757350

  18. Status Update on the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The overarching objective of integrated hydrologic ground validation activities supporting the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is to provide better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. To this end, the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program is conducting the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS will be conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives and related goals for the IFloodS experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Quantify the physical characteristics and space/time variability of rain (rates, DSD, process/"regime") and map to satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainty. 2. Assess satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainties at instantaneous to daily time scales and evaluate propagation/impact of uncertainty in flood-prediction. 3. Assess hydrologic predictive skill as a function of space/time scales, basin morphology, and land use/cover. 4. Discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis. 5. Refine approaches to "integrated hydrologic GV" concept based on IFloodS experiences and apply to future GPM Integrated GV field efforts. These objectives will be achieved via the deployment of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a large network of both 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers, and USDA-ARS gauge and soil-moisture measurements (in collaboration with the NASA SMAP mission). The aforementioned measurements will be used to complement existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar measurements

  19. Intelligent Emergency Department: Validation of Sociometers to Study Workload.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Blocker, Renaldo C; Sir, Mustafa Y; Hallbeck, M Susan; Hellmich, Thomas R; Cohen, Tara; Nestler, David M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2016-03-01

    Sociometers are wearable sensors that continuously measure body movements, interactions, and speech. The purpose of this study is to test sociometers in a smart environment in a live clinical setting, to assess their reliability in capturing and quantifying data. The long-term goal of this work is to create an intelligent emergency department that captures real-time human interactions using sociometers to sense current system dynamics, predict future state, and continuously learn to enable the highest levels of emergency care delivery. Ten actors wore the devices during five simulated scenarios in the emergency care wards at a large non-profit medical institution. For each scenario, actors recited prewritten or structured dialogue while independent variables, e.g., distance, angle, obstructions, speech behavior, were independently controlled. Data streams from the sociometers were compared to gold standard video and audio data captured by two ward and hallway cameras. Sociometers distinguished body movement differences in mean angular velocity between individuals sitting, standing, walking intermittently, and walking continuously. Face-to-face (F2F) interactions were not detected when individuals were offset by 30°, 60°, and 180° angles. Under ideal F2F conditions, interactions were detected 50 % of the time (4/8 actor pairs). Proximity between individuals was detected for 13/15 actor pairs. Devices underestimated the mean duration of speech by 30-44 s, but were effective at distinguishing the dominant speaker. The results inform engineers to refine sociometers and provide health system researchers a tool for quantifying the dynamics and behaviors in complex and unpredictable healthcare environments such as emergency care. PMID:26645317

  20. Validity and Reliability Study of the Self-Efficacy Scale in Rendering Piano Education to Children of 6-12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekinci, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in measuring self-efficacy of candidate music teachers in rendering piano education to children of 6-12 years. To this end, a pool of 51 items was created by using the literature, and taking the opinions of piano professors and piano instructors working with…

  1. The "RG Sausage's" Missing Ingredients: Investigating the Validity of Reliability Generalization Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of selected methodological factors on the validity of conclusions from reliability generalization (RG) studies. The study focused on four factors; (1) missing data in the primary studies; (2) transformation of sample reliability estimates; (3) use of sample weights for estimating mean…

  2. Infrared spectroscopic and conductivity studies of ureasil-based proton conducting membranes for medium temperature fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Vince, Jelica; Vuk, Angela Šurca; Stangar, Urška Lavrenčič; Perše, Lidija Slemenik; Orel, Boris; Hočevar, Stanko

    2010-12-01

    Proton conducting membranes for fuel cells were prepared by the sol-gel process from two different ureasil organic-inorganic hybrid precursors: bis[(N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)ureido]-terminated poly(propylene glycol) 4000 (PPGU) and bis[3-(N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)ureido)propyl]-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) 1000 (PDMSU). Heteropoly silicotungstic acid was added to actuate the reactions of hydrolysis and condensation and to introduce proton conductivity. XRD measurements of membranes revealed the presence of a diffraction peak at 6.3°, which could be ascribed to gradual formation of R-(SiO3/2) silsesquioxane clusters, i.e. arrangement of the Si-O-Si skeleton on the nano-scale. TG and DSC measurements showed thermal stability of the membranes above 120 °C. Proton conductivities at room temperature were of the order of 10-4 to 10-3 S/cm, classifying the membranes in the group of super ionic conductors. At elevated temperatures up to 160 °C and at conditions of autogenous pressure, conductivities increased up to values acceptable for fuel cells of 10-1 S/cm, which could be the result of the presence of H3O+ ions. The protonation of the urea groups and the formation of amidonium ions [C(OH)=NH+] were followed using IR ATR spectroscopy. PMID:24061888

  3. "Conducting Is Everywhere!" A Case Study of the Development of Preservice Music Teacher Occupational Identity in a Beginning Conducting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Research on pre-service music teacher occupational identity often highlights two competing identities: performer and teacher (L'Roy, 1983; Roberts, 1991; Pellegrino, 2009). Of the many factors that contribute to the occupational identity of the pre-service music teacher (Woodford, 2002), conducting has the potential to integrate performer and…

  4. Reliability and validity of the tritrac-R3D accelerometer during backpacking: a case study.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, D; Dalleck, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Tritrac-R3D accelerometer as a reliable and valid instrument in the quantification of physical activity while backpacking in the field and to evaluate heart-rate responses and oxygen consumption to assess the feasibility of using the Tritrac-R3D to estimate caloric expenditure. Two 7-day backpacking expeditions were conducted in two consecutive years by a single subject at Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The average hiking heart rate ranged front 60% to 77% HRmax during the expeditions. The average rate of estimated caloric cost ranged from 6.8 to 11.7 kcals x min.(-1) (equivalent to 408 to 702 kcals x hr.(-1)), indicating a relatively moderate to high level of exertion. The Tritrac had adequate consistency and reliability in the field between the two expeditions in recorded activity counts. The Tritrac underestimated caloric expenditure during backpacking with changes in terrain, and hiking speed contributed to even greater disparity in accuracy. PMID:11693704

  5. Latino Community-Based Participatory Research Studies: A Model for Conducting Bilingual Translations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929

  6. Do placebo based validation standards mimic real batch products behaviour? Case studies.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, A; Talbi, M; Bouklouze, A; El Karbane, M; Bourichi, H; El Guezzar, M; Ziemons, E; Hubert, Ph; Rozet, E

    2011-06-01

    Analytical methods validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application. Validation usually involves validation standards or quality control samples that are prepared in placebo or reconstituted matrix made of a mixture of all the ingredients composing the drug product except the active substance or the analyte under investigation. However, one of the main concerns that can be made with this approach is that it may lack an important source of variability that come from the manufacturing process. The question that remains at the end of the validation step is about the transferability of the quantitative performance from validation standards to real authentic drug product samples. In this work, this topic is investigated through three case studies. Three analytical methods were validated using the commonly spiked placebo validation standards at several concentration levels as well as using samples coming from authentic batch samples (tablets and syrups). The results showed that, depending on the type of response function used as calibration curve, there were various degrees of differences in the results accuracy obtained with the two types of samples. Nonetheless the use of spiked placebo validation standards was showed to mimic relatively well the quantitative behaviour of the analytical methods with authentic batch samples. Adding these authentic batch samples into the validation design may help the analyst to select and confirm the most fit for purpose calibration curve and thus increase the accuracy and reliability of the results generated by the method in routine application. PMID:21377822

  7. Genomewide study and validation of markers associated with production traits in German Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strucken, E M; Schmitt, A O; Bergfeld, U; Jurke, I; Reissmann, M; Brockmann, G A

    2014-05-01

    We present results from a genomewide association study (GWAS) and a single-marker association study. The GWAS was performed with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip from which 5 markers were selected for a validation analysis. Genetic effects were estimated for feed intake, weight gain, and traits of fat and muscle tissue in German Landrace boars kept on performance test stations. The GWAS was performed in a population of 288 boars and the validation study for another 432 boars. No statistically significant effect was found in the GWAS after adjusting for multiple testing. Effects of 2 markers, which were significant genomewide before correction for multiple testing (P < 0.00005), could be confirmed in the validation study. The major allele of marker ALGA0056781 on SSC1 was positively associated with both higher weight gain and fat deposition. The effect on live-weight gain was 2.25 g/d in the GWAS (P = 0.0003) and 3.73 g/d in the validation study (P = 0.01) and for back fat thickness was 0.15 mm in the GWAS (P < 0.0001) and 0.20 mm in the validation study (P = 0.02). The marker had similar effects on test-day weight gain (GWAS: 3.85 g/d, P = 0.001; validation study: 6.80 g/d, P = 0.003) and back fat area (GWAS: 0.27 cm(2), P < 0.0001; validation study: 0.35 cm(2), P = 0.03). Marker ASGA0056782 on SSC13 was associated with live-weight gain. The major allele had negative effects in both studies (GWAS: -4.88 g/d, P < 0.0001; validation study: -3.75 g/d, P = 0.02). The effects of these 2 markers would have been excluded based on the GWAS alone but were shown to be significantly trait associated in the validation study indicating a false-negative result. The G protein-coupled receptor 126 (GPR126) gene approximately 200 kb downstream of marker ALGA0001781 was shown to be associated with human height and therefore might explain the association with weight gain in pigs. Several traits were affected in an economically desired direction by the minor allele of the markers

  8. Thermal design studies in superconducting rf cavities: Phonon peak and Kapitza conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizaz, A.; Grimm, T. L.; Wright, N. T.

    2010-09-01

    Thermal design studies of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities involve two thermal parameters, namely the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of Nb at low temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient at the Nb-He II interface, commonly known as the Kapitza conductance. During the fabrication process of the SRF cavities, Nb sheet is plastically deformed through a deep drawing process to obtain the desired shape. The effect of plastic deformation on low temperature thermal conductivity as well as Kapitza conductance has been studied experimentally. Strain induced during the plastic deformation process reduces the thermal conductivity in its phonon transmission regime (disappearance of phonon peak) by 80%, which may explain the performance limitations of the defect-free SRF cavities during their high field operations. Low temperature annealing of the deformed Nb sample could not recover the phonon peak. However, moderate temperature annealing during the titanification process recovered the phonon peak in the thermal conductivity curve. Kapitza conductance measurements for the Nb-He II interface for various surface topologies have also been carried out before and after the annealing. These measurements reveal consistently increased Kapitza conductance after the annealing process was carried out in the two temperature regimes.

  9. Validation of a Theoretical Model of Diagnostic Classroom Assessment: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to validate a theoretical model of diagnostic, formative classroom assessment called, "Proximal Assessment for Learner Diagnosis" (PALD). To achieve its purpose, the study employed a two-stage, mixed-methods design. The study utilized multiple data sources from 11 elementary level mathematics teachers who…

  10. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  11. Curriculum Design Orientations Preference Scale of Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for preferences of teachers in regard of their curriculum design orientations. Because there was no scale development study similar to this one in Turkey, it was considered as an urgent need to develop such a scale in the study. The sample of the research consisted of 300…

  12. Evaluation of Nerve Conduction Studies in Obese Children With Insulin Resistance or Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ince, Hülya; Taşdemir, Haydar Ali; Aydin, Murat; Ozyürek, Hamit; Tilki, Hacer Erdem

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nerve conduction studies in terms of neuropathic characteristics in obese patients who were in prediabetes stage and also to determine the abnormal findings. The study included 69 obese adolescent patients between April 2009 and December 2010. All patients and control group underwent motor (median, ulnar, tibial, and peroneal) and sensory (median, ulnar, sural, and medial plantar) nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. Sensory response amplitude of the medial plantar nerve was significantly lower in the patients with impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. To our knowledge, the present study is the first study demonstrating the development of sensory and autonomic neuropathy due to metabolic complications of obesity in adolescent children even in the period without development of diabetes mellitus. We recommend that routine electrophysiological examinations be performed, using medial plantar nerve conduction studies and sympathetic skin response test. PMID:25342307

  13. Validation study of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey at a Hispanic-serving institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2009-12-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) has been widely acknowledged as a useful measure of student cognitive attitudes about science and learning. The initial University of Colorado validation study included only 20% non-Caucasian student populations. In this Brief Report we extend their validation to include a predominately under-represented minority population. We validated the CLASS instrument at Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, by interviewing students in introductory physics classes using a semistructured protocol, examining students’ responses on the CLASS item statements, and comparing them to the items’ intended meaning. We find that in our predominately Hispanic population, 94% of the students’ interview responses indicate that the students interpret the CLASS items correctly, and thus the CLASS is a valid instrument. We also identify one potentially problematic item in the instrument which one third of the students interviewed consistently misinterpreted.

  14. A rapid screening tool for psychological distress in children 3–6years old: results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mental health needs of young children in humanitarian contexts often remain unaddressed. The lack of a validated, rapid and simple tool for screening combined with few mental health professionals able to accurately diagnose and provide appropriate care mean that young children remain without care. Here, we present the results of the principle cross-cultural validation of the “Psychological Screening for Young Children aged 3 to 6” (PSYCAa3-6). The PSYCa 3–6 is a simple scale for children 3 to 6 years old administered by non-specialists, to screen young children in crises and thereby refer them to care if needed. Methods This study was conducted in Maradi, Niger. The scale was translated into Hausa, using corroboration of independent translations. A cross-cultural validation was implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample of 580 mothers or caregivers of children 3 to 6 years old were included. The tool was psychometrically examined and diagnostic properties were assessed comparing the PSYCa 3–6 against a clinical interview as the gold standard. Results The PSYCa 3–6 Hausa version demonstrated good concurrent validity, as scores correlated with the gold standard and the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) [rho = 0.41, p-value = 0.00]. A reduction procedure was used to reduce the scale from 40 to 22 items. The test-retest reliability of the PSYCa 3–6 was found to be high (ICC 0.81, CI95% [0.68; 0.89]). In our sample, although not the purpose of this study, approximately 54 of 580 children required subsequent follow-up with a psychologist. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first validation of a screening scale for children 3 to 6 years old with a cross-cultural validation component, for use in humanitarian contexts. The Hausa version of the PSYCa 3–6 is a reliable and a valuable screening tool for psychological distress. Further studies to replicate our findings and additional

  15. VALUE - A Framework to Validate Downscaling Approaches for Climate Change Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Gutiérrez, José M.; Kotlarski, Sven; Chandler, Richard E.; Hertig, Elke; Wibig, Joanna; Huth, Radan; Wilke, Renate A. I.

    2015-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research. VALUE aims to foster collaboration and knowledge exchange between climatologists, impact modellers, statisticians, and stakeholders to establish an interdisciplinary downscaling community. A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. Here, we present the key ingredients of this framework. VALUE's main approach to validation is user-focused: starting from a specific user problem, a validation tree guides the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures. Several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur: what is the isolated downscaling skill? How do statistical and dynamical methods compare? How do methods perform at different spatial scales? Do methods fail in representing regional climate change? How is the overall representation of regional climate, including errors inherited from global climate models? The framework will be the basis for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study, but is intended also to provide general guidance for other validation studies.

  16. VALUE: A framework to validate downscaling approaches for climate change studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Gutiérrez, José M.; Kotlarski, Sven; Chandler, Richard E.; Hertig, Elke; Wibig, Joanna; Huth, Radan; Wilcke, Renate A. I.

    2015-01-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research. VALUE aims to foster collaboration and knowledge exchange between climatologists, impact modellers, statisticians, and stakeholders to establish an interdisciplinary downscaling community. A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. In this paper, we present the key ingredients of this framework. VALUE's main approach to validation is user- focused: starting from a specific user problem, a validation tree guides the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures. Several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur: what is the isolated downscaling skill? How do statistical and dynamical methods compare? How do methods perform at different spatial scales? Do methods fail in representing regional climate change? How is the overall representation of regional climate, including errors inherited from global climate models? The framework will be the basis for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study, but is intended also to provide general guidance for other validation studies.

  17. Developmental Associations Between Conduct Problems and Expressive Language in Early Childhood: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Doyle, Orla; Falissard, Bruno; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-08-01

    Conduct problems have been associated with poor language development, however the direction of this association in early childhood remains unclear. This study examined the longitudinal directional associations between conduct problems and expressive language ability. Children enrolled in the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N = 14, 004; 50.3 % boys) were assessed at 3 and 5 years of age. Parent reports of conduct problems and standardised assessments of expressive language were analyzed using cross-lagged modeling. Conduct problems at 3 years was associated with poorer expressive language at 5 years and poorer expressive language at 3 years was associated with increased conduct problems by 5 years. The results support reciprocal associations, rather than a specific unidirectional path, which is commonly found with samples of older children. The emergence of problems in either domain can thus negatively impact upon the other over time, albeit the effects were modest. Studies examining the effects of intervention targeting conduct problems and language acquisition prior to school entry may be warranted in testing the efficacy of prevention programmes related to conduct problems and poor language ability early in childhood. PMID:26496905

  18. Conducting feasibilities in clinical trials: an investment to ensure a good study.

    PubMed

    Rajadhyaksha, Viraj

    2010-07-01

    Conducting clinical trial feasibility is one of the first steps in clinical trial conduct. This process includes assessing internal and environmental capacity, alignment of the clinical trial in terms of study design, dose of investigational product, comparator, patient type, with the local environment and assessing potential of conducting clinical trial in a specific country. A robust feasibility also ensures a realistic assessment and capability to conduct the clinical trial. For local affiliates of pharmaceutical organizations, and contract research organizations, this is a precursor to study placement and influences the decision of study placement. This article provides details on different types of feasibilities, information which is to be included and relevance of each. The article also aims to provide practical hands-on suggestions to make feasibilities more realistic and informative. PMID:21814631

  19. First-principles study of lattice thermal conductivity of Td-WTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Sun, Hong Yi; Zhou, Jian; Li, Qing Fang; Wan, Xian-Gang

    2016-03-01

    The structural and thermal properties of bulk Td-WTe2 have been studied by using first-principles calculations based on the simple Klemens model and an iterative self-consistent method. Both methods show that lattice thermal conductivity is anisotropic, with the highest value in the (001) plane, and lowest one along the c-axis at 300 K. The calculated average thermal conductivity of WTe2 is in agreement with the experimental measurement. The size dependent thermal conductivity shows that nanostructuring of WTe2 can possibly further decrease the lattice thermal conductivity, which can improve the thermoelectric efficiency. Such extremely low thermal conductivity, even much lower than WSe2, makes WTe2 having many potential applications in thermal insulation and thermoelectric materials.

  20. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Bresme, F.; Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A.

    2014-04-28

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

  1. A New Cuffless Device for Measuring Blood Pressure: A Real-Life Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schoot, Tessa S; Weenk, Mariska; van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; van Goor, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Background Cuffless blood pressure (BP) monitoring devices, based on pulse transit time, are being developed as an easy-to-use, more convenient, fast, and relatively cheap alternative to conventional BP measuring devices based on cuff occlusion. Thereby they may provide a great alternative to BP self-measurement. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate the performance of the first release of the Checkme Health Monitor (Viatom Technology), a cuffless BP monitor, in a real-life setting. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate whether the posture of the volunteer and the position of the device relative to the heart level would influence its outcomes. Methods Study volunteers fell into 3 BP ranges: high (>160 mmHg), normal (130–160 mmHg), and low (<130 mmHg). All requirements for test environment, observer qualification, volunteer recruitment, and BP measurements were met according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol (ESH-IP) for the validation of BP measurement devices. After calibrating the Checkme device, we measured systolic BP with Checkme and a validated, oscillometric reference BP monitor (RM). Measurements were performed in randomized order both in supine and in sitting position, and with Checkme at and above heart level. Results We recruited 52 volunteers, of whom we excluded 15 (12 due to calibration failure with Checkme, 3 due to a variety of reasons). The remaining 37 volunteers were divided into low (n=14), medium (n=13), and high (n=10) BP ranges. There were 18 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 54.1 (SD 14.5) years, and mean recruitment systolic BP of 141.7 (SD 24.7) mmHg. BP results obtained by RM and Checkme correlated well. In the supine position, the difference between the RM and Checkme was >5 mmHg in 17 of 37 volunteers (46%), of whom 9 of 37 (24%) had a difference >10 mmHg and 5 of 37 (14%) had a difference >15 mmHg. Conclusions BP obtained with Checkme correlated well with RM BP, particularly in the

  2. A HTML5 open source tool to conduct studies based on Libet's clock paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Cubillas, Carmelo P; Matute, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Libet's clock is a well-known procedure in experiments in psychology and neuroscience. Examples of its use include experiments exploring the subjective sense of agency, action-effect binding, and subjective timing of conscious decisions and perceptions. However, the technical details of the apparatus used to conduct these types of experiments are complex, and are rarely explained in sufficient detail as to guarantee an exact replication of the procedure. With this in mind, we developed Labclock Web, a web tool designed to conduct online and offline experiments using Libet's clock. After describing its technical features, we explain how to configure specific experiments using this tool. Its degree of accuracy and precision in the presentation of stimuli has been technically validated, including the use of two cognitive experiments conducted with voluntary participants who performed the experiment both in our laboratory and via the Internet. Labclock Web is distributed without charge under a free software license (GPLv3) since one of our main objectives is to facilitate the replication of experiments and hence the advancement of knowledge in this area. PMID:27623167

  3. Validation of Physical Activity Tracking via Android Smartphones Compared to ActiGraph Accelerometer: Laboratory-Based and Free-Living Validation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Buman, Matthew P; Grieco, Lauren; Rosenberger, Mary; Winter, Sandra J; Haskell, William; King, Abby C

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using smartphones as stand-alone physical activity monitors via their built-in accelerometers, but there is presently limited data on the validity of this approach. Objective The purpose of this work was to determine the validity and reliability of 3 Android smartphones for measuring physical activity among midlife and older adults. Methods A laboratory (study 1) and a free-living (study 2) protocol were conducted. In study 1, individuals engaged in prescribed activities including sedentary (eg, sitting), light (sweeping), moderate (eg, walking 3 mph on a treadmill), and vigorous (eg, jogging 5 mph on a treadmill) activity over a 2-hour period wearing both an ActiGraph and 3 Android smartphones (ie, HTC MyTouch, Google Nexus One, and Motorola Cliq). In the free-living study, individuals engaged in usual daily activities over 7 days while wearing an Android smartphone (Google Nexus One) and an ActiGraph. Results Study 1 included 15 participants (age: mean 55.5, SD 6.6 years; women: 56%, 8/15). Correlations between the ActiGraph and the 3 phones were strong to very strong (ρ=.77-.82). Further, after excluding bicycling and standing, cut-point derived classifications of activities yielded a high percentage of activities classified correctly according to intensity level (eg, 78%-91% by phone) that were similar to the ActiGraph’s percent correctly classified (ie, 91%). Study 2 included 23 participants (age: mean 57.0, SD 6.4 years; women: 74%, 17/23). Within the free-living context, results suggested a moderate correlation (ie, ρ=.59, P<.001) between the raw ActiGraph counts/minute and the phone’s raw counts/minute and a strong correlation on minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ie, ρ=.67, P<.001). Results from Bland-Altman plots suggested close mean absolute estimates of sedentary (mean difference=–26 min/day of sedentary behavior) and MVPA (mean difference=–1.3 min/day of MVPA) although there

  4. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of study plans and conduct... RULES Implementation, Enforcement and Modification of Consent Agreements § 790.62 Submission of study... pursuant to a consent agreement shall submit a study plan no later than 45 days prior to the initiation...

  5. 40 CFR 790.62 - Submission of study plans and conduct of testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission of study plans and conduct... RULES Implementation, Enforcement and Modification of Consent Agreements § 790.62 Submission of study... pursuant to a consent agreement shall submit a study plan no later than 45 days prior to the initiation...

  6. Treatment Integrity: A Review of Intervention Studies Conducted with Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, John J.; Baggett, Bob A.; Fox, James; Blevins, Leia

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with children diagnosed with autism operationally defined the independent variables (IVs) and evaluated treatment integrity (TI). The study replicated the criteria from Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and focused exclusively on research studies…

  7. An Assessment of Treatment Integrity in Behavioral Intervention Studies Conducted with Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, John J.; Mayton, Michael R.; Carter, Stacy L.; Chitiyo, Morgan; Menendez, Anthony L.; Huang, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which behavioral intervention studies conducted with persons with mental retardation operationally defined the independent variables and evaluated and reported measures of treatment integrity. The study expands the previous work in this area reported by Gresham, Gansle, and Noell (1993) and…

  8. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study will be performed in a primary care centre and will include 386 participants. The main measurements will include carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity by Sphygmocor, cardio-ankle vascular index through the VASERA VS-1500, cardiac evaluation by a digital ECG and renal injury by microalbuminuria and glomerular filtration. The retinal vascular evaluation will be performed using a TOPCON TRCNW200 non-mydriatic retinal camera to obtain digital images of the retina, and the developed software (ALTAIR) will be used to automatically calculate the calibre of the retinal vessels, the vascularised area and the branching pattern. For software validation, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability, the concurrent validity of the vascular structure and function, as well as the association between the estimated retinal parameters and the evolution or onset of new lesions in the target organs or cardiovascular diseases will be examined. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee of the healthcare area of Salamanca. All study participants will sign an informed consent to agree to participate in the study in compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki and the WHO standards for observational studies. Validation of this tool will provide greater reliability to the analysis of retinal vessels by decreasing the intervention of the observer and will result in increased validity through the use of additional information, especially

  9. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, Changhu; Jensen, Colby; Folsom, Charles; Ban, Heng; Marshall, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivitiesof the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation.

  10. Risser patient satisfaction scale: a validation study in Greek cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language. Methods This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient. Results The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001). Conclusion The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings. PMID:23190625

  11. Validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in Head Start. Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n=22) and feasibility (n=24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic...

  12. 40 CFR 761.386 - Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination. 761.386 Section 761.386 Protection of... Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.386 Required experimental conditions for the validation study and subsequent use during decontamination. The...

  13. Validity and Feasibility of a Digital Diet Estimation Method for Use with Preschool Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Stuff, Janice; Goodell, Lora Suzanne; Liu, Yan; Martin, Corby K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in "Head Start." Methods: Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n = 22) and feasibility (n = 24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic research unit using…

  14. Ethical problems in conducting research in acute epidemics: the Pfizer meningitis study in Nigeria as an illustration.

    PubMed

    Ezeome, Emmanuel R; Simon, Christian

    2010-04-01

    The ethics of conducting research in epidemic situations have yet to account fully for differences in the proportion and acuteness of epidemics, among other factors. While epidemics most often arise from infectious diseases, not all infectious diseases are of epidemic proportions, and not all epidemics occur acutely. These and other variations constrain the generalization of ethical decision-making and impose ethical demands on the individual researcher in a way not previously highlighted. This paper discusses a number of such constraints and impositions. It applies the ethical principles enunciated by Emmanuel et al.(1) to the controversial Pfizer study in Nigeria in order to highlight the particular ethical concerns of acute epidemic research, and suggest ways of meeting such challenges. The paper recommends that research during epidemics should be partly evaluated on its own merits in order to determine its ethical appropriateness to the specific situation. Snap decisions to conduct research during acute epidemics should be resisted. Community engagement, public notification and good information management are needed to promote the ethics of conducting research during acute epidemics. Individual consent is most at risk of being compromised, and every effort should be made to ensure that it is maintained and valid. Use of data safety management boards should be routine. Acute epidemics also present opportunities to enhance the social value of research and maximize its benefits to communities. Ethical research is possible in acute epidemics, if the potential challenges are thought of ahead of time and appropriate precautions taken. PMID:18665846

  15. Nanoscale electrical property studies of individual GeSi quantum rings by conductive scanning probe microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale electrical properties of individual self-assembled GeSi quantum rings (QRs) were studied by scanning probe microscopy-based techniques. The surface potential distributions of individual GeSi QRs are obtained by scanning Kelvin microscopy (SKM). Ring-shaped work function distributions are observed, presenting that the QRs' rim has a larger work function than the QRs' central hole. By combining the SKM results with those obtained by conductive atomic force microscopy and scanning capacitance microscopy, the correlations between the surface potential, conductance, and carrier density distributions are revealed, and a possible interpretation for the QRs' conductance distributions is suggested. PMID:23194252

  16. Validation Study: Response-Predictive Gene Expression Profiling of Glioma Progenitor Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moeckel, Sylvia; Vollmann-Zwerenz, Arabel; Proescholdt, Martin; Brawanski, Alexander; Riemenschneider, Markus J.; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Spang, Rainer; Hau, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous publication we introduced a novel approach to identify genes that hold predictive information about treatment outcome. A linear regression model was fitted by using the least angle regression algorithm (LARS) with the expression profiles of a construction set of 18 glioma progenitor cells enhanced for brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC) before and after in vitro treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib. Profiles from treated progenitor cells allowed predicting therapy-induced impairment of proliferation in vitro. Prediction performance was validated in leave one out cross validation. Methods In this study, we used an additional validation set of 18 serum-free short-term treated in vitro cell cultures to test the predictive properties of the signature in an independent cohort. We assessed proliferation rates together with transcriptome-wide expression profiles after Sunitinib treatment of each individual cell culture, following the methods of the previous publication. Results We confirmed treatment-induced expression changes in our validation set, but our signature failed to predict proliferation inhibition. Neither re-calculation of the combined dataset with all 36 BTIC cultures nor separation of samples into TCGA subclasses did generate a proliferation prediction. Conclusion Although the gene signature published from our construction set exhibited good prediction accuracy in cross validation, we were not able to validate the signature in an independent validation data set. Reasons could be regression to the mean, the moderate numbers of samples, or too low differences in the response to proliferation inhibition in the validation set. At this stage and based on the presented results, we conclude that the signature does not warrant further developmental steps towards clinical application. PMID:26978262

  17. Feasible Study for Multi-photon Stereolithography Method of Electro Conductive Polymer Actuator with Complex Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Junji; Asami, Akihisa; Yamada, Katsumi; Chen, Jun

    Recently, a soft actuator was developed using an electro-conducting polymer and an ionic conducting polymer. Moreover, stereolithography that uses a femtosecond laser was researched as a method of multiphoton-sensitized polymerization. In this study, we tried a more stable and more rapid stereolithography method for fabricating an electro-conducting polymer using a protein material. From the results of this study, we found that the method was 10 times faster when an aqueous solid that included an electro-conducting polymer, a catalyst, and gelatine was used. In addition, it was stable in that the temperature of the aqueous solid was controlled at 10 degree. We built a 3D shape using the newly developed method, and we will apply this method to a complex actuator.

  18. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  19. An Attitude Scale for Smart Board Use in Education: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the attitudes of elementary students towards smart board (SB) use in education. A sequential exploratory mixed method was used. So the study started with a qualitative approach to establish the content and face validity of the scale, followed by a quantitative approach to test…

  20. Water Awareness Scale for Pre-Service Science Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik Iscen, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    The role of teachers in the formation of environmentally sensitive behaviors in students is quite high. Thus, the water awareness of teachers, who represent role models for students, is rather important. The main purpose of this study is to identify the reliability and validity study outcomes of the Water Awareness Scale, which was developed to…

  1. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  2. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  3. Development and Validation of the Short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogaten, Jekaterina; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying (UCCS) that was inspired by the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale. In Study 1, items from two of the six subscales of the CPAC were excluded due to conceptual and psychometric issues to create a 21-item CPAC scale,…

  4. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  5. The Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood: An Initial Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Major, Rebecca; Allegra, Laurie; Powers, Lisa; Schatschneider, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of two exploratory validation studies of a revised instrument: the "Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood" version (SRSS-EC). The SRSS-EC was modified to reflect characteristics of externalizing and internalizing behaviors manifested by preschool-age children. In Study 1, we explored the reliability of…

  6. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  7. The Volunteer Satisfaction Index: A Validation Study in the Chinese Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lok Ping; Chui, Wing Hong; Kwok, Yan Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Using a Hong Kong-sourced sample of 261 participants, this study set out to validate the Volunteer Satisfaction Index (VSI) in the Chinese cultural context and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The VSI was originally developed by Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001) to measure the outcomes of volunteer experiences. In this study, exploratory…

  8. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan Ilker, Gökçe; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for high school students. In total, 1605 students (829 girls, 776 boys, average age = 15.67 ± 1.19) from three different high schools in the central district of Ankara voluntarily participated in the study. The MSLQ was…

  9. The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were 0.94 for autonomy, 0.97 for environmental mastery,…

  10. Gender and Race Effects on Standardized Tests Predictive Validity: A Meta-analytical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanber, Shukri R.; Millman, Jason

    This paper summarizes and analyzes data from studies of differential validity and differential prediction for blacks versus whites and females versus males. Forty studies on racial differences and 53 on gender differences were selected from searches of the ERIC, PsychInfo, and Dissertation Abstracts International databases; Buros' Mental…

  11. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  12. A Case for Transforming the Criterion of a Predictive Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a case for applying a transformation (Box and Cox, 1964) of the criterion used in predictive validity studies. The goals of the transformation were to better meet the assumptions of the linear regression model and to reduce the residual variance of fitted (i.e., predicted) values. Using data for the 2008 cohort of first-time,…

  13. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  14. A multicenter, cross-platform clinical validation study of cancer cytogenomic arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Marilyn M; Monzon, Federico A; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Laffin, Jennifer J; Levy, Brynn; Leon, Annette; Miron, Patricia; Rossi, Michael R; Toruner, Gokce; Alvarez, Karla; Doho, Gregory; Dougherty, Margaret J; Hu, Xiaofeng; Kash, Shera; Streck, Deanna; Znoyko, Iya; Hagenkord, Jill M; Wolff, Daynna J

    2015-11-01

    Cytogenomic microarray analysis (CMA) offers high resolution, genome-wide copy number information and is widely used in clinical laboratories for diagnosis of constitutional abnormalities. The Cancer Genomics Consortium (CGC) conducted a multiplatform, multicenter clinical validation project to compare the reliability and inter- and intralaboratory reproducibility of this technology for clinical oncology applications. Four specimen types were processed on three different microarray platforms-from Affymetrix, Agilent, and Illumina. Each microarray platform was employed at two independent test sites. The results were compared in a blinded manner with current standard methods, including karyotype, FISH, or morphology. Twenty-nine chronic lymphocytic leukemia blood, 34 myelodysplastic syndrome bone marrow, and 30 fresh frozen renal epithelial tumor samples were assessed by all six laboratories. Thirty formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal tumor samples were analyzed at the Affymetrix and Agilent test sites only. All study samples were initial diagnostic samples. Array data were analyzed at each participating site and were submitted to caArray for central analysis. Laboratory interpretive results were submitted to the central analysis team for comparison with the standard-of-care assays and for calculation of intraplatform reproducibility and cross-platform concordance. The results demonstrated that the three microarray platforms 1) detect clinically actionable genomic changes in cancer compatible to standard-of-care methods; 2) further define cytogenetic aberrations; 3) identify submicroscopic alterations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH); and 4) yield consistent results within and between laboratories. Based on this study, the CGC concludes that CMA is a sensitive and reliable technique for copy number and LOH assessment that may be used for clinical oncology genomic analysis. PMID:26454669

  15. New technologies to support NASA's Mission to Planet Earth satellite remote sensing product validation: use of an unmanned autopiloted vehicle (UAV) as a platform to conduct remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, Patrick L.; Stetina, Fran; Jacob, Dan

    1998-08-01

    As part of the US Global Change program, NASA has initiated its Mission to Planet Earth Program (MTPE) which requires continuous global satellite measurements over an extended 15 years period. Various US and International Earth Observing Satellites will be launched during this period. To ensure continuity of the measurements, a significant instrument calibration and product validation effort is required and is planned as part of this program. However, the validation of satellite products requires extensive ground truthing which is both costly and time consuming and in many cases limited to specific calibration/validation areas. Thus there is a need to extend this validation effort to include more participants and provide new, more cost effective technologies to support the validation effort. The use of unmanned autopiloted vehicles (UAV) and new miniature high performance instruments have been identified as providing this needed additional capability. This paper discusses the development of a UAV, associated avionics and preliminary remote sensing instruments to support the extension of ground truthing and product validation of NASA's MTPE Programs, specifically, earth observing system. The UAV being described is based on thrust vectoring capabilities and a single-axis pivoted wing or 'freewing' design. This unique UAV system is illustrated along with the proposed autonomous avionics and preliminary remote sensing payloads.

  16. Reliability and validity of 6MWT for outpatients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eluana; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Silva, Gustavo; Corredeira, Rui

    2016-03-30

    Although the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) has been widely used in patients with schizophrenia, there is a lack of scientific evidence about its reliability and validity in this population. The first goal of this study was to explore the test-retest reliability of the 6MWT and to identify the associated parameters that contribute to the variability of the distance walked during the 6MWT in outpatients with schizophrenia. The second goal was to assess the criterion validity of the 6MWT in men with schizophrenia. Fifty one outpatients with schizophrenia participated in the study. To test-retest reliability (men=39; women=12), participants performed the 6MWT twice within 3 days interval. To test criterion validity (men=13), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured on a treadmill. For the associated parameters with the distance walked (n=51), medications use, smoking behavior, body and bone composition, and physical activity levels were analyzed. No significant differences between the means of the two 6MWTs were found. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.94 indicating good reliability. 6MWT correlated significantly with VO2peak (r=0.67) indicating criterion validity. Height, body fat mass, smoking behavior and minutes of PA/week were significantly associated with the 6MWT. Results suggest that 6MWT shows good reliability for individuals with schizophrenia and good validity for the small sample of male participants in this study. PMID:26921049

  17. The 15-item Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation (SCORE-15) Scale: Portuguese Validation Studies.

    PubMed

    Vilaça, Margarida; de Sousa, Bruno; Stratton, Peter; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the validity of the 15-item Portuguese version of the Systemic Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (SCORE-15; Vilaça, Silva, & Relvas, 2014), a brief and comprehensive measure of family functioning. Previous studies with SCORE-15 show that this version replicates the three-factor solution found for the original English version: Family strengths, Family communication and Family difficulties. In addition to reviewing previous studies, this article analyses the discriminant, convergent and predictive validity of the Portuguese SCORE-15. To do so, the SCORE-15 was administered to family members attending systemic family or couple's therapy at the start of the first and fourth sessions and also to a group of non-clinical individuals. Overall, data are reported from 618 participants, including 136 from families attending systemic therapy and 482 community family members. Comparisons of community and clinical samples (discriminant validity) showed statistically significant differences for the total scale and subscales (p < .001), with the community participants presenting healthier family functioning than the clinical ones. Analyses using SCORE-15 and the Quality of Life - adult version, another family measure applied simultaneously (convergent validity), indicate that both scales are significantly (p < .01) and moderately (r = -.47) correlated. Mean score analysis of SCORE-15's therapeutic sensitivity to change (predictive validity) showed that only the Family communication subscale was sensitive to statistically significant improvement (p < .05) from session 1 to session 4, whereas the SCORE-15's reliability change index points to its ability to detect clinical improvements (RCI = 14%). PMID:26585316

  18. A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Robinson, Richard D.; Schrader, Chet D.; Leuck, JoAnna; Barra, Michael; Buca, Stefan; Shedd, Andrew; Bui, Andrew; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated. Methods Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data. Results A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05). Conclusions An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation. PMID:27429680

  19. AC conductivity and Dielectric Study of Chalcogenide Glasses of Se-Te-Ge System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Fathy

    2004-01-01

    The ac conductivity and dielectric properties of glassy system SexTe79 - xGe21, with x = 11, 14, 17 at.%, has been studied at temperatures 300 to 450 K and over a wide range of frequencies (50 Hz to 500 kHz). Experimental results indicate that the ac conductivity and the dielectric constants depend on temperature, frequency and Se content. The conductivity as a function of frequency exhibited two components: dc conductivity s dc, and ac conductivity s ac, where s ac ˜ w s. The mechanism of ac conductivity can be reasonably interpreted in terms of the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH). The activation energies are estimated and discussed. The dependence of ac conductivity and dielectric constants on the Se content x can be interpreted as the effect of Se fraction on the positional disorder. The impedance plot at each temperature appeared as a semicircle passes through the origin. Each semicircle is represented by an equivalent circuit of parallel resistance Rb and capacitance Cb.

  20. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  1. 43 CFR 404.47 - How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will a feasibility study be conducted under this program? 404.47 Section 404.47 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.47 How will a feasibility...

  2. 76 FR 75875 - Plan for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... regional workshops and request for written comments in connection with the preparation of a study of electric transmission congestion pursuant to section 216(a)(1) of the Federal Power Act (76 FR 70122). This... for Conduct of 2012 Electric Transmission Congestion Study AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery...

  3. 42 CFR 90.8 - Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of health assessments and health effects studies. 90.8 Section 90.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...

  4. Characterizing Measurement Error in Test Scores across Studies: A Tutorial on Conducting "Reliability Generalization" Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.; Thompson, Bruce

    Given the potential value of reliability generalization (RG) studies in the development of cumulative psychometric knowledge, the purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial on how to conduct such studies and to serve as a guide for researchers wishing to use this methodology. After some brief comments on classical test theory, the paper…

  5. GUIDE FOR CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOLVENT EXTRACTION - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liabi...

  6. GUIDE TO CONDUCTING TREATABILITY STUDIES UNDER CERCLA: SOIL WASHING - INTERIM GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Systematically conducted, well-documented treatability studies are an important component of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process and the remedial design/remedial action (RD/RA) process under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liab...

  7. Methodological, Theoretical, Infrastructural, and Design Issues in Conducting Good Outcome Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael P.; Moore, Tessa A.

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a set of methodological, theoretical, and other issues relating to the conduct of good outcome studies. The article begins by considering the contribution of evidence-based medicine to the methodology of outcome research. The lessons which can be applied in outcome studies in nonmedical settings are described. The article…

  8. Study of the Kinetics of an S[subscript N]1 Reaction by Conductivity Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzluff, Elaine M.; Crawford, Mary A.; Reynolds, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Substitution reactions, a central part of organic chemistry, provide a model system in physical chemistry to study reaction rates and mechanisms. Here, the use of inexpensive and readily available commercial conductivity probes coupled with computer data acquisition for the study of the temperature and solvent dependence of the solvolysis of…

  9. ORGANOTIN TOXICITY STUDIES CONDUCTED WITH SELECTED MARINE ORGANISMS AT EPA'S ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, GULF BREEZE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies on effect of bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) and other organotins on marine species have been conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's laboratory at Gulf Breeze, Florida, since 1983. First studies were done on two species of algae, Skeletonema costatum and ...

  10. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. PMID:26754615

  11. Clinical Scores for Dyspnoea Severity in Children: A Prospective Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Hendriekje; Brand, Paul; Reimink, Roelien; Bekhof, Jolita

    2016-01-01

    Background In acute dyspnoeic children, assessment of dyspnoea severity and treatment response is frequently based on clinical dyspnoea scores. Our study aim was to validate five commonly used paediatric dyspnoea scores. Methods Fifty children aged 0–8 years with acute dyspnoea were clinically assessed before and after bronchodilator treatment, a subset of 27 children were videotaped and assessed twice by nine observers. The observers scored clinical signs necessary to calculate the Asthma Score (AS), Asthma Severity Score (ASS), Clinical Asthma Evaluation Score 2 (CAES-2), Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) and respiratory rate, accessory muscle use, decreased breath sounds (RAD). Results A total of 1120 observations were used to assess fourteen measurement properties within domains of validity, reliability and utility. All five dyspnoea scores showed overall poor results, scoring insufficiently on more than half of the quality criteria for measurement properties. The AS and PRAM were the most valid with good values on six and moderate values on three properties. Poor results were mainly due to insufficient measurement properties in the validity and reliability domains whereas utility properties were moderate to good in all scores. Conclusion This study shows that commonly used dyspnoea scores show insufficient validity and reliability to allow for clinical use without caution. PMID:27382963

  12. A numerical study of the influence of interconnected conductive paths in electrically resistive rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, E.; Moorkamp, M.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Several electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods focus on the EM properties of rocks and sediments to determine a reliable image of the subsurface, while the same electromagnetic properties are measured in the laboratory with a wide range of instruments and techniques. None of these measurements return an unequivocal result. The hypothesis related to the presence of interconnected pathways of electrically conductive materials in resistive hosts has been studied with increasing interest in recent years, and the comprehension of phenomena that scale from the microstructures of the rocks up to field electrical conductivity measurements represents the boundary that prevents the direct comparison between laboratory data and field data. In recent years some numerical approaches have been investigated to understand the effects of interconnected pathways of conductors on field measurements, usually restricting the studies to direct current (DC) sources. Bearing in mind the time-variating nature of natural electromagnetic sources that take a role in field measurements, we numerically simulated the effects of such EM sources on the conductivity measured on the surface of a three-dimensional realistic body embedded in an uniform host by using electromagnetic induction equations. Since most real rocks are poor conductors, we modeled a two-phase mixture of rock and interconnected conductive elements (representing melts, saline fluids, sulphidic, carbonitic, or metallic sediments, etc.), randomly generated within the background host. We compared the electrical conductivity measured from a sample of randomly generated models with the electrical conductivity limits predicted by Hashin-Shtrikman bounds.

  13. The conductive properties of single DNA molecules studied by torsion tunneling atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Niu, D. X.; Jiang, C. R.; Yang, X. J.

    2014-01-01

    The conductive properties of single natural λ-DNA molecules are studied by torsion tunneling atomic force microscopy (TR-TUNA). The currents both parallel to and perpendicular to the DNA chains are investigated, but only weak or even no current signals are detected by TR-TUNA. To improve the conductance of DNA molecules, silver and copper metallized DNAs are fabricated and their conductivities are checked by TR-TUNA. It is found that for both Cu- and Ag-DNAs, the conductivity perpendicular to the DNA chain is enhanced significantly as the metal clusters are attached to the DNA chains. But parallel to the chain the electrical transport is still weak, most probably due to the ‘beads-on-a-string’ constructions of metallized DNAs.

  14. AC Conductivity Studies in Lithium-Borate Glass Containing Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaprakash, Y.; Anavekar, R. V.

    2011-07-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a base glass with composition 30Li2O-70B2O3 using gold chloride (HAuCl4.3H2O) as a dopant. The samples are characterized using XRD, ESR, SEM and optical absorption in the visible range. AC conductivity studies have been performed at RT over a frequency range 100 to 10 MHz. The dc conductivity is calculated from the complex impedence plot. The dc conductivity is found to be increasing with the increase of dopant concentration. AC conductivity data is fitted with Almond-West law with power exponent `s'. The values of `s' is found to lie in the range of 0.70-0.73.

  15. Conductance of ferro- and antiferro-magnetic single-atom contacts: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Xiao-long; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yi-qun; Ke, San-Huang

    2013-08-14

    We present a first-principles study on the spin dependent conductance of five single-atom magnetic junctions consisting of a magnetic tip and an adatom adsorbed on a magnetic surface, i.e., the Co-Co/Co(001) and Ni-X/Ni(001) (X = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) junctions. When their spin configuration changes from ferromagnetism to anti-ferromagnetism, the spin-up conductance increases while the spin-down one decreases. For the junctions with a magnetic adatom, there is nearly no spin valve effect as the decreased spin-down conductance counteracts the increased spin-up one. For the junction with a nonmagnetic adatom (Ni-Cu/Ni(001)), a spin valve effect is obtained with a variation of 22% in the total conductance. In addition, the change in spin configuration enhances the spin filter effect for the Ni-Fe/Ni(001) junction but suppresses it for the other junctions.

  16. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Neetu; Ramaprabhu, S.

    2009-10-15

    High thermal conducting metal nanoparticles have been dispersed on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) outer surface. Structural and morphological characterizations of metal dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using x-ray diffraction analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanofluids have been synthesized using metal-MWNTs in de-ionized water (DI water) and ethylene glycol (EG) base fluids. It has been observed that nanofluids maintain the same sequence of thermal conductivity as that of metal nanoparticles Ag-MWNTs>Au-MWNTs>Pd-MWNTs. A maximum enhancement of 37.3% and 11.3% in thermal conductivity has been obtained in Ag-MWNTs nanofluid with DI water and EG as base fluids, respectively, at a volume fraction of 0.03%. Temperature dependence study also shows enhancement of thermal conductivity with temperature.

  17. The Application of Spatial Signature Analysis to Electrical Test Data: Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, S.S.; Karnowski, T.P.; Lakhani, F.; Tobin, K.W.

    1999-03-15

    This paper presents the results of the Spatial Signature Analysis (SSA) Electrical-test (e-test) validation study that was conducted between February and June, 1998. SSA is an automated procedure developed by researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address the issue of intelligent data reduction while providing feedback on current manufacturing processes. SSA was initially developed to automate the analysis of optical defect data. Optical defects can form groups, or clusters, which may have a distinct shape. These patterns can reveal information about the manufacturing process. Optical defect SSA uses image processing algorithms and a classifier system to interpret and identify these patterns, or signatures. SSA has been extended to analyze and interpret electrical test data. The algorithms used for optical defect SSA have been adapted and applied to e-test binmaps. An image of the binmap is created, and features such as geometric and invariant moments are extracted and presented to a pair-wise, fuzzy, k-NN classifier. The classifier itself was prepared by manually training, which consists of storing example signatures of interest in a library, then executing an automated process which treats the examples as prototype signatures. The training process includes a procedure for automatically determining which features are most relevant to each class. The evaluation was performed by installing the SSA software as a batch process at three SEMATECH member company sites. Feedback from member company representatives was incorporated and classifiers were built to automatically assign labels to the binmap signatures. The three sites produced memory devices (DRAM) and microprocessors in a mature process fabrication environment. For all of these products, 5,620 signatures that encompassed approximately 552 wafers were human-classified and analyzed. The performance of the SSA E-test system indicates that the approach was successful in reliably classifying binmap

  18. Use of Empirical Bayes Methods in the Study of the Validity of Academic Predictors of Graduate School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry I.; Jones, Douglas H.

    Classical statistical methods and the small enrollments in graduate departments have constrained the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Validity Study Service to providing only validities for single predictors. Estimates of the validity of two or more predictors, used jointly, are considered too unreliable because the corresponding prediction…

  19. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  20. Comparison of aquifer characterization approaches through steady state groundwater model validation: A controlled laboratory sandbox study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illman, W.A.; Zhu, J.; Craig, A.J.; Yin, D.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater modeling has become a vital component to water supply and contaminant transport investigations. An important component of groundwater modeling under steady state conditions is selecting a representative hydraulic conductivity (K) estimate or set of estimates which defines the K field of the studied region. Currently, there are a number of characterization approaches to obtain K at various scales and in varying degrees of detail, but there is a paucity of information in terms of which characterization approach best predicts flow through aquifers or drawdowns caused by some drawdown inducing events. The main objective of this paper is to assess K estimates obtained by various approaches by predicting drawdowns from independent cross-hole pumping tests and total flow rates through a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer from flow-through tests. Specifically, we (1) characterize a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer built in the sandbox through various techniques (permeameter analyses of core samples, single-hole, cross-hole, and flow-through testing), (2) obtain mean K fields through traditional analysis of test data by treating the medium to be homogeneous, (3) obtain heterogeneous K fields through kriging and steady state hydraulic tomography, and (4) conduct forward simulations of 16 independent pumping tests and six flowthrough tests using these homogeneous and heterogeneous K fields and comparing them to actual data. Results show that the mean K and heterogeneous K fields estimated through kriging of small-scale K data (core and single-hole tests) yield biased predictions of drawdowns and flow rates in this synthetic heterogeneous aquifer. In contrast, the heterogeneous K distribution or ?K tomogram? estimated via steady state hydraulic tomography yields excellent predictions of drawdowns of pumping tests not used in the construction of the tomogram and very good estimates of total flow rates from the flowthrough tests. These results suggest that steady state